NEWS
author wenzelm
Fri Aug 08 16:54:33 2008 +0200 (2008-08-08)
changeset 27793 29ad1d91a5a3
parent 27761 b95e9ba0ca1d
child 27823 52971512d1a2
permissions -rw-r--r--
tuned formatting;
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Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
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==============================================
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New in this Isabelle version
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----------------------------
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*** General ***
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* Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
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addressing etc.
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* Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
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Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
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makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
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* Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
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interface instead.
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*** Pure ***
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* Dropped "locale (open)".  INCOMPATBILITY.
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* Command 'interpretation' no longer attempts to simplify goal.
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INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
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methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
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* Command 'instance': attached definitions no longer accepted.
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INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target.
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* Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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*** Document preparation ***
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* Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
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demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
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syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
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*** HOL ***
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* HOL/Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
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INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
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etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
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preorder_class.*.
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* HOL/Ring_and_Field and HOL/Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
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moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
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dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
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of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
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semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
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renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
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    dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
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    zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
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    DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
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    DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
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    mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
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    mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
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* HOL/Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
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zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
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the HOL Distribution.  zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and ilcm;
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corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILY.  To
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recover tupled syntax, use syntax declarations like:
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    hide (open) const gcd
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    abbreviation gcd where
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      "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
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    notation (output)
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      GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
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(analogously for lcm, zgcd, zlcm).
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* HOL/Real/Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* New ML antiquotation @{code}: takes constant as argument, generates
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corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
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resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
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All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
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simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
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instrumentalizing code generation.  See HOL/ex/Code_Antiq for a toy
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example, or HOL/Complex/ex/ReflectedFerrack for a more ambitious
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application.  In future you ought refrain from ad-hoc compiling
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generated SML code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical
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reasons) @{code} cannot refer to constants for which user-defined
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serializations are set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart
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directly in that cases.
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* Integrated image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry points Main.thy and
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Complex_Main.thy remain as they are.
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* New image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
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tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  By convention
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the corresponding theory Plain should be ancestor of every further
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(library) theory.  Some library theories now have ancestor Plain
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(instead of Main), thus theory Main occasionally has to be imported
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explicitly.
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* Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
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as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
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corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
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are now presented as a list of individual projections
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(e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
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explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
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rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
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elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
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rule: prod.exhaust) here.
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* Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
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* Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
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* Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
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takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
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represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
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proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
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have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
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    unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
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    prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
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    sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
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    Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
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    Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
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* Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
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instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
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theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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*** HOL-Algebra ***
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* New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
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  is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and
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  lattice locales use a record structure with field eq for the
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  equivalence.
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* New theory of factorial domains.
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* Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simprules by default.
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INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
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and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
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* Renamed the following theorems.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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UpperD ~> Upper_memD
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LowerD ~> Lower_memD
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least_carrier ~> least_closed
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greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
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greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
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one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
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one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
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*** HOL-NSA ***
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* Created new image HOL-NSA, containing theories of nonstandard
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analysis which were previously part of HOL-Complex.  Entry point
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Hyperreal.thy remains valid, but theories formerly using
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Complex_Main.thy should now use new entry point Hypercomplex.thy.
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*** ZF ***
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* Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
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*** ML ***
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* Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
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res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
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context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
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the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
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thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
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Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
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Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
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use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
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Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
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resort for legacy applications.
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* Antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
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\<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
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  @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
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  @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
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  @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
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  @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
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  @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
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  @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
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  @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
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  @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
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  @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
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New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
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-------------------------------
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*** General ***
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* The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
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and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
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* Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
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implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
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conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
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provides a proper context already.
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* Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
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file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
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'use' within a theory file will do the job.
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* Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
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is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
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space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
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swap theory imports.
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* Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
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INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
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* Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
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which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
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white space without escapes.
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* Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
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specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
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"foo_bar".
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*** Pure ***
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* Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
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fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
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* Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
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There are three ways of invoking it:
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(1) unused_thms
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     Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
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(2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
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     Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
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     excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
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(3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
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     Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
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     their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
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     their ancestors.
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In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
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unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
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of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
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to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
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this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
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reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
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unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
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Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
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unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
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usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
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* Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
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theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
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duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
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that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
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PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
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* Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
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* Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
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clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
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update of theories within ML code.
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* Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
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INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
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additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
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depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
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* Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
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theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
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instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
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INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
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* Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
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instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
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Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
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See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
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src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
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* Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
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facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
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background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
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"fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
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situations.
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* Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
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"(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
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proof text.
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* Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
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INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
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* Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
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hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
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predicates.
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*** Document preparation ***
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* Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
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both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
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obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
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spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
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value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
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"a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
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* Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
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method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
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arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
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*** HOL ***
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* New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
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definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
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"primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
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by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
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When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
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primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
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* Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
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with multithreading.
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* Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
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theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
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exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
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* Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
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enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
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reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
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sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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   347
* Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
wenzelm@27067
   348
from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
wenzelm@27067
   349
out some operations that are done internally by the function package
wenzelm@27067
   350
and makes them available separately.  See
wenzelm@27067
   351
src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
wenzelm@27067
   352
wenzelm@27067
   353
* More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
wenzelm@27067
   354
proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
wenzelm@27067
   355
form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
wenzelm@27067
   356
The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
wenzelm@27067
   357
just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
wenzelm@27067
   358
termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
wenzelm@27067
   359
type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
wenzelm@27067
   360
the declared rules.
wenzelm@27067
   361
wenzelm@27067
   362
This setup also deals with rules like 
wenzelm@27067
   363
wenzelm@27067
   364
  "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
wenzelm@27067
   365
wenzelm@27067
   366
which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
wenzelm@27067
   367
Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
wenzelm@27067
   368
berghofe@26964
   369
* Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
berghofe@26964
   370
berghofe@26964
   371
  INCOMPATIBILITIES:
berghofe@26964
   372
wenzelm@27008
   373
  - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
wenzelm@27008
   374
    definitions on => and bool.
berghofe@26964
   375
berghofe@26964
   376
  - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
wenzelm@27008
   377
    using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
wenzelm@27008
   378
    the following theorems have been renamed:
berghofe@26964
   379
berghofe@26964
   380
      subset_def   -> subset_eq
berghofe@26964
   381
      psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
berghofe@26964
   382
      set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
berghofe@26964
   383
      Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
berghofe@26964
   384
      Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
berghofe@26964
   385
      Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
berghofe@26964
   386
      sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
berghofe@26964
   387
      inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
berghofe@26964
   388
berghofe@26964
   389
  - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
berghofe@26964
   390
    rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
berghofe@26964
   391
    the unknowns in the rule is a set.
berghofe@26964
   392
berghofe@26964
   393
  - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
berghofe@26964
   394
    The proof pattern
berghofe@26964
   395
berghofe@26964
   396
      have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
berghofe@26964
   397
      then have "EX S. P S" ..
berghofe@26964
   398
wenzelm@27008
   399
    no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
wenzelm@27008
   400
    algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
berghofe@26964
   401
berghofe@26964
   402
      have "EX S. P S"
berghofe@26964
   403
      proof
berghofe@26964
   404
        show "P S" <...>
berghofe@26964
   405
      qed
berghofe@26964
   406
berghofe@26964
   407
  - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
berghofe@26964
   408
    The proof pattern
berghofe@26964
   409
berghofe@26964
   410
      have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
berghofe@26964
   411
      also have "S = T" <...>
berghofe@26964
   412
      finally have "P T" .
berghofe@26964
   413
wenzelm@27008
   414
    no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
wenzelm@27008
   415
    must be replaced by something like
berghofe@26964
   416
berghofe@26964
   417
      have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
berghofe@26964
   418
      moreover have "S = T" <...>
berghofe@26964
   419
      ultimately have "P T" by simp
berghofe@26964
   420
berghofe@26964
   421
  - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
berghofe@26964
   422
    Code performing pattern matching on types via
berghofe@26964
   423
berghofe@26964
   424
      Type ("set", [T]) => ...
berghofe@26964
   425
wenzelm@27008
   426
    must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
wenzelm@27008
   427
    binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
wenzelm@27008
   428
    type of the form
berghofe@26964
   429
berghofe@26964
   430
      T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
berghofe@26964
   431
berghofe@26964
   432
    rather than
berghofe@26964
   433
berghofe@26964
   434
      T1 => ... => Tn => U set
berghofe@26964
   435
wenzelm@26874
   436
* Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
wenzelm@27067
   437
Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
krauss@26748
   438
haftmann@26513
   439
* Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@26513
   440
wenzelm@26874
   441
* Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
wenzelm@26874
   442
enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
haftmann@26445
   443
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@26445
   444
wenzelm@26874
   445
* Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
wenzelm@26874
   446
and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@26874
   447
wenzelm@26422
   448
* HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
wenzelm@26422
   449
Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@26422
   450
wenzelm@26874
   451
* Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
wenzelm@26874
   452
injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
wenzelm@26874
   453
Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@26355
   454
wenzelm@26335
   455
* Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
wenzelm@26335
   456
the same name in theory Orderings:
wenzelm@26335
   457
wenzelm@26335
   458
  less_trans
wenzelm@26335
   459
  less_linear
wenzelm@26335
   460
  le_imp_less_or_eq
wenzelm@26335
   461
  le_less_trans
wenzelm@26335
   462
  less_le_trans
wenzelm@26335
   463
  less_not_sym
wenzelm@26335
   464
  less_asym
wenzelm@26335
   465
wenzelm@26335
   466
Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
wenzelm@26335
   467
less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
wenzelm@26335
   468
and different variable names.
wenzelm@26315
   469
haftmann@26231
   470
* Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
haftmann@26231
   471
wenzelm@27008
   472
* Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
wenzelm@27008
   473
finite maps.
krauss@26197
   474
haftmann@26231
   475
* Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
haftmann@26231
   476
wenzelm@26180
   477
* Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
wenzelm@26180
   478
operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
wenzelm@26180
   479
disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
wenzelm@26180
   480
place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
wenzelm@26180
   481
involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
wenzelm@26180
   482
accordingly.
wenzelm@26180
   483
wenzelm@26180
   484
* Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
wenzelm@26180
   485
depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
wenzelm@26180
   486
le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
wenzelm@26180
   487
[symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
wenzelm@26180
   488
wenzelm@26180
   489
* Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
wenzelm@26180
   490
(whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
wenzelm@26874
   491
abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
wenzelm@26180
   492
ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
wenzelm@26180
   493
lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
haftmann@26139
   494
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@26041
   495
wenzelm@26180
   496
* Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
wenzelm@26180
   497
case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@26180
   498
wenzelm@26180
   499
* Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
wenzelm@26180
   500
lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
wenzelm@26180
   501
Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
haftmann@26013
   502
wenzelm@26874
   503
* Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
wenzelm@27067
   504
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@25961
   505
wenzelm@26180
   506
* Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
haftmann@25942
   507
with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
haftmann@25942
   508
wenzelm@26180
   509
* Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
wenzelm@26180
   510
Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@26180
   511
wenzelm@26180
   512
* Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
wenzelm@26180
   513
numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@26180
   514
wenzelm@26180
   515
* New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
wenzelm@26180
   516
"minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
haftmann@25919
   517
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@25919
   518
wenzelm@25522
   519
* Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
haftmann@25919
   520
syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@25522
   521
wenzelm@25522
   522
* Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
wenzelm@25522
   523
le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
wenzelm@25522
   524
sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
wenzelm@25522
   525
Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
wenzelm@25522
   526
Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
haftmann@25919
   527
equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@25464
   528
schirmer@25705
   529
* Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
wenzelm@25726
   530
%x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
schirmer@25705
   531
INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
wenzelm@25464
   532
wenzelm@27067
   533
* Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
wenzelm@27067
   534
wenzelm@27067
   535
* Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
wenzelm@27067
   536
wenzelm@27067
   537
* Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
wenzelm@27067
   538
pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
wenzelm@27067
   539
well-orders on sets and on types.
