NEWS
author wenzelm
Sun Feb 21 21:33:11 2010 +0100 (2010-02-21)
changeset 35260 41e82c1b5586
parent 35130 0991c84e8dcf
child 35261 40c37da7af54
permissions -rw-r--r--
NEWS: authentic syntax for *all* term constants;
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Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
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==============================================
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New in this Isabelle version
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----------------------------
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*** General ***
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* Authentic syntax for *all* term constants: provides simple and
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robust correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.
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Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax translations
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(translation rules and translation functions in ML).  Some hints on
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upgrading:
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  - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
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    by more modern 'notation' and 'abbreviation', which are
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    independent of this issue.
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  - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
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    provides the following special forms:
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      CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
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      XCONST c  -- literally c as AST constant (checked against the context)
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  - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
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    antiquotations:
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      @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
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      @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
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Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
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names, so all of the above would coincide.  Recall that 'print_syntax'
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and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to diagnose syntax
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problems.
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*** Pure ***
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* Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on
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the user space functionality any longer.
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* Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
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need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
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datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
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Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
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*** HOL ***
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* New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute rewrites
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for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
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* Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory "Ring_and_Field"
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into theories "Rings" and "Fields";  for more appropriate and more
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consistent names suitable for name prefixes within the HOL theories.
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INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
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    less_eq, less: Orderings
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    abs, sgn: Groups
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    inverse, divide: Rings
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INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Class division ring also requires proof of fact divide_inverse.  However instantiation
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of parameter divide has also been required previously.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and lattices):
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    lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
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    upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
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    dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
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    pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
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    pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
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    pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
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    pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
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    pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
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    pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
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    pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
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    pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
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    pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
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    pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
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    pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
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    pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
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    pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
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    ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
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    ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
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    ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
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    ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
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    ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
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    ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
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    ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
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    ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
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    ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
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    ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
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    ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
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    ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
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    ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
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    ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
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    ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
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    ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
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    ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
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    ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
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  The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to
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  a separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras.thy:
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    lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
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    lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
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    lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
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    lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
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    lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
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INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* New theory Algebras contains generic algebraic structures and
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generic algebraic operations.  INCOMPATIBILTY: constants zero, one,
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plus, minus, uminus and times have been moved from HOL.thy to Algebras.thy.
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* HOLogic.strip_psplit: types are returned in syntactic order, similar
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to other strip and tuple operations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Various old-style primrec specifications in the HOL theories have been
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replaced by new-style primrec, especially in theory List.  The corresponding
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constants now have authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Reorganized theory Multiset: less duplication, less historical
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organization of sections, conversion from associations lists to
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multisets, rudimentary code generation.  Use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric]
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instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union, if needed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Reorganized theory Sum_Type; Inl and Inr now have authentic syntax.
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INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
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* Theory Complete_Lattice: lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
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replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
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Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
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by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
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former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
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subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
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sets to lattices:
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  fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
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  fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
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  inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
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  union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
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  Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
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  Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
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  inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
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  union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
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  INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
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  UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
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* Theory List: added transpose.
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* Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
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clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
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*** ML ***
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* Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
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syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
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* Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
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emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
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INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
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as infinity (as in chop).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
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usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
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needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
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Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
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Theory_Data version.
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*** System ***
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* Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
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ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
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proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
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* Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
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feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
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respectively.
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New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
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-------------------------------------
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*** General ***
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* Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
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one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
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*** Pure ***
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* Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
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The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
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local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
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* Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
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loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
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Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
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* Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
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interpretation.
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* On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
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are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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*** Document preparation ***
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* New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
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instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
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backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
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antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
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*** HOL ***
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* New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
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equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
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fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
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features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
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procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
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for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
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are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
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re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
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installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
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* New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
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the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
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Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
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* New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
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relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
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src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
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* New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
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compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
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* A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
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* New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
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default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
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and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
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Library/SML_Quickcheck.
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* New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
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several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
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every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
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"mirabelle" utility.
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* New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
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arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
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Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
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works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
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*, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
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inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
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semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
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certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
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to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
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src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
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* New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
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procedure only.
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* New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
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* New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
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Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
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ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
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that fail later.
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* New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
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information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
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* New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
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the same method as the approximation method.
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* Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
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boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
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series expansion.
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* ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
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generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
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* New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
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reals.
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* New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
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theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
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* Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
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fixpoint theorem.
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* Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
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  - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
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    and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
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  - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
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    accordingly
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  - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
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    theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
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  - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
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    src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
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* Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
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lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
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lattice.
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* Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
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div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
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div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
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generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
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zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
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zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
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INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
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  - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
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    intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
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  - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
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    le_inf_iff
wenzelm@33842
   340
  - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
wenzelm@33842
   341
    sup_aci)
haftmann@32064
   342
  - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
haftmann@32600
   343
  - new class "boolean_algebra"
wenzelm@33842
   344
  - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
haftmann@33860
   345
    "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
wenzelm@33842
   346
    renamed and with authentic syntax:
haftmann@33860
   347
    Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
haftmann@33860
   348
    Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
haftmann@33860
   349
    Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
haftmann@33860
   350
    Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
haftmann@33860
   351
    Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
haftmann@33860
   352
    Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
haftmann@33860
   353
    Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
haftmann@33860
   354
    Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
haftmann@32600
   355
  - authentic syntax for
haftmann@32600
   356
    Set.Pow
haftmann@32600
   357
    Set.image
haftmann@32588
   358
  - mere abbreviations:
haftmann@32588
   359
    Set.empty               (for bot)
haftmann@32588
   360
    Set.UNIV                (for top)
haftmann@33860
   361
    Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
haftmann@33860
   362
    Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
haftmann@32588
   363
    Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
haftmann@32588
   364
    Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
haftmann@32606
   365
    Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
haftmann@32606
   366
    Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
haftmann@32600
   367
  - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
haftmann@32217
   368
haftmann@32691
   369
INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
wenzelm@33842
   370
Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
wenzelm@33842
   371
their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
haftmann@32691
   372
deleted to achieve the desired effect.
haftmann@32064
   373
wenzelm@33842
   374
* Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
wenzelm@33842
   375
rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
wenzelm@33842
   376
etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@33842
   377
wenzelm@33842
   378
* Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
wenzelm@33842
   379
pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@33842
   380
wenzelm@33842
   381
* Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
haftmann@32706
   382
constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
wenzelm@31547
   383
multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
wenzelm@31547
   384
in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@31547
   385
wenzelm@33842
   386
* Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
wenzelm@33842
   387
"R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
wenzelm@33842
   388
rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
wenzelm@33842
   389
break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
wenzelm@33842
   390
O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
wenzelm@32427
   391
nipkow@33057
   392
* Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
wenzelm@33842
   393
abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
nipkow@32988
   394
INCOMPATIBILITY.
nipkow@32988
   395
haftmann@33860
   396
* Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
haftmann@33860
   397
prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
nipkow@31790
   398
wenzelm@33842
   399
* Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
wenzelm@33842
   400
the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
wenzelm@33842
   401
DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
wenzelm@33842
   402
matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
wenzelm@33842
   403
Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
wenzelm@33873
   404
of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
wenzelm@33873
   405
Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
wenzelm@33873
   406
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@33860
   407
haftmann@33860
   408
* Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
haftmann@33860
   409
    code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
haftmann@33860
   410
    code_post       replaces    code post
haftmann@33860
   411
    etc.
haftmann@33860
   412
  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@31900
   413
krauss@33471
   414
* Renamed methods:
krauss@33471
   415
    sizechange -> size_change
krauss@33471
   416
    induct_scheme -> induction_schema
haftmann@33860
   417
  INCOMPATIBILITY.
nipkow@33673
   418
wenzelm@33843
   419
* Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
wenzelm@33843
   420
INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
wenzelm@33843
   421
haftmann@33860
   422
* Renamed theorems:
haftmann@33860
   423
    Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
haftmann@33860
   424
    Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
haftmann@33860
   425
    Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
haftmann@33860
   426
    *anti_sym -> *antisym*
haftmann@33860
   427
    vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
haftmann@33860
   428
  INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@33860
   429
haftmann@33860
   430
* Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
haftmann@33860
   431
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@33860
   432
haftmann@33860
   433
* Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
haftmann@33860
   434
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@33860
   435
hoelzl@31812
   436
huffman@33825
   437
*** HOLCF ***
huffman@33825
   438
wenzelm@33842
   439
* Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
wenzelm@33842
   440
representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
huffman@33825
   441
Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
huffman@33825
   442
huffman@33825
   443
* The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
huffman@33825
   444
domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
huffman@33825
   445
old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
huffman@33825
   446
recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
wenzelm@33842
   447
src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
wenzelm@33842
   448
wenzelm@33842
   449
* Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
huffman@33825
   450
on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
huffman@33825
   451
simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
wenzelm@33842
   452
"fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
wenzelm@33842
   453
replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
huffman@33825
   454
huffman@33825
   455
* The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
huffman@33825
   456
with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
huffman@33825
   457
constructor are pre-configured.
