Theory Vector_Space

theory Vector_Space
imports Bounds
(*  Title:      HOL/Hahn_Banach/Vector_Space.thy
    Author:     Gertrud Bauer, TU Munich
*)

section ‹Vector spaces›

theory Vector_Space
imports Complex_Main Bounds
begin

subsection ‹Signature›

text ‹
  For the definition of real vector spaces a type @{typ 'a} of the sort
  ‹{plus, minus, zero}› is considered, on which a real scalar multiplication
  ‹⋅› is declared.
›

consts
  prod :: "real ⇒ 'a::{plus,minus,zero} ⇒ 'a"  (infixr "⋅" 70)


subsection ‹Vector space laws›

text ‹
  A ∗‹vector space› is a non-empty set ‹V› of elements from @{typ 'a} with the
  following vector space laws: The set ‹V› is closed under addition and scalar
  multiplication, addition is associative and commutative; ‹- x› is the
  inverse of ‹x› wrt.\ addition and ‹0› is the neutral element of addition.
  Addition and multiplication are distributive; scalar multiplication is
  associative and the real number ‹1› is the neutral element of scalar
  multiplication.
›

locale vectorspace =
  fixes V
  assumes non_empty [iff, intro?]: "V ≠ {}"
    and add_closed [iff]: "x ∈ V ⟹ y ∈ V ⟹ x + y ∈ V"
    and mult_closed [iff]: "x ∈ V ⟹ a ⋅ x ∈ V"
    and add_assoc: "x ∈ V ⟹ y ∈ V ⟹ z ∈ V ⟹ (x + y) + z = x + (y + z)"
    and add_commute: "x ∈ V ⟹ y ∈ V ⟹ x + y = y + x"
    and diff_self [simp]: "x ∈ V ⟹ x - x = 0"
    and add_zero_left [simp]: "x ∈ V ⟹ 0 + x = x"
    and add_mult_distrib1: "x ∈ V ⟹ y ∈ V ⟹ a ⋅ (x + y) = a ⋅ x + a ⋅ y"
    and add_mult_distrib2: "x ∈ V ⟹ (a + b) ⋅ x = a ⋅ x + b ⋅ x"
    and mult_assoc: "x ∈ V ⟹ (a * b) ⋅ x = a ⋅ (b ⋅ x)"
    and mult_1 [simp]: "x ∈ V ⟹ 1 ⋅ x = x"
    and negate_eq1: "x ∈ V ⟹ - x = (- 1) ⋅ x"
    and diff_eq1: "x ∈ V ⟹ y ∈ V ⟹ x - y = x + - y"
begin

lemma negate_eq2: "x ∈ V ⟹ (- 1) ⋅ x = - x"
  by (rule negate_eq1 [symmetric])

lemma negate_eq2a: "x ∈ V ⟹ -1 ⋅ x = - x"
  by (simp add: negate_eq1)

lemma diff_eq2: "x ∈ V ⟹ y ∈ V ⟹ x + - y = x - y"
  by (rule diff_eq1 [symmetric])

lemma diff_closed [iff]: "x ∈ V ⟹ y ∈ V ⟹ x - y ∈ V"
  by (simp add: diff_eq1 negate_eq1)

lemma neg_closed [iff]: "x ∈ V ⟹ - x ∈ V"
  by (simp add: negate_eq1)

lemma add_left_commute:
  "x ∈ V ⟹ y ∈ V ⟹ z ∈ V ⟹ x + (y + z) = y + (x + z)"
proof -
  assume xyz: "x ∈ V"  "y ∈ V"  "z ∈ V"
  then have "x + (y + z) = (x + y) + z"
    by (simp only: add_assoc)
  also from xyz have "… = (y + x) + z" by (simp only: add_commute)
  also from xyz have "… = y + (x + z)" by (simp only: add_assoc)
  finally show ?thesis .
qed

lemmas add_ac = add_assoc add_commute add_left_commute


text ‹
  The existence of the zero element of a vector space follows from the
  non-emptiness of carrier set.
›

