Theory Buffer

theory Buffer
imports FOCUS
(*  Title:      HOL/HOLCF/FOCUS/Buffer.thy
    Author:     David von Oheimb, TU Muenchen

Formalization of section 4 of

@inproceedings {broy_mod94,
    author = {Manfred Broy},
    title = {{Specification and Refinement of a Buffer of Length One}},
    booktitle = {Deductive Program Design},
    year = {1994},
    editor = {Manfred Broy},
    volume = {152},
    series = {ASI Series, Series F: Computer and System Sciences},
    pages = {273 -- 304},
    publisher = {Springer}
}

Slides available from http://ddvo.net/talks/1-Buffer.ps.gz

*)

theory Buffer
imports FOCUS
begin

typedecl D

datatype
  M     = Md D | Mreq ("∙")

datatype
  State = Sd D | Snil ("¤")

type_synonym
  SPF11         = "M fstream → D fstream"

type_synonym
  SPEC11        = "SPF11 set"

type_synonym
  SPSF11        = "State ⇒ SPF11"

type_synonym
  SPECS11       = "SPSF11 set"

definition
  BufEq_F       :: "SPEC11 ⇒ SPEC11" where
  "BufEq_F B = {f. ∀d. f⋅(Md d↝<>) = <> ∧
                (∀x. ∃ff∈B. f⋅(Md d↝∙↝x) = d↝ff⋅x)}"

definition
  BufEq         :: "SPEC11" where
  "BufEq = gfp BufEq_F"

definition
  BufEq_alt     :: "SPEC11" where
  "BufEq_alt = gfp (λB. {f. ∀d. f⋅(Md d↝<> ) = <> ∧
                         (∃ff∈B. (∀x. f⋅(Md d↝∙↝x) = d↝ff⋅x))})"

definition
  BufAC_Asm_F   :: " (M fstream set) ⇒ (M fstream set)" where
  "BufAC_Asm_F A = {s. s = <> ∨
                  (∃d x. s = Md d↝x ∧ (x = <> ∨ (ft⋅x = Def ∙ ∧ (rt⋅x)∈A)))}"

definition
  BufAC_Asm     :: " (M fstream set)" where
  "BufAC_Asm = gfp BufAC_Asm_F"

definition
  BufAC_Cmt_F   :: "((M fstream * D fstream) set) ⇒
                    ((M fstream * D fstream) set)" where
  "BufAC_Cmt_F C = {(s,t). ∀d x.
                           (s = <>         ⟶     t = <>                 ) ∧
                           (s = Md d↝<>   ⟶     t = <>                 ) ∧
                           (s = Md d↝∙↝x ⟶ (ft⋅t = Def d ∧ (x,rt⋅t)∈C))}"

definition
  BufAC_Cmt     :: "((M fstream * D fstream) set)" where
  "BufAC_Cmt = gfp BufAC_Cmt_F"

definition
  BufAC         :: "SPEC11" where
  "BufAC = {f. ∀x. x∈BufAC_Asm ⟶ (x,f⋅x)∈BufAC_Cmt}"

definition
  BufSt_F       :: "SPECS11 ⇒ SPECS11" where
  "BufSt_F H = {h. ∀s  . h s      ⋅<>        = <>         ∧
                                 (∀d x. h ¤     ⋅(Md d↝x) = h (Sd d)⋅x ∧
                                (∃hh∈H. h (Sd d)⋅(∙   ↝x) = d↝(hh ¤⋅x)))}"

definition
  BufSt_P       :: "SPECS11" where
  "BufSt_P = gfp BufSt_F"

definition
  BufSt         :: "SPEC11" where
  "BufSt = {f. ∃h∈BufSt_P. f = h ¤}"


lemma set_cong: "!!X. A = B ==> (x:A) = (x:B)"
by (erule subst, rule refl)