huffman@33825
   458
huffman@33825
   459
* The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
huffman@33825
   460
for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
huffman@33825
   461
of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
huffman@33825
   462
huffman@33825
   463
* The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
huffman@33825
   464
been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
wenzelm@33842
   465
theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
wenzelm@33842
   466
as well.)
huffman@33825
   467
huffman@33825
   468
* The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
huffman@33825
   469
patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
huffman@33825
   470
functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
wenzelm@33873
   471
Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
wenzelm@33873
   472
examples.
huffman@33825
   473
huffman@33825
   474
wenzelm@31304
   475
*** ML ***
wenzelm@31304
   476
wenzelm@33843
   477
* Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
wenzelm@33843
   478
errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
wenzelm@33843
   479
wenzelm@33843
   480
* Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
wenzelm@33843
   481
identified entries, with some additional information such as source
wenzelm@33843
   482
position, logical grouping etc.
wenzelm@33843
   483
wenzelm@33524
   484
* Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
wenzelm@33524
   485
modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
wenzelm@33524
   486
to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
wenzelm@33524
   487
copy operation) is still available for some time.
wenzelm@33524
   488
wenzelm@32742
   489
* Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
wenzelm@32742
   490
provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
wenzelm@32742
   491
variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
wenzelm@32742
   492
application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
wenzelm@32742
   493
short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
wenzelm@32742
   494
either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
wenzelm@32742
   495
wenzelm@32742
   496
* Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
wenzelm@32742
   497
wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
wenzelm@32742
   498
behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
wenzelm@32742
   499
accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
wenzelm@32742
   500
experiments with references.
wenzelm@32742
   501
wenzelm@32365
   502
* PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
wenzelm@32365
   503
parallel tactical reasoning.
wenzelm@32365
   504
wenzelm@32427
   505
* Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
wenzelm@32427
   506
are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
wenzelm@32427
   507
specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
wenzelm@32427
   508
body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
wenzelm@32427
   509
wenzelm@32427
   510
* Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
wenzelm@32427
   511
been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
wenzelm@32427
   512
or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
wenzelm@32216
   513
wenzelm@31971
   514
* Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
wenzelm@31971
   515
functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
wenzelm@31971
   516
separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@31971
   517
wenzelm@31901
   518
* Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@31901
   519
wenzelm@33842
   520
* Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
wenzelm@33842
   521
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@33842
   522
wenzelm@33843
   523
* Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
wenzelm@33843
   524
mode, which avoids critical setmp.
wenzelm@33843
   525
wenzelm@31306
   526
* Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
wenzelm@33842
   527
combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
wenzelm@31306
   528
Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
wenzelm@31304
   529
wenzelm@32151
   530
* Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
wenzelm@32151
   531
back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
wenzelm@32151
   532
last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@32151
   533
wenzelm@32092
   534
* Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
wenzelm@32092
   535
ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
wenzelm@32092
   536
or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
wenzelm@32092
   537
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@32092
   538
wenzelm@32433
   539
* Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
wenzelm@32433
   540
Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
wenzelm@32433
   541
instead of global theory.
wenzelm@32433
   542
wenzelm@31304
   543
wenzelm@31308
   544
*** System ***
wenzelm@31308
   545
wenzelm@33842
   546
* Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
wenzelm@33842
   547
(max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
wenzelm@33842
   548
usedir option -q.
wenzelm@33842
   549
wenzelm@32326
   550
* Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
wenzelm@32326
   551
also the system manual.
wenzelm@32326
   552
wenzelm@32326
   553
* The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
wenzelm@32326
   554
IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
wenzelm@32326
   555
wenzelm@33842
   556
* Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
wenzelm@33842
   557
this is always enabled.
kleing@33818
   558
wenzelm@31308
   559
* Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
wenzelm@31308
   560
wenzelm@33842
   561
* Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
wenzelm@33842
   562
on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
wenzelm@33842
   563
currently supported on Linux only.
wenzelm@32061
   564
wenzelm@31308
   565
wenzelm@31304
   566
wenzelm@30845
   567
New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
wenzelm@30845
   568
--------------------------------
haftmann@27104
   569
wenzelm@27599
   570
*** General ***
wenzelm@27599
   571
wenzelm@28504
   572
* Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
wenzelm@28504
   573
case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
wenzelm@28504
   574
wenzelm@28504
   575
  - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
wenzelm@28504
   576
    "isatool."
wenzelm@28504
   577
wenzelm@28504
   578
  - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
wenzelm@28504
   579
    removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
wenzelm@28504
   580
wenzelm@28915
   581
  - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
wenzelm@28915
   582
    removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
wenzelm@28504
   583
wenzelm@28504
   584
Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
wenzelm@28504
   585
ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
wenzelm@28504
   586
respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
wenzelm@28504
   587
wenzelm@28915
   588
The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
wenzelm@28915
   589
the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
wenzelm@28915
   590
interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
wenzelm@28915
   591
Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
wenzelm@28915
   592
via "isabelle emacs".
wenzelm@28504
   593
wenzelm@28504
   594
INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
wenzelm@28504
   595
purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
wenzelm@28504
   596
install -p ...", or use symlinks.
wenzelm@28504
   597
wenzelm@28914
   598
* The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
wenzelm@30845
   599
old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
wenzelm@30845
   600
surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
wenzelm@28914
   601
wenzelm@28914
   602
INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
wenzelm@28914
   603
~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
wenzelm@28914
   604
care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
wenzelm@28914
   605
ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
wenzelm@30845
   606
Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
wenzelm@28914
   607
wenzelm@29161
   608
* Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
wenzelm@30845
   609
multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
wenzelm@30845
   610
a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
wenzelm@30845
   611
large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
wenzelm@30845
   612
wenzelm@30845
   613
* The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
wenzelm@30845
   614
"system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
wenzelm@30845
   615
as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
wenzelm@30845
   616
wenzelm@30163
   617
wenzelm@27599
   618
*** Pure ***
wenzelm@27599
   619
wenzelm@30845
   620
* Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
wenzelm@30845
   621
respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
wenzelm@30845
   622
Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
ballarin@29253
   623
ballarin@29253
   624
- In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
ballarin@29253
   625
must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
ballarin@29253
   626
parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
ballarin@29253
   627
'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
ballarin@29253
   628
with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
ballarin@29253
   629
ballarin@29253
   630
- Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
ballarin@29253
   631
locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
ballarin@29253
   632
useful in locale declarations.
ballarin@29253
   633
ballarin@29253
   634
- More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
ballarin@29253
   635
expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
wenzelm@30728
   636
expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
wenzelm@30728
   637
optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
wenzelm@30728
   638
depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
wenzelm@30728
   639
commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
wenzelm@30845
   640
'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
wenzelm@30728
   641
implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
wenzelm@30728
   642
no longer generated.
wenzelm@30106
   643
wenzelm@30845
   644
- Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
wenzelm@30106
   645
instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
wenzelm@30106
   646
brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
ballarin@29253
   647
wenzelm@30845
   648
- When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
wenzelm@30728
   649
'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
wenzelm@30845
   650
if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
wenzelm@30845
   651
worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
wenzelm@30845
   652
in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
wenzelm@30845
   653
wenzelm@30845
   654
- Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
   655
In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
wenzelm@30845
   656
respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
wenzelm@30845
   657
that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
wenzelm@30845
   658
assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
wenzelm@30845
   659
involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
wenzelm@30845
   660
notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
wenzelm@30845
   661
locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
wenzelm@30845
   662
wenzelm@30845
   663
If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
wenzelm@30845
   664
parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
wenzelm@30845
   665
consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
wenzelm@30845
   666
the parameters (context element "constrains").
wenzelm@30845
   667
wenzelm@30845
   668
- Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
   669
wenzelm@30845
   670
- Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
wenzelm@30845
   671
INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
wenzelm@30845
   672
methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
wenzelm@30845
   673
wenzelm@30845
   674
- Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
wenzelm@30845
   675
attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
   676
wenzelm@30845
   677
* Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
wenzelm@30845
   678
list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
wenzelm@30845
   679
in HOL, write
wenzelm@30845
   680
wenzelm@30845
   681
    class foo = ...
wenzelm@30845
   682
wenzelm@30845
   683
instead of
wenzelm@30845
   684
wenzelm@30845
   685
    class foo = type + ...