lemma zero [iff]: "0 ∈ V"
proof -
  from non_empty obtain x where x: "x ∈ V" by blast
  then have "0 = x - x" by (rule diff_self [symmetric])
  also from x x have "… ∈ V" by (rule diff_closed)
  finally show ?thesis .
qed

lemma add_zero_right [simp]: "x ∈ V ⟹  x + 0 = x"
proof -
  assume x: "x ∈ V"
  from this and zero have "x + 0 = 0 + x" by (rule add_commute)
  also from x have "… = x" by (rule add_zero_left)
  finally show ?thesis .
qed

lemma mult_assoc2: "x ∈ V ⟹ a ⋅ b ⋅ x = (a * b) ⋅ x"
  by (simp only: mult_assoc)

lemma diff_mult_distrib1: "x ∈ V ⟹ y ∈ V ⟹ a ⋅ (x - y) = a ⋅ x - a ⋅ y"
  by (simp add: diff_eq1 negate_eq1 add_mult_distrib1 mult_assoc2)

lemma diff_mult_distrib2: "x ∈ V ⟹ (a - b) ⋅ x = a ⋅ x - (b ⋅ x)"
proof -
  assume x: "x ∈ V"
  have " (a - b) ⋅ x = (a + - b) ⋅ x"
    by simp
  also from x have "… = a ⋅ x + (- b) ⋅ x"
    by (rule add_mult_distrib2)
  also from x have "… = a ⋅ x + - (b ⋅ x)"
    by (simp add: negate_eq1 mult_assoc2)
  also from x have "… = a ⋅ x - (b ⋅ x)"
    by (simp add: diff_eq1)
  finally show ?thesis .
qed

lemmas distrib =
  add_mult_distrib1 add_mult_distrib2
  diff_mult_distrib1 diff_mult_distrib2


text ‹┉ Further derived laws:›

lemma mult_zero_left [simp]: "x ∈ V ⟹ 0 ⋅ x = 0"
proof -
  assume x: "x ∈ V"
  have "0 ⋅ x = (1 - 1) ⋅ x" by simp
  also have "… = (1 + - 1) ⋅ x" by simp
  also from x have "… =  1 ⋅ x + (- 1) ⋅ x"
    by (rule add_mult_distrib2)
  also from x have "… = x + (- 1) ⋅ x" by simp
  also from x have "… = x + - x" by (simp add: negate_eq2a)
  also from x have "… = x - x" by (simp add: diff_eq2)
  also from x have "… = 0" by simp
  finally show ?thesis .
qed

lemma mult_zero_right [simp]: "a ⋅ 0 = (0::'a)"
proof -
  have "a ⋅ 0 = a ⋅ (0 - (0::'a))" by simp
  also have "… =  a ⋅ 0 - a ⋅ 0"
    by (rule diff_mult_distrib1) simp_all
  also have "… = 0" by simp
  finally show ?thesis .
qed

lemma minus_mult_cancel [simp]: "x ∈ V ⟹ (- a) ⋅ - x = a ⋅ x"
  by (simp add: negate_eq1 mult_assoc2)

lemma add_minus_left_eq_diff: "x ∈ V ⟹ y ∈ V ⟹ - x + y = y - x"
proof -
  assume xy: "x ∈ V"  "y ∈ V"
  then have "- x + y = y + - x" by (simp add: add_commute)
  also from xy have "… = y - x" by (simp add: diff_eq1)
  finally show ?thesis .
qed

lemma add_minus [simp]: "x ∈ V ⟹ x + - x = 0"
  by (simp add: diff_eq2)

lemma add_minus_left [simp]: "x ∈ V ⟹ - x + x = 0"
  by (simp add: diff_eq2 add_commute)

lemma minus_minus [simp]: "x ∈ V ⟹ - (- x) = x"
  by (simp add: negate_eq1 mult_assoc2)

lemma minus_zero [simp]: "- (0::'a) = 0"
  by (simp add: negate_eq1)

lemma minus_zero_iff [simp]:
  assumes x: "x ∈ V"
  shows "(- x = 0) = (x = 0)"
proof
  from x have "x = - (- x)" by simp
  also assume "- x = 0"
  also have "- … = 0" by (rule minus_zero)
  finally show "x = 0" .
next
  assume "x = 0"
  then show "- x = 0" by simp
qed

