src/HOL/Library/Stream.thy
author nipkow
Tue Sep 22 14:31:22 2015 +0200 (2015-09-22)
changeset 61225 1a690dce8cfc
parent 60500 903bb1495239
child 61424 c3658c18b7bc
permissions -rw-r--r--
tuned references
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(*  Title:      HOL/Library/Stream.thy
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    Author:     Dmitriy Traytel, TU Muenchen
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    Author:     Andrei Popescu, TU Muenchen
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    Copyright   2012, 2013
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Infinite streams.
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*)
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section \<open>Infinite Streams\<close>
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theory Stream
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imports "~~/src/HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection"
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begin
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codatatype (sset: 'a) stream =
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  SCons (shd: 'a) (stl: "'a stream") (infixr "##" 65)
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for
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  map: smap
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  rel: stream_all2
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context
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begin
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(*for code generation only*)
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qualified definition smember :: "'a \<Rightarrow> 'a stream \<Rightarrow> bool" where
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  [code_abbrev]: "smember x s \<longleftrightarrow> x \<in> sset s"
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lemma smember_code[code, simp]: "smember x (y ## s) = (if x = y then True else smember x s)"
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  unfolding smember_def by auto
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end
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lemmas smap_simps[simp] = stream.map_sel
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lemmas shd_sset = stream.set_sel(1)
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lemmas stl_sset = stream.set_sel(2)
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theorem sset_induct[consumes 1, case_names shd stl, induct set: sset]:
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  assumes "y \<in> sset s" and "\<And>s. P (shd s) s" and "\<And>s y. \<lbrakk>y \<in> sset (stl s); P y (stl s)\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> P y s"
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  shows "P y s"
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using assms by induct (metis stream.sel(1), auto)
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lemma smap_ctr: "smap f s = x ## s' \<longleftrightarrow> f (shd s) = x \<and> smap f (stl s) = s'"
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  by (cases s) simp
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subsection \<open>prepend list to stream\<close>
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primrec shift :: "'a list \<Rightarrow> 'a stream \<Rightarrow> 'a stream" (infixr "@-" 65) where
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  "shift [] s = s"
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| "shift (x # xs) s = x ## shift xs s"
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lemma smap_shift[simp]: "smap f (xs @- s) = map f xs @- smap f s"
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  by (induct xs) auto
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lemma shift_append[simp]: "(xs @ ys) @- s = xs @- ys @- s"
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  by (induct xs) auto
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lemma shift_simps[simp]:
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   "shd (xs @- s) = (if xs = [] then shd s else hd xs)"
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   "stl (xs @- s) = (if xs = [] then stl s else tl xs @- s)"
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  by (induct xs) auto
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lemma sset_shift[simp]: "sset (xs @- s) = set xs \<union> sset s"
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  by (induct xs) auto
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lemma shift_left_inj[simp]: "xs @- s1 = xs @- s2 \<longleftrightarrow> s1 = s2"
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  by (induct xs) auto
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subsection \<open>set of streams with elements in some fixed set\<close>
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coinductive_set
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  streams :: "'a set \<Rightarrow> 'a stream set"
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  for A :: "'a set"
