Theory Fun_Def

theory Fun_Def
imports Partial_Function SAT
(*  Title:      HOL/Fun_Def.thy
    Author:     Alexander Krauss, TU Muenchen
*)

section ‹Function Definitions and Termination Proofs›

theory Fun_Def
  imports Basic_BNF_LFPs Partial_Function SAT
  keywords
    "function" "termination" :: thy_goal and
    "fun" "fun_cases" :: thy_decl
begin

subsection ‹Definitions with default value›

definition THE_default :: "'a ⇒ ('a ⇒ bool) ⇒ 'a"
  where "THE_default d P = (if (∃!x. P x) then (THE x. P x) else d)"

lemma THE_defaultI': "∃!x. P x ⟹ P (THE_default d P)"
  by (simp add: theI' THE_default_def)

lemma THE_default1_equality: "∃!x. P x ⟹ P a ⟹ THE_default d P = a"
  by (simp add: the1_equality THE_default_def)

lemma THE_default_none: "¬ (∃!x. P x) ⟹ THE_default d P = d"
  by (simp add: THE_default_def)


lemma fundef_ex1_existence:
  assumes f_def: "f ≡ (λx::'a. THE_default (d x) (λy. G x y))"
  assumes ex1: "∃!y. G x y"
  shows "G x (f x)"
  apply (simp only: f_def)
  apply (rule THE_defaultI')
  apply (rule ex1)
  done

lemma fundef_ex1_uniqueness:
  assumes f_def: "f ≡ (λx::'a. THE_default (d x) (λy. G x y))"
  assumes ex1: "∃!y. G x y"
  assumes elm: "G x (h x)"
  shows "h x = f x"
  apply (simp only: f_def)
  apply (rule THE_default1_equality [symmetric])
   apply (rule ex1)
  apply (rule elm)
  done

lemma fundef_ex1_iff:
  assumes f_def: "f ≡ (λx::'a. THE_default (d x) (λy. G x y))"
  assumes ex1: "∃!y. G x y"
  shows "(G x y) = (f x = y)"
  apply (auto simp:ex1 f_def THE_default1_equality)
  apply (rule THE_defaultI')
  apply (rule ex1)
  done

lemma fundef_default_value:
  assumes f_def: "f ≡ (λx::'a. THE_default (d x) (λy. G x y))"
  assumes graph: "⋀x y. G x y ⟹ D x"
  assumes "¬ D x"
  shows "f x = d x"
proof -
  have "¬(∃y. G x y)"
  proof
    assume "∃y. G x y"
    then have "D x" using graph ..
    with ‹¬ D x› show False ..
  qed
  then have "¬(∃!y. G x y)" by blast
  then show ?thesis
    unfolding f_def by (rule THE_default_none)
qed

definition in_rel_def[simp]: "in_rel R x y ≡ (x, y) ∈ R"

lemma wf_in_rel: "wf R ⟹ wfP (in_rel R)"
  by (simp add: wfP_def)

ML_file "Tools/Function/function_core.ML"
ML_file "Tools/Function/mutual.ML"
ML_file "Tools/Function/pattern_split.ML"
ML_file "Tools/Function/relation.ML"
ML_file "Tools/Function/function_elims.ML"

method_setup relation = ‹
  Args.term >> (fn t => fn ctxt => SIMPLE_METHOD' (Function_Relation.relation_infer_tac ctxt t))
› "prove termination using a user-specified wellfounded relation"

ML_file "Tools/Function/function.ML"
ML_file "Tools/Function/pat_completeness.ML"

method_setup pat_completeness = ‹
  Scan.succeed (SIMPLE_METHOD' o Pat_Completeness.pat_completeness_tac)
› "prove completeness of (co)datatype patterns"

ML_file "Tools/Function/fun.ML"
ML_file "Tools/Function/induction_schema.ML"

method_setup induction_schema = ‹
  Scan.succeed (Method.CONTEXT_TACTIC oo Induction_Schema.induction_schema_tac)
› "prove an induction principle"


subsection ‹Measure functions›

inductive is_measure :: "('a ⇒ nat) ⇒ bool"
  where is_measure_trivial: "is_measure f"

named_theorems measure_function "rules that guide the heuristic generation of measure functions"
ML_file "Tools/Function/measure_functions.ML"

lemma measure_size[measure_function]: "is_measure size"
  by (rule is_measure_trivial)

lemma measure_fst[measure_function]: "is_measure f ⟹ is_measure (λp. f (fst p))"
  by (rule is_measure_trivial)

lemma measure_snd[measure_function]: "is_measure f ⟹ is_measure (λp. f (snd p))"
  by (rule is_measure_trivial)