wenzelm@30845
   686
wenzelm@30845
   687
* Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
wenzelm@30845
   688
parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
   689
wenzelm@30845
   690
* Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
wenzelm@30845
   691
INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
wenzelm@30845
   692
wenzelm@30845
   693
* Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
wenzelm@30845
   694
Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
wenzelm@30845
   695
makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
wenzelm@30845
   696
wenzelm@30845
   697
* Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
wenzelm@30845
   698
isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
wenzelm@30845
   699
meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
wenzelm@30845
   700
INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
wenzelm@30845
   701
directly in regular applications.
wenzelm@30845
   702
wenzelm@30845
   703
* There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
wenzelm@30845
   704
fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
wenzelm@30845
   705
wenzelm@30845
   706
* Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
wenzelm@30845
   707
interface with 'setup' command instead.
wenzelm@30845
   708
wenzelm@30845
   709
* Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
wenzelm@30845
   710
theory context.
haftmann@27104
   711
wenzelm@28114
   712
* The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
wenzelm@28114
   713
context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@28114
   714
wenzelm@30845
   715
* Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
wenzelm@30845
   716
hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
wenzelm@30845
   717
covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
wenzelm@30845
   718
type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
wenzelm@30845
   719
hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
wenzelm@30845
   720
vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
wenzelm@30845
   721
wenzelm@30845
   722
  lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
wenzelm@30845
   723
wenzelm@30845
   724
The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
wenzelm@30845
   725
SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
wenzelm@30845
   726
normalization.
wenzelm@30845
   727
wenzelm@30845
   728
* Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
wenzelm@30845
   729
addressing etc.
wenzelm@30845
   730
wenzelm@30845
   731
* Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
wenzelm@30845
   732
wenzelm@30845
   733
  unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
wenzelm@30845
   734
  unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
wenzelm@30845
   735
wenzelm@30845
   736
* Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
wenzelm@30845
   737
wenzelm@30845
   738
  a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
wenzelm@30845
   739
     constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
wenzelm@30845
   740
     parts of the code generator framework).
wenzelm@30845
   741
wenzelm@30845
   742
  b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
wenzelm@30845
   743
     attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
wenzelm@30845
   744
     from definition, primrec, fun etc.
wenzelm@30845
   745
wenzelm@30845
   746
* Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
   747
haftmann@30965
   748
* Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
wenzelm@30845
   749
func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30577
   750
wenzelm@30577
   751
* Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
wenzelm@30577
   752
patterns, e.g.
kleing@29883
   753
kleing@29883
   754
    find_consts "_ => bool"
kleing@29883
   755
wenzelm@30106
   756
By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
wenzelm@30728
   757
the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
wenzelm@30106
   758
conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
wenzelm@30106
   759
hyphen:
kleing@29883
   760
kleing@29883
   761
    find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
kleing@29861
   762
wenzelm@30845
   763
* New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
wenzelm@30845
   764
directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
wenzelm@30845
   765
wenzelm@30845
   766
* Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
wenzelm@30845
   767
is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
wenzelm@30845
   768
solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
wenzelm@30845
   769
Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
wenzelm@30845
   770
enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
wenzelm@30845
   771
higher-order unification.
webertj@30415
   772
haftmann@27104
   773
wenzelm@27381
   774
*** Document preparation ***
wenzelm@27381
   775
wenzelm@27381
   776
* Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
wenzelm@27392
   777
demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
wenzelm@27519
   778
syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
wenzelm@27381
   779
wenzelm@27381
   780
haftmann@27104
   781
*** HOL ***
haftmann@27104
   782
wenzelm@30845
   783
* Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
wenzelm@30845
   784
points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
wenzelm@30845
   785
wenzelm@30845
   786
* Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
wenzelm@30845
   787
tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
wenzelm@30845
   788
experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
wenzelm@30845
   789
(and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
wenzelm@30845
   790
Main, as before.
wenzelm@30845
   791
wenzelm@30845
   792
* Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
wenzelm@30845
   793
experimentation due to shorter build times.
wenzelm@30845
   794
wenzelm@30845
   795
* Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
wenzelm@30845
   796
were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
wenzelm@30845
   797
remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
wenzelm@30845
   798
new entry point Hypercomplex.
wenzelm@30845
   799
wenzelm@30845
   800
* Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
wenzelm@30845
   801
Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
wenzelm@30845
   802
process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
wenzelm@30845
   803
platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
wenzelm@30845
   804
within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
wenzelm@30845
   805
commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
wenzelm@30845
   806
wenzelm@30845
   807
* Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
wenzelm@30845
   808
sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
wenzelm@30845
   809
provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
wenzelm@30845
   810
src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
wenzelm@30845
   811
wenzelm@30845
   812
* ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
wenzelm@30845
   813
menu.
wenzelm@30845
   814
wenzelm@30845
   815
* The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
wenzelm@30845
   816
(contains the empty clause).
wenzelm@30845
   817
wenzelm@30845
   818
* The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
wenzelm@30845
   819
an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
wenzelm@30845
   820
wenzelm@30845
   821
* Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
wenzelm@30845
   822
src/Tools/coherent.ML).
wenzelm@30845
   823
wenzelm@30845
   824
* Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
wenzelm@30845
   825
"undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
wenzelm@30845
   826
logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
   827
wenzelm@30845
   828
* Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
wenzelm@30845
   829
result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
wenzelm@30845
   830
square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
wenzelm@30845
   831
specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
wenzelm@30845
   832
src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
wenzelm@30845
   833
wenzelm@30845
   834
* Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
wenzelm@30845
   835
Declare with attribute [code nbe].
wenzelm@30845
   836
wenzelm@30845
   837
* Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
wenzelm@30845
   838
as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
wenzelm@30845
   839
corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
wenzelm@30845
   840
are now presented as a list of individual projections
wenzelm@30845
   841
(e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
wenzelm@30845
   842
explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
wenzelm@30845
   843
rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
wenzelm@30845
   844
elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
wenzelm@30845
   845
rule: prod.exhaust) here.
wenzelm@30845
   846
wenzelm@30845
   847
* Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
wenzelm@30845
   848
wenzelm@30845
   849
* Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
wenzelm@30845
   850
wenzelm@30845
   851
* The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
wenzelm@30845
   852
option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
   853
wenzelm@30845
   854
* New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
wenzelm@30845
   855
orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
wenzelm@30845
   856
(in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
wenzelm@30845
   857
"strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
wenzelm@30845
   858
wenzelm@30845
   859
* Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
wenzelm@30845
   860
authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
haftmann@30304
   861
haftmann@30304
   862
    op Int ~>   Set.Int
haftmann@30304
   863
    op Un ~>    Set.Un
haftmann@30304
   864
    INTER ~>    Set.INTER
haftmann@30304
   865
    UNION ~>    Set.UNION
haftmann@30304
   866
    Inter ~>    Set.Inter
haftmann@30304
   867
    Union ~>    Set.Union
haftmann@30304
   868
    {} ~>       Set.empty
haftmann@30304
   869
    UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
haftmann@30304
   870
wenzelm@30845
   871
* Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
wenzelm@30845
   872
theory Set.
wenzelm@30845
   873
wenzelm@30845
   874
* Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
wenzelm@30845
   875
parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
haftmann@29797
   876
haftmann@29823
   877
* Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
haftmann@29823
   878
wenzelm@30845
   879
* Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
wenzelm@30845
   880
Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
wenzelm@30845
   881
wenzelm@30845
   882
* Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
wenzelm@30845
   883
method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
wenzelm@30845
   884
interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
wenzelm@30845
   885
functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
wenzelm@30845
   886
allowed. For examples see
wenzelm@30845
   887
src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
haftmann@29823
   888
haftmann@29823
   889
* Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
haftmann@29650
   890
wenzelm@30845
   891
* Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
wenzelm@30845
   892
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@29628
   893
haftmann@29197
   894
* Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
haftmann@29197
   895
structure:
haftmann@28952
   896
haftmann@28952
   897
    src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
haftmann@28952
   898
    src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   899
    src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   900
    src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   901
    src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   902
    src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
huffman@30176
   903
    src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
haftmann@28952
   904
    src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   905
    src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   906
    src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   907
    src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   908
    src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   909
    src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   910
    src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   911
    src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   912
    src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
huffman@30176
   913
    src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
huffman@30176
   914
    src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
haftmann@28952
   915
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   916
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   917
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   918
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   919
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   920
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   921
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   922
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   923
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@29197
   924
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   925
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   926
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   927
    src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
haftmann@29197
   928
    src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
haftmann@29197
   929
    src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   930
haftmann@28952
   931
    src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
haftmann@28952
   932
    src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
haftmann@28952
   933
    src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
haftmann@28952
   934
    src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
haftmann@28952
   935
    src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
haftmann@28952
   936
    src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
haftmann@28952
   937
    src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
haftmann@28952
   938
    src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
haftmann@28952
   939
    src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
haftmann@28952
   940
    src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
haftmann@28952
   941
haftmann@29398
   942
    src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
haftmann@29398
   943
    src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
haftmann@29398
   944
    src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
haftmann@29398
   945
    src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
haftmann@29398
   946
    src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
haftmann@29398
   947
    src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
haftmann@29398
   948
wenzelm@30845
   949
* If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
wenzelm@30845
   950
state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
wenzelm@30845
   951
possible), avoiding strange error messages.