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where
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  Stream[intro!, simp, no_atp]: "\<lbrakk>a \<in> A; s \<in> streams A\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> a ## s \<in> streams A"
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lemma in_streams: "stl s \<in> streams S \<Longrightarrow> shd s \<in> S \<Longrightarrow> s \<in> streams S"
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  by (cases s) auto
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lemma streamsE: "s \<in> streams A \<Longrightarrow> (shd s \<in> A \<Longrightarrow> stl s \<in> streams A \<Longrightarrow> P) \<Longrightarrow> P"
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  by (erule streams.cases) simp_all
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lemma Stream_image: "x ## y \<in> (op ## x') ` Y \<longleftrightarrow> x = x' \<and> y \<in> Y"
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  by auto
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lemma shift_streams: "\<lbrakk>w \<in> lists A; s \<in> streams A\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> w @- s \<in> streams A"
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  by (induct w) auto
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lemma streams_Stream: "x ## s \<in> streams A \<longleftrightarrow> x \<in> A \<and> s \<in> streams A"
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  by (auto elim: streams.cases)
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lemma streams_stl: "s \<in> streams A \<Longrightarrow> stl s \<in> streams A"
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  by (cases s) (auto simp: streams_Stream)
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lemma streams_shd: "s \<in> streams A \<Longrightarrow> shd s \<in> A"
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  by (cases s) (auto simp: streams_Stream)
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lemma sset_streams:
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  assumes "sset s \<subseteq> A"
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  shows "s \<in> streams A"
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using assms proof (coinduction arbitrary: s)
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  case streams then show ?case by (cases s) simp
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qed
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lemma streams_sset:
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  assumes "s \<in> streams A"
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  shows "sset s \<subseteq> A"
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proof
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  fix x assume "x \<in> sset s" from this \<open>s \<in> streams A\<close> show "x \<in> A"
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    by (induct s) (auto intro: streams_shd streams_stl)
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qed
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lemma streams_iff_sset: "s \<in> streams A \<longleftrightarrow> sset s \<subseteq> A"
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  by (metis sset_streams streams_sset)
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lemma streams_mono:  "s \<in> streams A \<Longrightarrow> A \<subseteq> B \<Longrightarrow> s \<in> streams B"
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  unfolding streams_iff_sset by auto
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lemma streams_mono2: "S \<subseteq> T \<Longrightarrow> streams S \<subseteq> streams T"
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  by (auto intro: streams_mono)
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lemma smap_streams: "s \<in> streams A \<Longrightarrow> (\<And>x. x \<in> A \<Longrightarrow> f x \<in> B) \<Longrightarrow> smap f s \<in> streams B"
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  unfolding streams_iff_sset stream.set_map by auto
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lemma streams_empty: "streams {} = {}"
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  by (auto elim: streams.cases)
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lemma streams_UNIV[simp]: "streams UNIV = UNIV"
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  by (auto simp: streams_iff_sset)
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subsection \<open>nth, take, drop for streams\<close>
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primrec snth :: "'a stream \<Rightarrow> nat \<Rightarrow> 'a" (infixl "!!" 100) where
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  "s !! 0 = shd s"
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| "s !! Suc n = stl s !! n"
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lemma snth_Stream: "(x ## s) !! Suc i = s !! i"
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  by simp
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lemma snth_smap[simp]: "smap f s !! n = f (s !! n)"
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  by (induct n arbitrary: s) auto
