src/HOL/Fun.thy
author hoelzl
Thu Jan 31 11:31:27 2013 +0100 (2013-01-31)
changeset 50999 3de230ed0547
parent 49905 a81f95693c68
child 51598 5dbe537087aa
permissions -rw-r--r--
introduce order topology
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(*  Title:      HOL/Fun.thy
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    Author:     Tobias Nipkow, Cambridge University Computer Laboratory
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    Copyright   1994  University of Cambridge
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*)
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header {* Notions about functions *}
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theory Fun
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imports Complete_Lattices
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keywords "enriched_type" :: thy_goal
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begin
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lemma apply_inverse:
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  "f x = u \<Longrightarrow> (\<And>x. P x \<Longrightarrow> g (f x) = x) \<Longrightarrow> P x \<Longrightarrow> x = g u"
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  by auto
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subsection {* The Identity Function @{text id} *}
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definition id :: "'a \<Rightarrow> 'a" where
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  "id = (\<lambda>x. x)"
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lemma id_apply [simp]: "id x = x"
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  by (simp add: id_def)
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lemma image_id [simp]: "image id = id"
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  by (simp add: id_def fun_eq_iff)
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lemma vimage_id [simp]: "vimage id = id"
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  by (simp add: id_def fun_eq_iff)
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subsection {* The Composition Operator @{text "f \<circ> g"} *}
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definition comp :: "('b \<Rightarrow> 'c) \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) \<Rightarrow> 'a \<Rightarrow> 'c" (infixl "o" 55) where
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  "f o g = (\<lambda>x. f (g x))"
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notation (xsymbols)
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  comp  (infixl "\<circ>" 55)
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notation (HTML output)
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  comp  (infixl "\<circ>" 55)
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lemma comp_apply [simp]: "(f o g) x = f (g x)"
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  by (simp add: comp_def)
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lemma comp_assoc: "(f o g) o h = f o (g o h)"
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  by (simp add: fun_eq_iff)
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lemma id_comp [simp]: "id o g = g"
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  by (simp add: fun_eq_iff)
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lemma comp_id [simp]: "f o id = f"
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  by (simp add: fun_eq_iff)
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lemma comp_eq_dest:
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  "a o b = c o d \<Longrightarrow> a (b v) = c (d v)"
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  by (simp add: fun_eq_iff)
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lemma comp_eq_elim:
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  "a o b = c o d \<Longrightarrow> ((\<And>v. a (b v) = c (d v)) \<Longrightarrow> R) \<Longrightarrow> R"
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  by (simp add: fun_eq_iff) 
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lemma image_comp:
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  "(f o g) ` r = f ` (g ` r)"
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  by auto
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lemma vimage_comp:
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  "(g \<circ> f) -` x = f -` (g -` x)"
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  by auto
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lemma INF_comp:
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  "INFI A (g \<circ> f) = INFI (f ` A) g"
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  by (simp add: INF_def image_comp)
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lemma SUP_comp:
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  "SUPR A (g \<circ> f) = SUPR (f ` A) g"
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  by (simp add: SUP_def image_comp)
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subsection {* The Forward Composition Operator @{text fcomp} *}
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definition fcomp :: "('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) \<Rightarrow> ('b \<Rightarrow> 'c) \<Rightarrow> 'a \<Rightarrow> 'c" (infixl "\<circ>>" 60) where
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  "f \<circ>> g = (\<lambda>x. g (f x))"
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lemma fcomp_apply [simp]:  "(f \<circ>> g) x = g (f x)"
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  by (simp add: fcomp_def)
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lemma fcomp_assoc: "(f \<circ>> g) \<circ>> h = f \<circ>> (g \<circ>> h)"
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  by (simp add: fcomp_def)
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lemma id_fcomp [simp]: "id \<circ>> g = g"
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  by (simp add: fcomp_def)
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lemma fcomp_id [simp]: "f \<circ>> id = f"
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  by (simp add: fcomp_def)
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code_const fcomp
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  (Eval infixl 1 "#>")
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no_notation fcomp (infixl "\<circ>>" 60)
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subsection {* Mapping functions *}
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definition map_fun :: "('c \<Rightarrow> 'a) \<Rightarrow> ('b \<Rightarrow> 'd) \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) \<Rightarrow> 'c \<Rightarrow> 'd" where
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  "map_fun f g h = g \<circ> h \<circ> f"
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lemma map_fun_apply [simp]:
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  "map_fun f g h x = g (h (f x))"
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  by (simp add: map_fun_def)
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subsection {* Injectivity and Bijectivity *}
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definition inj_on :: "('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> bool" where -- "injective"
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  "inj_on f A \<longleftrightarrow> (\<forall>x\<in>A. \<forall>y\<in>A. f x = f y \<longrightarrow> x = y)"
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definition bij_betw :: "('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> bool" where -- "bijective"
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  "bij_betw f A B \<longleftrightarrow> inj_on f A \<and> f ` A = B"
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text{*A common special case: functions injective, surjective or bijective over
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the entire domain type.*}
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abbreviation
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  "inj f \<equiv> inj_on f UNIV"
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abbreviation surj :: "('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) \<Rightarrow> bool" where -- "surjective"
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  "surj f \<equiv> (range f = UNIV)"
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abbreviation
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  "bij f \<equiv> bij_betw f UNIV UNIV"
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text{* The negated case: *}
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translations
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"\<not> CONST surj f" <= "CONST range f \<noteq> CONST UNIV"
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lemma injI:
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  assumes "\<And>x y. f x = f y \<Longrightarrow> x = y"
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  shows "inj f"
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  using assms unfolding inj_on_def by auto
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theorem range_ex1_eq: "inj f \<Longrightarrow> b : range f = (EX! x. b = f x)"
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  by (unfold inj_on_def, blast)
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lemma injD: "[| inj(f); f(x) = f(y) |] ==> x=y"
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by (simp add: inj_on_def)
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lemma inj_on_eq_iff: "inj_on f A ==> x:A ==> y:A ==> (f(x) = f(y)) = (x=y)"
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by (force simp add: inj_on_def)
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lemma inj_on_cong:
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  "(\<And> a. a : A \<Longrightarrow> f a = g a) \<Longrightarrow> inj_on f A = inj_on g A"
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unfolding inj_on_def by auto
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lemma inj_on_strict_subset:
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  "\<lbrakk> inj_on f B; A < B \<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> f`A < f`B"
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unfolding inj_on_def unfolding image_def by blast
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lemma inj_comp:
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  "inj f \<Longrightarrow> inj g \<Longrightarrow> inj (f \<circ> g)"
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  by (simp add: inj_on_def)
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lemma inj_fun: "inj f \<Longrightarrow> inj (\<lambda>x y. f x)"
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  by (simp add: inj_on_def fun_eq_iff)
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lemma inj_eq: "inj f ==> (f(x) = f(y)) = (x=y)"
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by (simp add: inj_on_eq_iff)