krauss@26877
   540
wenzelm@25726
   541
krauss@26197
   542
*** ZF ***
krauss@26197
   543
wenzelm@26874
   544
* Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
wenzelm@26874
   545
same session:
wenzelm@26874
   546
wenzelm@26874
   547
  Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
wenzelm@26874
   548
  Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
wenzelm@26874
   549
  Int       -> Int_ZF
wenzelm@26874
   550
  IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
wenzelm@26874
   551
  Nat       -> Nat_ZF
wenzelm@26874
   552
  List      -> List_ZF
wenzelm@26874
   553
  Main      -> Main_ZF
wenzelm@26874
   554
wenzelm@26874
   555
INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
wenzelm@26874
   556
Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
wenzelm@26874
   557
available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
krauss@26197
   558
krauss@26197
   559
wenzelm@25737
   560
*** ML ***
wenzelm@25737
   561
wenzelm@27067
   562
* ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
wenzelm@27067
   563
name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
wenzelm@27067
   564
wenzelm@26401
   565
* Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
wenzelm@26724
   566
(of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
wenzelm@26401
   567
wenzelm@27067
   568
* Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
wenzelm@26188
   569
wenzelm@25737
   570
* The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
wenzelm@25737
   571
template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
wenzelm@25737
   572
non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
wenzelm@25737
   573
management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
wenzelm@25737
   574
print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@25737
   575
wenzelm@26874
   576
* Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
wenzelm@27008
   577
shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML 5.2).
wenzelm@26874
   578
Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
wenzelm@26222
   579
wenzelm@25737
   580
wenzelm@25626
   581
*** System ***
wenzelm@25626
   582
wenzelm@25971
   583
* Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
wenzelm@25971
   584
in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
wenzelm@25970
   585
wenzelm@25626
   586
* isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
wenzelm@25626
   587
optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
wenzelm@25626
   588
setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
wenzelm@25626
   589
wenzelm@25651
   590
* isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
wenzelm@25651
   591
"javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
wenzelm@25651
   592
wenzelm@27067
   593
* YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
wenzelm@27067
   594
standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
wenzelm@27067
   595
isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
wenzelm@25651
   596
wenzelm@25652
   597
* JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
wenzelm@25651
   598
provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
wenzelm@25651
   599
fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
wenzelm@25651
   600
wenzelm@25855
   601
* Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
wenzelm@25855
   602
based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
wenzelm@25855
   603
wenzelm@27067
   604
* Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
wenzelm@27067
   605
way of changing the user's settings is via
wenzelm@27067
   606
ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
wenzelm@27067
   607
script.
wenzelm@27067
   608
wenzelm@27067
   609
* Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
wenzelm@27067
   610
cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
wenzelm@27067
   611
optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
wenzelm@27067
   612
"max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
wenzelm@27067
   613
of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
wenzelm@27067
   614
wenzelm@27067
   615
* isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
wenzelm@27067
   616
adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
wenzelm@27067
   617
ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
wenzelm@27067
   618
wenzelm@25626
   619
wenzelm@25464
   620
wenzelm@25429
   621
New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
wenzelm@25429
   622
-----------------------------------
wenzelm@17754
   623
wenzelm@17754
   624
*** General ***
wenzelm@17754
   625
wenzelm@22826
   626
* More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
wenzelm@22826
   627
warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
wenzelm@23367
   628
tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
wenzelm@23367
   629
legacy features will disappear eventually.
wenzelm@22826
   630
wenzelm@17918
   631
* Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
wenzelm@17918
   632
discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
wenzelm@17918
   633
fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@17918
   634
wenzelm@17918
   635
* Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
wenzelm@17918
   636
discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
wenzelm@17918
   637
with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
wenzelm@17918
   638
function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@17918
   639
wenzelm@22871
   640
* Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
wenzelm@22871
   641
'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
wenzelm@22871
   642
quotes.
wenzelm@19814
   643
wenzelm@23888
   644
* Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
wenzelm@23888
   645
header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
wenzelm@24172
   646
accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
wenzelm@24172
   647
update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
wenzelm@24172
   648
use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
wenzelm@24172
   649
theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
wenzelm@24172
   650
specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
wenzelm@24172
   651
INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
wenzelm@24172
   652
ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
wenzelm@23888
   653
wenzelm@23888
   654
* Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
wenzelm@23888
   655
identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
wenzelm@23889
   656
path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
wenzelm@23888
   657
(cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
wenzelm@23888
   658
non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
wenzelm@23888
   659
files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
wenzelm@23888
   660
wenzelm@24187
   661
* Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
wenzelm@24187
   662
file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
wenzelm@24800
   663
feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
wenzelm@24800
   664
no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
wenzelm@24800
   665
wenzelm@24800
   666
* Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
wenzelm@24800
   667
now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
wenzelm@24234
   668
specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
wenzelm@24234
   669
syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
wenzelm@24234
   670
type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
wenzelm@24234
   671
'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
wenzelm@24234
   672
wenzelm@25034
   673
* Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
wenzelm@25034
   674
'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
wenzelm@25034
   675
``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
wenzelm@25034
   676
really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
wenzelm@25034
   677
ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
wenzelm@25034
   678
trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
wenzelm@25034
   679
translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
wenzelm@25034
   680
@{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
wenzelm@25034
   681
wenzelm@17981
   682
* Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
wenzelm@17981
   683
to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
wenzelm@17981
   684
functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
wenzelm@17981
   685
by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
wenzelm@17981
   686
Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
wenzelm@17981
   687
these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
wenzelm@17981
   688
used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
wenzelm@17918
   689
wenzelm@23379
   690
* Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
wenzelm@23379
   691
criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
wenzelm@23379
   692
support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
webertj@22965
   693
wenzelm@20370
   694
* The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
wenzelm@20370
   695
by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
wenzelm@20370
   696
suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
wenzelm@20370
   697
settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
wenzelm@20370
   698
older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
wenzelm@20370
   699
limit is imposed.
wenzelm@20370
   700
wenzelm@21308
   701
* Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
wenzelm@21308
   702
``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
wenzelm@21308
   703
contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
wenzelm@21308
   704
that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
wenzelm@21308
   705
generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
wenzelm@21308
   706
and scalability.
wenzelm@21308
   707
wenzelm@21960
   708
* Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
wenzelm@21960
   709
discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
wenzelm@21960
   710
wenzelm@17754
   711
wenzelm@17865
   712
*** Document preparation ***
wenzelm@17865
   713
wenzelm@21717
   714
* Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
wenzelm@21717
   715
after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
wenzelm@21717
   716
current context.
haftmann@21339
   717
wenzelm@17869
   718
* Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
wenzelm@17869
   719
check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
wenzelm@17865
   720
wenzelm@21717
   721
* Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
wenzelm@21717
   722
"c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
wenzelm@21735
   723
arguments may be given on the LHS.)
wenzelm@21717
   724
wenzelm@21717
   725
wenzelm@17779
   726
*** Pure ***
wenzelm@17779
   727
wenzelm@24800
   728
* The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
wenzelm@25129
   729
achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
wenzelm@25129
   730
theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
wenzelm@25129
   731
implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
wenzelm@25129
   732
constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
wenzelm@25129
   733
context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
wenzelm@25129
   734
syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
wenzelm@25129
   735
between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
wenzelm@25177
   736
See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
haftmann@25184
   737
"isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
wenzelm@20807
   738
haftmann@25199
   739
* Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
wenzelm@24800
   740
code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
wenzelm@24800
   741
sketch:
haftmann@20188
   742
haftmann@20188
   743
    internal compilation:
haftmann@25199
   744
        export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
haftmann@20453
   745
    writing SML code to a file:
haftmann@25199
   746
        export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
haftmann@22735
   747
    writing OCaml code to a file:
haftmann@25199
   748
        export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
haftmann@20188
   749
    writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
haftmann@25199
   750
        export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
haftmann@25199
   751
haftmann@25199
   752
    evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
haftmann@25184
   753
        method ``eval''
haftmann@25184
   754
haftmann@25184
   755
Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
haftmann@20453
   756
haftmann@20453
   757
Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
haftmann@20453
   758
haftmann@22845
   759
    [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
haftmann@22845
   760
    [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
haftmann@22845
   761
    [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
haftmann@22845
   762
    [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
haftmann@20453
   763
haftmann@22735
   764
User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
haftmann@20453
   765
haftmann@20453
   766
    code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
haftmann@20453
   767
      {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
haftmann@20453
   768
haftmann@20453
   769
    code_type <and-list of type constructors>
haftmann@20453
   770
      {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
haftmann@20453
   771
haftmann@20453
   772
    code_instance <and-list of instances>
haftmann@20453
   773
      {(target)}+
haftmann@20453
   774
        where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
haftmann@20453
   775
haftmann@20453
   776
    code_class <and_list of classes>
haftmann@20453
   777
      {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
haftmann@20453
   778
        where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
haftmann@20453
   779
haftmann@25199
   780
code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
haftmann@22735
   781
wenzelm@25177
   782
For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
wenzelm@25177
   783
src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
wenzelm@24800
   784
generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
wenzelm@24800
   785
codegen".
haftmann@20188
   786
wenzelm@25129
   787
* Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
wenzelm@25129
   788
referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
wenzelm@25129
   789
annotations).
wenzelm@25129
   790
wenzelm@19254
   791
* Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
wenzelm@19254
   792
syntax.
wenzelm@19254
   793
wenzelm@19625
   794
* Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
wenzelm@19714
   795
dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
wenzelm@19714
   796
that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
wenzelm@19714
   797
correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
wenzelm@19714
   798
INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
wenzelm@19714
   799
exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
wenzelm@19711
   800
wenzelm@19711
   801
Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
wenzelm@19711
   802
instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
wenzelm@19711
   803
declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
wenzelm@19711
   804
c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
wenzelm@19711
   805
as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
wenzelm@19711
   806
recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
wenzelm@19714
   807
impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
wenzelm@19715
   808
LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
wenzelm@19714
   809
Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
wenzelm@19714
   810
equations, see section "definitions".
wenzelm@19625
   811
wenzelm@24086
   812
* Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
wenzelm@24086
   813
context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
wenzelm@24086
   814
interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
wenzelm@24110
   815
declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
wenzelm@24110
   816
these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
wenzelm@24110
   817
associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
wenzelm@24110
   818
declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
wenzelm@24110
   819
'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
wenzelm@24110
   820
very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
wenzelm@24110
   821
toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
wenzelm@24086
   822
wenzelm@24172
   823
Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
wenzelm@24172
   824
configuration options:
wenzelm@24172
   825
wenzelm@24172
   826
  Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
wenzelm@24172
   827
  Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
wenzelm@24172
   828
  Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
wenzelm@24172
   829
  Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
wenzelm@24172
   830
  Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
wenzelm@24172
   831
  Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
wenzelm@24172
   832
  DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
wenzelm@24172
   833
  fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
wenzelm@24172
   834
  fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
wenzelm@24172
   835
wenzelm@24086
   836
* Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
wenzelm@24800
   837
data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
wenzelm@24086
   838
src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
wenzelm@24110
   839
attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
wenzelm@24110
   840
just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
wenzelm@24110
   841
for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
wenzelm@24110
   842
order.
wenzelm@24086
   843
wenzelm@24032
   844
* Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
wenzelm@24032
   845
declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
wenzelm@24032
   846
being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
wenzelm@24032
   847
difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
wenzelm@24032
   848
context encountered later on.
wenzelm@24032
   849
wenzelm@24032
   850
* Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
wenzelm@24032
   851
'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
wenzelm@24032
   852
text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
wenzelm@24032
   853
context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
wenzelm@24032
   854
wenzelm@24032
   855
* Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
wenzelm@24032
   856
abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
wenzelm@24032
   857
which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
wenzelm@24032
   858
the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
wenzelm@24032
   859
declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
wenzelm@24032
   860
'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
wenzelm@24032
   861
wenzelm@23369
   862
* Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
wenzelm@23369
   863
takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
wenzelm@23369
   864
an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
wenzelm@23369
   865
assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
wenzelm@23369
   866
goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
wenzelm@23369
   867
without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
wenzelm@23369
   868
Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
wenzelm@23369
   869
more permissive.