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lemma shift_snth_less[simp]: "p < length xs \<Longrightarrow> (xs @- s) !! p = xs ! p"
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  by (induct p arbitrary: xs) (auto simp: hd_conv_nth nth_tl)
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lemma shift_snth_ge[simp]: "p \<ge> length xs \<Longrightarrow> (xs @- s) !! p = s !! (p - length xs)"
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  by (induct p arbitrary: xs) (auto simp: Suc_diff_eq_diff_pred)
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lemma shift_snth: "(xs @- s) !! n = (if n < length xs then xs ! n else s !! (n - length xs))"
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  by auto
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lemma snth_sset[simp]: "s !! n \<in> sset s"
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  by (induct n arbitrary: s) (auto intro: shd_sset stl_sset)
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lemma sset_range: "sset s = range (snth s)"
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proof (intro equalityI subsetI)
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  fix x assume "x \<in> sset s"
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  thus "x \<in> range (snth s)"
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  proof (induct s)
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    case (stl s x)
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    then obtain n where "x = stl s !! n" by auto
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    thus ?case by (auto intro: range_eqI[of _ _ "Suc n"])
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  qed (auto intro: range_eqI[of _ _ 0])
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qed auto
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lemma streams_iff_snth: "s \<in> streams X \<longleftrightarrow> (\<forall>n. s !! n \<in> X)"
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  by (force simp: streams_iff_sset sset_range)
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lemma snth_in: "s \<in> streams X \<Longrightarrow> s !! n \<in> X"
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  by (simp add: streams_iff_snth)
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primrec stake :: "nat \<Rightarrow> 'a stream \<Rightarrow> 'a list" where
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  "stake 0 s = []"
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| "stake (Suc n) s = shd s # stake n (stl s)"
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lemma length_stake[simp]: "length (stake n s) = n"
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  by (induct n arbitrary: s) auto
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lemma stake_smap[simp]: "stake n (smap f s) = map f (stake n s)"
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  by (induct n arbitrary: s) auto
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lemma take_stake: "take n (stake m s) = stake (min n m) s"
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proof (induct m arbitrary: s n)
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  case (Suc m) thus ?case by (cases n) auto
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qed simp
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primrec sdrop :: "nat \<Rightarrow> 'a stream \<Rightarrow> 'a stream" where
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  "sdrop 0 s = s"
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| "sdrop (Suc n) s = sdrop n (stl s)"
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lemma sdrop_simps[simp]:
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  "shd (sdrop n s) = s !! n" "stl (sdrop n s) = sdrop (Suc n) s"
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  by (induct n arbitrary: s)  auto
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lemma sdrop_smap[simp]: "sdrop n (smap f s) = smap f (sdrop n s)"
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  by (induct n arbitrary: s) auto
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lemma sdrop_stl: "sdrop n (stl s) = stl (sdrop n s)"
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  by (induct n) auto
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lemma drop_stake: "drop n (stake m s) = stake (m - n) (sdrop n s)"
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proof (induct m arbitrary: s n)
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  case (Suc m) thus ?case by (cases n) auto
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qed simp
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lemma stake_sdrop: "stake n s @- sdrop n s = s"
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  by (induct n arbitrary: s) auto
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lemma id_stake_snth_sdrop:
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  "s = stake i s @- s !! i ## sdrop (Suc i) s"
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  by (subst stake_sdrop[symmetric, of _ i]) (metis sdrop_simps stream.collapse)