lemma add_minus_cancel [simp]: "x ∈ V ⟹ y ∈ V ⟹ x + (- x + y) = y"
  by (simp add: add_assoc [symmetric])

lemma minus_add_cancel [simp]: "x ∈ V ⟹ y ∈ V ⟹ - x + (x + y) = y"
  by (simp add: add_assoc [symmetric])

lemma minus_add_distrib [simp]: "x ∈ V ⟹ y ∈ V ⟹ - (x + y) = - x + - y"
  by (simp add: negate_eq1 add_mult_distrib1)

lemma diff_zero [simp]: "x ∈ V ⟹ x - 0 = x"
  by (simp add: diff_eq1)

lemma diff_zero_right [simp]: "x ∈ V ⟹ 0 - x = - x"
  by (simp add: diff_eq1)

lemma add_left_cancel:
  assumes x: "x ∈ V" and y: "y ∈ V" and z: "z ∈ V"
  shows "(x + y = x + z) = (y = z)"
proof
  from y have "y = 0 + y" by simp
  also from x y have "… = (- x + x) + y" by simp
  also from x y have "… = - x + (x + y)" by (simp add: add.assoc)
  also assume "x + y = x + z"
  also from x z have "- x + (x + z) = - x + x + z" by (simp add: add.assoc)
  also from x z have "… = z" by simp
  finally show "y = z" .
next
  assume "y = z"
  then show "x + y = x + z" by (simp only:)
qed

lemma add_right_cancel:
    "x ∈ V ⟹ y ∈ V ⟹ z ∈ V ⟹ (y + x = z + x) = (y = z)"
  by (simp only: add_commute add_left_cancel)

lemma add_assoc_cong:
  "x ∈ V ⟹ y ∈ V ⟹ x' ∈ V ⟹ y' ∈ V ⟹ z ∈ V
    ⟹ x + y = x' + y' ⟹ x + (y + z) = x' + (y' + z)"
  by (simp only: add_assoc [symmetric])

lemma mult_left_commute: "x ∈ V ⟹ a ⋅ b ⋅ x = b ⋅ a ⋅ x"
  by (simp add: mult.commute mult_assoc2)

lemma mult_zero_uniq:
  assumes x: "x ∈ V"  "x ≠ 0" and ax: "a ⋅ x = 0"
  shows "a = 0"
proof (rule classical)
  assume a: "a ≠ 0"
  from x a have "x = (inverse a * a) ⋅ x" by simp
  also from ‹x ∈ V› have "… = inverse a ⋅ (a ⋅ x)" by (rule mult_assoc)
  also from ax have "… = inverse a ⋅ 0" by simp
  also have "… = 0" by simp
  finally have "x = 0" .
  with ‹x ≠ 0› show "a = 0" by contradiction
qed

lemma mult_left_cancel:
  assumes x: "x ∈ V" and y: "y ∈ V" and a: "a ≠ 0"
  shows "(a ⋅ x = a ⋅ y) = (x = y)"
proof
  from x have "x = 1 ⋅ x" by simp
  also from a have "… = (inverse a * a) ⋅ x" by simp
  also from x have "… = inverse a ⋅ (a ⋅ x)"
    by (simp only: mult_assoc)
  also assume "a ⋅ x = a ⋅ y"
  also from a y have "inverse a ⋅ … = y"
    by (simp add: mult_assoc2)
  finally show "x = y" .
next
  assume "x = y"
  then show "a ⋅ x = a ⋅ y" by (simp only:)
qed

lemma mult_right_cancel:
  assumes x: "x ∈ V" and neq: "x ≠ 0"
  shows "(a ⋅ x = b ⋅ x) = (a = b)"
proof
  from x have "(a - b) ⋅ x = a ⋅ x - b ⋅ x"
    by (simp add: diff_mult_distrib2)
  also assume "a ⋅ x = b ⋅ x"
  with x have "a ⋅ x - b ⋅ x = 0" by simp
  finally have "(a - b) ⋅ x = 0" .
  with x neq have "a - b = 0" by (rule mult_zero_uniq)
  then show "a = b" by simp
next
  assume "a = b"
  then show "a ⋅ x = b ⋅ x" by (simp only:)
qed