wenzelm@23369
   870
wenzelm@23369
   871
* Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
wenzelm@23369
   872
considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
wenzelm@23369
   873
may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
wenzelm@23369
   874
referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
wenzelm@23369
   875
maintainability of proof texts.
wenzelm@23369
   876
wenzelm@17865
   877
* Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
wenzelm@17865
   878
the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
wenzelm@17865
   879
wenzelm@17865
   880
  assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
wenzelm@17865
   881
  then guess x and y by clarify
wenzelm@17865
   882
wenzelm@17865
   883
This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
wenzelm@17865
   884
proof tools being involved here.
wenzelm@17865
   885
wenzelm@18020
   886
* Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
wenzelm@18020
   887
propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
wenzelm@18020
   888
named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
wenzelm@18020
   889
methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
wenzelm@18020
   890
according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
wenzelm@18020
   891
provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
wenzelm@18020
   892
theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
wenzelm@18020
   893
`A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
wenzelm@18020
   894
wenzelm@18020
   895
There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
wenzelm@18044
   896
for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
wenzelm@18044
   897
certain special cases of literal facts:
wenzelm@18020
   898
wenzelm@18020
   899
  have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
wenzelm@18020
   900
  have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
wenzelm@18020
   901
  have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
wenzelm@18020
   902
  have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
wenzelm@18020
   903
wenzelm@20118
   904
* Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
wenzelm@20118
   905
outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
wenzelm@20118
   906
additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
wenzelm@20118
   907
wenzelm@20013
   908
* Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
wenzelm@20013
   909
both named and unnamed ones.
wenzelm@20013
   910
wenzelm@18308
   911
* Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
wenzelm@18308
   912
wenzelm@18308
   913
  def x == "t" and y == "u"
wenzelm@18308
   914
wenzelm@18540
   915
* Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
wenzelm@18540
   916
'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
wenzelm@18815
   917
rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
wenzelm@18540
   918
'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
wenzelm@18540
   919
wenzelm@18815
   920
* Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
wenzelm@18815
   921
and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
wenzelm@18815
   922
(potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
wenzelm@18815
   923
analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
wenzelm@18815
   924
Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
wenzelm@18815
   925
kleing@24238
   926
* Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
kleing@24238
   927
premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
kleing@24238
   928
wenzelm@19220
   929
* Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
wenzelm@19220
   930
method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
wenzelm@19240
   931
sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
wenzelm@19240
   932
simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
wenzelm@19240
   933
simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
wenzelm@19240
   934
originally first one.
wenzelm@19220
   935
wenzelm@19814
   936
* Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
wenzelm@19814
   937
patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
wenzelm@19814
   938
expected.
wenzelm@19814
   939
wenzelm@18901
   940
* Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
wenzelm@18901
   941
'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
wenzelm@18901
   942
(essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
wenzelm@18901
   943
assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
wenzelm@18910
   944
adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
wenzelm@18901
   945
wenzelm@18901
   946
  lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
wenzelm@18901
   947
    assumes "EX x. P x"
wenzelm@18901
   948
    obtains x where "P x"
wenzelm@18901
   949
wenzelm@18901
   950
  lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
wenzelm@18901
   951
    assumes "A & B"
wenzelm@18901
   952
    obtains A and B
wenzelm@18901
   953
wenzelm@18901
   954
  lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
wenzelm@18901
   955
    assumes "A | B"
wenzelm@18901
   956
    obtains
wenzelm@18901
   957
      A
wenzelm@18901
   958
    | B
wenzelm@18901
   959
wenzelm@18910
   960
The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
wenzelm@18901
   961
explicitly:
wenzelm@18901
   962
wenzelm@18901
   963
  lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
wenzelm@18901
   964
    obtains "~ thesis"
wenzelm@18901
   965
wenzelm@18910
   966
  lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
wenzelm@18910
   967
    obtains "thesis ==> something"
wenzelm@18901
   968
wenzelm@18901
   969
The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
wenzelm@18910
   970
Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
wenzelm@18910
   971
Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
wenzelm@18910
   972
available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
wenzelm@18910
   973
resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
wenzelm@18910
   974
case_names).
wenzelm@18901
   975
wenzelm@21447
   976
* Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
wenzelm@21447
   977
"assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
wenzelm@21447
   978
(historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
wenzelm@21447
   979
context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
wenzelm@21447
   980
wenzelm@19263
   981
* Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
wenzelm@19263
   982
proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
wenzelm@19263
   983
top-level lemma.
wenzelm@19263
   984
wenzelm@18901
   985
* Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
wenzelm@18901
   986
introduction rule (default "that").
wenzelm@18901
   987
wenzelm@19587
   988
* Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
wenzelm@19587
   989
explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
wenzelm@19587
   990
to occur.
wenzelm@19587
   991
wenzelm@19682
   992
* Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
wenzelm@19682
   993
according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
wenzelm@19682
   994
syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
wenzelm@19682
   995
representations independently of name spaces.
wenzelm@19682
   996
wenzelm@21537
   997
* Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
wenzelm@21537
   998
instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
wenzelm@21537
   999
in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@21537
  1000
wenzelm@21209
  1001
* Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
wenzelm@21209
  1002
primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
wenzelm@24950
  1003
fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
wenzelm@24950
  1004
of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
wenzelm@24950
  1005
'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
wenzelm@24950
  1006
current context.
wenzelm@19682
  1007
wenzelm@19665
  1008
* Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
wenzelm@19665
  1009
'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
wenzelm@19083
  1010
object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
wenzelm@19083
  1011
isar-ref manual.  Examples:
wenzelm@19081
  1012
wenzelm@19665
  1013
  axiomatization
wenzelm@21595
  1014
    eq  (infix "===" 50) where
wenzelm@21595
  1015
    eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
wenzelm@21595
  1016
wenzelm@21595
  1017
  definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
wenzelm@21595
  1018
  definition g where "g x = f x x"
wenzelm@19081
  1019
wenzelm@19363
  1020
  abbreviation
wenzelm@21595
  1021
    neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
wenzelm@19363
  1022
    "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
wenzelm@19081
  1023
wenzelm@19083
  1024
These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
wenzelm@19083
  1025
constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
wenzelm@19083
  1026
constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
wenzelm@19083
  1027
abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
wenzelm@19088
  1028
parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
wenzelm@25177
  1029
src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
wenzelm@19083
  1030
entities from a monomorphic theory.
wenzelm@19083
  1031
wenzelm@19083
  1032
Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
wenzelm@19363
  1033
not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
wenzelm@19363
  1034
'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
wenzelm@24735
  1035
'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
wenzelm@24735
  1036
prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
wenzelm@19084
  1037
wenzelm@19682
  1038
Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
wenzelm@19682
  1039
independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
wenzelm@21209
  1040
slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
wenzelm@19682
  1041
'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
wenzelm@19665
  1042
wenzelm@24800
  1043
* Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
wenzelm@24800
  1044
(e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
wenzelm@24800
  1045
full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
wenzelm@24735
  1046
wenzelm@24735
  1047
  definition "K x _ = x"
wenzelm@24735
  1048
wenzelm@24738
  1049
  inductive conj for A B
wenzelm@24738
  1050
  where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
wenzelm@24738
  1051
wenzelm@21735
  1052
* Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
wenzelm@21735
  1053
the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
wenzelm@21735
  1054
abbreviations on output.
wenzelm@21735
  1055
wenzelm@24800
  1056
* Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
wenzelm@24800
  1057
"struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
wenzelm@24800
  1058
required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
wenzelm@24800
  1059
endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
ballarin@19783
  1060
ballarin@19931
  1061
* Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
ballarin@19931
  1062
Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
wenzelm@22126
  1063
now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
wenzelm@22126
  1064
locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
wenzelm@22126
  1065
predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
wenzelm@22126
  1066
removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
wenzelm@22126
  1067
`unfold_locales'; see below.
wenzelm@22126
  1068
wenzelm@22126
  1069
* Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
wenzelm@22126
  1070
provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
wenzelm@22126
  1071
aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
wenzelm@22126
  1072
`intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
wenzelm@22126
  1073
unfold predicates to assumptions.
ballarin@19931
  1074
ballarin@19931
  1075
* Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
wenzelm@22126
  1076
has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
wenzelm@22126
  1077
to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
ballarin@19931
  1078
ballarin@23920
  1079
* Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
ballarin@23920
  1080
extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
ballarin@23920
  1081
unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
ballarin@23920
  1082
defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
ballarin@23920
  1083
concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
ballarin@23920
  1084
ballarin@23920
  1085
  interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
ballarin@23920
  1086
    where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
ballarin@23920
  1087
wenzelm@24800
  1088
Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
wenzelm@24800
  1089
definition specification element in the context of locale
wenzelm@24800
  1090
partial_order.
wenzelm@24800
  1091
wenzelm@24859
  1092
* Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
wenzelm@24800
  1093
local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
wenzelm@24800
  1094
connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
wenzelm@24800
  1095
(using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
wenzelm@24800
  1096
obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
wenzelm@25177
  1097
src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
wenzelm@25177
  1098
src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
wenzelm@25177
  1099
examples.
wenzelm@24606
  1100
wenzelm@24859
  1101
* Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
wenzelm@24606
  1102
introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
wenzelm@24606
  1103
several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
wenzelm@24606
  1104
accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
wenzelm@25177
  1105
see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
wenzelm@24606
  1106
wenzelm@24859
  1107
* Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
wenzelm@24800
  1108
of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
wenzelm@24606
  1109
foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
wenzelm@24859
  1110
predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
wenzelm@24859
  1111
mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
wenzelm@18506
  1112
wenzelm@18506
  1113
  (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
wenzelm@18506
  1114
  (induct set: foo bar)
wenzelm@24859
  1115
  (induct pred: foo bar)
wenzelm@18506
  1116
  (induct type: foo bar)
wenzelm@18506
  1117
wenzelm@18506
  1118
The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
wenzelm@18506
  1119
new format.
wenzelm@18506
  1120
wenzelm@24859
  1121
* Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
wenzelm@18399
  1122
src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
wenzelm@18399
  1123
wenzelm@24859
  1124
* Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
wenzelm@24859
  1125
considered a legacy feature.
wenzelm@24859
  1126
wenzelm@20919
  1127
* Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
wenzelm@20919
  1128
variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@20919
  1129
wenzelm@22126
  1130
* Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
wenzelm@22126
  1131
rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
wenzelm@22126
  1132
default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
wenzelm@22126
  1133
trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
nipkow@18674
  1134
  
wenzelm@18536
  1135
* Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
wenzelm@18536
  1136
attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
wenzelm@18536
  1137
manipulating the claset.
wenzelm@18536
  1138
wenzelm@18694
  1139
* Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
wenzelm@18694
  1140
dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
wenzelm@18694
  1141
least one premise.
wenzelm@18694
  1142
wenzelm@18694
  1143
* Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
wenzelm@18695
  1144
weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
wenzelm@18696
  1145
ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
wenzelm@18694
  1146
rule steps.
paulson@18557
  1147
wenzelm@18536
  1148
* Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
wenzelm@18536
  1149
where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
wenzelm@18536
  1150
patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
wenzelm@18536
  1151
"{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
wenzelm@18536
  1152
INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
wenzelm@18536
  1153
constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
wenzelm@18536
  1154
wenzelm@18536
  1155
* Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
wenzelm@18536
  1156
parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
wenzelm@18536
  1157
for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
wenzelm@17779
  1158
wenzelm@20582
  1159
* Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
wenzelm@20582
  1160
the graph browser tool.
wenzelm@20582
  1161
wenzelm@24800
  1162
* Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
wenzelm@24800
  1163
default; use '!' option for full details.
wenzelm@20620
  1164
wenzelm@17865
  1165
nipkow@17806
  1166
*** HOL ***
nipkow@17806
  1167
wenzelm@25129
  1168
* Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
wenzelm@25129
  1169
resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
wenzelm@25129
  1170
Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
wenzelm@25129
  1171
Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
wenzelm@25129
  1172
multi-threading.
wenzelm@25129
  1173
  
wenzelm@25129
  1174
* Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
wenzelm@25129
  1175
background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
wenzelm@25129
  1176
successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
wenzelm@25129
  1177
wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
wenzelm@25129
  1178
work with multi-threading.
