src/HOL/Library/Permutations.thy
author haftmann
Mon Mar 23 08:14:24 2009 +0100 (2009-03-23)
changeset 30663 0b6aff7451b2
parent 30488 5c4c3a9e9102
child 32456 341c83339aeb
permissions -rw-r--r--
Main is (Complex_Main) base entry point in library theories
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(* Title:      Library/Permutations
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   Author:     Amine Chaieb, University of Cambridge
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*)
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header {* Permutations, both general and specifically on finite sets.*}
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theory Permutations
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imports Finite_Cartesian_Product Parity Fact Main
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begin
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  (* Why should I import Main just to solve the Typerep problem! *)
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definition permutes (infixr "permutes" 41) where
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  "(p permutes S) \<longleftrightarrow> (\<forall>x. x \<notin> S \<longrightarrow> p x = x) \<and> (\<forall>y. \<exists>!x. p x = y)"
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(* ------------------------------------------------------------------------- *)
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(* Transpositions.                                                           *)
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(* ------------------------------------------------------------------------- *)
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declare swap_self[simp]
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lemma swapid_sym: "Fun.swap a b id = Fun.swap b a id"
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  by (auto simp add: expand_fun_eq swap_def fun_upd_def)
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lemma swap_id_refl: "Fun.swap a a id = id" by simp
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lemma swap_id_sym: "Fun.swap a b id = Fun.swap b a id"
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  by (rule ext, simp add: swap_def)
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lemma swap_id_idempotent[simp]: "Fun.swap a b id o Fun.swap a b id = id"
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  by (rule ext, auto simp add: swap_def)
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lemma inv_unique_comp: assumes fg: "f o g = id" and gf: "g o f = id"
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  shows "inv f = g"
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  using fg gf inv_equality[of g f] by (auto simp add: expand_fun_eq)
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lemma inverse_swap_id: "inv (Fun.swap a b id) = Fun.swap a b id"
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  by (rule inv_unique_comp, simp_all)
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lemma swap_id_eq: "Fun.swap a b id x = (if x = a then b else if x = b then a else x)"
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  by (simp add: swap_def)
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(* ------------------------------------------------------------------------- *)
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(* Basic consequences of the definition.                                     *)
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(* ------------------------------------------------------------------------- *)
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lemma permutes_in_image: "p permutes S \<Longrightarrow> p x \<in> S \<longleftrightarrow> x \<in> S"
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  unfolding permutes_def by metis
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lemma permutes_image: assumes pS: "p permutes S" shows "p ` S = S"
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  using pS
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  unfolding permutes_def
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  apply -
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  apply (rule set_ext)
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  apply (simp add: image_iff)
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  apply metis
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  done
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lemma permutes_inj: "p permutes S ==> inj p "
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  unfolding permutes_def inj_on_def by blast
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lemma permutes_surj: "p permutes s ==> surj p"
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  unfolding permutes_def surj_def by metis
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lemma permutes_inv_o: assumes pS: "p permutes S"
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  shows " p o inv p = id"
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  and "inv p o p = id"
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  using permutes_inj[OF pS] permutes_surj[OF pS]
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  unfolding inj_iff[symmetric] surj_iff[symmetric] by blast+
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lemma permutes_inverses:
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  fixes p :: "'a \<Rightarrow> 'a"
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  assumes pS: "p permutes S"
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  shows "p (inv p x) = x"
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  and "inv p (p x) = x"
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  using permutes_inv_o[OF pS, unfolded expand_fun_eq o_def] by auto
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lemma permutes_subset: "p permutes S \<Longrightarrow> S \<subseteq> T ==> p permutes T"
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  unfolding permutes_def by blast
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lemma permutes_empty[simp]: "p permutes {} \<longleftrightarrow> p = id"
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  unfolding expand_fun_eq permutes_def apply simp by metis
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lemma permutes_sing[simp]: "p permutes {a} \<longleftrightarrow> p = id"
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  unfolding expand_fun_eq permutes_def apply simp by metis
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lemma permutes_univ: "p permutes UNIV \<longleftrightarrow> (\<forall>y. \<exists>!x. p x = y)"
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  unfolding permutes_def by simp
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lemma permutes_inv_eq: "p permutes S ==> inv p y = x \<longleftrightarrow> p x = y"
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  unfolding permutes_def inv_def apply auto
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  apply (erule allE[where x=y])
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  apply (erule allE[where x=y])
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  apply (rule someI_ex) apply blast
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  apply (rule some1_equality)
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  apply blast
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  apply blast
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  done
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lemma permutes_swap_id: "a \<in> S \<Longrightarrow> b \<in> S ==> Fun.swap a b id permutes S"
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  unfolding permutes_def swap_def fun_upd_def  apply auto apply metis done
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lemma permutes_superset: "p permutes S \<Longrightarrow> (\<forall>x \<in> S - T. p x = x) \<Longrightarrow> p permutes T"
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apply (simp add: Ball_def permutes_def Diff_iff) by metis
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(* ------------------------------------------------------------------------- *)
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(* Group properties.                                                         *)
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(* ------------------------------------------------------------------------- *)
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lemma permutes_id: "id permutes S" unfolding permutes_def by simp
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lemma permutes_compose: "p permutes S \<Longrightarrow> q permutes S ==> q o p permutes S"
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  unfolding permutes_def o_def by metis
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lemma permutes_inv: assumes pS: "p permutes S" shows "inv p permutes S"
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  using pS unfolding permutes_def permutes_inv_eq[OF pS] by metis
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lemma permutes_inv_inv: assumes pS: "p permutes S" shows "inv (inv p) = p"
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  unfolding expand_fun_eq permutes_inv_eq[OF pS] permutes_inv_eq[OF permutes_inv[OF pS]]
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  by blast
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(* ------------------------------------------------------------------------- *)
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(* The number of permutations on a finite set.                               *)
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(* ------------------------------------------------------------------------- *)
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lemma permutes_insert_lemma:
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  assumes pS: "p permutes (insert a S)"
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  shows "Fun.swap a (p a) id o p permutes S"
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  apply (rule permutes_superset[where S = "insert a S"])
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  apply (rule permutes_compose[OF pS])
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  apply (rule permutes_swap_id, simp)
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  using permutes_in_image[OF pS, of a] apply simp
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  apply (auto simp add: Ball_def Diff_iff swap_def)
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  done
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lemma permutes_insert: "{p. p permutes (insert a S)} =
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        (\<lambda>(b,p). Fun.swap a b id o p) ` {(b,p). b \<in> insert a S \<and> p \<in> {p. p permutes S}}"
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proof-
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  {fix p
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    {assume pS: "p permutes insert a S"
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      let ?b = "p a"
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      let ?q = "Fun.swap a (p a) id o p"
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      have th0: "p = Fun.swap a ?b id o ?q" unfolding expand_fun_eq o_assoc by simp
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      have th1: "?b \<in> insert a S " unfolding permutes_in_image[OF pS] by simp
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      from permutes_insert_lemma[OF pS] th0 th1
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      have "\<exists> b q. p = Fun.swap a b id o q \<and> b \<in> insert a S \<and> q permutes S" by blast}
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    moreover
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    {fix b q assume bq: "p = Fun.swap a b id o q" "b \<in> insert a S" "q permutes S"
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      from permutes_subset[OF bq(3), of "insert a S"]
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      have qS: "q permutes insert a S" by auto
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      have aS: "a \<in> insert a S" by simp
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      from bq(1) permutes_compose[OF qS permutes_swap_id[OF aS bq(2)]]
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      have "p permutes insert a S"  by simp }
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    ultimately have "p permutes insert a S \<longleftrightarrow> (\<exists> b q. p = Fun.swap a b id o q \<and> b \<in> insert a S \<and> q permutes S)" by blast}
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  thus ?thesis by auto
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qed
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lemma hassize_insert: "a \<notin> F \<Longrightarrow> insert a F hassize n \<Longrightarrow> F hassize (n - 1)"
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  by (auto simp add: hassize_def)
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lemma hassize_permutations: assumes Sn: "S hassize n"
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  shows "{p. p permutes S} hassize (fact n)"
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proof-
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  from Sn have fS:"finite S" by (simp add: hassize_def)
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  have "\<forall>n. (S hassize n) \<longrightarrow> ({p. p permutes S} hassize (fact n))"
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  proof(rule finite_induct[where F = S])
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    from fS show "finite S" .