wenzelm@30845
   952
wenzelm@30845
   953
* Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
wenzelm@30845
   954
modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
wenzelm@30845
   955
src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
wenzelm@30845
   956
wenzelm@30845
   957
* Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
wenzelm@30845
   958
variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
   959
wenzelm@30845
   960
* Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
wenzelm@30845
   961
fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
wenzelm@30845
   962
wenzelm@30845
   963
* New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
wenzelm@30845
   964
automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
wenzelm@30845
   965
proofs, e.g.
wenzelm@30845
   966
wenzelm@30845
   967
  assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
wenzelm@30845
   968
nipkow@30706
   969
Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
nipkow@30706
   970
wenzelm@30845
   971
* New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
wenzelm@30845
   972
"bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
wenzelm@30845
   973
requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
   974
wenzelm@30845
   975
* Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
wenzelm@30845
   976
instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
wenzelm@30845
   977
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
   978
wenzelm@30845
   979
* Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
wenzelm@30845
   980
induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
wenzelm@30845
   981
"wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
wenzelm@30845
   982
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
   983
wenzelm@30845
   984
* Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
wenzelm@27793
   985
INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
wenzelm@27793
   986
etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
wenzelm@27793
   987
preorder_class.*.
wenzelm@27793
   988
wenzelm@30845
   989
* Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
wenzelm@30845
   990
"diag" to "Id_on".
wenzelm@30845
   991
wenzelm@30845
   992
* Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
wenzelm@30845
   993
nipkow@28855
   994
  ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
wenzelm@30845
   995
wenzelm@30845
   996
Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
wenzelm@30845
   997
which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
wenzelm@30845
   998
fold_image.
wenzelm@30845
   999
wenzelm@30845
  1000
* Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
wenzelm@30845
  1001
and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
wenzelm@30845
  1002
extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
wenzelm@30845
  1003
the former will disappear at some point.
wenzelm@30845
  1004
wenzelm@30845
  1005
* Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
wenzelm@30845
  1006
class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
wenzelm@30845
  1007
have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
huffman@30273
  1008
huffman@30273
  1009
rat_power_0    -> power_0
huffman@30273
  1010
rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
huffman@30273
  1011
realpow_0      -> power_0
huffman@30273
  1012
realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
huffman@30273
  1013
complexpow_0   -> power_0
huffman@30273
  1014
complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
huffman@30273
  1015
power_poly_0   -> power_0
huffman@30273
  1016
power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
huffman@30273
  1017
wenzelm@30845
  1018
* Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
wenzelm@27793
  1019
moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
wenzelm@27793
  1020
dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
wenzelm@27793
  1021
of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
wenzelm@27793
  1022
semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
wenzelm@27793
  1023
renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
haftmann@27651
  1024
haftmann@27651
  1025
    dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
haftmann@27651
  1026
    zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
haftmann@28559
  1027
    dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
haftmann@27651
  1028
    DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
haftmann@27651
  1029
    DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
haftmann@27651
  1030
    mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
haftmann@27651
  1031
    mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
haftmann@27651
  1032
wenzelm@30845
  1033
* Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
wenzelm@30845
  1034
generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
wenzelm@30845
  1035
rename old lemmas as follows:
nipkow@30044
  1036
nipkow@30044
  1037
dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
nipkow@30044
  1038
dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
nipkow@30224
  1039
mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
nipkow@30224
  1040
mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
nipkow@30224
  1041
mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
nipkow@30224
  1042
mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
nipkow@30044
  1043
nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
nipkow@30044
  1044
nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
nipkow@30044
  1045
nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
nipkow@30044
  1046
nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
nipkow@30044
  1047
zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
nipkow@30044
  1048
zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
nipkow@30181
  1049
zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
nipkow@30044
  1050
zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
nipkow@30044
  1051
zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
nipkow@30044
  1052
zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
nipkow@30044
  1053
zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
nipkow@30085
  1054
zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
nipkow@30044
  1055
zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
nipkow@30044
  1056
zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
nipkow@30044
  1057
zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
nipkow@30044
  1058
zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
nipkow@30224
  1059
zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
nipkow@30044
  1060
zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
nipkow@30044
  1061
zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
nipkow@30044
  1062
zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
nipkow@30044
  1063
zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
nipkow@30044
  1064
zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
nipkow@30044
  1065
zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
nipkow@30044
  1066
zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
nipkow@30044
  1067
zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
nipkow@30044
  1068
zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
nipkow@30044
  1069
zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
nipkow@30044
  1070
zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
nipkow@30044
  1071
zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
nipkow@30044
  1072
zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
nipkow@30044
  1073
zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
nipkow@30044
  1074
zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
nipkow@30044
  1075
zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
nipkow@30044
  1076
zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
nipkow@30044
  1077
zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
nipkow@30044
  1078
zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
nipkow@30044
  1079
zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
nipkow@30044
  1080
zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
nipkow@30044
  1081
zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
nipkow@30044
  1082
wenzelm@30845
  1083
* Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
  1084
wenzelm@30845
  1085
* The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
wenzelm@30845
  1086
into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
wenzelm@30845
  1087
wenzelm@30845
  1088
* Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
wenzelm@30845
  1089
univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
wenzelm@30845
  1090
the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
wenzelm@30845
  1091
generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
wenzelm@30845
  1092
wenzelm@30845
  1093
* Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
wenzelm@30845
  1094
inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
wenzelm@30845
  1095
=> real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
wenzelm@30845
  1096
theory RealVector.
wenzelm@30845
  1097
wenzelm@30845
  1098
* Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
wenzelm@30845
  1099
type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
wenzelm@30845
  1100
Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
wenzelm@30845
  1101
and inner products are included.
wenzelm@30845
  1102
wenzelm@30845
  1103
* Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
wenzelm@30845
  1104
addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
wenzelm@30845
  1105
supported.
wenzelm@30845
  1106
wenzelm@30845
  1107
* Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
wenzelm@30845
  1108
first diagonalization argument.
wenzelm@30845
  1109
wenzelm@30845
  1110
* Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
wenzelm@27599
  1111
zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
wenzelm@30845
  1112
the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
wenzelm@30845
  1113
ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
wenzelm@30845
  1114
may recover tupled syntax as follows:
haftmann@27556
  1115
haftmann@27556
  1116
    hide (open) const gcd
haftmann@27556
  1117
    abbreviation gcd where
haftmann@27556
  1118
      "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
haftmann@27556
  1119
    notation (output)
haftmann@27556
  1120
      GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
haftmann@27556
  1121
wenzelm@30845
  1122
The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
wenzelm@30845
  1123
wenzelm@30845
  1124
* Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
wenzelm@30845
  1125
instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
wenzelm@30845
  1126
theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
  1127
wenzelm@30845
  1128
* ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
haftmann@27651
  1129
corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
haftmann@27651
  1130
resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
haftmann@27651
  1131
All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
haftmann@27651
  1132
simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
wenzelm@30845
  1133
instrumentalizing code generation.  See
wenzelm@30845
  1134
src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
wenzelm@30845
  1135
In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
wenzelm@30845
  1136
code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
wenzelm@30845
  1137
cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
wenzelm@30845
  1138
set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
wenzelm@30845
  1139
cases.
wenzelm@27122
  1140
wenzelm@27122
  1141
* Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
wenzelm@27122
  1142
takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
wenzelm@27122
  1143
represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
wenzelm@27122
  1144
proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
wenzelm@27122
  1145
have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
wenzelm@27122
  1146
haftmann@27104
  1147
    unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
haftmann@27104
  1148
    prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
haftmann@27104
  1149
    sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
haftmann@27104
  1150
    Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
haftmann@27104
  1151
    Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
haftmann@27104
  1152
haftmann@27104
  1153
ballarin@27696
  1154
*** HOL-Algebra ***
ballarin@27696
  1155
ballarin@27713
  1156
* New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
wenzelm@30106
  1157
is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
wenzelm@30106
  1158
locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
ballarin@27713
  1159
ballarin@27713
  1160
* New theory of factorial domains.