wenzelm@25129
  1179
wenzelm@24804
  1180
* New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
wenzelm@24804
  1181
potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
wenzelm@24804
  1182
auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
wenzelm@25129
  1183
5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
wenzelm@25129
  1184
executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
wenzelm@24804
  1185
haftmann@25184
  1186
* New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
haftmann@25184
  1187
haftmann@25184
  1188
* Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
haftmann@25184
  1189
equality.
haftmann@25184
  1190
haftmann@25184
  1191
* Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
haftmann@25184
  1192
the new 'class' package:
haftmann@25184
  1193
haftmann@25184
  1194
    HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
haftmann@25184
  1195
    HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
haftmann@25184
  1196
    0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
haftmann@25184
  1197
    1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
haftmann@25184
  1198
    op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
haftmann@25184
  1199
    op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
haftmann@25184
  1200
    uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
haftmann@25184
  1201
    op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
haftmann@25184
  1202
    op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
haftmann@25184
  1203
    op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
haftmann@25184
  1204
    Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
haftmann@25184
  1205
    Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
haftmann@25184
  1206
    Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
haftmann@25184
  1207
    FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
haftmann@25184
  1208
    FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
haftmann@25184
  1209
    Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
haftmann@25184
  1210
    Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
haftmann@25184
  1211
    Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
haftmann@25184
  1212
    Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
haftmann@25184
  1213
    Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
haftmann@25184
  1214
haftmann@25184
  1215
INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
haftmann@25184
  1216
haftmann@25184
  1217
a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
haftmann@25184
  1218
"times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
haftmann@25184
  1219
"+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
haftmann@25184
  1220
names.
haftmann@25184
  1221
haftmann@25184
  1222
b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
haftmann@25184
  1223
INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
haftmann@25184
  1224
haftmann@25184
  1225
c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
haftmann@25184
  1226
Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
haftmann@25184
  1227
rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
haftmann@25184
  1228
that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
haftmann@25184
  1229
distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
haftmann@25184
  1230
haftmann@25184
  1231
d) ML code directly refering to constant names
haftmann@25184
  1232
This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
haftmann@25184
  1233
so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
haftmann@25184
  1234
Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
haftmann@25184
  1235
haftmann@25184
  1236
* New class "default" with associated constant "default".
haftmann@25184
  1237
haftmann@25184
  1238
* Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
haftmann@25184
  1239
(and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
haftmann@25184
  1240
sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
haftmann@25184
  1241
sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
haftmann@25184
  1242
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@25184
  1243
haftmann@25184
  1244
* Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
haftmann@25184
  1245
Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@25184
  1246
haftmann@25184
  1247
* Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
haftmann@25184
  1248
"cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
haftmann@25184
  1249
clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@25184
  1250
haftmann@25184
  1251
* Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
haftmann@25184
  1252
changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
haftmann@25184
  1253
haftmann@25184
  1254
* The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
haftmann@25184
  1255
for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
haftmann@25184
  1256
in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
haftmann@25184
  1257
Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
haftmann@25184
  1258
is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
haftmann@25184
  1259
command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
haftmann@25184
  1260
in the current context.
haftmann@25184
  1261
haftmann@25184
  1262
* Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
haftmann@25184
  1263
lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
haftmann@25184
  1264
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@25184
  1265
haftmann@25184
  1266
* Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
haftmann@25184
  1267
with new class dense_linear_order.
haftmann@25184
  1268
haftmann@25184
  1269
* Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
haftmann@25184
  1270
haftmann@25184
  1271
    constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
haftmann@25184
  1272
    constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
haftmann@25184
  1273
haftmann@25184
  1274
    classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
haftmann@25184
  1275
      "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
haftmann@25184
  1276
    class "lorder" now named "lattice"
haftmann@25184
  1277
    class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
haftmann@25184
  1278
haftmann@25184
  1279
    Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
haftmann@25184
  1280
    for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
haftmann@25184
  1281
haftmann@25184
  1282
  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
haftmann@25184
  1283
haftmann@25184
  1284
    meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
haftmann@25184
  1285
    meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
haftmann@25184
  1286
    join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
haftmann@25184
  1287
    join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
haftmann@25184
  1288
    meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
haftmann@25184
  1289
    le_meetI                ~> le_infI
haftmann@25184
  1290
    join_leI                ~> le_supI
haftmann@25184
  1291
    le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
haftmann@25184
  1292
    le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
haftmann@25184
  1293
    meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
haftmann@25184
  1294
    join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
haftmann@25184
  1295
    meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
haftmann@25184
  1296
    join_comm               ~> sup_commute
haftmann@25184
  1297
    meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
haftmann@25184
  1298
    meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
haftmann@25184
  1299
    le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
haftmann@25184
  1300
    le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
haftmann@25184
  1301
    meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
haftmann@25184
  1302
    join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
haftmann@25184
  1303
    meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
haftmann@25184
  1304
    meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
haftmann@25184
  1305
    join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
haftmann@25184
  1306
    join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
haftmann@25184
  1307
    meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
haftmann@25184
  1308
    join_aci                ~> sup_aci
haftmann@25184
  1309
    le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
haftmann@25184
  1310
    le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
haftmann@25184
  1311
    join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
haftmann@25184
  1312
    join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
haftmann@25184
  1313
    meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
haftmann@25184
  1314
    meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
haftmann@25184
  1315
    meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
haftmann@25184
  1316
    join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
haftmann@25184
  1317
    distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
haftmann@25184
  1318
    distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
haftmann@25184
  1319
haftmann@25184
  1320
    add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
haftmann@25184
  1321
    add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
haftmann@25184
  1322
    is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
haftmann@25184
  1323
    is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
haftmann@25184
  1324
    add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
haftmann@25184
  1325
    add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
haftmann@25184
  1326
    add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
haftmann@25184
  1327
    join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
haftmann@25184
  1328
    meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
haftmann@25184
  1329
    add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
haftmann@25184
  1330
    meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
haftmann@25184
  1331
    join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
haftmann@25184
  1332
    meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
haftmann@25184
  1333
    join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
haftmann@25184
  1334
    neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
haftmann@25184
  1335
    neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
haftmann@25184
  1336
    join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
haftmann@25184
  1337
haftmann@25184
  1338
    mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
haftmann@25184
  1339
    mono_join               ~> mono_sup
haftmann@25184
  1340
    meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
haftmann@25184
  1341
    join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
haftmann@25184
  1342
    meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
haftmann@25184
  1343
    join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
haftmann@25184
  1344
    meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
haftmann@25184
  1345
    join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
haftmann@25184
  1346
    meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
haftmann@25184
  1347
    meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
haftmann@25184
  1348
    meet1I                  ~> inf1I
haftmann@25184
  1349
    meet2I                  ~> inf2I
haftmann@25184
  1350
    meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
haftmann@25184
  1351
    meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
haftmann@25184
  1352
    meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
haftmann@25184
  1353
    meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
haftmann@25184
  1354
    meet1E                  ~> inf1E
haftmann@25184
  1355
    meet2E                  ~> inf2E
haftmann@25184
  1356
    join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
haftmann@25184
  1357
    join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
haftmann@25184
  1358
    join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
haftmann@25184
  1359
    join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
haftmann@25184
  1360
    join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
haftmann@25184
  1361
    join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
haftmann@25184
  1362
    join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
haftmann@25184
  1363
    join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
haftmann@25184
  1364
    join1E                  ~> sup1E
haftmann@25184
  1365
    join2E                  ~> sup2E
haftmann@25184
  1366
haftmann@25184
  1367
    is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
haftmann@25184
  1368
    Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
haftmann@25184
  1369
    Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
haftmann@25184
  1370
    Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
haftmann@25184
  1371
    Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
haftmann@25184
  1372
    Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
haftmann@25184
  1373
haftmann@25184
  1374
    Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
haftmann@25184
  1375
    Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
haftmann@25184
  1376
    Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
haftmann@25184
  1377
    Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
haftmann@25184
  1378
haftmann@25184
  1379
    listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
haftmann@25184
  1380
    listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
haftmann@25184
  1381
haftmann@25184
  1382
    meet_min                ~> inf_min
haftmann@25184
  1383
    join_max                ~> sup_max
haftmann@25184
  1384
haftmann@25184
  1385
* Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
haftmann@25184
  1386
type "'a::size ==> bool"
haftmann@25184
  1387
wenzelm@24800
  1388
* Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
wenzelm@24800
  1389
"foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
wenzelm@24800
  1390
simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
haftmann@25184
  1391
"*.size".
haftmann@25184
  1392
haftmann@25184
  1393
* Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
haftmann@25184
  1394
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
  1395
wenzelm@24800
  1396
* HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
wenzelm@24800
  1397
Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
wenzelm@24800
  1398
fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
  1399
wenzelm@25129
  1400
* HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@25129
  1401
wenzelm@24800
  1402
* HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
wenzelm@24800
  1403
machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
wenzelm@24800
  1404
operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
wenzelm@24800
  1405
linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
wenzelm@24800
  1406
lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
wenzelm@24800
  1407
arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
wenzelm@24800
  1408
numerals on all operations.
kleing@24333
  1409
kleing@24333
  1410
* Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
kleing@24333
  1411
kleing@24333
  1412
* Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
kleing@24333
  1413
haftmann@23850
  1414
* Code generator library theories:
haftmann@24993
  1415
  - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
haftmann@23850
  1416
    languages.
haftmann@24993
  1417
  - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
haftmann@23850
  1418
    languages.
haftmann@24993
  1419
  - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
haftmann@24993
  1420
    codes; includes Code_Integer.
wenzelm@24800
  1421
  - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
wenzelm@24800
  1422
  - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
haftmann@23850
  1423
    denominator).
wenzelm@24800
  1424
  - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
haftmann@23850
  1425
    representable by rational numbers.
wenzelm@24800
  1426
  - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
haftmann@23850
  1427
    result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
haftmann@24993
  1428
    includes Code_Integer.
haftmann@24993
  1429
  - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
haftmann@24993
  1430
    target-language built-in integers.
haftmann@26355
  1431
  - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
haftmann@24993
  1432
    strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
haftmann@23850
  1433
berghofe@23783
  1434
* New package for inductive predicates
berghofe@23783
  1435
berghofe@23783
  1436
  An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
berghofe@23783
  1437
berghofe@23783
  1438
    inductive
berghofe@23783
  1439
      p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
berghofe@23783
  1440
      for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
berghofe@23783
  1441
    where
berghofe@23783
  1442
      rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
berghofe@23783
  1443
    | ...
berghofe@23783
  1444
wenzelm@24800
  1445
  with full support for type-inference, rather than
berghofe@23783
  1446
berghofe@23783
  1447
    consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
berghofe@23783
  1448
berghofe@23783
  1449
    abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
berghofe@23783
  1450
    where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
berghofe@23783
  1451
berghofe@23783
  1452
    inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
berghofe@23783
  1453
    intros
berghofe@23783
  1454
      rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
berghofe@23783
  1455
      ...
berghofe@23783
  1456
berghofe@23783
  1457
  For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
berghofe@23783
  1458
  sets to be defined with the new package via
berghofe@23783
  1459
berghofe@23783
  1460
    inductive_set
berghofe@23783
  1461
      s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
berghofe@23783
  1462
      for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
berghofe@23783
  1463
    where
berghofe@23783
  1464
      rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
berghofe@23783
  1465
    | ...
berghofe@23783
  1466
berghofe@23783
  1467
  or
berghofe@23783
  1468
berghofe@23783
  1469
    inductive_set
berghofe@23783
  1470
      s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
berghofe@23783
  1471
      and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
berghofe@23783
  1472
      for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
berghofe@23783
  1473
    where
berghofe@23783
  1474
      "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
berghofe@23783
  1475
    | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
berghofe@23783
  1476
    | ...
berghofe@23783
  1477
berghofe@23783
  1478
  if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
berghofe@23783
  1479
wenzelm@25177
  1480
  Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
wenzelm@25177
  1481
  src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
berghofe@23783
  1482
berghofe@23783
  1483
  INCOMPATIBILITIES:
berghofe@23783
  1484
berghofe@23783
  1485
  - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
wenzelm@24800
  1486
    is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
wenzelm@24800
  1487
    introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
wenzelm@24800
  1488
    introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
wenzelm@24800
  1489
    than before the actual inductive definition.