(**** BufEq *******************************************************************)

lemma mono_BufEq_F: "mono BufEq_F"
by (unfold mono_def BufEq_F_def, fast)

lemmas BufEq_fix = mono_BufEq_F [THEN BufEq_def [THEN eq_reflection, THEN def_gfp_unfold]]

lemma BufEq_unfold: "(f:BufEq) = (!d. f⋅(Md d↝<>) = <> &
                 (!x. ? ff:BufEq. f⋅(Md d↝∙↝x) = d↝(ff⋅x)))"
apply (subst BufEq_fix [THEN set_cong])
apply (unfold BufEq_F_def)
apply (simp)
done

lemma Buf_f_empty: "f:BufEq ⟹ f⋅<> = <>"
by (drule BufEq_unfold [THEN iffD1], auto)

lemma Buf_f_d: "f:BufEq ⟹ f⋅(Md d↝<>) = <>"
by (drule BufEq_unfold [THEN iffD1], auto)

lemma Buf_f_d_req:
        "f:BufEq ⟹ ∃ff. ff:BufEq ∧ f⋅(Md d↝∙↝x) = d↝ff⋅x"
by (drule BufEq_unfold [THEN iffD1], auto)


(**** BufAC_Asm ***************************************************************)

lemma mono_BufAC_Asm_F: "mono BufAC_Asm_F"
by (unfold mono_def BufAC_Asm_F_def, fast)

lemmas BufAC_Asm_fix =
  mono_BufAC_Asm_F [THEN BufAC_Asm_def [THEN eq_reflection, THEN def_gfp_unfold]]

lemma BufAC_Asm_unfold: "(s:BufAC_Asm) = (s = <> | (? d x. 
        s = Md d↝x & (x = <> | (ft⋅x = Def ∙ & (rt⋅x):BufAC_Asm))))"
apply (subst BufAC_Asm_fix [THEN set_cong])
apply (unfold BufAC_Asm_F_def)
apply (simp)
done

lemma BufAC_Asm_empty: "<>     :BufAC_Asm"
by (rule BufAC_Asm_unfold [THEN iffD2], auto)

lemma BufAC_Asm_d: "Md d↝<>:BufAC_Asm"
by (rule BufAC_Asm_unfold [THEN iffD2], auto)
lemma BufAC_Asm_d_req: "x:BufAC_Asm ==> Md d↝∙↝x:BufAC_Asm"
by (rule BufAC_Asm_unfold [THEN iffD2], auto)
lemma BufAC_Asm_prefix2: "a↝b↝s:BufAC_Asm ==> s:BufAC_Asm"
by (drule BufAC_Asm_unfold [THEN iffD1], auto)


(**** BBufAC_Cmt **************************************************************)

lemma mono_BufAC_Cmt_F: "mono BufAC_Cmt_F"
by (unfold mono_def BufAC_Cmt_F_def, fast)

lemmas BufAC_Cmt_fix =
  mono_BufAC_Cmt_F [THEN BufAC_Cmt_def [THEN eq_reflection, THEN def_gfp_unfold]]

lemma BufAC_Cmt_unfold: "((s,t):BufAC_Cmt) = (!d x. 
     (s = <>       -->      t = <>) & 
     (s = Md d↝<>  -->      t = <>) & 
     (s = Md d↝∙↝x --> ft⋅t = Def d & (x, rt⋅t):BufAC_Cmt))"
apply (subst BufAC_Cmt_fix [THEN set_cong])
apply (unfold BufAC_Cmt_F_def)
apply (simp)
done

lemma BufAC_Cmt_empty: "f:BufEq ==> (<>, f⋅<>):BufAC_Cmt"
by (rule BufAC_Cmt_unfold [THEN iffD2], auto simp add: Buf_f_empty)

lemma BufAC_Cmt_d: "f:BufEq ==> (a↝⊥, f⋅(a↝⊥)):BufAC_Cmt"
by (rule BufAC_Cmt_unfold [THEN iffD2], auto simp add: Buf_f_d)

lemma BufAC_Cmt_d2:
 "(Md d↝⊥, f⋅(Md d↝⊥)):BufAC_Cmt ==> f⋅(Md d↝⊥) = ⊥"
by (drule BufAC_Cmt_unfold [THEN iffD1], auto)

lemma BufAC_Cmt_d3:
"(Md d↝∙↝x, f⋅(Md d↝∙↝x)):BufAC_Cmt ==> (x, rt⋅(f⋅(Md d↝∙↝x))):BufAC_Cmt"
by (drule BufAC_Cmt_unfold [THEN iffD1], auto)

lemma BufAC_Cmt_d32:
"(Md d↝∙↝x, f⋅(Md d↝∙↝x)):BufAC_Cmt ==> ft⋅(f⋅(Md d↝∙↝x)) = Def d"
by (drule BufAC_Cmt_unfold [THEN iffD1], auto)

