(*
$Id: ex.thy,v 1.2 2004/11/23 15:14:34 webertj Exp $
Author: Farhad Mehta
*)
header {* Magical Methods (Computing with Natural Numbers) *}
(*<*) theory ex imports Main begin (*>*)
text{*
A book about Vedic mathematics describes three methods to make the calculation of squares of natural numbers easier:
\begin{itemize}
\item {\em MM1}: Numbers whose predecessors have squares that are known or can easily be calculated. For example:
\\ Needed: $61^2$
\\ Given: $60^2 = 3600$
\\ Observe: $61^2 = 3600 + 60 + 61 = 3721$
\item {\em MM2}: Numbers greater than, but near 100. For example:
\\ Needed: $102^2$
\\ Let $h = 102 - 100 = 2$ , $h^2 = 4$
\\ Observe: $102^2 = (102+h)$ shifted two places to the left $ + h^2 = 10404$
\item {\em MM3}: Numbers ending in $5$. For example:
\\ Needed: $85^2$
\\ Observe: $85^2 = (8 * 9)$ appended to $ 25 = 7225$
\\ Needed: $995^2$
\\ Observe: $995^2 = (99 * 100)$ appended to $ 25 = 990025 $
\end{itemize}
In this exercise we will show that these methods are not so magical after all!
\begin{itemize}
\item Based on {\em MM1} define a function @{term "sq"} that calculates the square of a natural number.
\item Prove the correctness of @{term "sq"} (i.e.\ @{term "sq n = n * n"}).
\item Formulate and prove the correctness of {\em MM2}.\\ Hints:
\begin{itemize}
\item Generalise {\em MM2} for an arbitrary constant (instead of $100$).
\item Universally quantify all variables other than the induction variable.
\end{itemize}
\item Formulate and prove the correctness of {\em MM3}.\\ Hints:
\begin{itemize}
\item Try to formulate the property `numbers ending in $5$' such that it is easy to get to the rest of the number.
\item Proving the binomial formula for $(a+b)^2$ can be of some help.
\end{itemize}
\end{itemize}
*}
(*<*) end (*>*)