ballarin@27713
  1161
wenzelm@30845
  1162
* Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
ballarin@27696
  1163
INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
ballarin@27696
  1164
and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
ballarin@27696
  1165
wenzelm@30845
  1166
* Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
wenzelm@30845
  1167
ballarin@27696
  1168
UpperD ~> Upper_memD
ballarin@27696
  1169
LowerD ~> Lower_memD
ballarin@27696
  1170
least_carrier ~> least_closed
ballarin@27696
  1171
greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
ballarin@27696
  1172
greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
ballarin@27717
  1173
one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
ballarin@27717
  1174
one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
ballarin@27696
  1175
wenzelm@27793
  1176
wenzelm@30849
  1177
*** HOL-Nominal ***
wenzelm@30849
  1178
wenzelm@30855
  1179
* Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
wenzelm@30855
  1180
wenzelm@30855
  1181
* Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
wenzelm@30855
  1182
theory targets.
wenzelm@30855
  1183
wenzelm@30855
  1184
* Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
wenzelm@30855
  1185
specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
wenzelm@30855
  1186
'inductive' etc.
wenzelm@30855
  1187
wenzelm@30855
  1188
* Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
wenzelm@30855
  1189
(no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
wenzelm@30855
  1190
wenzelm@30855
  1191
* The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
wenzelm@30855
  1192
left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
wenzelm@30855
  1193
wenzelm@30855
  1194
* Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
wenzelm@30855
  1195
principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
wenzelm@30855
  1196
'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
wenzelm@30855
  1197
binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
wenzelm@30855
  1198
atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
wenzelm@30855
  1199
moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
wenzelm@30855
  1200
the algorithm W:
wenzelm@30855
  1201
wenzelm@30855
  1202
 Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
wenzelm@30855
  1203
 -----------------------------------------------------------------
wenzelm@30855
  1204
         Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
wenzelm@30855
  1205
wenzelm@30855
  1206
In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
wenzelm@30855
  1207
"close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
wenzelm@30855
  1208
feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
wenzelm@30849
  1209
wenzelm@30849
  1210
huffman@30176
  1211
*** HOLCF ***
huffman@30176
  1212
huffman@30176
  1213
* Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
huffman@30176
  1214
subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
huffman@30176
  1215
continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
huffman@30176
  1216
huffman@30176
  1217
* The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
huffman@30176
  1218
solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
huffman@30176
  1219
some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
huffman@30176
  1220
old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
huffman@30176
  1221
Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
huffman@30176
  1222
wenzelm@30847
  1223
* Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
wenzelm@30855
  1224
format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
wenzelm@30855
  1225
examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
  1226
wenzelm@30845
  1227
wenzelm@30845
  1228
*** ZF ***
wenzelm@30845
  1229
wenzelm@30845
  1230
* Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
huffman@30176
  1231
huffman@30176
  1232
wenzelm@27246
  1233
*** ML ***
wenzelm@28088
  1234
wenzelm@30845
  1235
* Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
wenzelm@30845
  1236
Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
wenzelm@30845
  1237
depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
wenzelm@30845
  1238
5.2.1!
wenzelm@30845
  1239
wenzelm@29161
  1240
* High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
wenzelm@29161
  1241
src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
wenzelm@29161
  1242
particularly convenient to organize independent functional
wenzelm@29161
  1243
computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
wenzelm@29161
  1244
higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
wenzelm@30845
  1245
delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
wenzelm@30845
  1246
Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
wenzelm@30845
  1247
wenzelm@30845
  1248
* ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
wenzelm@30845
  1249
context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
wenzelm@30845
  1250
become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
wenzelm@30845
  1251
top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
wenzelm@30845
  1252
INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
wenzelm@30845
  1253
compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
wenzelm@30845
  1254
theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
wenzelm@30845
  1255
wenzelm@30845
  1256
* Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
wenzelm@30845
  1257
context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
wenzelm@30845
  1258
a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
wenzelm@30845
  1259
ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
wenzelm@30845
  1260
proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
wenzelm@29161
  1261
wenzelm@30530
  1262
* Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
wenzelm@30845
  1263
and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
wenzelm@30547
  1264
'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
wenzelm@30547
  1265
existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
wenzelm@30547
  1266
Method.add_method.
wenzelm@30530
  1267
wenzelm@28294
  1268
* Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
wenzelm@28294
  1269
to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
wenzelm@28294
  1270
name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
wenzelm@28294
  1271
is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
wenzelm@28294
  1272
accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
wenzelm@28294
  1273
the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
wenzelm@28294
  1274
wenzelm@30845
  1275
* Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
wenzelm@30845
  1276
ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
wenzelm@30845
  1277
ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
wenzelm@30845
  1278
antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
wenzelm@30845
  1279
examples.
wenzelm@28099
  1280
wenzelm@30395
  1281
* More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
wenzelm@30395
  1282
name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
wenzelm@30399
  1283
move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
wenzelm@30395
  1284
Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
wenzelm@30395
  1285
abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
wenzelm@30845
  1286
qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
wenzelm@30845
  1287
tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
wenzelm@30845
  1288
bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
wenzelm@30399
  1289
bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
wenzelm@30395
  1290
src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
wenzelm@30395
  1291
wenzelm@28089
  1292
* Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
wenzelm@28089
  1293
LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
wenzelm@28089
  1294
bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
wenzelm@28089
  1295
wenzelm@27287
  1296
* Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
wenzelm@27287
  1297
Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
wenzelm@27287
  1298
Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
wenzelm@27287
  1299
use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
wenzelm@27269
  1300
Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
wenzelm@27269
  1301
resort for legacy applications.
wenzelm@27269
  1302
wenzelm@30609
  1303
* Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
wenzelm@30609
  1304
the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
wenzelm@30609
  1305
Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
wenzelm@30609
  1306
embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
wenzelm@30609
  1307
explicit runtime argument.
wenzelm@30609
  1308
wenzelm@30845
  1309
* Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
wenzelm@30845
  1310
res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
wenzelm@30845
  1311
context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
wenzelm@30845
  1312
the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
wenzelm@30845
  1313
thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
  1314
wenzelm@30845
  1315
* Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
wenzelm@30845
  1316
transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
wenzelm@30845
  1317
for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
wenzelm@30845
  1318
theory state.
wenzelm@30845
  1319
wenzelm@30845
  1320
* ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
wenzelm@27391
  1321
\<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
wenzelm@27391
  1322
wenzelm@30845
  1323
  @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
wenzelm@27519
  1324
  @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
wenzelm@27519
  1325
  @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
wenzelm@27519
  1326
  @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
wenzelm@27519
  1327
  @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
wenzelm@27519
  1328
  @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
wenzelm@27519
  1329
  @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
wenzelm@27519
  1330
  @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
wenzelm@27519
  1331
  @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
wenzelm@27519
  1332
  @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
wenzelm@27380
  1333
wenzelm@27246
  1334
wenzelm@27979
  1335
*** System ***
wenzelm@27979
  1336
wenzelm@28248
  1337
* The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
wenzelm@28248
  1338
Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
wenzelm@28248
  1339
installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
wenzelm@28248
  1340
isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
wenzelm@28248
  1341
installation location of the Proof General distribution.
wenzelm@28248
  1342
wenzelm@27979
  1343
* Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
wenzelm@27979
  1344
the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
wenzelm@27979
  1345
Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
wenzelm@27979
  1346
process wrapper has been discontinued.)
wenzelm@27979
  1347
wenzelm@30845
  1348
* Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
wenzelm@30845
  1349
wenzelm@30845
  1350
* Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
wenzelm@27979
  1351
emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
wenzelm@27979
  1352
user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
wenzelm@27979
  1353
prover operations.
wenzelm@27979
  1354
wenzelm@27979
  1355
wenzelm@27143
  1356
wenzelm@27008
  1357
New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
wenzelm@27008
  1358
-------------------------------
wenzelm@25464
  1359
wenzelm@25522
  1360
*** General ***
wenzelm@25522
  1361
wenzelm@27061
  1362
* The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
wenzelm@27061
  1363
and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
wenzelm@27061
  1364
wenzelm@25994
  1365
* Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
wenzelm@25994
  1366
implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
wenzelm@25994
  1367
conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
wenzelm@25994
  1368
provides a proper context already.
wenzelm@25994
  1369
wenzelm@26323
  1370
* Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
wenzelm@26323
  1371
file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
wenzelm@26323
  1372
'use' within a theory file will do the job.
wenzelm@26323
  1373
wenzelm@26650
  1374
* Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
wenzelm@26650
  1375
is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
wenzelm@26659
  1376
space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
wenzelm@26650
  1377
swap theory imports.
wenzelm@26650
  1378
wenzelm@27067
  1379
* Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
wenzelm@27067
  1380
INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
wenzelm@27067
  1381
wenzelm@27067
  1382
* Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
wenzelm@27067
  1383
which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
wenzelm@27067
  1384
white space without escapes.