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lemma inj_on_id[simp]: "inj_on id A"
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  by (simp add: inj_on_def)
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lemma inj_on_id2[simp]: "inj_on (%x. x) A"
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by (simp add: inj_on_def)
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lemma inj_on_Int: "inj_on f A \<or> inj_on f B \<Longrightarrow> inj_on f (A \<inter> B)"
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unfolding inj_on_def by blast
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lemma inj_on_INTER:
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  "\<lbrakk>I \<noteq> {}; \<And> i. i \<in> I \<Longrightarrow> inj_on f (A i)\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> inj_on f (\<Inter> i \<in> I. A i)"
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unfolding inj_on_def by blast
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lemma inj_on_Inter:
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  "\<lbrakk>S \<noteq> {}; \<And> A. A \<in> S \<Longrightarrow> inj_on f A\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> inj_on f (Inter S)"
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unfolding inj_on_def by blast
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lemma inj_on_UNION_chain:
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  assumes CH: "\<And> i j. \<lbrakk>i \<in> I; j \<in> I\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> A i \<le> A j \<or> A j \<le> A i" and
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         INJ: "\<And> i. i \<in> I \<Longrightarrow> inj_on f (A i)"
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  shows "inj_on f (\<Union> i \<in> I. A i)"
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proof -
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  {
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    fix i j x y
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    assume *: "i \<in> I" "j \<in> I" and **: "x \<in> A i" "y \<in> A j"
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      and ***: "f x = f y"
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    have "x = y"
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    proof -
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      {
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        assume "A i \<le> A j"
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        with ** have "x \<in> A j" by auto
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        with INJ * ** *** have ?thesis
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        by(auto simp add: inj_on_def)
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      }
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      moreover
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      {
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        assume "A j \<le> A i"
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        with ** have "y \<in> A i" by auto
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        with INJ * ** *** have ?thesis
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        by(auto simp add: inj_on_def)
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      }
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      ultimately show ?thesis using CH * by blast
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    qed
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  }
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  then show ?thesis by (unfold inj_on_def UNION_eq) auto
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qed
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lemma surj_id: "surj id"
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by simp
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lemma bij_id[simp]: "bij id"
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by (simp add: bij_betw_def)
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lemma inj_onI:
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    "(!! x y. [|  x:A;  y:A;  f(x) = f(y) |] ==> x=y) ==> inj_on f A"
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by (simp add: inj_on_def)
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lemma inj_on_inverseI: "(!!x. x:A ==> g(f(x)) = x) ==> inj_on f A"
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by (auto dest:  arg_cong [of concl: g] simp add: inj_on_def)
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lemma inj_onD: "[| inj_on f A;  f(x)=f(y);  x:A;  y:A |] ==> x=y"
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by (unfold inj_on_def, blast)
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lemma inj_on_iff: "[| inj_on f A;  x:A;  y:A |] ==> (f(x)=f(y)) = (x=y)"
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by (blast dest!: inj_onD)
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lemma comp_inj_on:
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     "[| inj_on f A;  inj_on g (f`A) |] ==> inj_on (g o f) A"
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by (simp add: comp_def inj_on_def)
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lemma inj_on_imageI: "inj_on (g o f) A \<Longrightarrow> inj_on g (f ` A)"
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apply(simp add:inj_on_def image_def)
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apply blast
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done
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lemma inj_on_image_iff: "\<lbrakk> ALL x:A. ALL y:A. (g(f x) = g(f y)) = (g x = g y);
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  inj_on f A \<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> inj_on g (f ` A) = inj_on g A"
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apply(unfold inj_on_def)
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apply blast
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done
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lemma inj_on_contraD: "[| inj_on f A;  ~x=y;  x:A;  y:A |] ==> ~ f(x)=f(y)"
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by (unfold inj_on_def, blast)
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lemma inj_singleton: "inj (%s. {s})"
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by (simp add: inj_on_def)
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lemma inj_on_empty[iff]: "inj_on f {}"
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by(simp add: inj_on_def)
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lemma subset_inj_on: "[| inj_on f B; A <= B |] ==> inj_on f A"
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by (unfold inj_on_def, blast)
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lemma inj_on_Un:
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 "inj_on f (A Un B) =
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  (inj_on f A & inj_on f B & f`(A-B) Int f`(B-A) = {})"
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apply(unfold inj_on_def)
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apply (blast intro:sym)
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done
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lemma inj_on_insert[iff]:
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  "inj_on f (insert a A) = (inj_on f A & f a ~: f`(A-{a}))"
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apply(unfold inj_on_def)
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apply (blast intro:sym)
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done
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lemma inj_on_diff: "inj_on f A ==> inj_on f (A-B)"
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apply(unfold inj_on_def)
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apply (blast)
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done
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lemma comp_inj_on_iff:
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  "inj_on f A \<Longrightarrow> inj_on f' (f ` A) \<longleftrightarrow> inj_on (f' o f) A"
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by(auto simp add: comp_inj_on inj_on_def)
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lemma inj_on_imageI2:
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  "inj_on (f' o f) A \<Longrightarrow> inj_on f A"
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by(auto simp add: comp_inj_on inj_on_def)
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lemma surj_def: "surj f \<longleftrightarrow> (\<forall>y. \<exists>x. y = f x)"
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  by auto
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lemma surjI: assumes *: "\<And> x. g (f x) = x" shows "surj g"
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  using *[symmetric] by auto
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lemma surjD: "surj f \<Longrightarrow> \<exists>x. y = f x"
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  by (simp add: surj_def)
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lemma surjE: "surj f \<Longrightarrow> (\<And>x. y = f x \<Longrightarrow> C) \<Longrightarrow> C"
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  by (simp add: surj_def, blast)
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lemma comp_surj: "[| surj f;  surj g |] ==> surj (g o f)"
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apply (simp add: comp_def surj_def, clarify)
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apply (drule_tac x = y in spec, clarify)
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apply (drule_tac x = x in spec, blast)
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done
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lemma bij_betw_imp_surj: "bij_betw f A UNIV \<Longrightarrow> surj f"
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  unfolding bij_betw_def by auto
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lemma bij_betw_empty1:
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  assumes "bij_betw f {} A"
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  shows "A = {}"
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using assms unfolding bij_betw_def by blast
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lemma bij_betw_empty2:
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  assumes "bij_betw f A {}"
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  shows "A = {}"
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using assms unfolding bij_betw_def by blast
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lemma inj_on_imp_bij_betw:
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  "inj_on f A \<Longrightarrow> bij_betw f A (f ` A)"
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unfolding bij_betw_def by simp
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lemma bij_def: "bij f \<longleftrightarrow> inj f \<and> surj f"
hoelzl@40702
   325
  unfolding bij_betw_def ..