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lemma smap_alt: "smap f s = s' \<longleftrightarrow> (\<forall>n. f (s !! n) = s' !! n)" (is "?L = ?R")
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proof
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  assume ?R
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  then have "\<And>n. smap f (sdrop n s) = sdrop n s'"
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    by coinduction (auto intro: exI[of _ 0] simp del: sdrop.simps(2))
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  then show ?L using sdrop.simps(1) by metis
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qed auto
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lemma stake_invert_Nil[iff]: "stake n s = [] \<longleftrightarrow> n = 0"
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  by (induct n) auto
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lemma sdrop_shift: "sdrop i (w @- s) = drop i w @- sdrop (i - length w) s"
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  by (induct i arbitrary: w s) (auto simp: drop_tl drop_Suc neq_Nil_conv)
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lemma stake_shift: "stake i (w @- s) = take i w @ stake (i - length w) s"
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  by (induct i arbitrary: w s) (auto simp: neq_Nil_conv)
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lemma stake_add[simp]: "stake m s @ stake n (sdrop m s) = stake (m + n) s"
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  by (induct m arbitrary: s) auto
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lemma sdrop_add[simp]: "sdrop n (sdrop m s) = sdrop (m + n) s"
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  by (induct m arbitrary: s) auto
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lemma sdrop_snth: "sdrop n s !! m = s !! (n + m)"
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  by (induct n arbitrary: m s) auto
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partial_function (tailrec) sdrop_while :: "('a \<Rightarrow> bool) \<Rightarrow> 'a stream \<Rightarrow> 'a stream" where 
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  "sdrop_while P s = (if P (shd s) then sdrop_while P (stl s) else s)"
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lemma sdrop_while_SCons[code]:
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  "sdrop_while P (a ## s) = (if P a then sdrop_while P s else a ## s)"
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  by (subst sdrop_while.simps) simp
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lemma sdrop_while_sdrop_LEAST:
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  assumes "\<exists>n. P (s !! n)"
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  shows "sdrop_while (Not o P) s = sdrop (LEAST n. P (s !! n)) s"
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proof -
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  from assms obtain m where "P (s !! m)" "\<And>n. P (s !! n) \<Longrightarrow> m \<le> n"
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    and *: "(LEAST n. P (s !! n)) = m" by atomize_elim (auto intro: LeastI Least_le)
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  thus ?thesis unfolding *
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  proof (induct m arbitrary: s)
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    case (Suc m)
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    hence "sdrop_while (Not \<circ> P) (stl s) = sdrop m (stl s)"
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      by (metis (full_types) not_less_eq_eq snth.simps(2))
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    moreover from Suc(3) have "\<not> (P (s !! 0))" by blast
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    ultimately show ?case by (subst sdrop_while.simps) simp
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  qed (metis comp_apply sdrop.simps(1) sdrop_while.simps snth.simps(1))
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qed
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primcorec sfilter where
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  "shd (sfilter P s) = shd (sdrop_while (Not o P) s)"
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| "stl (sfilter P s) = sfilter P (stl (sdrop_while (Not o P) s))"
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lemma sfilter_Stream: "sfilter P (x ## s) = (if P x then x ## sfilter P s else sfilter P s)"
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proof (cases "P x")
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  case True thus ?thesis by (subst sfilter.ctr) (simp add: sdrop_while_SCons)
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next
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  case False thus ?thesis by (subst (1 2) sfilter.ctr) (simp add: sdrop_while_SCons)
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qed
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subsection \<open>unary predicates lifted to streams\<close>
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definition "stream_all P s = (\<forall>p. P (s !! p))"
