Theory Ordered_Euclidean_Space

theory Ordered_Euclidean_Space
imports Cartesian_Euclidean_Space Product_Order
theory Ordered_Euclidean_Space
imports
  Cartesian_Euclidean_Space
  "HOL-Library.Product_Order"
begin

subsection ‹An ordering on euclidean spaces that will allow us to talk about intervals›

class ordered_euclidean_space = ord + inf + sup + abs + Inf + Sup + euclidean_space +
  assumes eucl_le: "x ≤ y ⟷ (∀i∈Basis. x ∙ i ≤ y ∙ i)"
  assumes eucl_less_le_not_le: "x < y ⟷ x ≤ y ∧ ¬ y ≤ x"
  assumes eucl_inf: "inf x y = (∑i∈Basis. inf (x ∙ i) (y ∙ i) *R i)"
  assumes eucl_sup: "sup x y = (∑i∈Basis. sup (x ∙ i) (y ∙ i) *R i)"
  assumes eucl_Inf: "Inf X = (∑i∈Basis. (INF x:X. x ∙ i) *R i)"
  assumes eucl_Sup: "Sup X = (∑i∈Basis. (SUP x:X. x ∙ i) *R i)"
  assumes eucl_abs: "¦x¦ = (∑i∈Basis. ¦x ∙ i¦ *R i)"
begin

subclass order
  by standard
    (auto simp: eucl_le eucl_less_le_not_le intro!: euclidean_eqI antisym intro: order.trans)

subclass ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  by standard (auto simp: eucl_le inner_add_left eucl_abs abs_leI)

subclass ordered_real_vector
  by standard (auto simp: eucl_le intro!: mult_left_mono mult_right_mono)

subclass lattice
  by standard (auto simp: eucl_inf eucl_sup eucl_le)

subclass distrib_lattice
  by standard (auto simp: eucl_inf eucl_sup sup_inf_distrib1 intro!: euclidean_eqI)

subclass conditionally_complete_lattice
proof
  fix z::'a and X::"'a set"
  assume "X ≠ {}"
  hence "⋀i. (λx. x ∙ i) ` X ≠ {}" by simp
  thus "(⋀x. x ∈ X ⟹ z ≤ x) ⟹ z ≤ Inf X" "(⋀x. x ∈ X ⟹ x ≤ z) ⟹ Sup X ≤ z"
    by (auto simp: eucl_Inf eucl_Sup eucl_le
      intro!: cInf_greatest cSup_least)
qed (force intro!: cInf_lower cSup_upper
      simp: bdd_below_def bdd_above_def preorder_class.bdd_below_def preorder_class.bdd_above_def
        eucl_Inf eucl_Sup eucl_le)+

lemma inner_Basis_inf_left: "i ∈ Basis ⟹ inf x y ∙ i = inf (x ∙ i) (y ∙ i)"
  and inner_Basis_sup_left: "i ∈ Basis ⟹ sup x y ∙ i = sup (x ∙ i) (y ∙ i)"
  by (simp_all add: eucl_inf eucl_sup inner_sum_left inner_Basis if_distrib comm_monoid_add_class.sum.delta
      cong: if_cong)

lemma inner_Basis_INF_left: "i ∈ Basis ⟹ (INF x:X. f x) ∙ i = (INF x:X. f x ∙ i)"
  and inner_Basis_SUP_left: "i ∈ Basis ⟹ (SUP x:X. f x) ∙ i = (SUP x:X. f x ∙ i)"
  using eucl_Sup [of "f ` X"] eucl_Inf [of "f ` X"] by (simp_all add: comp_def)

lemma abs_inner: "i ∈ Basis ⟹ ¦x¦ ∙ i = ¦x ∙ i¦"
  by (auto simp: eucl_abs)

lemma
  abs_scaleR: "¦a *R b¦ = ¦a¦ *R ¦b¦"
  by (auto simp: eucl_abs abs_mult intro!: euclidean_eqI)

lemma interval_inner_leI:
  assumes "x ∈ {a .. b}" "0 ≤ i"
  shows "a∙i ≤ x∙i" "x∙i ≤ b∙i"
  using assms
  unfolding euclidean_inner[of a i] euclidean_inner[of x i] euclidean_inner[of b i]
  by (auto intro!: ordered_comm_monoid_add_class.sum_mono mult_right_mono simp: eucl_le)

lemma inner_nonneg_nonneg:
  shows "0 ≤ a ⟹ 0 ≤ b ⟹ 0 ≤ a ∙ b"
  using interval_inner_leI[of a 0 a b]
  by auto

lemma inner_Basis_mono:
  shows "a ≤ b ⟹ c ∈ Basis  ⟹ a ∙ c ≤ b ∙ c"
  by (simp add: eucl_le)

lemma Basis_nonneg[intro, simp]: "i ∈ Basis ⟹ 0 ≤ i"
  by (auto simp: eucl_le inner_Basis)