hoelzl@39074
   326
paulson@13585
   327
lemma bijI: "[| inj f; surj f |] ==> bij f"
paulson@13585
   328
by (simp add: bij_def)
paulson@13585
   329
paulson@13585
   330
lemma bij_is_inj: "bij f ==> inj f"
paulson@13585
   331
by (simp add: bij_def)
paulson@13585
   332
paulson@13585
   333
lemma bij_is_surj: "bij f ==> surj f"
paulson@13585
   334
by (simp add: bij_def)
paulson@13585
   335
nipkow@26105
   336
lemma bij_betw_imp_inj_on: "bij_betw f A B \<Longrightarrow> inj_on f A"
nipkow@26105
   337
by (simp add: bij_betw_def)
nipkow@26105
   338
nipkow@31438
   339
lemma bij_betw_trans:
nipkow@31438
   340
  "bij_betw f A B \<Longrightarrow> bij_betw g B C \<Longrightarrow> bij_betw (g o f) A C"
nipkow@31438
   341
by(auto simp add:bij_betw_def comp_inj_on)
nipkow@31438
   342
hoelzl@40702
   343
lemma bij_comp: "bij f \<Longrightarrow> bij g \<Longrightarrow> bij (g o f)"
hoelzl@40702
   344
  by (rule bij_betw_trans)
hoelzl@40702
   345
hoelzl@40703
   346
lemma bij_betw_comp_iff:
hoelzl@40703
   347
  "bij_betw f A A' \<Longrightarrow> bij_betw f' A' A'' \<longleftrightarrow> bij_betw (f' o f) A A''"
hoelzl@40703
   348
by(auto simp add: bij_betw_def inj_on_def)
hoelzl@40703
   349
hoelzl@40703
   350
lemma bij_betw_comp_iff2:
hoelzl@40703
   351
  assumes BIJ: "bij_betw f' A' A''" and IM: "f ` A \<le> A'"
hoelzl@40703
   352
  shows "bij_betw f A A' \<longleftrightarrow> bij_betw (f' o f) A A''"
hoelzl@40703
   353
using assms
hoelzl@40703
   354
proof(auto simp add: bij_betw_comp_iff)
hoelzl@40703
   355
  assume *: "bij_betw (f' \<circ> f) A A''"
hoelzl@40703
   356
  thus "bij_betw f A A'"
hoelzl@40703
   357
  using IM
hoelzl@40703
   358
  proof(auto simp add: bij_betw_def)
hoelzl@40703
   359
    assume "inj_on (f' \<circ> f) A"
hoelzl@40703
   360
    thus "inj_on f A" using inj_on_imageI2 by blast
hoelzl@40703
   361
  next
hoelzl@40703
   362
    fix a' assume **: "a' \<in> A'"
hoelzl@40703
   363
    hence "f' a' \<in> A''" using BIJ unfolding bij_betw_def by auto
hoelzl@40703
   364
    then obtain a where 1: "a \<in> A \<and> f'(f a) = f' a'" using *
hoelzl@40703
   365
    unfolding bij_betw_def by force
hoelzl@40703
   366
    hence "f a \<in> A'" using IM by auto
hoelzl@40703
   367
    hence "f a = a'" using BIJ ** 1 unfolding bij_betw_def inj_on_def by auto
hoelzl@40703
   368
    thus "a' \<in> f ` A" using 1 by auto
hoelzl@40703
   369
  qed
hoelzl@40703
   370
qed
hoelzl@40703
   371
nipkow@26105
   372
lemma bij_betw_inv: assumes "bij_betw f A B" shows "EX g. bij_betw g B A"
nipkow@26105
   373
proof -
nipkow@26105
   374
  have i: "inj_on f A" and s: "f ` A = B"
nipkow@26105
   375
    using assms by(auto simp:bij_betw_def)
nipkow@26105
   376
  let ?P = "%b a. a:A \<and> f a = b" let ?g = "%b. The (?P b)"
nipkow@26105
   377
  { fix a b assume P: "?P b a"
nipkow@26105
   378
    hence ex1: "\<exists>a. ?P b a" using s unfolding image_def by blast
nipkow@26105
   379
    hence uex1: "\<exists>!a. ?P b a" by(blast dest:inj_onD[OF i])
nipkow@26105
   380
    hence " ?g b = a" using the1_equality[OF uex1, OF P] P by simp
nipkow@26105
   381
  } note g = this
nipkow@26105
   382
  have "inj_on ?g B"
nipkow@26105
   383
  proof(rule inj_onI)
nipkow@26105
   384
    fix x y assume "x:B" "y:B" "?g x = ?g y"
nipkow@26105
   385
    from s `x:B` obtain a1 where a1: "?P x a1" unfolding image_def by blast
nipkow@26105
   386
    from s `y:B` obtain a2 where a2: "?P y a2" unfolding image_def by blast
nipkow@26105
   387
    from g[OF a1] a1 g[OF a2] a2 `?g x = ?g y` show "x=y" by simp
nipkow@26105
   388
  qed
nipkow@26105
   389
  moreover have "?g ` B = A"
nipkow@26105
   390
  proof(auto simp:image_def)
nipkow@26105
   391
    fix b assume "b:B"
nipkow@26105
   392
    with s obtain a where P: "?P b a" unfolding image_def by blast
nipkow@26105
   393
    thus "?g b \<in> A" using g[OF P] by auto
nipkow@26105
   394
  next
nipkow@26105
   395
    fix a assume "a:A"
nipkow@26105
   396
    then obtain b where P: "?P b a" using s unfolding image_def by blast
nipkow@26105
   397
    then have "b:B" using s unfolding image_def by blast
nipkow@26105
   398
    with g[OF P] show "\<exists>b\<in>B. a = ?g b" by blast
nipkow@26105
   399
  qed
nipkow@26105
   400
  ultimately show ?thesis by(auto simp:bij_betw_def)
nipkow@26105
   401
qed
nipkow@26105
   402
hoelzl@40703
   403