wenzelm@24800
  1490
wenzelm@24800
  1491
  - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
wenzelm@24800
  1492
    quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
wenzelm@24800
  1493
    rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
wenzelm@24800
  1494
    some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
wenzelm@24800
  1495
    reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
wenzelm@24800
  1496
    statements of the form
berghofe@23783
  1497
berghofe@23783
  1498
      case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
berghofe@23783
  1499
berghofe@23783
  1500
    or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
berghofe@23783
  1501
    meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
berghofe@23783
  1502
berghofe@23783
  1503
      | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
berghofe@23783
  1504
berghofe@23783
  1505
  - The format of the elimination rules is now
berghofe@23783
  1506
berghofe@23783
  1507
      p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
berghofe@23783
  1508
        (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
berghofe@23783
  1509
        ==> ... ==> P
berghofe@23783
  1510
berghofe@23783
  1511
    for predicates and
berghofe@23783
  1512
berghofe@23783
  1513
      (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
berghofe@23783
  1514
        (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
berghofe@23783
  1515
        ==> ... ==> P
berghofe@23783
  1516
berghofe@23783
  1517
    for sets rather than
berghofe@23783
  1518
berghofe@23783
  1519
      x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
berghofe@23783
  1520
        (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
berghofe@23783
  1521
        ==> ... ==> P
berghofe@23783
  1522
wenzelm@24800
  1523
    This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
wenzelm@24800
  1524
    (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
wenzelm@24800
  1525
    rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
wenzelm@24800
  1526
wenzelm@24800
  1527
  - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
wenzelm@24800
  1528
    sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
wenzelm@24800
  1529
    list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
berghofe@23783
  1530
krauss@25198
  1531
* New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
krauss@25198
  1532
supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
krauss@25198
  1533
more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
krauss@25198
  1534
for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
krauss@25198
  1535
package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
krauss@25198
  1536
users are encouraged to use the new package.
krauss@25198
  1537
krauss@25198
  1538
* Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
krauss@25198
  1539
relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
krauss@25198
  1540
wenzelm@24800
  1541
* Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
wenzelm@24800
  1542
"_") and take their order into account, like in functional
wenzelm@24800
  1543
programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
wenzelm@24800
  1544
case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
wenzelm@24800
  1545
constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
wenzelm@24800
  1546
the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
wenzelm@24800
  1547
the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
wenzelm@24800
  1548
abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
wenzelm@24800
  1549
variable.
nipkow@23564
  1550
huffman@23468
  1551
* IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
wenzelm@24800
  1552
is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
wenzelm@24800
  1553
rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
wenzelm@24800
  1554
previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
huffman@23468
  1555
  - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
huffman@23468
  1556
  - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
huffman@23377
  1557
chaieb@23295
  1558
* Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
wenzelm@24800
  1559
Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
wenzelm@24800
  1560
tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
wenzelm@24800
  1561
a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
wenzelm@24800
  1562
declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
wenzelm@24800
  1563
already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
wenzelm@24800
  1564
of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
wenzelm@24800
  1565
CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
wenzelm@24800
  1566
architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
wenzelm@24800
  1567
wenzelm@25033
  1568
* Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
wenzelm@25033
  1569
special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
wenzelm@25033
  1570
"algebra"). The method is already installed for class
wenzelm@25033
  1571
{ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
wenzelm@25033
  1572
rat, etc.
wenzelm@25033
  1573
wenzelm@24800
  1574
* Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
wenzelm@24800
  1575
antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
wenzelm@24800
  1576
circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
wenzelm@24800
  1577
haftmann@24996
  1578
* primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
haftmann@22845
  1579
wenzelm@24800
  1580
* New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
wenzelm@24800
  1581
Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
wenzelm@24800
  1582
wenzelm@24800
  1583
* New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
wenzelm@25177
  1584
[(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
wenzelm@24800
  1585
wenzelm@24800
  1586
* The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
wenzelm@24800
  1587
xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
wenzelm@24800
  1588
comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
  1589
wenzelm@24800
  1590
* [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
wenzelm@24800
  1591
defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
wenzelm@24800
  1592
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
  1593
wenzelm@24800
  1594
* Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
wenzelm@24800
  1595
wenzelm@25177
  1596
* New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
wenzelm@24800
  1597
wenzelm@24800
  1598
* New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
wenzelm@24800
  1599
manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
wenzelm@24800
  1600
denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
wenzelm@24800
  1601
positive/negative (in inequations).
nipkow@23480
  1602
nipkow@23480
  1603
* Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
wenzelm@24800
  1604
have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
wenzelm@24800
  1605
ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
wenzelm@24800
  1606
because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
  1607
wenzelm@25177
  1608
* Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
wenzelm@24800
  1609
package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
wenzelm@24800
  1610
algebraic operations.
haftmann@22735
  1611
wenzelm@24800
  1612
* Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
haftmann@22218
  1613
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@22218
  1614
wenzelm@24800
  1615
* Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
haftmann@22218
  1616
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@22218
  1617
wenzelm@22126
  1618
* HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
wenzelm@22126
  1619
field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
wenzelm@22126
  1620
(K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
schirmer@21226
  1621
INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
schirmer@21226
  1622
adapted.
schirmer@21226
  1623
 
wenzelm@24800
  1624
* Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
wenzelm@24800
  1625
* x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
wenzelm@24800
  1626
inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
wenzelm@24800
  1627
there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
wenzelm@24800
  1628
there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
wenzelm@24800
  1629
wenzelm@24800
  1630
* Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
wenzelm@24800
  1631
commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
haftmann@25163
  1632
commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
haftmann@21215
  1633
haftmann@21099
  1634
* Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
wenzelm@24800
  1635
INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
wenzelm@24800
  1636
better use 'abbreviation'.
wenzelm@24800
  1637
wenzelm@24800
  1638
* Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
  1639
wenzelm@22126
  1640
* Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
wenzelm@24800
  1641
been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
wenzelm@22126
  1642
significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
wenzelm@24800
  1643
  - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
haftmann@20485
  1644
      of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
haftmann@20485
  1645
  - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
haftmann@20485
  1646
  - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
haftmann@20485
  1647
  - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
haftmann@20485
  1648
wenzelm@25177
  1649
See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
wenzelm@25177
  1650
wenzelm@25177
  1651
* Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
wenzelm@25177
  1652
contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
wenzelm@25177
  1653
produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
wenzelm@25177
  1654
heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
wenzelm@25177
  1655
first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
wenzelm@25177
  1656
further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
nipkow@19895
  1657
wenzelm@17996
  1658
* Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
wenzelm@17996
  1659
25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
wenzelm@17996
  1660
"A = B" (with priority 50).
wenzelm@17996
  1661
wenzelm@21265
  1662
* Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
wenzelm@21265
  1663
Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
wenzelm@24800
  1664
e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
wenzelm@24800
  1665
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@21265
  1666
nipkow@18674
  1667
* "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
nipkow@18674
  1668
krauss@20716
  1669
* Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
krauss@20716
  1670
stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
krauss@20716
  1671
wenzelm@22126
  1672
* The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
wenzelm@22126
  1673
removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
nipkow@19377
  1674
wenzelm@17865
  1675
* In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
wenzelm@24800
  1676
"t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
wenzelm@24800
  1677
``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
wenzelm@24800
  1678
wenzelm@24800
  1679
* Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
wenzelm@24800
  1680
True/False.
wenzelm@24800
  1681
wenzelm@24800
  1682
* Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
nipkow@19211
  1683
ballarin@19279
  1684
* Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
ballarin@19279
  1685
nipkow@19211
  1686
* Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
wenzelm@22126
  1687
``rule'' method.
wenzelm@22126
  1688
wenzelm@24800
  1689
* Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
wenzelm@24800
  1690
goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
wenzelm@24800
  1691
(i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
wenzelm@24800
  1692
"lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
wenzelm@24800
  1693
wenzelm@24800
  1694
* Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
wenzelm@22126
  1695
zChaff is still supported as well.
wenzelm@22126
  1696
wenzelm@22126
  1697
* 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
wenzelm@22126
  1698
bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
wenzelm@22126
  1699
wenzelm@22126
  1700
* Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
wenzelm@22126
  1701
Library.
wenzelm@21256
  1702
wenzelm@21256
  1703
* Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
wenzelm@19572
  1704
wenzelm@18446
  1705
* Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
wenzelm@18446
  1706
as greatest fixed-point.
wenzelm@18399
  1707
wenzelm@19254
  1708
* Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
schirmer@19252
  1709
association lists.
webertj@17809
  1710
wenzelm@24800
  1711
* Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
wenzelm@24800
  1712
efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
wenzelm@24800
  1713
oracle) if it evaluates to True.
wenzelm@20807
  1714
wenzelm@20807
  1715
* Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
wenzelm@24800
  1716
also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
wenzelm@24800
  1717
being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
  1718
Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
wenzelm@24800
  1719
behavior.
webertj@20217
  1720
wenzelm@22126
  1721
* Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
wenzelm@19254
  1722
wenzelm@20807
  1723
* New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
wenzelm@20807
  1724
interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
wenzelm@20807
  1725
parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
wenzelm@20807
  1726
theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
wenzelm@20807
  1727
resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
wenzelm@20807
  1728
s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
wenzelm@20807
  1729
wenzelm@20807
  1730
* New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
wenzelm@20807
  1731
are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
wenzelm@20807
  1732
where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
wenzelm@20807
  1733
generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
wenzelm@20807
  1734
applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
wenzelm@20807
  1735
r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
wenzelm@25177
  1736
subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
wenzelm@25177
  1737
wenzelm@25177
  1738
* Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
wenzelm@25177
  1739
available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
wenzelm@20807
  1740
wenzelm@25397
  1741
* HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
schirmer@25409
  1742
command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
wenzelm@25397
  1743
abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
wenzelm@25397
  1744
HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
wenzelm@25397
  1745
in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
wenzelm@25397
  1746
wenzelm@25397
  1747
wenzelm@19653
  1748
*** HOL-Complex ***
wenzelm@19653
  1749
huffman@22971
  1750
* Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
huffman@22971
  1751
inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
huffman@22971
  1752
Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
huffman@22971
  1753
that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
huffman@22971
  1754
INCOMPATIBILITY.
huffman@22971
  1755
wenzelm@24800
  1756
* Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
huffman@21791
  1757
algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
huffman@21791
  1758
and norm :: 'a => real.
huffman@21791
  1759
wenzelm@24800
  1760
* Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
wenzelm@24800
  1761
reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
wenzelm@24800
  1762
defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
  1763
wenzelm@24800
  1764
* Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
nipkow@23013
  1765
Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
nipkow@23013
  1766
wenzelm@22126
  1767
* Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
wenzelm@22126
  1768
reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
wenzelm@22126
  1769
spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
wenzelm@22126
  1770
INCOMPATIBILITY.
huffman@21791
  1771
huffman@22972
  1772
  Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
huffman@22972
  1773
  HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
huffman@22972
  1774
  HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
huffman@21791
  1775
  approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
huffman@21791
  1776
  monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
huffman@21791
  1777
  galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
huffman@22972
  1778
  (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
huffman@21791
  1779
  (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
huffman@21791
  1780
  (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
huffman@21791
  1781
  (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
huffman@21791
  1782
  (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
huffman@21791
  1783
  is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
huffman@21791
  1784
  deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
huffman@22972
  1785
  sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
huffman@23116
  1786
  exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
huffman@21791
  1787
huffman@21791
  1788
* Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
wenzelm@22126
  1789
overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
wenzelm@22126
  1790
hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
wenzelm@22126
  1791
polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
huffman@21791
  1792
huffman@21791
  1793
  approx        <-- capprox
huffman@21791
  1794
  HFinite       <-- CFinite
huffman@21791
  1795
  HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
huffman@21791
  1796
  Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
huffman@21791
  1797
  monad         <-- cmonad
huffman@21791
  1798
  galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
huffman@21791
  1799
  (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
huffman@21791
  1800
  is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
huffman@21791
  1801
  (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
huffman@21791
  1802
wenzelm@19653
  1803
wenzelm@24801
  1804
*** HOL-Algebra ***
wenzelm@24801
  1805
wenzelm@24801
  1806
* Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
wenzelm@24801
  1807
wenzelm@24801
  1808
* Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
wenzelm@24801
  1809
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24801
  1810
wenzelm@24801
  1811
* Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
wenzelm@24801
  1812
greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24801
  1813
wenzelm@24801
  1814
* Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
wenzelm@24801
  1815
Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
wenzelm@24801
  1816
of algebraic structures.