lemma Sup_eq_maximum_componentwise:
  fixes s::"'a set"
  assumes i: "⋀b. b ∈ Basis ⟹ X ∙ b = i b ∙ b"
  assumes sup: "⋀b x. b ∈ Basis ⟹ x ∈ s ⟹ x ∙ b ≤ X ∙ b"
  assumes i_s: "⋀b. b ∈ Basis ⟹ (i b ∙ b) ∈ (λx. x ∙ b) ` s"
  shows "Sup s = X"
  using assms
  unfolding eucl_Sup euclidean_representation_sum
  by (auto intro!: conditionally_complete_lattice_class.cSup_eq_maximum)

lemma Inf_eq_minimum_componentwise:
  assumes i: "⋀b. b ∈ Basis ⟹ X ∙ b = i b ∙ b"
  assumes sup: "⋀b x. b ∈ Basis ⟹ x ∈ s ⟹ X ∙ b ≤ x ∙ b"
  assumes i_s: "⋀b. b ∈ Basis ⟹ (i b ∙ b) ∈ (λx. x ∙ b) ` s"
  shows "Inf s = X"
  using assms
  unfolding eucl_Inf euclidean_representation_sum
  by (auto intro!: conditionally_complete_lattice_class.cInf_eq_minimum)

end

lemma
  compact_attains_Inf_componentwise:
  fixes b::"'a::ordered_euclidean_space"
  assumes "b ∈ Basis" assumes "X ≠ {}" "compact X"
  obtains x where "x ∈ X" "x ∙ b = Inf X ∙ b" "⋀y. y ∈ X ⟹ x ∙ b ≤ y ∙ b"
proof atomize_elim
  let ?proj = "(λx. x ∙ b) ` X"
  from assms have "compact ?proj" "?proj ≠ {}"
    by (auto intro!: compact_continuous_image continuous_intros)
  from compact_attains_inf[OF this]
  obtain s x
    where s: "s∈(λx. x ∙ b) ` X" "⋀t. t∈(λx. x ∙ b) ` X ⟹ s ≤ t"
      and x: "x ∈ X" "s = x ∙ b" "⋀y. y ∈ X ⟹ x ∙ b ≤ y ∙ b"
    by auto
  hence "Inf ?proj = x ∙ b"
    by (auto intro!: conditionally_complete_lattice_class.cInf_eq_minimum)
  hence "x ∙ b = Inf X ∙ b"
    by (auto simp: eucl_Inf inner_sum_left inner_Basis if_distrib ‹b ∈ Basis› sum.delta
      cong: if_cong)
  with x show "∃x. x ∈ X ∧ x ∙ b = Inf X ∙ b ∧ (∀y. y ∈ X ⟶ x ∙ b ≤ y ∙ b)" by blast
qed

lemma
  compact_attains_Sup_componentwise:
  fixes b::"'a::ordered_euclidean_space"
  assumes "b ∈ Basis" assumes "X ≠ {}" "compact X"
  obtains x where "x ∈ X" "x ∙ b = Sup X ∙ b" "⋀y. y ∈ X ⟹ y ∙ b ≤ x ∙ b"
proof atomize_elim
  let ?proj = "(λx. x ∙ b) ` X"
  from assms have "compact ?proj" "?proj ≠ {}"
    by (auto intro!: compact_continuous_image continuous_intros)
  from compact_attains_sup[OF this]
  obtain s x
    where s: "s∈(λx. x ∙ b) ` X" "⋀t. t∈(λx. x ∙ b) ` X ⟹ t ≤ s"
      and x: "x ∈ X" "s = x ∙ b" "⋀y. y ∈ X ⟹ y ∙ b ≤ x ∙ b"
    by auto
  hence "Sup ?proj = x ∙ b"
    by (auto intro!: cSup_eq_maximum)
  hence "x ∙ b = Sup X ∙ b"
    by (auto simp: eucl_Sup[where 'a='a] inner_sum_left inner_Basis if_distrib ‹b ∈ Basis› sum.delta
      cong: if_cong)
  with x show "∃x. x ∈ X ∧ x ∙ b = Sup X ∙ b ∧ (∀y. y ∈ X ⟶ y ∙ b ≤ x ∙ b)" by blast
qed

lemma (in order) atLeastatMost_empty'[simp]:
  "(~ a <= b) ⟹ {a..b} = {}"
  by (auto)

instance real :: ordered_euclidean_space
  by standard auto

lemma in_Basis_prod_iff:
  fixes i::"'a::euclidean_space*'b::euclidean_space"
  shows "i ∈ Basis ⟷ fst i = 0 ∧ snd i ∈ Basis ∨ snd i = 0 ∧ fst i ∈ Basis"
  by (cases i) (auto simp: Basis_prod_def)

instantiation prod :: (abs, abs) abs
begin

definition "¦x¦ = (¦fst x¦, ¦snd x¦)"

instance ..