lemma bij_betw_cong:
hoelzl@40703
   404
  "(\<And> a. a \<in> A \<Longrightarrow> f a = g a) \<Longrightarrow> bij_betw f A A' = bij_betw g A A'"
hoelzl@40703
   405
unfolding bij_betw_def inj_on_def by force
hoelzl@40703
   406
hoelzl@40703
   407
lemma bij_betw_id[intro, simp]:
hoelzl@40703
   408
  "bij_betw id A A"
hoelzl@40703
   409
unfolding bij_betw_def id_def by auto
hoelzl@40703
   410
hoelzl@40703
   411
lemma bij_betw_id_iff:
hoelzl@40703
   412
  "bij_betw id A B \<longleftrightarrow> A = B"
hoelzl@40703
   413
by(auto simp add: bij_betw_def)
hoelzl@40703
   414
hoelzl@39075
   415
lemma bij_betw_combine:
hoelzl@39075
   416
  assumes "bij_betw f A B" "bij_betw f C D" "B \<inter> D = {}"
hoelzl@39075
   417
  shows "bij_betw f (A \<union> C) (B \<union> D)"
hoelzl@39075
   418
  using assms unfolding bij_betw_def inj_on_Un image_Un by auto
hoelzl@39075
   419
hoelzl@40703
   420
lemma bij_betw_UNION_chain:
hoelzl@40703
   421
  assumes CH: "\<And> i j. \<lbrakk>i \<in> I; j \<in> I\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> A i \<le> A j \<or> A j \<le> A i" and
hoelzl@40703
   422
         BIJ: "\<And> i. i \<in> I \<Longrightarrow> bij_betw f (A i) (A' i)"
hoelzl@40703
   423
  shows "bij_betw f (\<Union> i \<in> I. A i) (\<Union> i \<in> I. A' i)"
haftmann@49905
   424
proof (unfold bij_betw_def, auto)
hoelzl@40703
   425
  have "\<And> i. i \<in> I \<Longrightarrow> inj_on f (A i)"
hoelzl@40703
   426
  using BIJ bij_betw_def[of f] by auto
hoelzl@40703
   427
  thus "inj_on f (\<Union> i \<in> I. A i)"
hoelzl@40703
   428
  using CH inj_on_UNION_chain[of I A f] by auto
hoelzl@40703
   429
next
hoelzl@40703
   430
  fix i x
hoelzl@40703
   431
  assume *: "i \<in> I" "x \<in> A i"
hoelzl@40703
   432
  hence "f x \<in> A' i" using BIJ bij_betw_def[of f] by auto
hoelzl@40703
   433
  thus "\<exists>j \<in> I. f x \<in> A' j" using * by blast
hoelzl@40703
   434
next
hoelzl@40703
   435
  fix i x'
hoelzl@40703
   436
  assume *: "i \<in> I" "x' \<in> A' i"
hoelzl@40703
   437
  hence "\<exists>x \<in> A i. x' = f x" using BIJ bij_betw_def[of f] by blast
haftmann@49905
   438
  then have "\<exists>j \<in> I. \<exists>x \<in> A j. x' = f x"
haftmann@49905
   439
    using * by blast
haftmann@49905
   440
  then show "x' \<in> f ` (\<Union>x\<in>I. A x)" by (simp add: image_def)
hoelzl@40703
   441
qed
hoelzl@40703
   442
hoelzl@40703
   443
lemma bij_betw_subset:
hoelzl@40703
   444
  assumes BIJ: "bij_betw f A A'" and
hoelzl@40703
   445
          SUB: "B \<le> A" and IM: "f ` B = B'"
hoelzl@40703
   446
  shows "bij_betw f B B'"
hoelzl@40703
   447
using assms
hoelzl@40703
   448
by(unfold bij_betw_def inj_on_def, auto simp add: inj_on_def)
hoelzl@40703
   449
paulson@13585
   450
lemma surj_image_vimage_eq: "surj f ==> f ` (f -` A) = A"
hoelzl@40702
   451
by simp
paulson@13585
   452
hoelzl@42903
   453
lemma surj_vimage_empty:
hoelzl@42903
   454
  assumes "surj f" shows "f -` A = {} \<longleftrightarrow> A = {}"
hoelzl@42903
   455
  using surj_image_vimage_eq[OF `surj f`, of A]
nipkow@44890
   456
  by (intro iffI) fastforce+
hoelzl@42903
   457
paulson@13585
   458
lemma inj_vimage_image_eq: "inj f ==> f -` (f ` A) = A"
paulson@13585
   459
by (simp add: inj_on_def, blast)
paulson@13585
   460
paulson@13585
   461
lemma vimage_subsetD: "surj f ==> f -` B <= A ==> B <= f ` A"
hoelzl@40702
   462
by (blast intro: sym)
paulson@13585
   463
paulson@13585
   464
lemma vimage_subsetI: "inj f ==> B <= f ` A ==> f -` B <= A"
paulson@13585
   465
by (unfold inj_on_def, blast)
paulson@13585
   466
paulson@13585
   467
lemma vimage_subset_eq: "bij f ==> (f -` B <= A) = (B <= f ` A)"
paulson@13585
   468
apply (unfold bij_def)
paulson@13585
   469
apply (blast del: subsetI intro: vimage_subsetI vimage_subsetD)
paulson@13585
   470
done
paulson@13585
   471
nipkow@31438
   472
lemma inj_on_Un_image_eq_iff: "inj_on f (A \<union> B) \<Longrightarrow> f ` A = f ` B \<longleftrightarrow> A = B"
nipkow@31438
   473
by(blast dest: inj_onD)
nipkow@31438
   474
paulson@13585
   475
lemma inj_on_image_Int:
paulson@13585
   476
   "[| inj_on f C;  A<=C;  B<=C |] ==> f`(A Int B) = f`A Int f`B"
paulson@13585
   477
apply (simp add: inj_on_def, blast)
paulson@13585
   478
done
paulson@13585
   479
paulson@13585
   480
lemma inj_on_image_set_diff:
paulson@13585
   481
   "[| inj_on f C;  A<=C;  B<=C |] ==> f`(A-B) = f`A - f`B"