ML_file "Tools/Function/lexicographic_order.ML"

method_setup lexicographic_order = ‹
  Method.sections clasimp_modifiers >>
  (K (SIMPLE_METHOD o Lexicographic_Order.lexicographic_order_tac false))
› "termination prover for lexicographic orderings"


subsection ‹Congruence rules›

lemma let_cong [fundef_cong]: "M = N ⟹ (⋀x. x = N ⟹ f x = g x) ⟹ Let M f = Let N g"
  unfolding Let_def by blast

lemmas [fundef_cong] =
  if_cong image_cong INF_cong SUP_cong
  bex_cong ball_cong imp_cong map_option_cong Option.bind_cong

lemma split_cong [fundef_cong]:
  "(⋀x y. (x, y) = q ⟹ f x y = g x y) ⟹ p = q ⟹ case_prod f p = case_prod g q"
  by (auto simp: split_def)

lemma comp_cong [fundef_cong]: "f (g x) = f' (g' x') ⟹ (f ∘ g) x = (f' ∘ g') x'"
  by (simp only: o_apply)


subsection ‹Simp rules for termination proofs›

declare
  trans_less_add1[termination_simp]
  trans_less_add2[termination_simp]
  trans_le_add1[termination_simp]
  trans_le_add2[termination_simp]
  less_imp_le_nat[termination_simp]
  le_imp_less_Suc[termination_simp]

lemma size_prod_simp[termination_simp]: "size_prod f g p = f (fst p) + g (snd p) + Suc 0"
  by (induct p) auto


subsection ‹Decomposition›

lemma less_by_empty: "A = {} ⟹ A ⊆ B"
  and union_comp_emptyL: "A O C = {} ⟹ B O C = {} ⟹ (A ∪ B) O C = {}"
  and union_comp_emptyR: "A O B = {} ⟹ A O C = {} ⟹ A O (B ∪ C) = {}"
  and wf_no_loop: "R O R = {} ⟹ wf R"
  by (auto simp add: wf_comp_self [of R])


subsection ‹Reduction pairs›

definition "reduction_pair P ⟷ wf (fst P) ∧ fst P O snd P ⊆ fst P"

lemma reduction_pairI[intro]: "wf R ⟹ R O S ⊆ R ⟹ reduction_pair (R, S)"
  by (auto simp: reduction_pair_def)

lemma reduction_pair_lemma:
  assumes rp: "reduction_pair P"
  assumes "R ⊆ fst P"
  assumes "S ⊆ snd P"
  assumes "wf S"
  shows "wf (R ∪ S)"
proof -
  from rp ‹S ⊆ snd P› have "wf (fst P)" "fst P O S ⊆ fst P"
    unfolding reduction_pair_def by auto
  with ‹wf S› have "wf (fst P ∪ S)"
    by (auto intro: wf_union_compatible)
  moreover from ‹R ⊆ fst P› have "R ∪ S ⊆ fst P ∪ S" by auto
  ultimately show ?thesis by (rule wf_subset)
qed

definition "rp_inv_image = (λ(R,S) f. (inv_image R f, inv_image S f))"

lemma rp_inv_image_rp: "reduction_pair P ⟹ reduction_pair (rp_inv_image P f)"
  unfolding reduction_pair_def rp_inv_image_def split_def by force


subsection ‹Concrete orders for SCNP termination proofs›

definition "pair_less = less_than <*lex*> less_than"
definition "pair_leq = pair_less^="
definition "max_strict = max_ext pair_less"
definition "max_weak = max_ext pair_leq ∪ {({}, {})}"
definition "min_strict = min_ext pair_less"
definition "min_weak = min_ext pair_leq ∪ {({}, {})}"

lemma wf_pair_less[simp]: "wf pair_less"
  by (auto simp: pair_less_def)