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  next
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    show "\<forall>n. ({} hassize n) \<longrightarrow> ({p. p permutes {}} hassize fact n)"
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      by (simp add: hassize_def permutes_empty)
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  next
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    fix x F
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    assume fF: "finite F" and xF: "x \<notin> F"
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      and H: "\<forall>n. (F hassize n) \<longrightarrow> ({p. p permutes F} hassize fact n)"
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    {fix n assume H0: "insert x F hassize n"
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      let ?xF = "{p. p permutes insert x F}"
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      let ?pF = "{p. p permutes F}"
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      let ?pF' = "{(b, p). b \<in> insert x F \<and> p \<in> ?pF}"
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      let ?g = "(\<lambda>(b, p). Fun.swap x b id \<circ> p)"
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      from permutes_insert[of x F]
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      have xfgpF': "?xF = ?g ` ?pF'" .
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      from hassize_insert[OF xF H0] have Fs: "F hassize (n - 1)" .
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      from H Fs have pFs: "?pF hassize fact (n - 1)" by blast
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      hence pF'f: "finite ?pF'" using H0 unfolding hassize_def
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	apply (simp only: Collect_split Collect_mem_eq)
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	apply (rule finite_cartesian_product)
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	apply simp_all
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	done
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      have ginj: "inj_on ?g ?pF'"
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      proof-
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	{
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	  fix b p c q assume bp: "(b,p) \<in> ?pF'" and cq: "(c,q) \<in> ?pF'"
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	    and eq: "?g (b,p) = ?g (c,q)"
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	  from bp cq have ths: "b \<in> insert x F" "c \<in> insert x F" "x \<in> insert x F" "p permutes F" "q permutes F" by auto
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	  from ths(4) xF eq have "b = ?g (b,p) x" unfolding permutes_def
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	    by (auto simp add: swap_def fun_upd_def expand_fun_eq)
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	  also have "\<dots> = ?g (c,q) x" using ths(5) xF eq
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	    by (auto simp add: swap_def fun_upd_def expand_fun_eq)
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	  also have "\<dots> = c"using ths(5) xF unfolding permutes_def
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	    by (auto simp add: swap_def fun_upd_def expand_fun_eq)
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	  finally have bc: "b = c" .
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	  hence "Fun.swap x b id = Fun.swap x c id" by simp
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	  with eq have "Fun.swap x b id o p = Fun.swap x b id o q" by simp
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	  hence "Fun.swap x b id o (Fun.swap x b id o p) = Fun.swap x b id o (Fun.swap x b id o q)" by simp
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	  hence "p = q" by (simp add: o_assoc)
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	  with bc have "(b,p) = (c,q)" by simp }
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	thus ?thesis  unfolding inj_on_def by blast
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      qed
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      from xF H0 have n0: "n \<noteq> 0 " by (auto simp add: hassize_def)
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      hence "\<exists>m. n = Suc m" by arith
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      then obtain m where n[simp]: "n = Suc m" by blast
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      from pFs H0 have xFc: "card ?xF = fact n"
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	unfolding xfgpF' card_image[OF ginj] hassize_def
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	apply (simp only: Collect_split Collect_mem_eq card_cartesian_product)
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	by simp
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      from finite_imageI[OF pF'f, of ?g] have xFf: "finite ?xF" unfolding xfgpF' by simp
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      have "?xF hassize fact n"
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	using xFf xFc
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	unfolding hassize_def  xFf by blast }
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    thus "\<forall>n. (insert x F hassize n) \<longrightarrow> ({p. p permutes insert x F} hassize fact n)"
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      by blast
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  qed
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  with Sn show ?thesis by blast
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qed
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lemma finite_permutations: "finite S ==> finite {p. p permutes S}"
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  using hassize_permutations[of S] unfolding hassize_def by blast
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(* ------------------------------------------------------------------------- *)
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(* Permutations of index set for iterated operations.                        *)
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(* ------------------------------------------------------------------------- *)
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lemma (in ab_semigroup_mult) fold_image_permute: assumes fS: "finite S" and pS: "p permutes S"
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  shows "fold_image times f z S = fold_image times (f o p) z S"
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  using fold_image_reindex[OF fS subset_inj_on[OF permutes_inj[OF pS], of S, simplified], of f z]
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  unfolding permutes_image[OF pS] .
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lemma (in ab_semigroup_add) fold_image_permute: assumes fS: "finite S" and pS: "p permutes S"
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  shows "fold_image plus f z S = fold_image plus (f o p) z S"
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proof-
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  interpret ab_semigroup_mult plus apply unfold_locales apply (simp add: add_assoc)
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    apply (simp add: add_commute) done
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  from fold_image_reindex[OF fS subset_inj_on[OF permutes_inj[OF pS], of S, simplified], of f z]
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  show ?thesis
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  unfolding permutes_image[OF pS] .