wenzelm@24801
  1817
wenzelm@24801
  1818
* Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
wenzelm@24801
  1819
wenzelm@24801
  1820
wenzelm@24801
  1821
*** HOL-Nominal ***
wenzelm@24801
  1822
wenzelm@25148
  1823
* Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
wenzelm@25177
  1824
structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
wenzelm@25177
  1825
src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
wenzelm@25148
  1826
http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
wenzelm@25148
  1827
wenzelm@24801
  1828
wenzelm@17878
  1829
*** ML ***
wenzelm@17878
  1830
wenzelm@24643
  1831
* ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
wenzelm@24643
  1832
(even on SML/NJ).
wenzelm@24643
  1833
wenzelm@22138
  1834
* ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
wenzelm@22138
  1835
formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
wenzelm@22138
  1836
compile-time.  For example:
wenzelm@22138
  1837
wenzelm@25142
  1838
ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1839
ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1840
ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1841
ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1842
ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1843
ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1844
ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1845
ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1846
ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
wenzelm@24692
  1847
ML {* @{type_name c} *}
wenzelm@25142
  1848
ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
wenzelm@22376
  1849
ML {* @{const_name c} *}
wenzelm@22376
  1850
ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1851
ML {* @{context} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1852
ML {* @{theory} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1853
ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
wenzelm@24692
  1854
ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
wenzelm@24692
  1855
ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1856
ML {* @{simpset} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1857
ML {* @{claset} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1858
ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1859
wenzelm@22151
  1860
The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
wenzelm@22151
  1861
wenzelm@22152
  1862
* ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
wenzelm@24706
  1863
ML_Context.trace enabled.
wenzelm@22152
  1864
wenzelm@19032
  1865
* Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
wenzelm@24706
  1866
DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
wenzelm@19081
  1867
admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
wenzelm@18446
  1868
wenzelm@24800
  1869
* Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
wenzelm@24800
  1870
use Context.generic instead of just theory.
wenzelm@24800
  1871
wenzelm@18642
  1872
* Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
wenzelm@18644
  1873
provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
wenzelm@18642
  1874
context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
wenzelm@18642
  1875
wenzelm@18737
  1876
* Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
wenzelm@24706
  1877
Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
wenzelm@24706
  1878
local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
wenzelm@24706
  1879
minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
wenzelm@24706
  1880
Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
wenzelm@24706
  1881
Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
wenzelm@24706
  1882
GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
wenzelm@19006
  1883
declarations and definitions.
wenzelm@19006
  1884
wenzelm@24800
  1885
* Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
wenzelm@24800
  1886
name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
wenzelm@24800
  1887
init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
wenzelm@24800
  1888
to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
wenzelm@24800
  1889
wenzelm@19508
  1890
* Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
wenzelm@24800
  1891
signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
wenzelm@24800
  1892
logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
wenzelm@24800
  1893
potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@19508
  1894
wenzelm@19508
  1895
* Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
wenzelm@19508
  1896
explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
wenzelm@24706
  1897
internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
wenzelm@19508
  1898
notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
wenzelm@24706
  1899
AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
wenzelm@19508
  1900
Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
wenzelm@19508
  1901
wenzelm@19006
  1902
* Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
wenzelm@19006
  1903
global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
wenzelm@19006
  1904
discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
wenzelm@19006
  1905
accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
wenzelm@19006
  1906
attributes, methods, etc.
wenzelm@18642
  1907
wenzelm@18446
  1908
* Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
wenzelm@18446
  1909
have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
wenzelm@18446
  1910
allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
wenzelm@18446
  1911
fold_map combinators.
haftmann@18051
  1912
wenzelm@21647
  1913
* Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
wenzelm@21647
  1914
comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
wenzelm@21647
  1915
maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
wenzelm@21647
  1916
derivation.
wenzelm@21647
  1917
wenzelm@18020
  1918
* Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
wenzelm@18145
  1919
actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
wenzelm@18020
  1920
achieve the old behaviour.
wenzelm@18020
  1921
wenzelm@18020
  1922
* Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
wenzelm@18020
  1923
slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
wenzelm@18020
  1924
statements.
wenzelm@18020
  1925
wenzelm@20040
  1926
* Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
wenzelm@20040
  1927
enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
wenzelm@20040
  1928
Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
wenzelm@20040
  1929
wenzelm@20090
  1930
* Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
wenzelm@20090
  1931
internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
wenzelm@20090
  1932
some popular functions from term.ML:
wenzelm@20090
  1933
wenzelm@20090
  1934
  Term.variant		->  Name.variant
wenzelm@24800
  1935
  Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
wenzelm@20090
  1936
  Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
wenzelm@20090
  1937
wenzelm@20090
  1938
Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
wenzelm@20090
  1939
from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
wenzelm@20090
  1940
wenzelm@20040
  1941
* Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
wenzelm@20040
  1942
treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
wenzelm@20040
  1943
Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
wenzelm@20040
  1944
Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
wenzelm@20040
  1945
various freeze_thaw operations.
wenzelm@20040
  1946
wenzelm@18567
  1947
* Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
wenzelm@17981
  1948
init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
wenzelm@20040
  1949
Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
wenzelm@20040
  1950
within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
wenzelm@20040
  1951
theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
wenzelm@20040
  1952
OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
wenzelm@20040
  1953
ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
wenzelm@20040
  1954
in a locale context).
wenzelm@17981
  1955
wenzelm@24706
  1956
* Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
wenzelm@24706
  1957
and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
wenzelm@24706
  1958
(Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
wenzelm@24706
  1959
which are considered legacy and await removal.
wenzelm@24706
  1960
wenzelm@24920
  1961
* Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
wenzelm@24920
  1962
(Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
wenzelm@24920
  1963
with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
wenzelm@24920
  1964
etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
wenzelm@24924
  1965
available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
wenzelm@24924
  1966
a mere theory instead of a full context.
wenzelm@24920
  1967
wenzelm@18815
  1968
* Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
wenzelm@18687
  1969
ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
wenzelm@18686
  1970
without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
wenzelm@18686
  1971
care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
wenzelm@18686
  1972
handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
wenzelm@18686
  1973
wenzelm@18686
  1974
  ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
wenzelm@18686
  1975
wenzelm@18686
  1976
Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
wenzelm@18687
  1977
embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
wenzelm@18687
  1978
this:
wenzelm@18686
  1979
wenzelm@18686
  1980
  Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
wenzelm@18686
  1981
wenzelm@18686
  1982
INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
wenzelm@18686
  1983
obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
wenzelm@18686
  1984
Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
wenzelm@18686
  1985
-- use plain ERROR instead.
wenzelm@18686
  1986
wenzelm@18815
  1987
* Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
wenzelm@18722
  1988
list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
wenzelm@18722
  1989
wenzelm@24706
  1990
* Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
wenzelm@24706
  1991
ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
wenzelm@18815
  1992
wenzelm@18815
  1993
* Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
wenzelm@18815
  1994
theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
wenzelm@18815
  1995
quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
wenzelm@18590
  1996
batch mode.
wenzelm@18567
  1997
wenzelm@24867
  1998
* Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
wenzelm@24867
  1999
OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
wenzelm@24867
  2000
OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
wenzelm@24867
  2001
OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24867
  2002
wenzelm@17878
  2003
* Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
wenzelm@17878
  2004
contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
wenzelm@17878
  2005
very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
wenzelm@17890
  2006
simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
wenzelm@17878
  2007
(solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
wenzelm@17878
  2008
wenzelm@17878
  2009
* Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
wenzelm@17878
  2010
local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
wenzelm@17878
  2011
etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
wenzelm@17878
  2012
former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
wenzelm@17890
  2013
INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
wenzelm@17890
  2014
specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
wenzelm@17878
  2015
wenzelm@17878
  2016
* Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
wenzelm@17878
  2017
change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
wenzelm@17878
  2018
theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
wenzelm@17878
  2019
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@17878
  2020
wenzelm@18540
  2021
* Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
wenzelm@18540
  2022
"Trueprop" etc.
wenzelm@18540
  2023
wenzelm@17878
  2024
wenzelm@20988
  2025
*** System ***
wenzelm@20988
  2026
wenzelm@25433
  2027
* settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
wenzelm@25433
  2028
includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
wenzelm@25433
  2029
Isabelle installations.
wenzelm@21471
  2030
wenzelm@20988
  2031
* isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
wenzelm@20988
  2032
operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
wenzelm@20988
  2033
code.
wenzelm@20988
  2034
wenzelm@24891
  2035
* Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
wenzelm@24891
  2036
wenzelm@24801
  2037
* Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
wenzelm@24800
  2038
Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
wenzelm@24800
  2039
independent theories, according to the given theory header
wenzelm@24800
  2040
specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
wenzelm@24800
  2041
usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
wenzelm@24800
  2042
speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
wenzelm@24800
  2043
to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
wenzelm@24800
  2044
guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
wenzelm@24800
  2045
Implementation manual.
wenzelm@24210
  2046
wenzelm@17754
  2047
wenzelm@25448
  2048
wenzelm@17720
  2049
New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
wenzelm@17720
  2050
----------------------------------
wenzelm@14655
  2051
wenzelm@14655
  2052
*** General ***
wenzelm@14655
  2053
nipkow@15130
  2054
* Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
nipkow@15130
  2055
nipkow@15130
  2056
  theory <name>
wenzelm@16234
  2057
  imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
wenzelm@16234
  2058
  uses <file1> ... <fileM>
nipkow@15130
  2059
  begin
nipkow@15130
  2060
wenzelm@16234
  2061
where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
wenzelm@16234
  2062
wenzelm@16234
  2063
  theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
wenzelm@16234
  2064
wenzelm@16717
  2065
will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
wenzelm@16717
  2066
existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
wenzelm@17371
  2067
non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
nipkow@15130
  2068
berghofe@15475
  2069
* Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
wenzelm@16234
  2070
relative and absolute paths.
wenzelm@16234
  2071
wenzelm@17408
  2072
* Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
wenzelm@17408
  2073
list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
wenzelm@17408
  2074
simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
wenzelm@17408
  2075
theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
wenzelm@17408
  2076
match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
wenzelm@17408
  2077
name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
wenzelm@17408
  2078
lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
wenzelm@17408
  2079
all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
wenzelm@17408
  2080
'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
wenzelm@16234
  2081
wenzelm@17275
  2082
  C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
wenzelm@16234
  2083
wenzelm@16234
  2084
prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
wenzelm@16234
  2085
matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
wenzelm@16234
  2086
in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
wenzelm@16013
  2087
wenzelm@17408
  2088
* Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
wenzelm@17408
  2089
'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@17408
  2090
wenzelm@17385
  2091
* Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
wenzelm@17385
  2092
Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
wenzelm@17408
  2093
formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
wenzelm@17538
  2094
General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
wenzelm@17538
  2095
wenzelm@17538
  2096
  http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
wenzelm@17538
  2097
  http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
wenzelm@17385
  2098
wenzelm@17425
  2099
* Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
wenzelm@17425
  2100
Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
wenzelm@17425
  2101
faster.
wenzelm@17425
  2102
wenzelm@15703
  2103
wenzelm@15703
  2104
*** Document preparation ***
wenzelm@15703
  2105
wenzelm@16234
  2106
* Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
wenzelm@16234
  2107
of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
wenzelm@16234
  2108
LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
wenzelm@16234
  2109
displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
wenzelm@16234
  2110
and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
wenzelm@16234
  2111
DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
wenzelm@16234
  2112
wenzelm@17047
  2113
* Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
wenzelm@17047
  2114
notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
wenzelm@17047
  2115
theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
wenzelm@17047
  2116
commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
wenzelm@17047
  2117
"invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
wenzelm@17047
  2118
specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
wenzelm@17047
  2119
interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
wenzelm@17047
  2120
preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
wenzelm@17047
  2121
isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
wenzelm@17047
  2122
\isadroptag.