end

instance prod :: (ordered_euclidean_space, ordered_euclidean_space) ordered_euclidean_space
  by standard
    (auto intro!: add_mono simp add: euclidean_representation_sum'  Ball_def inner_prod_def
      in_Basis_prod_iff inner_Basis_inf_left inner_Basis_sup_left inner_Basis_INF_left Inf_prod_def
      inner_Basis_SUP_left Sup_prod_def less_prod_def less_eq_prod_def eucl_le[where 'a='a]
      eucl_le[where 'a='b] abs_prod_def abs_inner)

text‹Instantiation for intervals on ‹ordered_euclidean_space››

lemma
  fixes a :: "'a::ordered_euclidean_space"
  shows cbox_interval: "cbox a b = {a..b}"
    and interval_cbox: "{a..b} = cbox a b"
    and eucl_le_atMost: "{x. ∀i∈Basis. x ∙ i <= a ∙ i} = {..a}"
    and eucl_le_atLeast: "{x. ∀i∈Basis. a ∙ i <= x ∙ i} = {a..}"
    by (auto simp: eucl_le[where 'a='a] eucl_less_def box_def cbox_def)

lemma closed_eucl_atLeastAtMost[simp, intro]:
  fixes a :: "'a::ordered_euclidean_space"
  shows "closed {a..b}"
  by (simp add: cbox_interval[symmetric] closed_cbox)

lemma closed_eucl_atMost[simp, intro]:
  fixes a :: "'a::ordered_euclidean_space"
  shows "closed {..a}"
  by (simp add: eucl_le_atMost[symmetric])

lemma closed_eucl_atLeast[simp, intro]:
  fixes a :: "'a::ordered_euclidean_space"
  shows "closed {a..}"
  by (simp add: eucl_le_atLeast[symmetric])

lemma bounded_closed_interval [simp]:
  fixes a :: "'a::ordered_euclidean_space"
  shows "bounded {a .. b}"
  using bounded_cbox[of a b]
  by (metis interval_cbox)

lemma convex_closed_interval [simp]:
  fixes a :: "'a::ordered_euclidean_space"
  shows "convex {a .. b}"
  using convex_box[of a b]
  by (metis interval_cbox)

lemma image_smult_interval:"(λx. m *R (x::_::ordered_euclidean_space)) ` {a .. b} =
  (if {a .. b} = {} then {} else if 0 ≤ m then {m *R a .. m *R b} else {m *R b .. m *R a})"
  using image_smult_cbox[of m a b]
  by (simp add: cbox_interval)

lemma is_interval_closed_interval [simp]:
  "is_interval {a .. (b::'a::ordered_euclidean_space)}"
  by (metis cbox_interval is_interval_cbox)

lemma compact_interval [simp]:
  fixes a b::"'a::ordered_euclidean_space"
  shows "compact {a .. b}"
  by (metis compact_cbox interval_cbox)

lemma homeomorphic_closed_intervals:
  fixes a :: "'a::euclidean_space" and b and c :: "'a::euclidean_space" and d
  assumes "box a b ≠ {}" and "box c d ≠ {}"
    shows "(cbox a b) homeomorphic (cbox c d)"
apply (rule homeomorphic_convex_compact)
using assms apply auto
done

lemma homeomorphic_closed_intervals_real:
  fixes a::real and b and c::real and d
  assumes "a<b" and "c<d"
    shows "{a..b} homeomorphic {c..d}"
by (metis assms compact_interval continuous_on_id convex_real_interval(5) emptyE homeomorphic_convex_compact interior_atLeastAtMost_real mvt)

no_notation
  eucl_less (infix "<e" 50)

lemma One_nonneg: "0 ≤ (∑Basis::'a::ordered_euclidean_space)"
  by (auto intro: sum_nonneg)

lemma
  fixes a b::"'a::ordered_euclidean_space"
  shows bdd_above_cbox[intro, simp]: "bdd_above (cbox a b)"
    and bdd_below_cbox[intro, simp]: "bdd_below (cbox a b)"
    and bdd_above_box[intro, simp]: "bdd_above (box a b)"
    and bdd_below_box[intro, simp]: "bdd_below (box a b)"
  unfolding atomize_conj
  by (metis bdd_above_Icc bdd_above_mono bdd_below_Icc bdd_below_mono bounded_box
    bounded_subset_cbox interval_cbox)

instantiation vec :: (ordered_euclidean_space, finite) ordered_euclidean_space
begin

definition "inf x y = (χ i. inf (x $ i) (y $ i))"
definition "sup x y = (χ i. sup (x $ i) (y $ i))"
definition "Inf X = (χ i. (INF x:X. x $ i))"
definition "Sup X = (χ i. (SUP x:X. x $ i))"
definition "¦x¦ = (χ i. ¦x $ i¦)"

instance
  apply standard
  unfolding euclidean_representation_sum'
  apply (auto simp: less_eq_vec_def inf_vec_def sup_vec_def Inf_vec_def Sup_vec_def inner_axis
    Basis_vec_def inner_Basis_inf_left inner_Basis_sup_left inner_Basis_INF_left
    inner_Basis_SUP_left eucl_le[where 'a='a] less_le_not_le abs_vec_def abs_inner)
  done

end

lemma ANR_interval [iff]:
    fixes a :: "'a::ordered_euclidean_space"
    shows "ANR{a..b}"
by (simp add: interval_cbox)

lemma ENR_interval [iff]:
    fixes a :: "'a::ordered_euclidean_space"
    shows "ENR{a..b}"
  by (auto simp: interval_cbox)

end