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qed
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lemma setsum_permute: assumes pS: "p permutes S"
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  shows "setsum f S = setsum (f o p) S"
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  unfolding setsum_def using fold_image_permute[of S p f 0] pS by clarsimp
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lemma setsum_permute_natseg:assumes pS: "p permutes {m .. n}"
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  shows "setsum f {m .. n} = setsum (f o p) {m .. n}"
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  using setsum_permute[OF pS, of f ] pS by blast
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lemma setprod_permute: assumes pS: "p permutes S"
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  shows "setprod f S = setprod (f o p) S"
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  unfolding setprod_def
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  using ab_semigroup_mult_class.fold_image_permute[of S p f 1] pS by clarsimp
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lemma setprod_permute_natseg:assumes pS: "p permutes {m .. n}"
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  shows "setprod f {m .. n} = setprod (f o p) {m .. n}"
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  using setprod_permute[OF pS, of f ] pS by blast
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(* ------------------------------------------------------------------------- *)
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(* Various combinations of transpositions with 2, 1 and 0 common elements.   *)
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(* ------------------------------------------------------------------------- *)
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lemma swap_id_common:" a \<noteq> c \<Longrightarrow> b \<noteq> c \<Longrightarrow>  Fun.swap a b id o Fun.swap a c id = Fun.swap b c id o Fun.swap a b id" by (simp add: expand_fun_eq swap_def)
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lemma swap_id_common': "~(a = b) \<Longrightarrow> ~(a = c) \<Longrightarrow> Fun.swap a c id o Fun.swap b c id = Fun.swap b c id o Fun.swap a b id" by (simp add: expand_fun_eq swap_def)
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lemma swap_id_independent: "~(a = c) \<Longrightarrow> ~(a = d) \<Longrightarrow> ~(b = c) \<Longrightarrow> ~(b = d) ==> Fun.swap a b id o Fun.swap c d id = Fun.swap c d id o Fun.swap a b id"
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  by (simp add: swap_def expand_fun_eq)
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(* ------------------------------------------------------------------------- *)
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(* Permutations as transposition sequences.                                  *)
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(* ------------------------------------------------------------------------- *)
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inductive swapidseq :: "nat \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'a) \<Rightarrow> bool" where
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  id[simp]: "swapidseq 0 id"
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| comp_Suc: "swapidseq n p \<Longrightarrow> a \<noteq> b \<Longrightarrow> swapidseq (Suc n) (Fun.swap a b id o p)"
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declare id[unfolded id_def, simp]
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definition "permutation p \<longleftrightarrow> (\<exists>n. swapidseq n p)"
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(* ------------------------------------------------------------------------- *)
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(* Some closure properties of the set of permutations, with lengths.         *)
chaieb@29840
   289
(* ------------------------------------------------------------------------- *)
chaieb@29840
   290
chaieb@29840
   291
lemma permutation_id[simp]: "permutation id"unfolding permutation_def
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   292
  by (rule exI[where x=0], simp)
chaieb@29840
   293
declare permutation_id[unfolded id_def, simp]
chaieb@29840
   294
chaieb@29840
   295
lemma swapidseq_swap: "swapidseq (if a = b then 0 else 1) (Fun.swap a b id)"
chaieb@29840
   296
  apply clarsimp
chaieb@29840
   297
  using comp_Suc[of 0 id a b] by simp
chaieb@29840
   298
chaieb@29840
   299
lemma permutation_swap_id: "permutation (Fun.swap a b id)"
chaieb@29840
   300
  apply (cases "a=b", simp_all)
huffman@30488
   301
  unfolding permutation_def using swapidseq_swap[of a b] by blast
chaieb@29840
   302
chaieb@29840
   303
lemma swapidseq_comp_add: "swapidseq n p \<Longrightarrow> swapidseq m q ==> swapidseq (n + m) (p o q)"
chaieb@29840
   304
  proof (induct n p arbitrary: m q rule: swapidseq.induct)
chaieb@29840
   305
    case (id m q) thus ?case by simp
chaieb@29840
   306
  next
huffman@30488
   307
    case (comp_Suc n p a b m q)
chaieb@29840
   308
    have th: "Suc n + m = Suc (n + m)" by arith
huffman@30488
   309
    show ?case unfolding th o_assoc[symmetric]
huffman@30488
   310
      apply (rule swapidseq.comp_Suc) using comp_Suc.hyps(2)[OF comp_Suc.prems]  comp_Suc.hyps(3) by blast+
chaieb@29840
   311
qed
chaieb@29840
   312
chaieb@29840
   313
lemma permutation_compose: "permutation p \<Longrightarrow> permutation q ==> permutation(p o q)"
chaieb@29840
   314
  unfolding permutation_def using swapidseq_comp_add[of _ p _ q] by metis
chaieb@29840
   315
chaieb@29840
   316
lemma swapidseq_endswap: "swapidseq n p \<Longrightarrow> a \<noteq> b ==> swapidseq (Suc n) (p o Fun.swap a b id)"
chaieb@29840
   317
  apply (induct n p rule: swapidseq.induct)
chaieb@29840
   318
  using swapidseq_swap[of a b]
chaieb@29840
   319
  by (auto simp add: o_assoc[symmetric] intro: swapidseq.comp_Suc)
chaieb@29840
   320
chaieb@29840
   321
lemma swapidseq_inverse_exists: "swapidseq n p ==> \<exists>q. swapidseq n q \<and> p o q = id \<and> q o p = id"
chaieb@29840
   322
proof(induct n p rule: swapidseq.induct)
chaieb@29840
   323
  case id  thus ?case by (rule exI[where x=id], simp)
huffman@30488
   324
next
chaieb@29840
   325
  case (comp_Suc n p a b)
chaieb@29840
   326
  from comp_Suc.hyps obtain q where q: "swapidseq n q" "p \<circ> q = id" "q \<circ> p = id" by blast
chaieb@29840
   327
  let ?q = "q o Fun.swap a b id"
chaieb@29840
   328
  note H = comp_Suc.hyps
chaieb@29840
   329
  from swapidseq_swap[of a b] H(3)  have th0: "swapidseq 1 (Fun.swap a b id)" by simp
huffman@30488
   330
  from swapidseq_comp_add[OF q(1) th0] have th1:"swapidseq (Suc n) ?q" by simp
chaieb@29840
   331