wenzelm@27067
  1385
wenzelm@27067
  1386
* Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
wenzelm@27067
  1387
specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
wenzelm@27067
  1388
"foo_bar".
wenzelm@27067
  1389
wenzelm@25522
  1390
haftmann@25502
  1391
*** Pure ***
haftmann@25502
  1392
wenzelm@26718
  1393
* Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
wenzelm@26718
  1394
fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
wenzelm@26718
  1395
berghofe@26681
  1396
* Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
berghofe@26681
  1397
There are three ways of invoking it:
berghofe@26681
  1398
berghofe@26681
  1399
(1) unused_thms
berghofe@26681
  1400
     Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
berghofe@26681
  1401
berghofe@26681
  1402
(2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
berghofe@26681
  1403
     Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
berghofe@26681
  1404
     excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
berghofe@26681
  1405
berghofe@26681
  1406
(3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
berghofe@26681
  1407
     Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
berghofe@26681
  1408
     their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
berghofe@26681
  1409
     their ancestors.
berghofe@26681
  1410
wenzelm@26718
  1411
In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
wenzelm@26718
  1412
unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
wenzelm@26874
  1413
of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
wenzelm@26874
  1414
to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
wenzelm@26718
  1415
this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
wenzelm@26718
  1416
reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
wenzelm@26718
  1417
unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
wenzelm@26718
  1418
wenzelm@26718
  1419
Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
wenzelm@26718
  1420
unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
wenzelm@26874
  1421
usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
berghofe@26681
  1422
wenzelm@26650
  1423
* Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
wenzelm@26650
  1424
theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
wenzelm@26650
  1425
duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
wenzelm@26650
  1426
that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
wenzelm@26650
  1427
PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
wenzelm@26650
  1428
wenzelm@26660
  1429
* Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
wenzelm@26660
  1430
wenzelm@26496
  1431
* Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
wenzelm@26496
  1432
clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
wenzelm@26496
  1433
update of theories within ML code.
wenzelm@26479
  1434
wenzelm@26955
  1435
* Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
wenzelm@26955
  1436
INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
wenzelm@26955
  1437
additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
wenzelm@26955
  1438
depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
wenzelm@26650
  1439
wenzelm@26495
  1440
* Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
wenzelm@26479
  1441
theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
wenzelm@26479
  1442
instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
wenzelm@26479
  1443
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@26479
  1444
wenzelm@26874
  1445
* Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
wenzelm@26434
  1446
wenzelm@25970
  1447
* Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
wenzelm@25970
  1448
instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
wenzelm@25970
  1449
Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
wenzelm@27067
  1450
See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
wenzelm@27067
  1451
src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
haftmann@25502
  1452
wenzelm@26201
  1453
* Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
wenzelm@26201
  1454
facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
wenzelm@26201
  1455
background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
wenzelm@26201
  1456
"fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
wenzelm@26201
  1457
situations.
wenzelm@26201
  1458
wenzelm@26925
  1459
* Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
wenzelm@26925
  1460
"(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
wenzelm@26925
  1461
proof text.
wenzelm@26925
  1462
wenzelm@26925
  1463
* Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
wenzelm@26925
  1464
INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
wenzelm@26925
  1465
wenzelm@26874
  1466
* Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
wenzelm@26874
  1467
hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
wenzelm@26874
  1468
predicates.
ballarin@26765
  1469
ballarin@26765
  1470
haftmann@26762
  1471
*** Document preparation ***
haftmann@26762
  1472
wenzelm@26914
  1473
* Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
wenzelm@26914
  1474
both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
wenzelm@26914
  1475
obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
wenzelm@26914
  1476
spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
wenzelm@26920
  1477
value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
wenzelm@26920
  1478
"a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
wenzelm@26914
  1479
wenzelm@27008
  1480
* Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
wenzelm@27008
  1481
method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
wenzelm@27008
  1482
arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
haftmann@26762
  1483
haftmann@26762
  1484
wenzelm@25464
  1485
*** HOL ***
wenzelm@25464
  1486
wenzelm@27067
  1487
* New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
wenzelm@27067
  1488
definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
wenzelm@27067
  1489
"primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
wenzelm@27067
  1490
by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
wenzelm@27067
  1491
When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
wenzelm@27067
  1492
primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
wenzelm@27067
  1493
wenzelm@27067
  1494
* Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
wenzelm@27067
  1495
with multithreading.
wenzelm@27067
  1496
wenzelm@27067
  1497
* Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
wenzelm@27067
  1498
theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
wenzelm@27067
  1499
exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
wenzelm@27067
  1500
wenzelm@27067
  1501
* Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
wenzelm@27067
  1502
enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
wenzelm@27067
  1503
reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
wenzelm@27067
  1504
sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@27067
  1505
haftmann@27104
  1506
* Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
wenzelm@27067
  1507
from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
wenzelm@27067
  1508
out some operations that are done internally by the function package
wenzelm@27067
  1509
and makes them available separately.  See
wenzelm@27067
  1510
src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
wenzelm@27067
  1511
wenzelm@27067
  1512
* More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
wenzelm@27067
  1513
proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
wenzelm@27067
  1514
form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
wenzelm@27067
  1515
The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
wenzelm@27067
  1516
just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
wenzelm@27067
  1517
termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
wenzelm@27067
  1518
type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
wenzelm@27067
  1519
the declared rules.
wenzelm@27067
  1520
wenzelm@27067
  1521
This setup also deals with rules like 
wenzelm@27067
  1522
wenzelm@27067
  1523
  "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
wenzelm@27067
  1524
wenzelm@27067
  1525
which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
wenzelm@27067
  1526
Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
wenzelm@27067
  1527
berghofe@26964
  1528
* Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
berghofe@26964
  1529
berghofe@26964
  1530
  INCOMPATIBILITIES:
berghofe@26964
  1531
wenzelm@27008
  1532
  - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
wenzelm@27008
  1533
    definitions on => and bool.
berghofe@26964
  1534
berghofe@26964
  1535
  - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
wenzelm@27008
  1536
    using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
wenzelm@27008
  1537
    the following theorems have been renamed:
berghofe@26964
  1538
berghofe@26964
  1539
      subset_def   -> subset_eq
berghofe@26964
  1540
      psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
berghofe@26964
  1541
      set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
berghofe@26964
  1542
      Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
berghofe@26964
  1543
      Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
berghofe@26964
  1544
      Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
berghofe@26964
  1545
      sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
berghofe@26964
  1546
      inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
berghofe@26964
  1547
berghofe@26964
  1548
  - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
berghofe@26964
  1549
    rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
berghofe@26964
  1550
    the unknowns in the rule is a set.
berghofe@26964
  1551
berghofe@26964
  1552
  - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
berghofe@26964
  1553
    The proof pattern
berghofe@26964
  1554
berghofe@26964
  1555
      have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
berghofe@26964
  1556
      then have "EX S. P S" ..
berghofe@26964
  1557
wenzelm@27008
  1558
    no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
wenzelm@27008
  1559
    algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
berghofe@26964
  1560
berghofe@26964
  1561
      have "EX S. P S"
berghofe@26964
  1562
      proof
berghofe@26964
  1563
        show "P S" <...>
berghofe@26964
  1564
      qed
berghofe@26964
  1565
berghofe@26964
  1566
  - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
berghofe@26964
  1567
    The proof pattern
berghofe@26964
  1568
berghofe@26964
  1569
      have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
berghofe@26964
  1570
      also have "S = T" <...>
berghofe@26964
  1571
      finally have "P T" .
berghofe@26964
  1572
wenzelm@27008
  1573
    no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
wenzelm@27008
  1574
    must be replaced by something like
berghofe@26964
  1575
berghofe@26964
  1576
      have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
berghofe@26964
  1577
      moreover have "S = T" <...>
berghofe@26964
  1578
      ultimately have "P T" by simp
berghofe@26964
  1579
berghofe@26964
  1580
  - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
berghofe@26964
  1581
    Code performing pattern matching on types via
berghofe@26964
  1582
berghofe@26964
  1583
      Type ("set", [T]) => ...