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lemma stream_all_iff[iff]: "stream_all P s \<longleftrightarrow> Ball (sset s) P"
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  unfolding stream_all_def sset_range by auto
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lemma stream_all_shift[simp]: "stream_all P (xs @- s) = (list_all P xs \<and> stream_all P s)"
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  unfolding stream_all_iff list_all_iff by auto
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lemma stream_all_Stream: "stream_all P (x ## X) \<longleftrightarrow> P x \<and> stream_all P X"
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  by simp
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subsection \<open>recurring stream out of a list\<close>
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primcorec cycle :: "'a list \<Rightarrow> 'a stream" where
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  "shd (cycle xs) = hd xs"
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| "stl (cycle xs) = cycle (tl xs @ [hd xs])"
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lemma cycle_decomp: "u \<noteq> [] \<Longrightarrow> cycle u = u @- cycle u"
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proof (coinduction arbitrary: u)
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  case Eq_stream then show ?case using stream.collapse[of "cycle u"]
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    by (auto intro!: exI[of _ "tl u @ [hd u]"])
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qed
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lemma cycle_Cons[code]: "cycle (x # xs) = x ## cycle (xs @ [x])"
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  by (subst cycle.ctr) simp
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lemma cycle_rotated: "\<lbrakk>v \<noteq> []; cycle u = v @- s\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> cycle (tl u @ [hd u]) = tl v @- s"
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   304
  by (auto dest: arg_cong[of _ _ stl])
traytel@50518
   305
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   306
lemma stake_append: "stake n (u @- s) = take (min (length u) n) u @ stake (n - length u) s"
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   307
proof (induct n arbitrary: u)
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   308
  case (Suc n) thus ?case by (cases u) auto
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   309
qed auto
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   310
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   311
lemma stake_cycle_le[simp]:
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   312
  assumes "u \<noteq> []" "n < length u"
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   313
  shows "stake n (cycle u) = take n u"
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   314
using min_absorb2[OF less_imp_le_nat[OF assms(2)]]
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   315
  by (subst cycle_decomp[OF assms(1)], subst stake_append) auto
traytel@50518
   316
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   317
lemma stake_cycle_eq[simp]: "u \<noteq> [] \<Longrightarrow> stake (length u) (cycle u) = u"
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   318
  by (subst cycle_decomp) (auto simp: stake_shift)
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   319
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   320
lemma sdrop_cycle_eq[simp]: "u \<noteq> [] \<Longrightarrow> sdrop (length u) (cycle u) = cycle u"
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   321
  by (subst cycle_decomp) (auto simp: sdrop_shift)
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   322
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   323
lemma stake_cycle_eq_mod_0[simp]: "\<lbrakk>u \<noteq> []; n mod length u = 0\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow>
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   324
   stake n (cycle u) = concat (replicate (n div length u) u)"
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   325
  by (induct "n div length u" arbitrary: n u) (auto simp: stake_add[symmetric])
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   326
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   327
lemma sdrop_cycle_eq_mod_0[simp]: "\<lbrakk>u \<noteq> []; n mod length u = 0\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow>
traytel@50518
   328
   sdrop n (cycle u) = cycle u"
traytel@51141
   329
  by (induct "n div length u" arbitrary: n u) (auto simp: sdrop_add[symmetric])
traytel@50518
   330
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   331
lemma stake_cycle: "u \<noteq> [] \<Longrightarrow>
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   332
   stake n (cycle u) = concat (replicate (n div length u) u) @ take (n mod length u) u"
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   333
  by (subst mod_div_equality[of n "length u", symmetric], unfold stake_add[symmetric]) auto
traytel@50518
   334
traytel@50518
   335