  have "Fun.swap a b id o p o ?q = Fun.swap a b id o (p o q) o Fun.swap a b id" by (simp add: o_assoc)
chaieb@29840
   332
  also have "\<dots> = id" by (simp add: q(2))
chaieb@29840
   333
  finally have th2: "Fun.swap a b id o p o ?q = id" .
huffman@30488
   334
  have "?q \<circ> (Fun.swap a b id \<circ> p) = q \<circ> (Fun.swap a b id o Fun.swap a b id) \<circ> p" by (simp only: o_assoc)
chaieb@29840
   335
  hence "?q \<circ> (Fun.swap a b id \<circ> p) = id" by (simp add: q(3))
chaieb@29840
   336
  with th1 th2 show ?case by blast
chaieb@29840
   337
qed
chaieb@29840
   338
chaieb@29840
   339
chaieb@29840
   340
lemma swapidseq_inverse: assumes H: "swapidseq n p" shows "swapidseq n (inv p)"
chaieb@29840
   341
  using swapidseq_inverse_exists[OF H] inv_unique_comp[of p] by auto
chaieb@29840
   342
chaieb@29840
   343
lemma permutation_inverse: "permutation p ==> permutation (inv p)"
chaieb@29840
   344
  using permutation_def swapidseq_inverse by blast
chaieb@29840
   345
chaieb@29840
   346
(* ------------------------------------------------------------------------- *)
chaieb@29840
   347
(* The identity map only has even transposition sequences.                   *)
chaieb@29840
   348
(* ------------------------------------------------------------------------- *)
chaieb@29840
   349
chaieb@29840
   350
lemma symmetry_lemma:"(\<And>a b c d. P a b c d ==> P a b d c) \<Longrightarrow>
chaieb@29840
   351
   (\<And>a b c d. a \<noteq> b \<Longrightarrow> c \<noteq> d \<Longrightarrow> (a = c \<and> b = d \<or>  a = c \<and> b \<noteq> d \<or> a \<noteq> c \<and> b = d \<or> a \<noteq> c \<and> a \<noteq> d \<and> b \<noteq> c \<and> b \<noteq> d) ==> P a b c d)
chaieb@29840
   352
   ==> (\<And>a b c d. a \<noteq> b --> c \<noteq> d \<longrightarrow>  P a b c d)" by metis
chaieb@29840
   353
huffman@30488
   354
lemma swap_general: "a \<noteq> b \<Longrightarrow> c \<noteq> d \<Longrightarrow> Fun.swap a b id o Fun.swap c d id = id \<or>
huffman@30488
   355
  (\<exists>x y z. x \<noteq> a \<and> y \<noteq> a \<and> z \<noteq> a \<and> x \<noteq> y \<and> Fun.swap a b id o Fun.swap c d id = Fun.swap x y id o Fun.swap a z id)"
chaieb@29840
   356
proof-
chaieb@29840
   357
  assume H: "a\<noteq>b" "c\<noteq>d"
huffman@30488
   358
have "a \<noteq> b \<longrightarrow> c \<noteq> d \<longrightarrow>
huffman@30488
   359
(  Fun.swap a b id o Fun.swap c d id = id \<or>
huffman@30488
   360
  (\<exists>x y z. x \<noteq> a \<and> y \<noteq> a \<and> z \<noteq> a \<and> x \<noteq> y \<and> Fun.swap a b id o Fun.swap c d id = Fun.swap x y id o Fun.swap a z id))"
chaieb@29840
   361
  apply (rule symmetry_lemma[where a=a and b=b and c=c and d=d])
huffman@30488
   362
  apply (simp_all only: swapid_sym)
chaieb@29840
   363
  apply (case_tac "a = c \<and> b = d", clarsimp simp only: swapid_sym swap_id_idempotent)
chaieb@29840
   364
  apply (case_tac "a = c \<and> b \<noteq> d")
chaieb@29840
   365
  apply (rule disjI2)
chaieb@29840
   366
  apply (rule_tac x="b" in exI)
chaieb@29840
   367
  apply (rule_tac x="d" in exI)
chaieb@29840
   368
  apply (rule_tac x="b" in exI)
chaieb@29840
   369
  apply (clarsimp simp add: expand_fun_eq swap_def)
chaieb@29840
   370
  apply (case_tac "a \<noteq> c \<and> b = d")
chaieb@29840
   371
  apply (rule disjI2)
chaieb@29840
   372
  apply (rule_tac x="c" in exI)
chaieb@29840
   373
  apply (rule_tac x="d" in exI)
chaieb@29840
   374
  apply (rule_tac x="c" in exI)
chaieb@29840
   375
  apply (clarsimp simp add: expand_fun_eq swap_def)
chaieb@29840
   376
  apply (rule disjI2)
chaieb@29840
   377
  apply (rule_tac x="c" in exI)
chaieb@29840
   378
  apply (rule_tac x="d" in exI)
chaieb@29840
   379
  apply (rule_tac x="b" in exI)
chaieb@29840
   380
  apply (clarsimp simp add: expand_fun_eq swap_def)
chaieb@29840
   381
  done
huffman@30488
   382
with H show ?thesis by metis
chaieb@29840
   383
qed
chaieb@29840
   384
chaieb@29840
   385
lemma swapidseq_id_iff[simp]: "swapidseq 0 p \<longleftrightarrow> p = id"
chaieb@29840
   386
  using swapidseq.cases[of 0 p "p = id"]
chaieb@29840
   387
  by auto
chaieb@29840
   388
chaieb@29840
   389
lemma swapidseq_cases: "swapidseq n p \<longleftrightarrow> (n=0 \<and> p = id \<or> (\<exists>a b q m. n = Suc m \<and> p = Fun.swap a b id o q \<and> swapidseq m q \<and> a\<noteq> b))"
chaieb@29840
   390
  apply (rule iffI)
chaieb@29840
   391
  apply (erule swapidseq.cases[of n p])
chaieb@29840
   392
  apply simp
chaieb@29840
   393
  apply (rule disjI2)
chaieb@29840
   394
  apply (rule_tac x= "a" in exI)
chaieb@29840
   395
  apply (rule_tac x= "b" in exI)
chaieb@29840
   396
  apply (rule_tac x= "pa" in exI)
chaieb@29840
   397
  apply (rule_tac x= "na" in exI)
chaieb@29840
   398
  apply simp
chaieb@29840
   399
  apply auto
chaieb@29840
   400
  apply (rule comp_Suc, simp_all)
chaieb@29840
   401
  done
chaieb@29840
   402
lemma fixing_swapidseq_decrease:
chaieb@29840
   403
  assumes spn: "swapidseq n p" and ab: "a\<noteq>b" and pa: "(Fun.swap a b id o p) a = a"
chaieb@29840
   404
  shows "n \<noteq> 0 \<and> swapidseq (n - 1) (Fun.swap a b id o p)"
chaieb@29840
   405
  using spn ab pa
chaieb@29840
   406
proof(induct n arbitrary: p a b)
chaieb@29840
   407
  case 0 thus ?case by (auto simp add: swap_def fun_upd_def)
chaieb@29840
   408
next
chaieb@29840
   409
  case (Suc n p a b)
chaieb@29840
   410
  from Suc.prems(1) swapidseq_cases[of "Suc n" p] obtain
chaieb@29840
   411
    c d q m where cdqm: "Suc n = Suc m" "p = Fun.swap c d id o q" "swapidseq m q" "c \<noteq> d" "n = m"
chaieb@29840
   412
    by auto
chaieb@29840
   413
  {assume H: "Fun.swap a b id o Fun.swap c d id = id"
huffman@30488
   414
huffman@30488
   415
    have ?case apply (simp only: cdqm o_assoc H)
chaieb@29840
   416
      by (simp add: cdqm)}
chaieb@29840
   417
  moreover
chaieb@29840
   418
  { fix x y z
huffman@30488
   419
    assume H: "x\<noteq>a" "y\<noteq>a" "z \<noteq>a" "x \<noteq>y"
chaieb@29840
   420
      "Fun.swap a b id o Fun.swap c d id = Fun.swap x y id o Fun.swap a z id"
chaieb@29840
   421
    from H have az: "a \<noteq> z" by simp
chaieb@29840
   422
chaieb@29840
   423
    {fix h have "(Fun.swap x y id o h) a = a \<longleftrightarrow> h a = a"
chaieb@29840
   424
      using H by (simp add: swap_def)}
chaieb@29840
   425
    note th3 = this
chaieb@29840
   426
    from cdqm(2) have "Fun.swap a b id o p = Fun.swap a b id o (Fun.swap c d id o q)" by simp
chaieb@29840
   427
    hence "Fun.swap a b id o p = Fun.swap x y id o (Fun.swap a z id o q)" by (simp add: o_assoc H)
chaieb@29840
   428
    hence "(Fun.swap a b id o p) a = (Fun.swap x y id o (Fun.swap a z id o q)) a" by simp
chaieb@29840
   429
    hence "(Fun.swap x y id o (Fun.swap a z id o q)) a  = a" unfolding Suc by metis
chaieb@29840
   430
    hence th1: "(Fun.swap a z id o q) a = a" unfolding th3 .