wenzelm@17047
  2123
wenzelm@17047
  2124
Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
wenzelm@17047
  2125
usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
wenzelm@17047
  2126
specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
wenzelm@17047
  2127
theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
wenzelm@17047
  2128
proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
wenzelm@17047
  2129
these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
wenzelm@17047
  2130
default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
wenzelm@17047
  2131
specified above.
wenzelm@16234
  2132
haftmann@17402
  2133
* Several new antiquotations:
wenzelm@15979
  2134
wenzelm@15979
  2135
  @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
wenzelm@15979
  2136
wenzelm@15979
  2137
  @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
wenzelm@15979
  2138
wenzelm@16234
  2139
  @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
wenzelm@16234
  2140
  argument is a known logical constant;
wenzelm@15979
  2141
wenzelm@15979
  2142
  @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
wenzelm@16234
  2143
  theorem applying a "style" to it
wenzelm@16234
  2144
wenzelm@17117
  2145
  @{ML text}
wenzelm@17117
  2146
wenzelm@16234
  2147
Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
wenzelm@16234
  2148
definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
schirmer@17393
  2149
conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
wenzelm@16234
  2150
to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
wenzelm@16234
  2151
interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
wenzelm@17117
  2152
document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
wenzelm@17117
  2153
type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
wenzelm@16234
  2154
wenzelm@17259
  2155
* Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
wenzelm@17259
  2156
and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
wenzelm@17269
  2157
specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
wenzelm@17269
  2158
example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
wenzelm@17259
  2159
wenzelm@17259
  2160
* Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
wenzelm@17259
  2161
context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
wenzelm@17269
  2162
[locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.
wenzelm@17259
  2163
wenzelm@17097
  2164
* Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within
wenzelm@17097
  2165
a proof context.
wenzelm@17097
  2166
wenzelm@17097
  2167
* Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a
wenzelm@17097
  2168
proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').
wenzelm@17097
  2169
wenzelm@17193
  2170
* Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX
wenzelm@17193
  2171
macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).
wenzelm@17193
  2172
wenzelm@17193
  2173
* isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option
wenzelm@17193
  2174
-D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false
wenzelm@17193
  2175
prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.
wenzelm@17193
  2176
wenzelm@16234
  2177
wenzelm@16234
  2178
*** Pure ***
wenzelm@16234
  2179
wenzelm@16234
  2180
* Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command.  Now performs
wenzelm@16234
  2181
automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for
wenzelm@16234
  2182
local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also
wenzelm@16234
  2183
isar-ref manual.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly
wenzelm@16234
  2184
sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'
wenzelm@16234
  2185
section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier.  If
wenzelm@16234
  2186
all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.
wenzelm@16234
  2187
wenzelm@16234
  2188
* Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures.  First of all,
wenzelm@16234
  2189
indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted
wenzelm@16234
  2190
application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary
wenzelm@16234
  2191
expressions.  Secondly, in a local context with structure
wenzelm@16234
  2192
declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default
wenzelm@16234
  2193
number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option
wenzelm@16234
  2194
show_structs controls printing of implicit structures.  Typical
wenzelm@16234
  2195
applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.
wenzelm@16234
  2196
wenzelm@16234
  2197
* New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and
wenzelm@16234
  2198
translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is
wenzelm@16234
  2199
interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.
wenzelm@16234
  2200
wenzelm@16234
  2201
* 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend
wenzelm@16234
  2202
on the signature of the theory context being presently used for
wenzelm@16234
  2203
parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.
wenzelm@16234
  2204
wenzelm@16856
  2205
* Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an
wenzelm@16856
  2206
ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of
wenzelm@16856
  2207
type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle
wenzelm@16856
  2208
is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;
wenzelm@16856
  2209
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@16856
  2210
wenzelm@17275
  2211
* axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"
wenzelm@17275
  2212
before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.
wenzelm@17275
  2213
INCOMPATIBILITY.  This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for
wenzelm@17275
  2214
axclasses vs. locales.
wenzelm@17275
  2215
wenzelm@16234
  2216
* Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes
wenzelm@16234
  2217
instead of base 26 numbers.
wenzelm@16234
  2218
wenzelm@16234
  2219
* New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question
wenzelm@16234
  2220
marks in schematic variable names.
wenzelm@16234
  2221
wenzelm@16234
  2222
* In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or
wenzelm@16234
  2223
\<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name.  For example, the
wenzelm@16234
  2224
following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:
wenzelm@16234
  2225
wenzelm@16234
  2226
  lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"
wenzelm@16234
  2227
    by simp
wenzelm@16234
  2228
wenzelm@16234
  2229
* Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).
wenzelm@16234
  2230
wenzelm@17548
  2231
* Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix
wenzelm@16234
  2232
annotations as "(00...)".
wenzelm@16234
  2233
wenzelm@16234
  2234
* Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter
wenzelm@16234
  2235
may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.
wenzelm@16234
  2236
Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class
wenzelm@16234
  2237
"logic" vs. "{}".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper
wenzelm@16234
  2238
use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'.  Some very
wenzelm@16234
  2239
exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption
wenzelm@17691
  2240
(e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).
wenzelm@16234
  2241
wenzelm@16234
  2242
* Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.
wenzelm@16234
  2243
Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'
wenzelm@16234
  2244
rather than 'types'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic
wenzelm@16234
  2245
specifications.
wenzelm@16234
  2246
ballarin@17095
  2247
* Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be
ballarin@17095
  2248
locally fixed variables as well.
ballarin@17095
  2249
wenzelm@16234
  2250
* Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting
wenzelm@16234
  2251
is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth
wenzelm@16234
  2252
Limit.
wenzelm@16234
  2253
wenzelm@16234
  2254
* Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current
wenzelm@16234
  2255
simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc
wenzelm@16234
  2256
interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier
wenzelm@16234
  2257
recursively.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs
wenzelm@16234
  2258
is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead.  Moreover, the
wenzelm@16234
  2259
low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to
wenzelm@16234
  2260
allow for use in a context of fixed variables.
wenzelm@16234
  2261
wenzelm@16234
  2262
* thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!
wenzelm@16234
  2263
or ==>.  More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of
wenzelm@16234
  2264
the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.
wenzelm@16234
  2265
wenzelm@17597
  2266
* Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
nipkow@17590
  2267
wenzelm@16234
  2268
* Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived
wenzelm@16234
  2269
from Pure, which contains all common declarations already.  Both
wenzelm@16234
  2270
theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.
wenzelm@16234
  2271
INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /
wenzelm@16234
  2272
CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;
wenzelm@16234
  2273
use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.
wenzelm@16234
  2274
wenzelm@16234
  2275
* New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific
wenzelm@16234
  2276
selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.
wenzelm@16234
  2277
wenzelm@17097
  2278
* 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference
wenzelm@17097
  2279
wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),
wenzelm@17097
  2280
in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');
wenzelm@17097
  2281
wenzelm@17397
  2282
* 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.
wenzelm@17397
  2283
wenzelm@17275
  2284
* More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive
wenzelm@17275
  2285
theory development.
wenzelm@17275
  2286
berghofe@17663
  2287
* Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code
wenzelm@17664
  2288
generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures
wenzelm@17664
  2289
for each theory).  INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'
wenzelm@17664
  2290
must be quoted when used as identifiers.
wenzelm@17664
  2291
wenzelm@17664
  2292
* New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using
wenzelm@17664
  2293
the code generator.  INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be
wenzelm@17664
  2294
quoted when used as identifier.
berghofe@17663
  2295
wenzelm@16234
  2296
wenzelm@16234
  2297
*** Locales ***
ballarin@17095
  2298
wenzelm@17385
  2299
* New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in
wenzelm@17385
  2300
theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3).  These generate
wenzelm@17385
  2301
proof obligations from the expression specification.  After the
wenzelm@17385
  2302
obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added
wenzelm@17385
  2303
to the theory, target locale or proof context.  The synopsis of the
wenzelm@17385
  2304
commands is a follows:
wenzelm@17385
  2305
ballarin@17095
  2306
  (1) interpretation expr inst
ballarin@17095
  2307
  (2) interpretation target < expr
ballarin@17095
  2308
  (3) interpret expr inst
wenzelm@17385
  2309
ballarin@17095
  2310
Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter
ballarin@17095
  2311
instantiation of terms from the current context.  This is applied to
wenzelm@17385
  2312
specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.
wenzelm@17385
  2313
Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the
wenzelm@17385
  2314
locale expression.  Interpretation is smart in that interpretations
wenzelm@17385
  2315
that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are
wenzelm@17385
  2316
instantiated theorems stored in duplicate.  Use 'print_interps' to
wenzelm@17385
  2317
inspect active interpretations of a particular locale.  For details,
ballarin@17436
  2318
see the Isar Reference manual.  Examples can be found in
ballarin@17436
  2319
HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.
wenzelm@16234
  2320
wenzelm@16234
  2321
INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use
wenzelm@16234
  2322
'interpret' instead.
wenzelm@16234
  2323
wenzelm@17385
  2324
* New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to
wenzelm@17385
  2325
parameters.
wenzelm@17385
  2326
wenzelm@17385
  2327
* Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax
wenzelm@17385
  2328
redeclaration.
ballarin@17095
  2329
ballarin@17095
  2330
* Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.
ballarin@17095
  2331
wenzelm@16234
  2332
* Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /
wenzelm@16234
  2333
facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition
wenzelm@16234
  2334
context, independently of the context of later invocations.  Moreover,
wenzelm@16234
  2335
locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied
wenzelm@16234
  2336
to attribute arguments as expected.
wenzelm@16234
  2337
wenzelm@16234
  2338
INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of
wenzelm@16234
  2339
actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to
wenzelm@16234
  2340
embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.
wenzelm@16234
  2341
Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static
wenzelm@16234
  2342
binding mechanism.  Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and
wenzelm@16234
  2343
Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further
wenzelm@16234
  2344
intervention.  Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"
wenzelm@16234
  2345
(cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both
wenzelm@16234
  2346
on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed
wenzelm@16234
  2347
values to argument tokens explicitly.
wenzelm@16234
  2348
wenzelm@16234
  2349
* Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal
wenzelm@16234
  2350
statements with 'includes'.  INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different
wenzelm@16234
  2351
theorem statement in rare situations.
wenzelm@16234
  2352
ballarin@17228
  2353
* Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements.  Use
ballarin@17228
  2354
'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.
ballarin@17228
  2355
wenzelm@16234
  2356
wenzelm@16234
  2357
*** Provers ***
wenzelm@16234
  2358
wenzelm@16234
  2359
* Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for
wenzelm@16234
  2360
single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is
wenzelm@16234
  2361
'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may
wenzelm@16234
  2362
rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is
wenzelm@16234
  2363
still available as 'simplesubst'.
wenzelm@16234
  2364
wenzelm@16234
  2365
* Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only
wenzelm@16234
  2366
and quasi orders.
wenzelm@16234
  2367
wenzelm@16234
  2368
* Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and
wenzelm@16234
  2369
reflexive-transitive closure of relations.
wenzelm@16234
  2370
wenzelm@16234
  2371
* Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth
wenzelm@16234
  2372
limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.
wenzelm@16234
  2373
wenzelm@16234
  2374
* Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup
wenzelm@16234
  2375
is peformed already.  Object-logics merely need to finish their
wenzelm@16234
  2376
initial simpset configuration as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@15703
  2377
berghofe@15475
  2378
schirmer@14700
  2379
*** HOL ***
schirmer@14700
  2380
wenzelm@16234
  2381
* Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:
wenzelm@14878
  2382
wenzelm@14878
  2383
  syntax (epsilon)
wenzelm@14878
  2384
    "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a"    ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)
wenzelm@14878
  2385
wenzelm@16234
  2386
The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX
wenzelm@16234
  2387
and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.