lemma sdrop_cycle: "u \<noteq> [] \<Longrightarrow> sdrop n (cycle u) = cycle (rotate (n mod length u) u)"
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   336
  by (induct n arbitrary: u) (auto simp: rotate1_rotate_swap rotate1_hd_tl rotate_conv_mod[symmetric])
traytel@51141
   337
traytel@51141
   338
wenzelm@60500
   339
subsection \<open>iterated application of a function\<close>
hoelzl@54497
   340
hoelzl@54497
   341
primcorec siterate where
hoelzl@54497
   342
  "shd (siterate f x) = x"
hoelzl@54497
   343
| "stl (siterate f x) = siterate f (f x)"
hoelzl@54497
   344
hoelzl@54497
   345
lemma stake_Suc: "stake (Suc n) s = stake n s @ [s !! n]"
hoelzl@54497
   346
  by (induct n arbitrary: s) auto
hoelzl@54497
   347
hoelzl@54497
   348
lemma snth_siterate[simp]: "siterate f x !! n = (f^^n) x"
hoelzl@54497
   349
  by (induct n arbitrary: x) (auto simp: funpow_swap1)
hoelzl@54497
   350
hoelzl@54497
   351
lemma sdrop_siterate[simp]: "sdrop n (siterate f x) = siterate f ((f^^n) x)"
hoelzl@54497
   352
  by (induct n arbitrary: x) (auto simp: funpow_swap1)
hoelzl@54497
   353
hoelzl@54497
   354
lemma stake_siterate[simp]: "stake n (siterate f x) = map (\<lambda>n. (f^^n) x) [0 ..< n]"
hoelzl@54497
   355
  by (induct n arbitrary: x) (auto simp del: stake.simps(2) simp: stake_Suc)
hoelzl@54497
   356
hoelzl@54497
   357
lemma sset_siterate: "sset (siterate f x) = {(f^^n) x | n. True}"
hoelzl@54497
   358
  by (auto simp: sset_range)
hoelzl@54497
   359
hoelzl@54497
   360
lemma smap_siterate: "smap f (siterate f x) = siterate f (f x)"
hoelzl@54497
   361
  by (coinduction arbitrary: x) auto
hoelzl@54497
   362
hoelzl@54497
   363
wenzelm@60500
   364
subsection \<open>stream repeating a single element\<close>
traytel@51141
   365
hoelzl@54497
   366
abbreviation "sconst \<equiv> siterate id"
traytel@51141
   367
hoelzl@54497
   368
lemma shift_replicate_sconst[simp]: "replicate n x @- sconst x = sconst x"
hoelzl@54497
   369
  by (subst (3) stake_sdrop[symmetric]) (simp add: map_replicate_trivial)
traytel@51141
   370
traytel@57175
   371
lemma sset_sconst[simp]: "sset (sconst x) = {x}"
hoelzl@54497
   372
  by (simp add: sset_siterate)
traytel@51141
   373
traytel@57175
   374
lemma sconst_alt: "s = sconst x \<longleftrightarrow> sset s = {x}"
traytel@57175
   375
proof
traytel@57175
   376
  assume "sset s = {x}"
traytel@57175
   377
  then show "s = sconst x"
traytel@57175
   378
  proof (coinduction arbitrary: s)
traytel@57175
   379
    case Eq_stream
traytel@57175
   380
    then have "shd s = x" "sset (stl s) \<subseteq> {x}" by (case_tac [!] s) auto
traytel@57175
   381
    then have "sset (stl s) = {x}" by (cases "stl s") auto
wenzelm@60500
   382
    with \<open>shd s = x\<close> show ?case by auto
traytel@57175
   383
  qed
traytel@57175
   384
qed simp
traytel@57175
   385
traytel@59016
   386
lemma sconst_cycle: "sconst x = cycle [x]"
hoelzl@54497
   387
  by coinduction auto
traytel@51141
   388
hoelzl@54497
   389
lemma smap_sconst: "smap f (sconst x) = sconst (f x)"
hoelzl@54497
   390
  by coinduction auto
traytel@51141
   391
hoelzl@54497
   392
lemma sconst_streams: "x \<in> A \<Longrightarrow> sconst x \<in> streams A"
hoelzl@54497
   393
  by (simp add: streams_iff_sset)
traytel@51141
   394
traytel@51141
   395
wenzelm@60500
   396
subsection \<open>stream of natural numbers\<close>
traytel@51141
   397
hoelzl@54497
   398
abbreviation "fromN \<equiv> siterate Suc"
hoelzl@54469
   399
traytel@51141
   400
abbreviation "nats \<equiv> fromN 0"
traytel@51141
   401
hoelzl@54497
   402
lemma sset_fromN[simp]: "sset (fromN n) = {n ..}"
traytel@54720
   403
  by (auto simp add: sset_siterate le_iff_add)
hoelzl@54497
   404
traytel@57175
   405
lemma stream_smap_fromN: "s = smap (\<lambda>j. let i = j - n in s !! i) (fromN n)"
traytel@57175
   406
  by (coinduction arbitrary: s n)
traytel@57175
   407
    (force simp: neq_Nil_conv Let_def snth.simps(2)[symmetric] Suc_diff_Suc
traytel@57175
   408
      intro: stream.map_cong split: if_splits simp del: snth.simps(2))
traytel@57175
   409
traytel@57175
   410
lemma stream_smap_nats: "s = smap (snth s) nats"
traytel@57175
   411
  using stream_smap_fromN[where n = 0] by simp
traytel@57175
   412
traytel@51141
   413
wenzelm@60500
   414
subsection \<open>flatten a stream of lists\<close>
traytel@51462
   415
traytel@54027
   416
primcorec flat where
traytel@51462
   417
  "shd (flat ws) = hd (shd ws)"
traytel@54027
   418
| "stl (flat ws) = flat (if tl (shd ws) = [] then stl ws else tl (shd ws) ## stl ws)"
traytel@51462
   419
traytel@51462
   420
lemma flat_Cons[simp, code]: "flat ((x # xs) ## ws) = x ## flat (if xs = [] then ws else xs ## ws)"
traytel@54027
   421
  by (subst flat.ctr) simp
traytel@51462
   422
traytel@51462
   423
lemma flat_Stream[simp]: "xs \<noteq> [] \<Longrightarrow> flat (xs ## ws) = xs @- flat ws"
traytel@51462
   424
  by (induct xs) auto
traytel@51462
   425
traytel@51462
   426
lemma flat_unfold: "shd ws \<noteq> [] \<Longrightarrow> flat ws = shd ws @- flat (stl ws)"
traytel@51462
   427
  by (cases ws) auto
traytel@51462
   428
traytel@51772
   429