chaieb@29840
   431
    from Suc.hyps[OF cdqm(3)[ unfolded cdqm(5)[symmetric]] az th1]
chaieb@29840
   432
    have th2: "swapidseq (n - 1) (Fun.swap a z id o q)" "n \<noteq> 0" by blast+
huffman@30488
   433
    have th: "Suc n - 1 = Suc (n - 1)" using th2(2) by auto
chaieb@29840
   434
    have ?case unfolding cdqm(2) H o_assoc th
chaieb@29840
   435
      apply (simp only: Suc_not_Zero simp_thms o_assoc[symmetric])
chaieb@29840
   436
      apply (rule comp_Suc)
chaieb@29840
   437
      using th2 H apply blast+
chaieb@29840
   438
      done}
huffman@30488
   439
  ultimately show ?case using swap_general[OF Suc.prems(2) cdqm(4)] by metis
chaieb@29840
   440
qed
chaieb@29840
   441
huffman@30488
   442
lemma swapidseq_identity_even:
chaieb@29840
   443
  assumes "swapidseq n (id :: 'a \<Rightarrow> 'a)" shows "even n"
chaieb@29840
   444
  using `swapidseq n id`
chaieb@29840
   445
proof(induct n rule: nat_less_induct)
chaieb@29840
   446
  fix n
chaieb@29840
   447
  assume H: "\<forall>m<n. swapidseq m (id::'a \<Rightarrow> 'a) \<longrightarrow> even m" "swapidseq n (id :: 'a \<Rightarrow> 'a)"
huffman@30488
   448
  {assume "n = 0" hence "even n" by arith}
huffman@30488
   449
  moreover
chaieb@29840
   450
  {fix a b :: 'a and q m
chaieb@29840
   451
    assume h: "n = Suc m" "(id :: 'a \<Rightarrow> 'a) = Fun.swap a b id \<circ> q" "swapidseq m q" "a \<noteq> b"
chaieb@29840
   452
    from fixing_swapidseq_decrease[OF h(3,4), unfolded h(2)[symmetric]]
chaieb@29840
   453
    have m: "m \<noteq> 0" "swapidseq (m - 1) (id :: 'a \<Rightarrow> 'a)" by auto
chaieb@29840
   454
    from h m have mn: "m - 1 < n" by arith
chaieb@29840
   455
    from H(1)[rule_format, OF mn m(2)] h(1) m(1) have "even n" apply arith done}
chaieb@29840
   456
  ultimately show "even n" using H(2)[unfolded swapidseq_cases[of n id]] by auto
chaieb@29840
   457
qed
chaieb@29840
   458
chaieb@29840
   459
(* ------------------------------------------------------------------------- *)
chaieb@29840
   460
(* Therefore we have a welldefined notion of parity.                         *)
chaieb@29840
   461
(* ------------------------------------------------------------------------- *)
chaieb@29840
   462
chaieb@29840
   463
definition "evenperm p = even (SOME n. swapidseq n p)"
chaieb@29840
   464
huffman@30488
   465
lemma swapidseq_even_even: assumes
chaieb@29840
   466
  m: "swapidseq m p" and n: "swapidseq n p"
chaieb@29840
   467
  shows "even m \<longleftrightarrow> even n"
chaieb@29840
   468
proof-
chaieb@29840
   469
  from swapidseq_inverse_exists[OF n]
chaieb@29840
   470
  obtain q where q: "swapidseq n q" "p \<circ> q = id" "q \<circ> p = id" by blast
huffman@30488
   471
chaieb@29840
   472
  from swapidseq_identity_even[OF swapidseq_comp_add[OF m q(1), unfolded q]]
chaieb@29840
   473
  show ?thesis by arith
chaieb@29840
   474
qed
chaieb@29840
   475
chaieb@29840
   476
lemma evenperm_unique: assumes p: "swapidseq n p" and n:"even n = b"
chaieb@29840
   477
  shows "evenperm p = b"
chaieb@29840
   478
  unfolding n[symmetric] evenperm_def
chaieb@29840
   479
  apply (rule swapidseq_even_even[where p = p])
chaieb@29840
   480
  apply (rule someI[where x = n])
chaieb@29840
   481
  using p by blast+
chaieb@29840
   482
chaieb@29840
   483
(* ------------------------------------------------------------------------- *)
chaieb@29840
   484
(* And it has the expected composition properties.                           *)
chaieb@29840
   485
(* ------------------------------------------------------------------------- *)
chaieb@29840
   486
chaieb@29840
   487
lemma evenperm_id[simp]: "evenperm id = True"
chaieb@29840
   488
  apply (rule evenperm_unique[where n = 0]) by simp_all
chaieb@29840
   489
chaieb@29840
   490
lemma evenperm_swap: "evenperm (Fun.swap a b id) = (a = b)"
chaieb@29840
   491
apply (rule evenperm_unique[where n="if a = b then 0 else 1"])
chaieb@29840
   492
by (simp_all add: swapidseq_swap)
chaieb@29840
   493
huffman@30488
   494
lemma evenperm_comp:
chaieb@29840
   495
  assumes p: "permutation p" and q:"permutation q"
chaieb@29840
   496
  shows "evenperm (p o q) = (evenperm p = evenperm q)"
chaieb@29840
   497
proof-
huffman@30488
   498
  from p q obtain
huffman@30488
   499
    n m where n: "swapidseq n p" and m: "swapidseq m q"
chaieb@29840
   500
    unfolding permutation_def by blast
chaieb@29840
   501
  note nm =  swapidseq_comp_add[OF n m]
chaieb@29840
   502
  have th: "even (n + m) = (even n \<longleftrightarrow> even m)" by arith
chaieb@29840
   503
  from evenperm_unique[OF n refl] evenperm_unique[OF m refl]
chaieb@29840
   504
    evenperm_unique[OF nm th]
chaieb@29840
   505
  show ?thesis by blast
chaieb@29840
   506
qed
chaieb@29840
   507
chaieb@29840
   508
lemma evenperm_inv: assumes p: "permutation p"
chaieb@29840
   509
  shows "evenperm (inv p) = evenperm p"
chaieb@29840
   510
proof-
chaieb@29840
   511
  from p obtain n where n: "swapidseq n p" unfolding permutation_def by blast
chaieb@29840
   512
  from evenperm_unique[OF swapidseq_inverse[OF n] evenperm_unique[OF n refl, symmetric]]
chaieb@29840
   513
  show ?thesis .
chaieb@29840
   514
qed
chaieb@29840
   515
chaieb@29840
   516
(* ------------------------------------------------------------------------- *)
chaieb@29840
   517
(* A more abstract characterization of permutations.                         *)
chaieb@29840
   518
(* ------------------------------------------------------------------------- *)
chaieb@29840
   519
chaieb@29840
   520
chaieb@29840
   521
lemma bij_iff: "bij f \<longleftrightarrow> (\<forall>x. \<exists>!y. f y = x)"
chaieb@29840
   522
  unfolding bij_def inj_on_def surj_def
chaieb@29840
   523
  apply auto
chaieb@29840
   524
  apply metis
chaieb@29840
   525
  apply metis
chaieb@29840
   526
  done
chaieb@29840
   527
huffman@30488
   528
lemma permutation_bijective:
huffman@30488
   529
  assumes p: "permutation p"
chaieb@29840
   530
  shows "bij p"
chaieb@29840
   531
proof-
chaieb@29840
   532
  from p obtain n where n: "swapidseq n p" unfolding permutation_def by blast
huffman@30488
   533
  from swapidseq_inverse_exists[OF n] obtain q where
chaieb@29840
   534
    q: "swapidseq n q" "p \<circ> q = id" "q \<circ> p = id" by blast
chaieb@29840
   535
  thus ?thesis unfolding bij_iff  apply (auto simp add: expand_fun_eq) apply metis done
huffman@30488
   536
qed
chaieb@29840
   537
chaieb@29840
   538
lemma permutation_finite_support: assumes p: "permutation p"
chaieb@29840
   539
  shows "finite {x. p x \<noteq> x}"
chaieb@29840
   540
proof-
chaieb@29840
   541
  from p obtain n where n: "swapidseq n p" unfolding permutation_def by blast
chaieb@29840
   542
  from n show ?thesis
chaieb@29840
   543
  proof(induct n p rule: swapidseq.induct)
chaieb@29840
   544
    case id thus ?case by simp
chaieb@29840
   545
  next
chaieb@29840
   546
    case (comp_Suc n p a b)
chaieb@29840
   547
    let ?S = "insert a (insert b {x. p x \<noteq> x})"
chaieb@29840
   548
    from comp_Suc.hyps(2) have fS: "finite ?S" by simp
chaieb@29840
   549
    from `a \<noteq> b` have th: "{x. (Fun.swap a b id o p) x \<noteq> x} \<subseteq> ?S"
chaieb@29840
   550
      by (auto simp add: swap_def)
chaieb@29840
   551
    from finite_subset[OF th fS] show ?case  .