text ‹Introduction rules for ‹pair_less›/‹pair_leq››
lemma pair_leqI1: "a < b ⟹ ((a, s), (b, t)) ∈ pair_leq"
  and pair_leqI2: "a ≤ b ⟹ s ≤ t ⟹ ((a, s), (b, t)) ∈ pair_leq"
  and pair_lessI1: "a < b  ⟹ ((a, s), (b, t)) ∈ pair_less"
  and pair_lessI2: "a ≤ b ⟹ s < t ⟹ ((a, s), (b, t)) ∈ pair_less"
  by (auto simp: pair_leq_def pair_less_def)

text ‹Introduction rules for max›
lemma smax_emptyI: "finite Y ⟹ Y ≠ {} ⟹ ({}, Y) ∈ max_strict"
  and smax_insertI:
    "y ∈ Y ⟹ (x, y) ∈ pair_less ⟹ (X, Y) ∈ max_strict ⟹ (insert x X, Y) ∈ max_strict"
  and wmax_emptyI: "finite X ⟹ ({}, X) ∈ max_weak"
  and wmax_insertI:
    "y ∈ YS ⟹ (x, y) ∈ pair_leq ⟹ (XS, YS) ∈ max_weak ⟹ (insert x XS, YS) ∈ max_weak"
  by (auto simp: max_strict_def max_weak_def elim!: max_ext.cases)

text ‹Introduction rules for min›
lemma smin_emptyI: "X ≠ {} ⟹ (X, {}) ∈ min_strict"
  and smin_insertI:
    "x ∈ XS ⟹ (x, y) ∈ pair_less ⟹ (XS, YS) ∈ min_strict ⟹ (XS, insert y YS) ∈ min_strict"
  and wmin_emptyI: "(X, {}) ∈ min_weak"
  and wmin_insertI:
    "x ∈ XS ⟹ (x, y) ∈ pair_leq ⟹ (XS, YS) ∈ min_weak ⟹ (XS, insert y YS) ∈ min_weak"
  by (auto simp: min_strict_def min_weak_def min_ext_def)

text ‹Reduction Pairs.›

lemma max_ext_compat:
  assumes "R O S ⊆ R"
  shows "max_ext R O (max_ext S ∪ {({}, {})}) ⊆ max_ext R"
  using assms
  apply auto
  apply (elim max_ext.cases)
  apply rule
     apply auto[3]
  apply (drule_tac x=xa in meta_spec)
  apply simp
  apply (erule bexE)
  apply (drule_tac x=xb in meta_spec)
  apply auto
  done

lemma max_rpair_set: "reduction_pair (max_strict, max_weak)"
  unfolding max_strict_def max_weak_def
  apply (intro reduction_pairI max_ext_wf)
   apply simp
  apply (rule max_ext_compat)
  apply (auto simp: pair_less_def pair_leq_def)
  done

lemma min_ext_compat:
  assumes "R O S ⊆ R"
  shows "min_ext R O  (min_ext S ∪ {({},{})}) ⊆ min_ext R"
  using assms
  apply (auto simp: min_ext_def)
  apply (drule_tac x=ya in bspec, assumption)
  apply (erule bexE)
  apply (drule_tac x=xc in bspec)
   apply assumption
  apply auto
  done

lemma min_rpair_set: "reduction_pair (min_strict, min_weak)"
  unfolding min_strict_def min_weak_def
  apply (intro reduction_pairI min_ext_wf)
   apply simp
  apply (rule min_ext_compat)
  apply (auto simp: pair_less_def pair_leq_def)
  done


subsection ‹Yet another induction principle on the natural numbers›

lemma nat_descend_induct [case_names base descend]:
  fixes P :: "nat ⇒ bool"
  assumes H1: "⋀k. k > n ⟹ P k"
  assumes H2: "⋀k. k ≤ n ⟹ (⋀i. i > k ⟹ P i) ⟹ P k"
  shows "P m"
  using assms by induction_schema (force intro!: wf_measure [of "λk. Suc n - k"])+


subsection ‹Tool setup›

ML_file "Tools/Function/termination.ML"
ML_file "Tools/Function/scnp_solve.ML"
ML_file "Tools/Function/scnp_reconstruct.ML"
ML_file "Tools/Function/fun_cases.ML"

ML_val  "setup inactive"
‹
  Context.theory_map (Function_Common.set_termination_prover
    (K (ScnpReconstruct.decomp_scnp_tac [ScnpSolve.MAX, ScnpSolve.MIN, ScnpSolve.MS])))
›

end