lemma flat_snth: "\<forall>xs \<in> sset s. xs \<noteq> [] \<Longrightarrow> flat s !! n = (if n < length (shd s) then 
traytel@51462
   430
  shd s ! n else flat (stl s) !! (n - length (shd s)))"
traytel@51772
   431
  by (metis flat_unfold not_less shd_sset shift_snth_ge shift_snth_less)
traytel@51462
   432
traytel@51772
   433
lemma sset_flat[simp]: "\<forall>xs \<in> sset s. xs \<noteq> [] \<Longrightarrow> 
traytel@51772
   434
  sset (flat s) = (\<Union>xs \<in> sset s. set xs)" (is "?P \<Longrightarrow> ?L = ?R")
traytel@51462
   435
proof safe
traytel@51462
   436
  fix x assume ?P "x : ?L"
traytel@51772
   437
  then obtain m where "x = flat s !! m" by (metis image_iff sset_range)
wenzelm@60500
   438
  with \<open>?P\<close> obtain n m' where "x = s !! n ! m'" "m' < length (s !! n)"
traytel@51462
   439
  proof (atomize_elim, induct m arbitrary: s rule: less_induct)
traytel@51462
   440
    case (less y)
traytel@51462
   441
    thus ?case
traytel@51462
   442
    proof (cases "y < length (shd s)")
traytel@51462
   443
      case True thus ?thesis by (metis flat_snth less(2,3) snth.simps(1))
traytel@51462
   444
    next
traytel@51462
   445
      case False
traytel@51462
   446
      hence "x = flat (stl s) !! (y - length (shd s))" by (metis less(2,3) flat_snth)
traytel@51462
   447
      moreover
wenzelm@53374
   448
      { from less(2) have *: "length (shd s) > 0" by (cases s) simp_all
wenzelm@53374
   449
        with False have "y > 0" by (cases y) simp_all
wenzelm@53374
   450
        with * have "y - length (shd s) < y" by simp
traytel@51462
   451
      }
traytel@51772
   452
      moreover have "\<forall>xs \<in> sset (stl s). xs \<noteq> []" using less(2) by (cases s) auto
traytel@51462
   453
      ultimately have "\<exists>n m'. x = stl s !! n ! m' \<and> m' < length (stl s !! n)" by (intro less(1)) auto
traytel@51462
   454
      thus ?thesis by (metis snth.simps(2))
traytel@51462
   455
    qed
traytel@51462
   456
  qed
traytel@51772
   457
  thus "x \<in> ?R" by (auto simp: sset_range dest!: nth_mem)
traytel@51462
   458
next
traytel@51772
   459
  fix x xs assume "xs \<in> sset s" ?P "x \<in> set xs" thus "x \<in> ?L"
blanchet@57986
   460
    by (induct rule: sset_induct)
traytel@51772
   461
      (metis UnI1 flat_unfold shift.simps(1) sset_shift,
traytel@51772
   462
       metis UnI2 flat_unfold shd_sset stl_sset sset_shift)
traytel@51462
   463
qed
traytel@51462
   464
traytel@51462
   465
wenzelm@60500
   466
subsection \<open>merge a stream of streams\<close>
traytel@51462
   467
traytel@51462
   468
definition smerge :: "'a stream stream \<Rightarrow> 'a stream" where
traytel@51772
   469
  "smerge ss = flat (smap (\<lambda>n. map (\<lambda>s. s !! n) (stake (Suc n) ss) @ stake n (ss !! n)) nats)"
traytel@51462
   470
traytel@51462
   471
lemma stake_nth[simp]: "m < n \<Longrightarrow> stake n s ! m = s !! m"
traytel@51462
   472
  by (induct n arbitrary: s m) (auto simp: nth_Cons', metis Suc_pred snth.simps(2))
traytel@51462
   473
traytel@51772
   474
lemma snth_sset_smerge: "ss !! n !! m \<in> sset (smerge ss)"
traytel@51462
   475
proof (cases "n \<le> m")
traytel@51462
   476
  case False thus ?thesis unfolding smerge_def
traytel@51772
   477
    by (subst sset_flat)
blanchet@53290
   478
      (auto simp: stream.set_map in_set_conv_nth simp del: stake.simps
traytel@51462
   479
        intro!: exI[of _ n, OF disjI2] exI[of _ m, OF mp])
traytel@51462
   480
next
traytel@51462
   481
  case True thus ?thesis unfolding smerge_def
traytel@51772
   482
    by (subst sset_flat)
blanchet@53290
   483
      (auto simp: stream.set_map in_set_conv_nth image_iff simp del: stake.simps snth.simps
traytel@51462
   484
        intro!: exI[of _ m, OF disjI1] bexI[of _ "ss !! n"] exI[of _ n, OF mp])
traytel@51462
   485
qed
traytel@51462
   486
traytel@51772
   487
lemma sset_smerge: "sset (smerge ss) = UNION (sset ss) sset"
traytel@51462
   488
proof safe
traytel@51772
   489
  fix x assume "x \<in> sset (smerge ss)"
traytel@51772
   490
  thus "x \<in> UNION (sset ss) sset"
traytel@51772
   491
    unfolding smerge_def by (subst (asm) sset_flat)
blanchet@53290
   492
      (auto simp: stream.set_map in_set_conv_nth sset_range simp del: stake.simps, fast+)
traytel@51462
   493
next
traytel@51772
   494
  fix s x assume "s \<in> sset ss" "x \<in> sset s"
traytel@51772
   495
  thus "x \<in> sset (smerge ss)" using snth_sset_smerge by (auto simp: sset_range)
traytel@51462
   496
qed
traytel@51462
   497
traytel@51462
   498
wenzelm@60500
   499
subsection \<open>product of two streams\<close>
traytel@51462
   500
traytel@51462
   501
definition sproduct :: "'a stream \<Rightarrow> 'b stream \<Rightarrow> ('a \<times> 'b) stream" where
traytel@51772
   502
  "sproduct s1 s2 = smerge (smap (\<lambda>x. smap (Pair x) s2) s1)"
traytel@51462
   503
traytel@51772
   504
lemma sset_sproduct: "sset (sproduct s1 s2) = sset s1 \<times> sset s2"
blanchet@53290
   505
  unfolding sproduct_def sset_smerge by (auto simp: stream.set_map)
traytel@51462
   506
traytel@51462
   507
wenzelm@60500
   508
subsection \<open>interleave two streams\<close>
traytel@51462
   509
traytel@54027
   510