paulson@13585
   482
apply (simp add: inj_on_def, blast)
paulson@13585
   483
done
paulson@13585
   484
paulson@13585
   485
lemma image_Int: "inj f ==> f`(A Int B) = f`A Int f`B"
paulson@13585
   486
by (simp add: inj_on_def, blast)
paulson@13585
   487
paulson@13585
   488
lemma image_set_diff: "inj f ==> f`(A-B) = f`A - f`B"
paulson@13585
   489
by (simp add: inj_on_def, blast)
paulson@13585
   490
paulson@13585
   491
lemma inj_image_mem_iff: "inj f ==> (f a : f`A) = (a : A)"
paulson@13585
   492
by (blast dest: injD)
paulson@13585
   493
paulson@13585
   494
lemma inj_image_subset_iff: "inj f ==> (f`A <= f`B) = (A<=B)"
paulson@13585
   495
by (simp add: inj_on_def, blast)
paulson@13585
   496
paulson@13585
   497
lemma inj_image_eq_iff: "inj f ==> (f`A = f`B) = (A = B)"
paulson@13585
   498
by (blast dest: injD)
paulson@13585
   499
paulson@13585
   500
(*injectivity's required.  Left-to-right inclusion holds even if A is empty*)
paulson@13585
   501
lemma image_INT:
paulson@13585
   502
   "[| inj_on f C;  ALL x:A. B x <= C;  j:A |]
paulson@13585
   503
    ==> f ` (INTER A B) = (INT x:A. f ` B x)"
paulson@13585
   504
apply (simp add: inj_on_def, blast)
paulson@13585
   505
done
paulson@13585
   506
paulson@13585
   507
(*Compare with image_INT: no use of inj_on, and if f is surjective then
paulson@13585
   508
  it doesn't matter whether A is empty*)
paulson@13585
   509
lemma bij_image_INT: "bij f ==> f ` (INTER A B) = (INT x:A. f ` B x)"
paulson@13585
   510
apply (simp add: bij_def)
paulson@13585
   511
apply (simp add: inj_on_def surj_def, blast)
paulson@13585
   512
done
paulson@13585
   513
paulson@13585
   514
lemma surj_Compl_image_subset: "surj f ==> -(f`A) <= f`(-A)"
hoelzl@40702
   515
by auto
paulson@13585
   516
paulson@13585
   517
lemma inj_image_Compl_subset: "inj f ==> f`(-A) <= -(f`A)"
paulson@13585
   518
by (auto simp add: inj_on_def)
paulson@5852
   519
paulson@13585
   520
lemma bij_image_Compl_eq: "bij f ==> f`(-A) = -(f`A)"
paulson@13585
   521
apply (simp add: bij_def)
paulson@13585
   522
apply (rule equalityI)
paulson@13585
   523
apply (simp_all (no_asm_simp) add: inj_image_Compl_subset surj_Compl_image_subset)
paulson@13585
   524
done
paulson@13585
   525
haftmann@41657
   526
lemma inj_vimage_singleton: "inj f \<Longrightarrow> f -` {a} \<subseteq> {THE x. f x = a}"
haftmann@41657
   527
  -- {* The inverse image of a singleton under an injective function
haftmann@41657
   528
         is included in a singleton. *}
haftmann@41657
   529
  apply (auto simp add: inj_on_def)
haftmann@41657
   530
  apply (blast intro: the_equality [symmetric])
haftmann@41657
   531
  done
haftmann@41657
   532
hoelzl@43991
   533
lemma inj_on_vimage_singleton:
hoelzl@43991
   534
  "inj_on f A \<Longrightarrow> f -` {a} \<inter> A \<subseteq> {THE x. x \<in> A \<and> f x = a}"
hoelzl@43991
   535
  by (auto simp add: inj_on_def intro: the_equality [symmetric])
hoelzl@43991
   536
hoelzl@35584
   537
lemma (in ordered_ab_group_add) inj_uminus[simp, intro]: "inj_on uminus A"
hoelzl@35580
   538
  by (auto intro!: inj_onI)
paulson@13585
   539
hoelzl@35584
   540
lemma (in linorder) strict_mono_imp_inj_on: "strict_mono f \<Longrightarrow> inj_on f A"
hoelzl@35584
   541
  by (auto intro!: inj_onI dest: strict_mono_eq)
hoelzl@35584
   542
haftmann@41657
   543
paulson@13585
   544
subsection{*Function Updating*}
paulson@13585
   545
haftmann@44277
   546
definition fun_upd :: "('a => 'b) => 'a => 'b => ('a => 'b)" where
haftmann@26147
   547
  "fun_upd f a b == % x. if x=a then b else f x"
haftmann@26147
   548
wenzelm@41229
   549
nonterminal updbinds and updbind
wenzelm@41229
   550
haftmann@26147
   551
syntax
haftmann@26147
   552
  "_updbind" :: "['a, 'a] => updbind"             ("(2_ :=/ _)")
haftmann@26147
   553
  ""         :: "updbind => updbinds"             ("_")
haftmann@26147
   554
  "_updbinds":: "[updbind, updbinds] => updbinds" ("_,/ _")
wenzelm@35115
   555
  "_Update"  :: "['a, updbinds] => 'a"            ("_/'((_)')" [1000, 0] 900)
haftmann@26147
   556
haftmann@26147
   557
translations
wenzelm@35115
   558
  "_Update f (_updbinds b bs)" == "_Update (_Update f b) bs"
wenzelm@35115
   559
  "f(x:=y)" == "CONST fun_upd f x y"
haftmann@26147
   560
haftmann@26147
   561
(* Hint: to define the sum of two functions (or maps), use sum_case.