wenzelm@16234
  2388
Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>
wenzelm@16234
  2389
becomes available as variable, constant etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
wenzelm@16234
  2390
wenzelm@16234
  2391
* "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".
wenzelm@16234
  2392
Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc.  The x-symbol for >=
wenzelm@17371
  2393
is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to
avigad@17016
  2394
support corresponding Isar calculations.
wenzelm@16234
  2395
wenzelm@16234
  2396
* "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"
wenzelm@16234
  2397
instead of ":".
wenzelm@16234
  2398
wenzelm@16234
  2399
* theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:
wenzelm@16234
  2400
wenzelm@16234
  2401
  Old       New
wenzelm@16234
  2402
  {..n(}    {..<n}
wenzelm@16234
  2403
  {)n..}    {n<..}
wenzelm@16234
  2404
  {m..n(}   {m..<n}
wenzelm@16234
  2405
  {)m..n}   {m<..n}
wenzelm@16234
  2406
  {)m..n(}  {m<..<n}
wenzelm@16234
  2407
wenzelm@16234
  2408
The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next
wenzelm@16234
  2409
release.  For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace
wenzelm@16234
  2410
patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):
nipkow@15046
  2411
nipkow@15046
  2412
  {)\([^\.]*\)\.\.  ->  {\1<\.\.}
nipkow@15046
  2413
  \.\.\([^(}]*\)(}  ->  \.\.<\1}
nipkow@15046
  2414
wenzelm@17533
  2415
* Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving
wenzelm@17533
  2416
equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic
wenzelm@17533
  2417
interface.
wenzelm@17389
  2418
wenzelm@17389
  2419
* Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over
wenzelm@16234
  2420
finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is
wenzelm@17371
  2421
now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can
paulson@17189
  2422
be a tuple pattern.
wenzelm@16234
  2423
wenzelm@16234
  2424
Some new syntax forms are available:
wenzelm@16234
  2425
wenzelm@16234
  2426
  "\<Sum>x | P. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"
wenzelm@16234
  2427
  "\<Sum>x = a..b. e"   for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"
wenzelm@16234
  2428
  "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e"  for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"
wenzelm@16234
  2429
  "\<Sum>x < k. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"
wenzelm@16234
  2430
wenzelm@16234
  2431
The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate
wenzelm@16234
  2432
function "Summation", which has been discontinued.
wenzelm@16234
  2433
wenzelm@16234
  2434
* theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case
wenzelm@16234
  2435
is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case
wenzelm@16234
  2436
(insert F x)'.
wenzelm@16234
  2437
wenzelm@16234
  2438
* The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger
wenzelm@16234
  2439
fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and
wenzelm@16234
  2440
typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.
wenzelm@16234
  2441
webertj@17700
  2442
* New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.
webertj@17700
  2443
Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed.  See
webertj@17700
  2444
HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.
webertj@17619
  2445
wenzelm@16234
  2446
* Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the
wenzelm@16234
  2447
induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by
wenzelm@16234
  2448
induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather
wenzelm@16234
  2449
than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
wenzelm@16234
  2450
in unstructured proof scripts.
wenzelm@16234
  2451
wenzelm@16234
  2452
* Reworked implementation of records.  Improved scalability for
wenzelm@16234
  2453
records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type
wenzelm@16234
  2454
inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but
wenzelm@16234
  2455
of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear
wenzelm@16234
  2456
in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields.  The
wenzelm@16234
  2457
top-level (users) view on records is preserved.  Potential
wenzelm@16234
  2458
INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the
wenzelm@16234
  2459
old record representation. The type generated for a record is called
wenzelm@16234
  2460
<record_name>_ext_type.
wenzelm@16234
  2461
wenzelm@16234
  2462
Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the
wenzelm@16234
  2463
proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if
wenzelm@16234
  2464
quick_and_dirty is enabled).  Definitions of large records can take
wenzelm@16234
  2465
quite long.
wenzelm@16234
  2466
wenzelm@16234
  2467
New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record
wenzelm@16234
  2468
updates enabled by default.  Moreover, trivial updates are also
wenzelm@16234
  2469
removed: r(|x := x r|) = r.  INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break
wenzelm@16234
  2470
occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.
wenzelm@16234
  2471
wenzelm@17275
  2472
* typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra
wenzelm@17275
  2473
type-variables in the term.
wenzelm@17275
  2474
wenzelm@16234
  2475
* Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains
wenzelm@16234
  2476
involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics
wenzelm@16234
  2477
provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
wenzelm@16234
  2478
old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more
wenzelm@16234
  2479
goals than previously.
wenzelm@16234
  2480
wenzelm@16234
  2481
* Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is
wenzelm@16234
  2482
present.  Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular
wenzelm@16234
  2483
numbers and sets.  For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y
wenzelm@16234
  2484
just like y <= x.
wenzelm@16234
  2485
wenzelm@16234
  2486
* Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x".  If a is a free or
wenzelm@16234
  2487
bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded.  Otherwise
wenzelm@16234
  2488
first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If
wenzelm@16234
  2489
possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",
wenzelm@16234
  2490
otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g.  The simproc can be
wenzelm@16234
  2491
enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc.  Potential
wenzelm@16234
  2492
INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.
webertj@15776
  2493
paulson@16563
  2494
* Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.
paulson@16563
  2495
paulson@17595
  2496
* Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background
paulson@17595
  2497
jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.
paulson@17595
  2498
wenzelm@16891
  2499
* Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and
wenzelm@16891
  2500
improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and
wenzelm@16891
  2501
inequalities.
wenzelm@16891
  2502
wenzelm@16891
  2503
The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
wenzelm@16891
  2504
(INCOMPATIBILITY):
avigad@16888
  2505
avigad@16888
  2506
  abs_eq             now named abs_of_nonneg
wenzelm@17371
  2507
  abs_of_ge_0        now named abs_of_nonneg
wenzelm@17371
  2508
  abs_minus_eq       now named abs_of_nonpos
avigad@16888
  2509
  imp_abs_id         now named abs_of_nonneg
avigad@16888
  2510
  imp_abs_neg_id     now named abs_of_nonpos
avigad@16888
  2511
  mult_pos           now named mult_pos_pos
avigad@16888
  2512
  mult_pos_le        now named mult_nonneg_nonneg
avigad@16888
  2513
  mult_pos_neg_le    now named mult_nonneg_nonpos
avigad@16888
  2514
  mult_pos_neg2_le   now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2
avigad@16888
  2515
  mult_neg           now named mult_neg_neg
avigad@16888
  2516
  mult_neg_le        now named mult_nonpos_nonpos
avigad@16888
  2517
obua@23495
  2518
* The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:
obua@23495
  2519
     
obua@23495
  2520
     zero_le_square
obua@23495
  2521
     not_square_less_zero 
obua@23495
  2522
obua@23495
  2523
  The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:
obua@23495
  2524
  
obua@23495
  2525
     realpow_zero_zero
obua@23495
  2526
     realpow_two
obua@23495
  2527
     realpow_less
obua@23495
  2528
     zero_le_power
obua@23495
  2529
     realpow_two_le
obua@23495
  2530
     abs_realpow_two
obua@23495
  2531
     realpow_two_abs     
obua@23495
  2532
wenzelm@16891
  2533
* Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.
wenzelm@16891
  2534
nipkow@17092
  2535
* Theory List:
nipkow@17092
  2536
nipkow@17092
  2537
The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
nipkow@17092
  2538
(INCOMPATIBILITY):
nipkow@17092
  2539
nipkow@17092
  2540
  list_all_Nil       now named list_all.simps(1)
nipkow@17092
  2541
  list_all_Cons      now named list_all.simps(2)
nipkow@17092
  2542
  list_all_conv      now named list_all_iff
nipkow@17092
  2543
  set_mem_eq         now named mem_iff
nipkow@17092
  2544
wenzelm@16929
  2545
* Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support
wenzelm@16929
  2546
asymptotic "big O" calculations.  See the notes in BigO.thy.
wenzelm@16929
  2547
avigad@16888
  2548
avigad@16888
  2549
*** HOL-Complex ***
avigad@16888
  2550
wenzelm@16891
  2551
* Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and
wenzelm@16891
  2552
integers in the reals.
wenzelm@16891
  2553
wenzelm@16891
  2554
The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
wenzelm@16891
  2555
(INCOMPATIBILITY):
wenzelm@16891
  2556
avigad@17016
  2557
  exp_ge_add_one_self  now requires no hypotheses
avigad@17016
  2558
  real_of_int_add      reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
avigad@17016
  2559
  real_of_int_minus    reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
avigad@17016
  2560
  real_of_int_diff     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
avigad@17016
  2561
  real_of_int_mult     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
wenzelm@16891
  2562
wenzelm@16891
  2563
* Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.
avigad@16888
  2564
avigad@16962
  2565
* Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm
avigad@16962
  2566
wenzelm@17423
  2567
* Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making
wenzelm@17423
  2568
nonstandard types.  The old type names are now type synonyms:
wenzelm@17423
  2569
wenzelm@17423
  2570
  hypreal = real star
wenzelm@17423
  2571
  hypnat = nat star
wenzelm@17423
  2572
  hcomplex = complex star
wenzelm@17423
  2573
wenzelm@17423
  2574
* Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been
huffman@17442
  2575
replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
wenzelm@17423
  2576
wenzelm@17423
  2577
  star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex
wenzelm@17423
  2578
wenzelm@17423
  2579
  starset      <-- starsetNat, starsetC
wenzelm@17423
  2580
  *s*          <-- *sNat*, *sc*
wenzelm@17423
  2581
  starset_n    <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n
wenzelm@17423
  2582
  *sn*         <-- *sNatn*, *scn*
wenzelm@17423
  2583
  InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets
wenzelm@17423
  2584
huffman@17442
  2585
  starfun      <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
wenzelm@17423
  2586
  *f*          <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*
huffman@17442
  2587
  starfun_n    <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n
wenzelm@17423
  2588
  *fn*         <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*
huffman@17442
  2589
  InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs
wenzelm@17423
  2590
wenzelm@17423
  2591
* Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of
huffman@17442
  2592
theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):
huffman@17442
  2593
huffman@17442
  2594
  add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute
huffman@17442
  2595
  add_assoc   <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs
huffman@17442
  2596
  OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left
huffman@17442
  2597
  OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right
wenzelm@17423
  2598
  right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus
huffman@17442
  2599
  left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left
huffman@17442
  2600
  mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute
huffman@17442
  2601
  mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc
huffman@17442
  2602
  mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left
wenzelm@17423
  2603
  mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right
wenzelm@17423
  2604
  mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left
huffman@17442
  2605
  left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib
wenzelm@17423
  2606
  right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2
huffman@17442
  2607
  zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one
wenzelm@17423
  2608
  right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse
wenzelm@17423
  2609
  left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left
huffman@17442
  2610
  order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl
huffman@17442
  2611
  order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans
huffman@17442
  2612
  order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym
huffman@17442
  2613
  order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le
huffman@17442
  2614
  linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear
huffman@17442
  2615
  add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono
huffman@17442
  2616
  mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2
wenzelm@17423
  2617
  add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order
wenzelm@17423
  2618
wenzelm@17423
  2619
* Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific
wenzelm@17423
  2620
versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the
huffman@17442
  2621
new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):
huffman@17442
  2622
huffman@17442
  2623
  STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set
huffman@17442
  2624
  STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set
huffman@17442
  2625
  STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un
huffman@17442
  2626
  STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int
huffman@17442
  2627
  STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl
huffman@17442
  2628
  STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset
huffman@17442
  2629
  STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem
huffman@17442
  2630
  STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl
huffman@17442
  2631
  STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff
huffman@17442
  2632
  STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,
huffman@17442
  2633
    STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset
huffman@17442
  2634
  starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un
huffman@17442
  2635
  starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int
huffman@17442
  2636
  starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl
huffman@17442
  2637
  starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff
huffman@17442
  2638
  InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un