(**** BufAC *******************************************************************)

lemma BufAC_f_d: "f ∈ BufAC ⟹ f⋅(Md d↝⊥) = ⊥"
apply (unfold BufAC_def)
apply (fast intro: BufAC_Cmt_d2 BufAC_Asm_d)
done

lemma ex_elim_lemma: "(? ff:B. (!x. f⋅(a↝b↝x) = d↝ff⋅x)) = 
    ((!x. ft⋅(f⋅(a↝b↝x)) = Def d) & (LAM x. rt⋅(f⋅(a↝b↝x))):B)"
(*  this is an instance (though unification cannot handle this) of
lemma "(? ff:B. (!x. f⋅x = d↝ff⋅x)) = \
   \((!x. ft⋅(f⋅x) = Def d) & (LAM x. rt⋅(f⋅x)):B)"*)
apply safe
apply (  rule_tac [2] P="(%x. x:B)" in ssubst)
prefer 3
apply (   assumption)
apply (  rule_tac [2] cfun_eqI)
apply (  drule_tac [2] spec)
apply (  drule_tac [2] f="rt" in cfun_arg_cong)
prefer 2
apply (  simp)
prefer 2
apply ( simp)
apply (rule_tac bexI)
apply auto
apply (drule spec)
apply (erule exE)
apply (erule ssubst)
apply (simp)
done

lemma BufAC_f_d_req: "f∈BufAC ⟹ ∃ff∈BufAC. ∀x. f⋅(Md d↝∙↝x) = d↝ff⋅x"
apply (unfold BufAC_def)
apply (rule ex_elim_lemma [THEN iffD2])
apply safe
apply  (fast intro: BufAC_Cmt_d32 [THEN Def_maximal]
             monofun_cfun_arg BufAC_Asm_empty [THEN BufAC_Asm_d_req])
apply (auto intro: BufAC_Cmt_d3 BufAC_Asm_d_req)
done


(**** BufSt *******************************************************************)

lemma mono_BufSt_F: "mono BufSt_F"
by (unfold mono_def BufSt_F_def, fast)

lemmas BufSt_P_fix =
  mono_BufSt_F [THEN BufSt_P_def [THEN eq_reflection, THEN def_gfp_unfold]]

lemma BufSt_P_unfold: "(h:BufSt_P) = (!s. h s⋅<> = <> & 
           (!d x. h ¤     ⋅(Md d↝x)   =    h (Sd d)⋅x & 
      (? hh:BufSt_P. h (Sd d)⋅(∙↝x)   = d↝(hh ¤    ⋅x))))"
apply (subst BufSt_P_fix [THEN set_cong])
apply (unfold BufSt_F_def)
apply (simp)
done

lemma BufSt_P_empty: "h:BufSt_P ==> h s     ⋅ <>       = <>"
by (drule BufSt_P_unfold [THEN iffD1], auto)
lemma BufSt_P_d: "h:BufSt_P ==> h  ¤    ⋅(Md d↝x) = h (Sd d)⋅x"
by (drule BufSt_P_unfold [THEN iffD1], auto)
lemma BufSt_P_d_req: "h:BufSt_P ==> ∃hh∈BufSt_P.
                                          h (Sd d)⋅(∙   ↝x) = d↝(hh ¤    ⋅x)"
by (drule BufSt_P_unfold [THEN iffD1], auto)


(**** Buf_AC_imp_Eq ***********************************************************)

lemma Buf_AC_imp_Eq: "BufAC ⊆ BufEq"
apply (unfold BufEq_def)
apply (rule gfp_upperbound)
apply (unfold BufEq_F_def)
apply safe
apply  (erule BufAC_f_d)
apply (drule BufAC_f_d_req)
apply (fast)
done