haftmann@26147
   562
         A nice infix syntax could be defined (in Datatype.thy or below) by
wenzelm@35115
   563
notation
wenzelm@35115
   564
  sum_case  (infixr "'(+')"80)
haftmann@26147
   565
*)
haftmann@26147
   566
paulson@13585
   567
lemma fun_upd_idem_iff: "(f(x:=y) = f) = (f x = y)"
paulson@13585
   568
apply (simp add: fun_upd_def, safe)
paulson@13585
   569
apply (erule subst)
paulson@13585
   570
apply (rule_tac [2] ext, auto)
paulson@13585
   571
done
paulson@13585
   572
wenzelm@45603
   573
lemma fun_upd_idem: "f x = y ==> f(x:=y) = f"
wenzelm@45603
   574
  by (simp only: fun_upd_idem_iff)
paulson@13585
   575
wenzelm@45603
   576
lemma fun_upd_triv [iff]: "f(x := f x) = f"
wenzelm@45603
   577
  by (simp only: fun_upd_idem)
paulson@13585
   578
paulson@13585
   579
lemma fun_upd_apply [simp]: "(f(x:=y))z = (if z=x then y else f z)"
paulson@17084
   580
by (simp add: fun_upd_def)
paulson@13585
   581
paulson@13585
   582
(* fun_upd_apply supersedes these two,   but they are useful
paulson@13585
   583
   if fun_upd_apply is intentionally removed from the simpset *)
paulson@13585
   584
lemma fun_upd_same: "(f(x:=y)) x = y"
paulson@13585
   585
by simp
paulson@13585
   586
paulson@13585
   587
lemma fun_upd_other: "z~=x ==> (f(x:=y)) z = f z"
paulson@13585
   588
by simp
paulson@13585
   589
paulson@13585
   590
lemma fun_upd_upd [simp]: "f(x:=y,x:=z) = f(x:=z)"
nipkow@39302
   591
by (simp add: fun_eq_iff)
paulson@13585
   592
paulson@13585
   593
lemma fun_upd_twist: "a ~= c ==> (m(a:=b))(c:=d) = (m(c:=d))(a:=b)"
paulson@13585
   594
by (rule ext, auto)
paulson@13585
   595
nipkow@15303
   596
lemma inj_on_fun_updI: "\<lbrakk> inj_on f A; y \<notin> f`A \<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> inj_on (f(x:=y)) A"
nipkow@44890
   597
by (fastforce simp:inj_on_def image_def)
nipkow@15303
   598
paulson@15510
   599
lemma fun_upd_image:
paulson@15510
   600
     "f(x:=y) ` A = (if x \<in> A then insert y (f ` (A-{x})) else f ` A)"
paulson@15510
   601
by auto
paulson@15510
   602
nipkow@31080
   603
lemma fun_upd_comp: "f \<circ> (g(x := y)) = (f \<circ> g)(x := f y)"
huffman@44921
   604
  by auto
nipkow@31080
   605
nipkow@44744
   606
lemma UNION_fun_upd:
nipkow@44744
   607
  "UNION J (A(i:=B)) = (UNION (J-{i}) A \<union> (if i\<in>J then B else {}))"
nipkow@44744
   608
by (auto split: if_splits)
nipkow@44744
   609
haftmann@26147
   610
haftmann@26147
   611
subsection {* @{text override_on} *}
haftmann@26147
   612
haftmann@44277
   613
definition override_on :: "('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'a \<Rightarrow> 'b" where
haftmann@26147
   614
  "override_on f g A = (\<lambda>a. if a \<in> A then g a else f a)"
nipkow@13910
   615
nipkow@15691
   616
lemma override_on_emptyset[simp]: "override_on f g {} = f"
nipkow@15691
   617
by(simp add:override_on_def)
nipkow@13910
   618
nipkow@15691
   619
lemma override_on_apply_notin[simp]: "a ~: A ==> (override_on f g A) a = f a"
nipkow@15691
   620
by(simp add:override_on_def)
nipkow@13910
   621
nipkow@15691
   622
lemma override_on_apply_in[simp]: "a : A ==> (override_on f g A) a = g a"
nipkow@15691
   623
by(simp add:override_on_def)
nipkow@13910
   624
haftmann@26147
   625
haftmann@26147
   626
subsection {* @{text swap} *}
paulson@15510
   627
haftmann@44277
   628
definition swap :: "'a \<Rightarrow> 'a \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b)" where
haftmann@22744
   629
  "swap a b f = f (a := f b, b:= f a)"
paulson@15510
   630
huffman@34101
   631
lemma swap_self [simp]: "swap a a f = f"
nipkow@15691
   632
by (simp add: swap_def)
paulson@15510
   633
paulson@15510
   634
lemma swap_commute: "swap a b f = swap b a f"
paulson@15510
   635
by (rule ext, simp add: fun_upd_def swap_def)
paulson@15510
   636
paulson@15510
   637
lemma swap_nilpotent [simp]: "swap a b (swap a b f) = f"
paulson@15510
   638
by (rule ext, simp add: fun_upd_def swap_def)
paulson@15510
   639
huffman@34145
   640
lemma swap_triple:
huffman@34145
   641
  assumes "a \<noteq> c" and "b \<noteq> c"
huffman@34145
   642
  shows "swap a b (swap b c (swap a b f)) = swap a c f"
nipkow@39302
   643
  using assms by (simp add: fun_eq_iff swap_def)
huffman@34145
   644
huffman@34101
   645
lemma comp_swap: "f \<circ> swap a b g = swap a b (f \<circ> g)"
huffman@34101
   646
by (rule ext, simp add: fun_upd_def swap_def)
huffman@34101
   647
hoelzl@39076
   648
lemma swap_image_eq [simp]:
hoelzl@39076
   649
  assumes "a \<in> A" "b \<in> A" shows "swap a b f ` A = f ` A"
hoelzl@39076
   650
proof -
hoelzl@39076
   651
  have subset: "\<And>f. swap a b f ` A \<subseteq> f ` A"
hoelzl@39076
   652
    using assms by (auto simp: image_iff swap_def)
hoelzl@39076
   653
  then have "swap a b (swap a b f) ` A \<subseteq> (swap a b f) ` A" .