berghofe@26964
  1584
wenzelm@27008
  1585
    must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
wenzelm@27008
  1586
    binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
wenzelm@27008
  1587
    type of the form
berghofe@26964
  1588
berghofe@26964
  1589
      T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
berghofe@26964
  1590
berghofe@26964
  1591
    rather than
berghofe@26964
  1592
berghofe@26964
  1593
      T1 => ... => Tn => U set
berghofe@26964
  1594
wenzelm@26874
  1595
* Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
wenzelm@27067
  1596
Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
krauss@26748
  1597
haftmann@26513
  1598
* Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@26513
  1599
wenzelm@26874
  1600
* Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
wenzelm@26874
  1601
enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
haftmann@26445
  1602
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@26445
  1603
wenzelm@26874
  1604
* Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
wenzelm@26874
  1605
and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@26874
  1606
wenzelm@26422
  1607
* HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
wenzelm@26422
  1608
Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@26422
  1609
wenzelm@26874
  1610
* Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
wenzelm@26874
  1611
injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
wenzelm@26874
  1612
Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@26355
  1613
wenzelm@26335
  1614
* Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
wenzelm@26335
  1615
the same name in theory Orderings:
wenzelm@26335
  1616
wenzelm@26335
  1617
  less_trans
wenzelm@26335
  1618
  less_linear
wenzelm@26335
  1619
  le_imp_less_or_eq
wenzelm@26335
  1620
  le_less_trans
wenzelm@26335
  1621
  less_le_trans
wenzelm@26335
  1622
  less_not_sym
wenzelm@26335
  1623
  less_asym
wenzelm@26335
  1624
wenzelm@26335
  1625
Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
wenzelm@26335
  1626
less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
wenzelm@26335
  1627
and different variable names.
wenzelm@26315
  1628
haftmann@26231
  1629
* Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
haftmann@26231
  1630
wenzelm@27008
  1631
* Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
wenzelm@27008
  1632
finite maps.
krauss@26197
  1633
haftmann@26231
  1634
* Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
haftmann@26231
  1635
wenzelm@26180
  1636
* Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
wenzelm@26180
  1637
operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
wenzelm@26180
  1638
disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
wenzelm@26180
  1639
place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
wenzelm@26180
  1640
involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
wenzelm@26180
  1641
accordingly.
wenzelm@26180
  1642
wenzelm@26180
  1643
* Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
wenzelm@26180
  1644
depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
wenzelm@26180
  1645
le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
wenzelm@26180
  1646
[symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
wenzelm@26180
  1647
wenzelm@26180
  1648
* Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
wenzelm@26180
  1649
(whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
wenzelm@26874
  1650
abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
wenzelm@26180
  1651
ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
wenzelm@26180
  1652
lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
haftmann@26139
  1653
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@26041
  1654
wenzelm@26180
  1655
* Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
wenzelm@26180
  1656
case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@26180
  1657
wenzelm@26180
  1658
* Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
wenzelm@26180
  1659
lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
wenzelm@26180
  1660
Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
haftmann@26013
  1661
wenzelm@26874
  1662
* Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
wenzelm@27067
  1663
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@25961
  1664
wenzelm@26180
  1665
* Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
haftmann@25942
  1666
with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
haftmann@25942
  1667
wenzelm@26180
  1668
* Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
wenzelm@26180
  1669
Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@26180
  1670
wenzelm@26180
  1671
* Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
wenzelm@26180
  1672
numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@26180
  1673
wenzelm@26180
  1674
* New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
wenzelm@26180
  1675
"minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
haftmann@25919
  1676
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@25919
  1677
wenzelm@25522
  1678
* Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
haftmann@25919
  1679
syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@25522
  1680
wenzelm@25522
  1681
* Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
wenzelm@25522
  1682
le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
wenzelm@25522
  1683
sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
wenzelm@25522
  1684
Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
wenzelm@25522
  1685
Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
haftmann@25919
  1686
equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@25464
  1687
schirmer@25705
  1688
* Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
wenzelm@25726
  1689
%x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
schirmer@25705
  1690
INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
wenzelm@25464
  1691
wenzelm@27067
  1692
* Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
wenzelm@27067
  1693
wenzelm@27067
  1694
* Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
wenzelm@27067
  1695
wenzelm@27067
  1696
* Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
wenzelm@27067
  1697
pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
wenzelm@27067
  1698
well-orders on sets and on types.
krauss@26877
  1699
wenzelm@25726
  1700
krauss@26197
  1701
*** ZF ***
krauss@26197
  1702
wenzelm@26874
  1703
* Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
wenzelm@26874
  1704
same session:
wenzelm@26874
  1705
wenzelm@26874
  1706
  Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
wenzelm@26874
  1707
  Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
wenzelm@26874
  1708
  Int       -> Int_ZF
wenzelm@26874
  1709
  IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
wenzelm@26874
  1710
  Nat       -> Nat_ZF
wenzelm@26874
  1711
  List      -> List_ZF
wenzelm@26874
  1712
  Main      -> Main_ZF
wenzelm@26874
  1713
wenzelm@26874
  1714
INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
wenzelm@26874
  1715
Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
wenzelm@26874
  1716
available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
krauss@26197
  1717
krauss@26197
  1718
wenzelm@25737
  1719
*** ML ***
wenzelm@25737
  1720
wenzelm@27067
  1721
* ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
wenzelm@27067
  1722
name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
wenzelm@27067
  1723
wenzelm@26401
  1724
* Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
wenzelm@26724
  1725
(of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
wenzelm@26401
  1726
wenzelm@27067
  1727
* Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
wenzelm@26188
  1728
wenzelm@25737
  1729
* The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
wenzelm@25737
  1730
template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
wenzelm@25737
  1731
non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
wenzelm@25737
  1732
management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
wenzelm@25737
  1733
print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@25737
  1734
wenzelm@26874
  1735
* Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
wenzelm@29161
  1736
shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
wenzelm@29161
  1737
5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
wenzelm@26222
  1738
wenzelm@25737
  1739
wenzelm@25626
  1740
*** System ***
wenzelm@25626
  1741
wenzelm@25971
  1742
* Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
wenzelm@25971
  1743
in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
wenzelm@25970
  1744
wenzelm@25626
  1745
* isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
wenzelm@25626
  1746
optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
wenzelm@25626
  1747
setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
wenzelm@25626
  1748
wenzelm@25651
  1749
* isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
wenzelm@25651
  1750
"javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
wenzelm@25651
  1751
wenzelm@27067
  1752
* YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
wenzelm@27067
  1753
standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
wenzelm@27067
  1754
isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
wenzelm@25651
  1755
wenzelm@25652
  1756
* JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
wenzelm@25651
  1757
provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
wenzelm@25651
  1758
fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
wenzelm@25651
  1759
wenzelm@25855
  1760
* Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
wenzelm@25855
  1761
based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
wenzelm@25855
  1762
wenzelm@27067
  1763
* Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
wenzelm@27067
  1764
way of changing the user's settings is via
wenzelm@27067
  1765
ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
wenzelm@27067
  1766
script.
wenzelm@27067
  1767
wenzelm@27067
  1768
* Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
wenzelm@27067
  1769
cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
wenzelm@27067
  1770
optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
wenzelm@27067
  1771
"max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
wenzelm@27067
  1772
of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
wenzelm@27067
  1773
wenzelm@27067
  1774
* isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
wenzelm@27067
  1775
adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
wenzelm@27067
  1776
ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
wenzelm@27067
  1777
wenzelm@25626
  1778
wenzelm@25464
  1779
wenzelm@25429
  1780
New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
wenzelm@25429
  1781
-----------------------------------
wenzelm@17754
  1782
wenzelm@17754
  1783
*** General ***
wenzelm@17754
  1784
wenzelm@22826
  1785
* More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
wenzelm@22826
  1786
warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
wenzelm@23367
  1787
tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
wenzelm@23367
  1788
legacy features will disappear eventually.
wenzelm@22826
  1789
wenzelm@17918
  1790
* Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
wenzelm@17918
  1791
discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
wenzelm@17918
  1792
fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@17918
  1793
wenzelm@17918
  1794
* Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
wenzelm@17918
  1795
discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
wenzelm@17918
  1796
with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
wenzelm@17918
  1797
function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@17918
  1798
wenzelm@22871
  1799
* Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
wenzelm@22871
  1800
'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
wenzelm@22871
  1801
quotes.