chaieb@29840
   552
qed
chaieb@29840
   553
qed
chaieb@29840
   554
chaieb@29840
   555
lemma bij_inv_eq_iff: "bij p ==> x = inv p y \<longleftrightarrow> p x = y"
chaieb@29840
   556
  using surj_f_inv_f[of p] inv_f_f[of f] by (auto simp add: bij_def)
chaieb@29840
   557
huffman@30488
   558
lemma bij_swap_comp:
chaieb@29840
   559
  assumes bp: "bij p" shows "Fun.swap a b id o p = Fun.swap (inv p a) (inv p b) p"
chaieb@29840
   560
  using surj_f_inv_f[OF bij_is_surj[OF bp]]
chaieb@29840
   561
  by (simp add: expand_fun_eq swap_def bij_inv_eq_iff[OF bp])
chaieb@29840
   562
chaieb@29840
   563
lemma bij_swap_ompose_bij: "bij p \<Longrightarrow> bij (Fun.swap a b id o p)"
chaieb@29840
   564
proof-
chaieb@29840
   565
  assume H: "bij p"
huffman@30488
   566
  show ?thesis
chaieb@29840
   567
    unfolding bij_swap_comp[OF H] bij_swap_iff
chaieb@29840
   568
    using H .
chaieb@29840
   569
qed
chaieb@29840
   570
huffman@30488
   571
lemma permutation_lemma:
chaieb@29840
   572
  assumes fS: "finite S" and p: "bij p" and pS: "\<forall>x. x\<notin> S \<longrightarrow> p x = x"
chaieb@29840
   573
  shows "permutation p"
chaieb@29840
   574
using fS p pS
chaieb@29840
   575
proof(induct S arbitrary: p rule: finite_induct)
chaieb@29840
   576
  case (empty p) thus ?case by simp
chaieb@29840
   577
next
chaieb@29840
   578
  case (insert a F p)
chaieb@29840
   579
  let ?r = "Fun.swap a (p a) id o p"
chaieb@29840
   580
  let ?q = "Fun.swap a (p a) id o ?r "
chaieb@29840
   581
  have raa: "?r a = a" by (simp add: swap_def)
chaieb@29840
   582
  from bij_swap_ompose_bij[OF insert(4)]
huffman@30488
   583
  have br: "bij ?r"  .
huffman@30488
   584
huffman@30488
   585
  from insert raa have th: "\<forall>x. x \<notin> F \<longrightarrow> ?r x = x"
chaieb@29840
   586
    apply (clarsimp simp add: swap_def)
chaieb@29840
   587
    apply (erule_tac x="x" in allE)
chaieb@29840
   588
    apply auto
chaieb@29840
   589
    unfolding bij_iff apply metis
chaieb@29840
   590
    done
chaieb@29840
   591
  from insert(3)[OF br th]
chaieb@29840
   592
  have rp: "permutation ?r" .
chaieb@29840
   593
  have "permutation ?q" by (simp add: permutation_compose permutation_swap_id rp)
chaieb@29840
   594
  thus ?case by (simp add: o_assoc)
chaieb@29840
   595
qed
chaieb@29840
   596
huffman@30488
   597
lemma permutation: "permutation p \<longleftrightarrow> bij p \<and> finite {x. p x \<noteq> x}"
chaieb@29840
   598
  (is "?lhs \<longleftrightarrow> ?b \<and> ?f")
chaieb@29840
   599
proof
chaieb@29840
   600
  assume p: ?lhs
chaieb@29840
   601
  from p permutation_bijective permutation_finite_support show "?b \<and> ?f" by auto
chaieb@29840
   602
next
chaieb@29840
   603
  assume bf: "?b \<and> ?f"
chaieb@29840
   604
  hence bf: "?f" "?b" by blast+
chaieb@29840
   605
  from permutation_lemma[OF bf] show ?lhs by blast
chaieb@29840
   606
qed
chaieb@29840
   607
chaieb@29840
   608
lemma permutation_inverse_works: assumes p: "permutation p"
chaieb@29840
   609
  shows "inv p o p = id" "p o inv p = id"
chaieb@29840
   610
using permutation_bijective[OF p] surj_iff bij_def inj_iff by auto
chaieb@29840
   611
chaieb@29840
   612
lemma permutation_inverse_compose:
chaieb@29840
   613
  assumes p: "permutation p" and q: "permutation q"
chaieb@29840
   614
  shows "inv (p o q) = inv q o inv p"
chaieb@29840
   615
proof-
chaieb@29840
   616
  note ps = permutation_inverse_works[OF p]
chaieb@29840
   617
  note qs = permutation_inverse_works[OF q]
chaieb@29840
   618
  have "p o q o (inv q o inv p) = p o (q o inv q) o inv p" by (simp add: o_assoc)
chaieb@29840
   619
  also have "\<dots> = id" by (simp add: ps qs)
chaieb@29840
   620
  finally have th0: "p o q o (inv q o inv p) = id" .
chaieb@29840
   621
  have "inv q o inv p o (p o q) = inv q o (inv p o p) o q" by (simp add: o_assoc)
chaieb@29840
   622
  also have "\<dots> = id" by (simp add: ps qs)
huffman@30488
   623
  finally have th1: "inv q o inv p o (p o q) = id" .
chaieb@29840
   624
  from inv_unique_comp[OF th0 th1] show ?thesis .
chaieb@29840
   625
qed
chaieb@29840
   626
chaieb@29840
   627
(* ------------------------------------------------------------------------- *)
chaieb@29840
   628
(* Relation to "permutes".                                                   *)
chaieb@29840
   629
(* ------------------------------------------------------------------------- *)
chaieb@29840
   630
chaieb@29840
   631
lemma permutation_permutes: "permutation p \<longleftrightarrow> (\<exists>S. finite S \<and> p permutes S)"
chaieb@29840
   632
unfolding permutation permutes_def bij_iff[symmetric]
chaieb@29840
   633
apply (rule iffI, clarify)
chaieb@29840
   634
apply (rule exI[where x="{x. p x \<noteq> x}"])
chaieb@29840
   635
apply simp
chaieb@29840
   636
apply clarsimp
chaieb@29840
   637
apply (rule_tac B="S" in finite_subset)
chaieb@29840
   638
apply auto
chaieb@29840
   639
done
chaieb@29840
   640
chaieb@29840
   641
(* ------------------------------------------------------------------------- *)
chaieb@29840
   642
(* Hence a sort of induction principle composing by swaps.                   *)
chaieb@29840
   643
(* ------------------------------------------------------------------------- *)
chaieb@29840
   644
chaieb@29840
   645
lemma permutes_induct: "finite S \<Longrightarrow>  P id  \<Longrightarrow> (\<And> a b p. a \<in> S \<Longrightarrow> b \<in> S \<Longrightarrow> P p \<Longrightarrow> P p \<Longrightarrow> permutation p ==> P (Fun.swap a b id o p))
chaieb@29840
   646
         ==> (\<And>p. p permutes S ==> P p)"
chaieb@29840
   647
proof(induct S rule: finite_induct)
chaieb@29840
   648
  case empty thus ?case by auto
huffman@30488
   649
next
chaieb@29840
   650
  case (insert x F p)
chaieb@29840
   651
  let ?r = "Fun.swap x (p x) id o p"
chaieb@29840
   652
  let ?q = "Fun.swap x (p x) id o ?r"
chaieb@29840
   653
  have qp: "?q = p" by (simp add: o_assoc)
chaieb@29840
   654
  from permutes_insert_lemma[OF insert.prems(3)] insert have Pr: "P ?r" by blast
huffman@30488
   655
  from permutes_in_image[OF insert.prems(3), of x]
chaieb@29840
   656
  have pxF: "p x \<in> insert x F" by simp
chaieb@29840
   657
  have xF: "x \<in> insert x F" by simp
chaieb@29840
   658
  have rp: "permutation ?r"
huffman@30488
   659
    unfolding permutation_permutes using insert.hyps(1)
chaieb@29840
   660
      permutes_insert_lemma[OF insert.prems(3)] by blast
huffman@30488
   661
  from insert.prems(2)[OF xF pxF Pr Pr rp]
huffman@30488
   662
  show ?case  unfolding qp .