hoelzl@39076
   654
  with subset[of f] show ?thesis by auto
hoelzl@39076
   655
qed
hoelzl@39076
   656
paulson@15510
   657
lemma inj_on_imp_inj_on_swap:
hoelzl@39076
   658
  "\<lbrakk>inj_on f A; a \<in> A; b \<in> A\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> inj_on (swap a b f) A"
hoelzl@39076
   659
  by (simp add: inj_on_def swap_def, blast)
paulson@15510
   660
paulson@15510
   661
lemma inj_on_swap_iff [simp]:
hoelzl@39076
   662
  assumes A: "a \<in> A" "b \<in> A" shows "inj_on (swap a b f) A \<longleftrightarrow> inj_on f A"
hoelzl@39075
   663
proof
paulson@15510
   664
  assume "inj_on (swap a b f) A"
hoelzl@39075
   665
  with A have "inj_on (swap a b (swap a b f)) A"
hoelzl@39075
   666
    by (iprover intro: inj_on_imp_inj_on_swap)
hoelzl@39075
   667
  thus "inj_on f A" by simp
paulson@15510
   668
next
paulson@15510
   669
  assume "inj_on f A"
krauss@34209
   670
  with A show "inj_on (swap a b f) A" by (iprover intro: inj_on_imp_inj_on_swap)
paulson@15510
   671
qed
paulson@15510
   672
hoelzl@39076
   673
lemma surj_imp_surj_swap: "surj f \<Longrightarrow> surj (swap a b f)"
hoelzl@40702
   674
  by simp
paulson@15510
   675
hoelzl@39076
   676
lemma surj_swap_iff [simp]: "surj (swap a b f) \<longleftrightarrow> surj f"
hoelzl@40702
   677
  by simp
haftmann@21547
   678
hoelzl@39076
   679
lemma bij_betw_swap_iff [simp]:
hoelzl@39076
   680
  "\<lbrakk> x \<in> A; y \<in> A \<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> bij_betw (swap x y f) A B \<longleftrightarrow> bij_betw f A B"
hoelzl@39076
   681
  by (auto simp: bij_betw_def)
hoelzl@39076
   682
hoelzl@39076
   683
lemma bij_swap_iff [simp]: "bij (swap a b f) \<longleftrightarrow> bij f"
hoelzl@39076
   684
  by simp
hoelzl@39075
   685
wenzelm@36176
   686
hide_const (open) swap
haftmann@21547
   687
haftmann@31949
   688
subsection {* Inversion of injective functions *}
haftmann@31949
   689
nipkow@33057
   690
definition the_inv_into :: "'a set => ('a => 'b) => ('b => 'a)" where
haftmann@44277
   691
  "the_inv_into A f == %x. THE y. y : A & f y = x"
nipkow@32961
   692
nipkow@33057
   693
lemma the_inv_into_f_f:
nipkow@33057
   694
  "[| inj_on f A;  x : A |] ==> the_inv_into A f (f x) = x"
nipkow@33057
   695
apply (simp add: the_inv_into_def inj_on_def)
krauss@34209
   696
apply blast
nipkow@32961
   697
done
nipkow@32961
   698
nipkow@33057
   699
lemma f_the_inv_into_f:
nipkow@33057
   700
  "inj_on f A ==> y : f`A  ==> f (the_inv_into A f y) = y"
nipkow@33057
   701
apply (simp add: the_inv_into_def)
nipkow@32961
   702
apply (rule the1I2)
nipkow@32961
   703
 apply(blast dest: inj_onD)
nipkow@32961
   704
apply blast
nipkow@32961
   705
done
nipkow@32961
   706
nipkow@33057
   707
lemma the_inv_into_into:
nipkow@33057
   708
  "[| inj_on f A; x : f ` A; A <= B |] ==> the_inv_into A f x : B"
nipkow@33057
   709
apply (simp add: the_inv_into_def)
nipkow@32961
   710
apply (rule the1I2)
nipkow@32961
   711
 apply(blast dest: inj_onD)
nipkow@32961
   712
apply blast
nipkow@32961
   713
done
nipkow@32961
   714
nipkow@33057
   715
lemma the_inv_into_onto[simp]:
nipkow@33057
   716
  "inj_on f A ==> the_inv_into A f ` (f ` A) = A"
nipkow@33057
   717
by (fast intro:the_inv_into_into the_inv_into_f_f[symmetric])
nipkow@32961
   718
nipkow@33057
   719
lemma the_inv_into_f_eq:
nipkow@33057
   720
  "[| inj_on f A; f x = y; x : A |] ==> the_inv_into A f y = x"
nipkow@32961
   721
  apply (erule subst)
nipkow@33057
   722
  apply (erule the_inv_into_f_f, assumption)
nipkow@32961
   723
  done
nipkow@32961
   724
nipkow@33057
   725
lemma the_inv_into_comp:
nipkow@32961
   726
  "[| inj_on f (g ` A); inj_on g A; x : f ` g ` A |] ==>
nipkow@33057
   727
  the_inv_into A (f o g) x = (the_inv_into A g o the_inv_into (g ` A) f) x"
nipkow@33057
   728
apply (rule the_inv_into_f_eq)
nipkow@32961
   729
  apply (fast intro: comp_inj_on)
nipkow@33057
   730
 apply (simp add: f_the_inv_into_f the_inv_into_into)
nipkow@33057
   731
apply (simp add: the_inv_into_into)
nipkow@32961
   732
done
nipkow@32961
   733
nipkow@33057
   734
lemma inj_on_the_inv_into:
nipkow@33057
   735
  "inj_on f A \<Longrightarrow> inj_on (the_inv_into A f) (f ` A)"
nipkow@33057
   736
by (auto intro: inj_onI simp: image_def the_inv_into_f_f)
nipkow@32961
   737
nipkow@33057
   738
lemma bij_betw_the_inv_into:
nipkow@33057
   739
  "bij_betw f A B \<Longrightarrow> bij_betw (the_inv_into A f) B A"
nipkow@33057
   740