(**** Buf_Eq_imp_AC by coinduction ********************************************)

lemma BufAC_Asm_cong_lemma [rule_format]: "∀s f ff. f∈BufEq ⟶ ff∈BufEq ⟶ 
  s∈BufAC_Asm ⟶ stream_take n⋅(f⋅s) = stream_take n⋅(ff⋅s)"
apply (induct_tac "n")
apply  (simp)
apply (intro strip)
apply (drule BufAC_Asm_unfold [THEN iffD1])
apply safe
apply   (simp add: Buf_f_empty)
apply  (simp add: Buf_f_d)
apply (drule ft_eq [THEN iffD1])
apply (clarsimp)
apply (drule Buf_f_d_req)+
apply safe
apply (erule ssubst)+
apply (simp (no_asm))
apply (fast)
done

lemma BufAC_Asm_cong: "⟦f ∈ BufEq; ff ∈ BufEq; s ∈ BufAC_Asm⟧ ⟹ f⋅s = ff⋅s"
apply (rule stream.take_lemma)
apply (erule (2) BufAC_Asm_cong_lemma)
done

lemma Buf_Eq_imp_AC_lemma: "⟦f ∈ BufEq; x ∈ BufAC_Asm⟧ ⟹ (x, f⋅x) ∈ BufAC_Cmt"
apply (unfold BufAC_Cmt_def)
apply (rotate_tac)
apply (erule weak_coinduct_image)
apply (unfold BufAC_Cmt_F_def)
apply safe
apply    (erule Buf_f_empty)
apply   (erule Buf_f_d)
apply  (drule Buf_f_d_req)
apply  (clarsimp)
apply  (erule exI)
apply (drule BufAC_Asm_prefix2)
apply (frule Buf_f_d_req)
apply (clarsimp)
apply (erule ssubst)
apply (simp)
apply (drule (2) BufAC_Asm_cong)
apply (erule subst)
apply (erule imageI)
done
lemma Buf_Eq_imp_AC: "BufEq ⊆ BufAC"
apply (unfold BufAC_def)
apply (clarify)
apply (erule (1) Buf_Eq_imp_AC_lemma)
done

(**** Buf_Eq_eq_AC ************************************************************)

lemmas Buf_Eq_eq_AC = Buf_AC_imp_Eq [THEN Buf_Eq_imp_AC [THEN subset_antisym]]


(**** alternative (not strictly) stronger version of Buf_Eq *******************)

lemma Buf_Eq_alt_imp_Eq: "BufEq_alt ⊆ BufEq"
apply (unfold BufEq_def BufEq_alt_def)
apply (rule gfp_mono)
apply (unfold BufEq_F_def)
apply (fast)
done

(* direct proof of "BufEq ⊆ BufEq_alt" seems impossible *)


lemma Buf_AC_imp_Eq_alt: "BufAC <= BufEq_alt"
apply (unfold BufEq_alt_def)
apply (rule gfp_upperbound)
apply (fast elim: BufAC_f_d BufAC_f_d_req)
done

lemmas Buf_Eq_imp_Eq_alt = subset_trans [OF Buf_Eq_imp_AC Buf_AC_imp_Eq_alt]

lemmas Buf_Eq_alt_eq = subset_antisym [OF Buf_Eq_alt_imp_Eq Buf_Eq_imp_Eq_alt]


(**** Buf_Eq_eq_St ************************************************************)

lemma Buf_St_imp_Eq: "BufSt <= BufEq"
apply (unfold BufSt_def BufEq_def)
apply (rule gfp_upperbound)
apply (unfold BufEq_F_def)
apply safe
apply ( simp add: BufSt_P_d BufSt_P_empty)
apply (simp add: BufSt_P_d)
apply (drule BufSt_P_d_req)
apply (force)
done

lemma Buf_Eq_imp_St: "BufEq <= BufSt"
apply (unfold BufSt_def BufSt_P_def)
apply safe
apply (rename_tac f)
apply (rule_tac x="λs. case s of Sd d => Λ x. f⋅(Md d↝x)| ¤ => f" in bexI)
apply ( simp)
apply (erule weak_coinduct_image)
apply (unfold BufSt_F_def)
apply (simp)
apply safe
apply (  rename_tac "s")
apply (  induct_tac "s")
apply (   simp add: Buf_f_d)
apply (  simp add: Buf_f_empty)
apply ( simp)
apply (simp)
apply (rename_tac f d x)
apply (drule_tac d="d" and x="x" in Buf_f_d_req)
apply auto
done

lemmas Buf_Eq_eq_St = Buf_St_imp_Eq [THEN Buf_Eq_imp_St [THEN subset_antisym]]

end