chaieb@29840
   663
qed
chaieb@29840
   664
chaieb@29840
   665
(* ------------------------------------------------------------------------- *)
chaieb@29840
   666
(* Sign of a permutation as a real number.                                   *)
chaieb@29840
   667
(* ------------------------------------------------------------------------- *)
chaieb@29840
   668
chaieb@29840
   669
definition "sign p = (if evenperm p then (1::int) else -1)"
chaieb@29840
   670
huffman@30488
   671
lemma sign_nz: "sign p \<noteq> 0" by (simp add: sign_def)
chaieb@29840
   672
lemma sign_id: "sign id = 1" by (simp add: sign_def)
chaieb@29840
   673
lemma sign_inverse: "permutation p ==> sign (inv p) = sign p"
chaieb@29840
   674
  by (simp add: sign_def evenperm_inv)
chaieb@29840
   675
lemma sign_compose: "permutation p \<Longrightarrow> permutation q ==> sign (p o q) = sign(p) * sign(q)" by (simp add: sign_def evenperm_comp)
chaieb@29840
   676
lemma sign_swap_id: "sign (Fun.swap a b id) = (if a = b then 1 else -1)"
chaieb@29840
   677
  by (simp add: sign_def evenperm_swap)
chaieb@29840
   678
lemma sign_idempotent: "sign p * sign p = 1" by (simp add: sign_def)
chaieb@29840
   679
chaieb@29840
   680
(* ------------------------------------------------------------------------- *)
chaieb@29840
   681
(* More lemmas about permutations.                                           *)
chaieb@29840
   682
(* ------------------------------------------------------------------------- *)
chaieb@29840
   683
chaieb@29840
   684
lemma permutes_natset_le:
huffman@30037
   685
  assumes p: "p permutes (S::'a::wellorder set)" and le: "\<forall>i \<in> S.  p i <= i" shows "p = id"
chaieb@29840
   686
proof-
chaieb@29840
   687
  {fix n
huffman@30488
   688
    have "p n = n"
chaieb@29840
   689
      using p le
huffman@30037
   690
    proof(induct n arbitrary: S rule: less_induct)
huffman@30488
   691
      fix n S assume H: "\<And>m S. \<lbrakk>m < n; p permutes S; \<forall>i\<in>S. p i \<le> i\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> p m = m"
chaieb@29840
   692
	"p permutes S" "\<forall>i \<in>S. p i \<le> i"
chaieb@29840
   693
      {assume "n \<notin> S"
chaieb@29840
   694
	with H(2) have "p n = n" unfolding permutes_def by metis}
chaieb@29840
   695
      moreover
chaieb@29840
   696
      {assume ns: "n \<in> S"
huffman@30488
   697
	from H(3)  ns have "p n < n \<or> p n = n" by auto
chaieb@29840
   698
	moreover{assume h: "p n < n"
chaieb@29840
   699
	  from H h have "p (p n) = p n" by metis
chaieb@29840
   700
	  with permutes_inj[OF H(2)] have "p n = n" unfolding inj_on_def by blast
huffman@30037
   701
	  with h have False by simp}
chaieb@29840
   702
	ultimately have "p n = n" by blast }
chaieb@29840
   703
      ultimately show "p n = n"  by blast
chaieb@29840
   704
    qed}
chaieb@29840
   705
  thus ?thesis by (auto simp add: expand_fun_eq)
chaieb@29840
   706
qed
chaieb@29840
   707
chaieb@29840
   708
lemma permutes_natset_ge:
huffman@30037
   709
  assumes p: "p permutes (S::'a::wellorder set)" and le: "\<forall>i \<in> S.  p i \<ge> i" shows "p = id"
chaieb@29840
   710
proof-
chaieb@29840
   711
  {fix i assume i: "i \<in> S"
chaieb@29840
   712
    from i permutes_in_image[OF permutes_inv[OF p]] have "inv p i \<in> S" by simp
chaieb@29840
   713
    with le have "p (inv p i) \<ge> inv p i" by blast
chaieb@29840
   714
    with permutes_inverses[OF p] have "i \<ge> inv p i" by simp}
chaieb@29840
   715
  then have th: "\<forall>i\<in>S. inv p i \<le> i"  by blast
huffman@30488
   716
  from permutes_natset_le[OF permutes_inv[OF p] th]
chaieb@29840
   717
  have "inv p = inv id" by simp
huffman@30488
   718
  then show ?thesis
chaieb@29840
   719
    apply (subst permutes_inv_inv[OF p, symmetric])
chaieb@29840
   720
    apply (rule inv_unique_comp)
chaieb@29840
   721
    apply simp_all
chaieb@29840
   722
    done
chaieb@29840
   723
qed
chaieb@29840
   724
chaieb@29840
   725
lemma image_inverse_permutations: "{inv p |p. p permutes S} = {p. p permutes S}"
chaieb@29840
   726
apply (rule set_ext)
chaieb@29840
   727
apply auto
chaieb@29840
   728
  using permutes_inv_inv permutes_inv apply auto
chaieb@29840
   729
  apply (rule_tac x="inv x" in exI)
chaieb@29840
   730
  apply auto
chaieb@29840
   731
  done
chaieb@29840
   732
huffman@30488
   733
lemma image_compose_permutations_left:
chaieb@29840
   734
  assumes q: "q permutes S" shows "{q o p | p. p permutes S} = {p . p permutes S}"
chaieb@29840
   735
apply (rule set_ext)
chaieb@29840
   736
apply auto
chaieb@29840
   737
apply (rule permutes_compose)
chaieb@29840
   738
using q apply auto
chaieb@29840
   739
apply (rule_tac x = "inv q o x" in exI)
chaieb@29840
   740
by (simp add: o_assoc permutes_inv permutes_compose permutes_inv_o)
chaieb@29840
   741
chaieb@29840
   742
lemma image_compose_permutations_right:
chaieb@29840
   743
  assumes q: "q permutes S"
chaieb@29840
   744
  shows "{p o q | p. p permutes S} = {p . p permutes S}"
chaieb@29840
   745
apply (rule set_ext)
chaieb@29840
   746
apply auto
chaieb@29840
   747
apply (rule permutes_compose)
chaieb@29840
   748
using q apply auto
chaieb@29840
   749
apply (rule_tac x = "x o inv q" in exI)
chaieb@29840
   750
by (simp add: o_assoc permutes_inv permutes_compose permutes_inv_o o_assoc[symmetric])
chaieb@29840
   751
chaieb@29840
   752
lemma permutes_in_seg: "p permutes {1 ..n} \<Longrightarrow> i \<in> {1..n} ==> 1 <= p i \<and> p i <= n"
chaieb@29840
   753
chaieb@29840
   754
apply (simp add: permutes_def)
chaieb@29840
   755
apply metis
chaieb@29840
   756
done
chaieb@29840
   757
chaieb@29840
   758
term setsum
huffman@30036
   759
lemma setsum_permutations_inverse: "setsum f {p. p permutes S} = setsum (\<lambda>p. f(inv p)) {p. p permutes S}" (is "?lhs = ?rhs")
chaieb@29840
   760
proof-
huffman@30036
   761
  let ?S = "{p . p permutes S}"
huffman@30488
   762
have th0: "inj_on inv ?S"
chaieb@29840
   763
proof(auto simp add: inj_on_def)
chaieb@29840
   764
  fix q r
huffman@30036
   765
  assume q: "q permutes S" and r: "r permutes S" and qr: "inv q = inv r"
chaieb@29840
   766
  hence "inv (inv q) = inv (inv r)" by simp
chaieb@29840
   767
  with permutes_inv_inv[OF q] permutes_inv_inv[OF r]
chaieb@29840
   768
  show "q = r" by metis
chaieb@29840
   769
qed
chaieb@29840
   770
  have th1: "inv ` ?S = ?S" using image_inverse_permutations by blast
chaieb@29840
   771
  have th2: "?rhs = setsum (f o inv) ?S" by (simp add: o_def)
chaieb@29840
   772
  from setsum_reindex[OF th0, of f]  show ?thesis unfolding th1 th2 .