by (auto simp add: bij_betw_def inj_on_the_inv_into the_inv_into_into)
nipkow@32961
   741
berghofe@32998
   742
abbreviation the_inv :: "('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) \<Rightarrow> ('b \<Rightarrow> 'a)" where
nipkow@33057
   743
  "the_inv f \<equiv> the_inv_into UNIV f"
berghofe@32998
   744
berghofe@32998
   745
lemma the_inv_f_f:
berghofe@32998
   746
  assumes "inj f"
berghofe@32998
   747
  shows "the_inv f (f x) = x" using assms UNIV_I
nipkow@33057
   748
  by (rule the_inv_into_f_f)
berghofe@32998
   749
haftmann@44277
   750
hoelzl@40703
   751
subsection {* Cantor's Paradox *}
hoelzl@40703
   752
blanchet@42238
   753
lemma Cantors_paradox [no_atp]:
hoelzl@40703
   754
  "\<not>(\<exists>f. f ` A = Pow A)"
hoelzl@40703
   755
proof clarify
hoelzl@40703
   756
  fix f assume "f ` A = Pow A" hence *: "Pow A \<le> f ` A" by blast
hoelzl@40703
   757
  let ?X = "{a \<in> A. a \<notin> f a}"
hoelzl@40703
   758
  have "?X \<in> Pow A" unfolding Pow_def by auto
hoelzl@40703
   759
  with * obtain x where "x \<in> A \<and> f x = ?X" by blast
hoelzl@40703
   760
  thus False by best
hoelzl@40703
   761
qed
haftmann@31949
   762
haftmann@40969
   763
subsection {* Setup *} 
haftmann@40969
   764
haftmann@40969
   765
subsubsection {* Proof tools *}
haftmann@22845
   766
haftmann@22845
   767
text {* simplifies terms of the form
haftmann@22845
   768
  f(...,x:=y,...,x:=z,...) to f(...,x:=z,...) *}
haftmann@22845
   769
wenzelm@24017
   770
simproc_setup fun_upd2 ("f(v := w, x := y)") = {* fn _ =>
haftmann@22845
   771
let
haftmann@22845
   772
  fun gen_fun_upd NONE T _ _ = NONE
wenzelm@24017
   773
    | gen_fun_upd (SOME f) T x y = SOME (Const (@{const_name fun_upd}, T) $ f $ x $ y)
haftmann@22845
   774
  fun dest_fun_T1 (Type (_, T :: Ts)) = T
haftmann@22845
   775
  fun find_double (t as Const (@{const_name fun_upd},T) $ f $ x $ y) =
haftmann@22845
   776
    let
haftmann@22845
   777
      fun find (Const (@{const_name fun_upd},T) $ g $ v $ w) =
haftmann@22845
   778
            if v aconv x then SOME g else gen_fun_upd (find g) T v w
haftmann@22845
   779
        | find t = NONE
haftmann@22845
   780
    in (dest_fun_T1 T, gen_fun_upd (find f) T x y) end
wenzelm@24017
   781
wenzelm@24017
   782
  fun proc ss ct =
wenzelm@24017
   783
    let
wenzelm@24017
   784
      val ctxt = Simplifier.the_context ss
wenzelm@24017
   785
      val t = Thm.term_of ct
wenzelm@24017
   786
    in
wenzelm@24017
   787
      case find_double t of
wenzelm@24017
   788
        (T, NONE) => NONE
wenzelm@24017
   789
      | (T, SOME rhs) =>
wenzelm@27330
   790
          SOME (Goal.prove ctxt [] [] (Logic.mk_equals (t, rhs))
wenzelm@24017
   791
            (fn _ =>
wenzelm@24017
   792
              rtac eq_reflection 1 THEN
wenzelm@24017
   793
              rtac ext 1 THEN
wenzelm@24017
   794
              simp_tac (Simplifier.inherit_context ss @{simpset}) 1))
wenzelm@24017
   795
    end
wenzelm@24017
   796
in proc end
haftmann@22845
   797
*}
haftmann@22845
   798
haftmann@22845
   799
haftmann@40969
   800
subsubsection {* Code generator *}
haftmann@21870
   801
haftmann@21870
   802
code_const "op \<circ>"
haftmann@21870
   803
  (SML infixl 5 "o")
haftmann@21870
   804
  (Haskell infixr 9 ".")
haftmann@21870
   805
haftmann@21906
   806
code_const "id"
haftmann@21906
   807
  (Haskell "id")
haftmann@21906
   808
haftmann@40969
   809
haftmann@40969
   810
subsubsection {* Functorial structure of types *}
haftmann@40969
   811
wenzelm@48891
   812
ML_file "Tools/enriched_type.ML"
haftmann@40969
   813
haftmann@47488
   814
enriched_type map_fun: map_fun
haftmann@47488
   815
  by (simp_all add: fun_eq_iff)
haftmann@47488
   816
haftmann@47488
   817
enriched_type vimage
haftmann@49739
   818
  by (simp_all add: fun_eq_iff vimage_comp)
haftmann@49739
   819
haftmann@49739
   820
text {* Legacy theorem names *}
haftmann@49739
   821
haftmann@49739
   822
lemmas o_def = comp_def
haftmann@49739
   823
lemmas o_apply = comp_apply
haftmann@49739
   824
lemmas o_assoc = comp_assoc [symmetric]
haftmann@49739
   825
lemmas id_o = id_comp
haftmann@49739
   826
lemmas o_id = comp_id
haftmann@49739
   827
lemmas o_eq_dest = comp_eq_dest
haftmann@49739
   828
lemmas o_eq_elim = comp_eq_elim
haftmann@49739
   829
lemmas image_compose = image_comp
haftmann@49739
   830
lemmas vimage_compose = vimage_comp
haftmann@47488
   831
nipkow@2912
   832
end
haftmann@47488
   833