primcorec sinterleave where
traytel@54027
   511
  "shd (sinterleave s1 s2) = shd s1"
traytel@54027
   512
| "stl (sinterleave s1 s2) = sinterleave s2 (stl s1)"
traytel@51462
   513
traytel@51462
   514
lemma sinterleave_code[code]:
traytel@51462
   515
  "sinterleave (x ## s1) s2 = x ## sinterleave s2 s1"
traytel@54027
   516
  by (subst sinterleave.ctr) simp
traytel@51462
   517
traytel@51462
   518
lemma sinterleave_snth[simp]:
traytel@51462
   519
  "even n \<Longrightarrow> sinterleave s1 s2 !! n = s1 !! (n div 2)"
haftmann@58710
   520
  "odd n \<Longrightarrow> sinterleave s1 s2 !! n = s2 !! (n div 2)"
haftmann@58710
   521
  by (induct n arbitrary: s1 s2) simp_all
traytel@51462
   522
traytel@51772
   523
lemma sset_sinterleave: "sset (sinterleave s1 s2) = sset s1 \<union> sset s2"
traytel@51462
   524
proof (intro equalityI subsetI)
traytel@51772
   525
  fix x assume "x \<in> sset (sinterleave s1 s2)"
traytel@51772
   526
  then obtain n where "x = sinterleave s1 s2 !! n" unfolding sset_range by blast
traytel@51772
   527
  thus "x \<in> sset s1 \<union> sset s2" by (cases "even n") auto
traytel@51462
   528
next
traytel@51772
   529
  fix x assume "x \<in> sset s1 \<union> sset s2"
traytel@51772
   530
  thus "x \<in> sset (sinterleave s1 s2)"
traytel@51462
   531
  proof
traytel@51772
   532
    assume "x \<in> sset s1"
traytel@51772
   533
    then obtain n where "x = s1 !! n" unfolding sset_range by blast
traytel@51462
   534
    hence "sinterleave s1 s2 !! (2 * n) = x" by simp
traytel@51772
   535
    thus ?thesis unfolding sset_range by blast
traytel@51462
   536
  next
traytel@51772
   537
    assume "x \<in> sset s2"
traytel@51772
   538
    then obtain n where "x = s2 !! n" unfolding sset_range by blast
traytel@51462
   539
    hence "sinterleave s1 s2 !! (2 * n + 1) = x" by simp
traytel@51772
   540
    thus ?thesis unfolding sset_range by blast
traytel@51462
   541
  qed
traytel@51462
   542
qed
traytel@51462
   543
traytel@51462
   544
wenzelm@60500
   545
subsection \<open>zip\<close>
traytel@51141
   546
traytel@54027
   547
primcorec szip where
traytel@54027
   548
  "shd (szip s1 s2) = (shd s1, shd s2)"
traytel@54027
   549
| "stl (szip s1 s2) = szip (stl s1) (stl s2)"
traytel@51141
   550
traytel@54720
   551
lemma szip_unfold[code]: "szip (a ## s1) (b ## s2) = (a, b) ## (szip s1 s2)"
traytel@54027
   552
  by (subst szip.ctr) simp
traytel@51409
   553
traytel@51141
   554
lemma snth_szip[simp]: "szip s1 s2 !! n = (s1 !! n, s2 !! n)"
traytel@51141
   555
  by (induct n arbitrary: s1 s2) auto
traytel@51141
   556
traytel@57175
   557
lemma stake_szip[simp]:
traytel@57175
   558
  "stake n (szip s1 s2) = zip (stake n s1) (stake n s2)"
traytel@57175
   559
  by (induct n arbitrary: s1 s2) auto
traytel@57175
   560
traytel@57175
   561
lemma sdrop_szip[simp]: "sdrop n (szip s1 s2) = szip (sdrop n s1) (sdrop n s2)"
traytel@57175
   562
  by (induct n arbitrary: s1 s2) auto
traytel@57175
   563
traytel@57175
   564
lemma smap_szip_fst:
traytel@57175
   565
  "smap (\<lambda>x. f (fst x)) (szip s1 s2) = smap f s1"
traytel@57175
   566
  by (coinduction arbitrary: s1 s2) auto
traytel@57175
   567
traytel@57175
   568
lemma smap_szip_snd:
traytel@57175
   569
  "smap (\<lambda>x. g (snd x)) (szip s1 s2) = smap g s2"
traytel@57175
   570
  by (coinduction arbitrary: s1 s2) auto
traytel@57175
   571
traytel@51141
   572
wenzelm@60500
   573
subsection \<open>zip via function\<close>
traytel@51141
   574
traytel@54027
   575
primcorec smap2 where
traytel@51772
   576
  "shd (smap2 f s1 s2) = f (shd s1) (shd s2)"
traytel@54027
   577
| "stl (smap2 f s1 s2) = smap2 f (stl s1) (stl s2)"
traytel@51141
   578
traytel@51772
   579
lemma smap2_unfold[code]:
traytel@54720
   580
  "smap2 f (a ## s1) (b ## s2) = f a b ## (smap2 f s1 s2)"
traytel@54027
   581
  by (subst smap2.ctr) simp
traytel@51409
   582
traytel@51772
   583
lemma smap2_szip:
traytel@51772
   584
  "smap2 f s1 s2 = smap (split f) (szip s1 s2)"
traytel@54027
   585
  by (coinduction arbitrary: s1 s2) auto
traytel@50518
   586
traytel@57175
   587
lemma smap_smap2[simp]:
traytel@57175
   588
  "smap f (smap2 g s1 s2) = smap2 (\<lambda>x y. f (g x y)) s1 s2"
traytel@57175
   589
  unfolding smap2_szip stream.map_comp o_def split_def ..
traytel@57175
   590
traytel@57175
   591
lemma smap2_alt:
traytel@57175
   592
  "(smap2 f s1 s2 = s) = (\<forall>n. f (s1 !! n) (s2 !! n) = s !! n)"
traytel@57175
   593
  unfolding smap2_szip smap_alt by auto
traytel@57175
   594
traytel@57175
   595
lemma snth_smap2[simp]:
traytel@57175
   596
  "smap2 f s1 s2 !! n = f (s1 !! n) (s2 !! n)"
traytel@57175
   597
  by (induct n arbitrary: s1 s2) auto
traytel@57175
   598
traytel@57175
   599
lemma stake_smap2[simp]:
traytel@57175
   600
  "stake n (smap2 f s1 s2) = map (split f) (zip (stake n s1) (stake n s2))"
traytel@57175
   601
  by (induct n arbitrary: s1 s2) auto
traytel@57175
   602
traytel@57175
   603
lemma sdrop_smap2[simp]:
traytel@57175
   604
  "sdrop n (smap2 f s1 s2) = smap2 f (sdrop n s1) (sdrop n s2)"
traytel@57175
   605
  by (induct n arbitrary: s1 s2) auto
traytel@57175
   606
traytel@50518
   607
end