lemma eq_diff_eq:
  assumes x: "x ∈ V" and y: "y ∈ V" and z: "z ∈ V"
  shows "(x = z - y) = (x + y = z)"
proof
  assume "x = z - y"
  then have "x + y = z - y + y" by simp
  also from y z have "… = z + - y + y"
    by (simp add: diff_eq1)
  also have "… = z + (- y + y)"
    by (rule add_assoc) (simp_all add: y z)
  also from y z have "… = z + 0"
    by (simp only: add_minus_left)
  also from z have "… = z"
    by (simp only: add_zero_right)
  finally show "x + y = z" .
next
  assume "x + y = z"
  then have "z - y = (x + y) - y" by simp
  also from x y have "… = x + y + - y"
    by (simp add: diff_eq1)
  also have "… = x + (y + - y)"
    by (rule add_assoc) (simp_all add: x y)
  also from x y have "… = x" by simp
  finally show "x = z - y" ..
qed

lemma add_minus_eq_minus:
  assumes x: "x ∈ V" and y: "y ∈ V" and xy: "x + y = 0"
  shows "x = - y"
proof -
  from x y have "x = (- y + y) + x" by simp
  also from x y have "… = - y + (x + y)" by (simp add: add_ac)
  also note xy
  also from y have "- y + 0 = - y" by simp
  finally show "x = - y" .
qed

lemma add_minus_eq:
  assumes x: "x ∈ V" and y: "y ∈ V" and xy: "x - y = 0"
  shows "x = y"
proof -
  from x y xy have eq: "x + - y = 0" by (simp add: diff_eq1)
  with _ _ have "x = - (- y)"
    by (rule add_minus_eq_minus) (simp_all add: x y)
  with x y show "x = y" by simp
qed

lemma add_diff_swap:
  assumes vs: "a ∈ V"  "b ∈ V"  "c ∈ V"  "d ∈ V"
    and eq: "a + b = c + d"
  shows "a - c = d - b"
proof -
  from assms have "- c + (a + b) = - c + (c + d)"
    by (simp add: add_left_cancel)
  also have "… = d" using ‹c ∈ V› ‹d ∈ V› by (rule minus_add_cancel)
  finally have eq: "- c + (a + b) = d" .
  from vs have "a - c = (- c + (a + b)) + - b"
    by (simp add: add_ac diff_eq1)
  also from vs eq have "…  = d + - b"
    by (simp add: add_right_cancel)
  also from vs have "… = d - b" by (simp add: diff_eq2)
  finally show "a - c = d - b" .
qed

lemma vs_add_cancel_21:
  assumes vs: "x ∈ V"  "y ∈ V"  "z ∈ V"  "u ∈ V"
  shows "(x + (y + z) = y + u) = (x + z = u)"
proof
  from vs have "x + z = - y + y + (x + z)" by simp
  also have "… = - y + (y + (x + z))"
    by (rule add_assoc) (simp_all add: vs)
  also from vs have "y + (x + z) = x + (y + z)"
    by (simp add: add_ac)
  also assume "x + (y + z) = y + u"
  also from vs have "- y + (y + u) = u" by simp
  finally show "x + z = u" .
next
  assume "x + z = u"
  with vs show "x + (y + z) = y + u"
    by (simp only: add_left_commute [of x])
qed

lemma add_cancel_end:
  assumes vs: "x ∈ V"  "y ∈ V"  "z ∈ V"
  shows "(x + (y + z) = y) = (x = - z)"
proof
  assume "x + (y + z) = y"
  with vs have "(x + z) + y = 0 + y" by (simp add: add_ac)
  with vs have "x + z = 0" by (simp only: add_right_cancel add_closed zero)
  with vs show "x = - z" by (simp add: add_minus_eq_minus)
next
  assume eq: "x = - z"
  then have "x + (y + z) = - z + (y + z)" by simp
  also have "… = y + (- z + z)" by (rule add_left_commute) (simp_all add: vs)
  also from vs have "… = y"  by simp
  finally show "x + (y + z) = y" .
qed

end

end