chaieb@29840
   773
qed
chaieb@29840
   774
chaieb@29840
   775
lemma setum_permutations_compose_left:
huffman@30036
   776
  assumes q: "q permutes S"
huffman@30036
   777
  shows "setsum f {p. p permutes S} =
huffman@30036
   778
            setsum (\<lambda>p. f(q o p)) {p. p permutes S}" (is "?lhs = ?rhs")
chaieb@29840
   779
proof-
huffman@30036
   780
  let ?S = "{p. p permutes S}"
chaieb@29840
   781
  have th0: "?rhs = setsum (f o (op o q)) ?S" by (simp add: o_def)
chaieb@29840
   782
  have th1: "inj_on (op o q) ?S"
chaieb@29840
   783
    apply (auto simp add: inj_on_def)
chaieb@29840
   784
  proof-
chaieb@29840
   785
    fix p r
huffman@30036
   786
    assume "p permutes S" and r:"r permutes S" and rp: "q \<circ> p = q \<circ> r"
chaieb@29840
   787
    hence "inv q o q o p = inv q o q o r" by (simp add: o_assoc[symmetric])
chaieb@29840
   788
    with permutes_inj[OF q, unfolded inj_iff]
chaieb@29840
   789
chaieb@29840
   790
    show "p = r" by simp
chaieb@29840
   791
  qed
chaieb@29840
   792
  have th3: "(op o q) ` ?S = ?S" using image_compose_permutations_left[OF q] by auto
chaieb@29840
   793
  from setsum_reindex[OF th1, of f]
chaieb@29840
   794
  show ?thesis unfolding th0 th1 th3 .
chaieb@29840
   795
qed
chaieb@29840
   796
chaieb@29840
   797
lemma sum_permutations_compose_right:
huffman@30036
   798
  assumes q: "q permutes S"
huffman@30036
   799
  shows "setsum f {p. p permutes S} =
huffman@30036
   800
            setsum (\<lambda>p. f(p o q)) {p. p permutes S}" (is "?lhs = ?rhs")
chaieb@29840
   801
proof-
huffman@30036
   802
  let ?S = "{p. p permutes S}"
chaieb@29840
   803
  have th0: "?rhs = setsum (f o (\<lambda>p. p o q)) ?S" by (simp add: o_def)
chaieb@29840
   804
  have th1: "inj_on (\<lambda>p. p o q) ?S"
chaieb@29840
   805
    apply (auto simp add: inj_on_def)
chaieb@29840
   806
  proof-
chaieb@29840
   807
    fix p r
huffman@30036
   808
    assume "p permutes S" and r:"r permutes S" and rp: "p o q = r o q"
chaieb@29840
   809
    hence "p o (q o inv q)  = r o (q o inv q)" by (simp add: o_assoc)
chaieb@29840
   810
    with permutes_surj[OF q, unfolded surj_iff]
chaieb@29840
   811
chaieb@29840
   812
    show "p = r" by simp
chaieb@29840
   813
  qed
chaieb@29840
   814
  have th3: "(\<lambda>p. p o q) ` ?S = ?S" using image_compose_permutations_right[OF q] by auto
chaieb@29840
   815
  from setsum_reindex[OF th1, of f]
chaieb@29840
   816
  show ?thesis unfolding th0 th1 th3 .
chaieb@29840
   817
qed
chaieb@29840
   818
chaieb@29840
   819
(* ------------------------------------------------------------------------- *)
chaieb@29840
   820
(* Sum over a set of permutations (could generalize to iteration).           *)
chaieb@29840
   821
(* ------------------------------------------------------------------------- *)
chaieb@29840
   822
chaieb@29840
   823
lemma setsum_over_permutations_insert:
chaieb@29840
   824
  assumes fS: "finite S" and aS: "a \<notin> S"
chaieb@29840
   825
  shows "setsum f {p. p permutes (insert a S)} = setsum (\<lambda>b. setsum (\<lambda>q. f (Fun.swap a b id o q)) {p. p permutes S}) (insert a S)"
chaieb@29840
   826
proof-
chaieb@29840
   827
  have th0: "\<And>f a b. (\<lambda>(b,p). f (Fun.swap a b id o p)) = f o (\<lambda>(b,p). Fun.swap a b id o p)"
chaieb@29840
   828
    by (simp add: expand_fun_eq)
chaieb@29840
   829
  have th1: "\<And>P Q. P \<times> Q = {(a,b). a \<in> P \<and> b \<in> Q}" by blast
chaieb@29840
   830
  have th2: "\<And>P Q. P \<Longrightarrow> (P \<Longrightarrow> Q) \<Longrightarrow> P \<and> Q" by blast
huffman@30488
   831
  show ?thesis
huffman@30488
   832
    unfolding permutes_insert
chaieb@29840
   833
    unfolding setsum_cartesian_product
chaieb@29840
   834
    unfolding  th1[symmetric]
chaieb@29840
   835
    unfolding th0
chaieb@29840
   836
  proof(rule setsum_reindex)
chaieb@29840
   837
    let ?f = "(\<lambda>(b, y). Fun.swap a b id \<circ> y)"
chaieb@29840
   838
    let ?P = "{p. p permutes S}"
huffman@30488
   839
    {fix b c p q assume b: "b \<in> insert a S" and c: "c \<in> insert a S"
huffman@30488
   840
      and p: "p permutes S" and q: "q permutes S"
chaieb@29840
   841
      and eq: "Fun.swap a b id o p = Fun.swap a c id o q"
chaieb@29840
   842
      from p q aS have pa: "p a = a" and qa: "q a = a"
chaieb@29840
   843
	unfolding permutes_def by metis+
chaieb@29840
   844
      from eq have "(Fun.swap a b id o p) a  = (Fun.swap a c id o q) a" by simp
chaieb@29840
   845
      hence bc: "b = c"
chaieb@29840
   846
	apply (simp add: permutes_def pa qa o_def fun_upd_def swap_def id_def cong del: if_weak_cong)
chaieb@29840
   847
	apply (cases "a = b", auto)
chaieb@29840
   848
	by (cases "b = c", auto)
chaieb@29840
   849
      from eq[unfolded bc] have "(\<lambda>p. Fun.swap a c id o p) (Fun.swap a c id o p) = (\<lambda>p. Fun.swap a c id o p) (Fun.swap a c id o q)" by simp
chaieb@29840
   850
      hence "p = q" unfolding o_assoc swap_id_idempotent
chaieb@29840
   851
	by (simp add: o_def)
chaieb@29840
   852
      with bc have "b = c \<and> p = q" by blast
chaieb@29840
   853
    }
huffman@30488
   854
huffman@30488
   855
    then show "inj_on ?f (insert a S \<times> ?P)"
chaieb@29840
   856
      unfolding inj_on_def
chaieb@29840
   857
      apply clarify by metis
chaieb@29840
   858
  qed
chaieb@29840
   859
qed
chaieb@29840
   860
chaieb@29840
   861
end