wenzelm@19814
  1802
wenzelm@23888
  1803
* Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
wenzelm@23888
  1804
header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
wenzelm@24172
  1805
accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
wenzelm@24172
  1806
update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
wenzelm@24172
  1807
use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
wenzelm@24172
  1808
theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
wenzelm@24172
  1809
specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
wenzelm@24172
  1810
INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
wenzelm@24172
  1811
ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
wenzelm@23888
  1812
wenzelm@23888
  1813
* Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
wenzelm@23888
  1814
identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
wenzelm@23889
  1815
path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
wenzelm@23888
  1816
(cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
wenzelm@23888
  1817
non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
wenzelm@23888
  1818
files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
wenzelm@23888
  1819
wenzelm@24187
  1820
* Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
wenzelm@24187
  1821
file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
wenzelm@24800
  1822
feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
wenzelm@24800
  1823
no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
wenzelm@24800
  1824
wenzelm@24800
  1825
* Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
wenzelm@24800
  1826
now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
wenzelm@24234
  1827
specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
wenzelm@24234
  1828
syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
wenzelm@24234
  1829
type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
wenzelm@24234
  1830
'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
wenzelm@24234
  1831
wenzelm@25034
  1832
* Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
wenzelm@25034
  1833
'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
wenzelm@25034
  1834
``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
wenzelm@25034
  1835
really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
wenzelm@25034
  1836
ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
wenzelm@25034
  1837
trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
wenzelm@25034
  1838
translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
wenzelm@25034
  1839
@{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
wenzelm@25034
  1840
wenzelm@17981
  1841
* Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
wenzelm@17981
  1842
to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
wenzelm@17981
  1843
functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
wenzelm@17981
  1844
by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
wenzelm@17981
  1845
Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
wenzelm@17981
  1846
these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
wenzelm@17981
  1847
used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
wenzelm@17918
  1848
wenzelm@23379
  1849
* Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
wenzelm@23379
  1850
criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
wenzelm@23379
  1851
support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
webertj@22965
  1852
wenzelm@20370
  1853
* The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
wenzelm@20370
  1854
by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
wenzelm@20370
  1855
suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
wenzelm@20370
  1856
settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
wenzelm@20370
  1857
older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
wenzelm@20370
  1858
limit is imposed.
wenzelm@20370
  1859
wenzelm@21308
  1860
* Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
wenzelm@21308
  1861
``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
wenzelm@21308
  1862
contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
wenzelm@21308
  1863
that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
wenzelm@21308
  1864
generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
wenzelm@21308
  1865
and scalability.
wenzelm@21308
  1866
wenzelm@21960
  1867
* Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
wenzelm@21960
  1868
discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
wenzelm@21960
  1869
wenzelm@17754
  1870
wenzelm@17865
  1871
*** Document preparation ***
wenzelm@17865
  1872
wenzelm@21717
  1873
* Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
wenzelm@21717
  1874
after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
wenzelm@21717
  1875
current context.
haftmann@21339
  1876
wenzelm@17869
  1877
* Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
wenzelm@17869
  1878
check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
wenzelm@17865
  1879
wenzelm@21717
  1880
* Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
wenzelm@21717
  1881
"c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
wenzelm@21735
  1882
arguments may be given on the LHS.)
wenzelm@21717
  1883
wenzelm@21717
  1884
wenzelm@17779
  1885
*** Pure ***
wenzelm@17779
  1886
wenzelm@24800
  1887
* The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
wenzelm@25129
  1888
achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
wenzelm@25129
  1889
theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
wenzelm@25129
  1890
implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
wenzelm@25129
  1891
constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
wenzelm@25129
  1892
context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
wenzelm@25129
  1893
syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
wenzelm@25129
  1894
between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
wenzelm@25177
  1895
See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
haftmann@25184
  1896
"isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
wenzelm@20807
  1897
haftmann@25199
  1898
* Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
wenzelm@24800
  1899
code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
wenzelm@24800
  1900
sketch:
haftmann@20188
  1901
haftmann@20188
  1902
    internal compilation:
haftmann@25199
  1903
        export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
haftmann@20453
  1904
    writing SML code to a file:
haftmann@25199
  1905
        export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
haftmann@22735
  1906
    writing OCaml code to a file:
haftmann@25199
  1907
        export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
haftmann@20188
  1908
    writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
haftmann@25199
  1909
        export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
haftmann@25199
  1910
haftmann@25199
  1911
    evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
haftmann@25184
  1912
        method ``eval''
haftmann@25184
  1913
haftmann@25184
  1914
Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
haftmann@20453
  1915
haftmann@20453
  1916
Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
haftmann@20453
  1917
haftmann@22845
  1918
    [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
haftmann@22845
  1919
    [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
haftmann@22845
  1920
    [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
haftmann@22845
  1921
    [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
haftmann@20453
  1922
haftmann@22735
  1923
User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
haftmann@20453
  1924
haftmann@20453
  1925
    code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
haftmann@20453
  1926
      {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
haftmann@20453
  1927
haftmann@20453
  1928
    code_type <and-list of type constructors>
haftmann@20453
  1929
      {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
haftmann@20453
  1930
haftmann@20453
  1931
    code_instance <and-list of instances>
haftmann@20453
  1932
      {(target)}+
haftmann@20453
  1933
        where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
haftmann@20453
  1934
haftmann@20453
  1935
    code_class <and_list of classes>
haftmann@20453
  1936
      {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
haftmann@20453
  1937
        where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
haftmann@20453
  1938
haftmann@25199
  1939
code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
haftmann@22735
  1940
wenzelm@25177
  1941
For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
wenzelm@25177
  1942
src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
wenzelm@24800
  1943
generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
wenzelm@24800
  1944
codegen".
haftmann@20188
  1945
wenzelm@25129
  1946
* Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
wenzelm@25129
  1947
referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
wenzelm@25129
  1948
annotations).
wenzelm@25129
  1949
wenzelm@19254
  1950
* Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
wenzelm@19254
  1951
syntax.
wenzelm@19254
  1952
wenzelm@19625
  1953
* Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
wenzelm@19714
  1954
dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
wenzelm@19714
  1955
that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
wenzelm@19714
  1956
correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
wenzelm@19714
  1957
INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
wenzelm@19714
  1958
exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
wenzelm@19711
  1959
wenzelm@19711
  1960
Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
wenzelm@19711
  1961
instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
wenzelm@19711
  1962
declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
wenzelm@19711
  1963
c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
wenzelm@19711
  1964
as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
wenzelm@19711
  1965
recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
wenzelm@19714
  1966
impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
wenzelm@19715
  1967
LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
wenzelm@19714
  1968
Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
wenzelm@19714
  1969
equations, see section "definitions".
wenzelm@19625
  1970
wenzelm@24086
  1971
* Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
wenzelm@24086
  1972
context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
wenzelm@24086
  1973
interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
wenzelm@24110
  1974
declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
wenzelm@24110
  1975
these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
wenzelm@24110
  1976
associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
wenzelm@24110
  1977
declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
wenzelm@24110
  1978
'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
wenzelm@24110
  1979
very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
wenzelm@24110
  1980
toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
wenzelm@24086
  1981
wenzelm@24172
  1982
Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
wenzelm@24172
  1983
configuration options:
wenzelm@24172
  1984
wenzelm@24172
  1985
  Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
wenzelm@24172
  1986
  Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
wenzelm@24172
  1987
  Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
wenzelm@24172
  1988
  Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
wenzelm@24172
  1989
  Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
wenzelm@24172
  1990
  Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
wenzelm@24172
  1991
  DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
wenzelm@24172
  1992
  fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
wenzelm@24172
  1993
  fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
wenzelm@24172
  1994
wenzelm@24086
  1995
* Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
wenzelm@24800
  1996
data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
wenzelm@24086
  1997
src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
wenzelm@24110
  1998
attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
wenzelm@24110
  1999
just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
wenzelm@24110
  2000
for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
wenzelm@24110
  2001
order.
wenzelm@24086
  2002
wenzelm@24032
  2003
* Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
wenzelm@24032
  2004
declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
wenzelm@24032
  2005
being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
wenzelm@24032
  2006
difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
wenzelm@24032
  2007
context encountered later on.
wenzelm@24032
  2008
wenzelm@24032
  2009
* Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
wenzelm@24032
  2010
'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
wenzelm@24032
  2011
text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
wenzelm@24032
  2012
context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
wenzelm@24032
  2013
wenzelm@24032
  2014
* Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
wenzelm@24032
  2015
abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
wenzelm@24032
  2016
which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
wenzelm@24032
  2017
the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
wenzelm@24032
  2018
declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
wenzelm@24032
  2019
'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
wenzelm@24032
  2020
wenzelm@23369
  2021
* Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
wenzelm@23369
  2022
takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
wenzelm@23369
  2023
an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
wenzelm@23369
  2024
assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
wenzelm@23369
  2025
goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
wenzelm@23369
  2026
without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
wenzelm@23369
  2027
Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
wenzelm@23369
  2028
more permissive.
wenzelm@23369
  2029
wenzelm@23369
  2030
* Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
wenzelm@23369
  2031
considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
wenzelm@23369
  2032
may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
wenzelm@23369
  2033
referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
wenzelm@23369
  2034
maintainability of proof texts.
wenzelm@23369
  2035
wenzelm@17865
  2036
* Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
wenzelm@17865
  2037
the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
wenzelm@17865
  2038
wenzelm@17865
  2039
  assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
wenzelm@17865
  2040
  then guess x and y by clarify
wenzelm@17865
  2041
wenzelm@17865
  2042
This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
wenzelm@17865
  2043
proof tools being involved here.
wenzelm@17865
  2044
wenzelm@18020
  2045
* Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
wenzelm@18020
  2046
propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
wenzelm@18020
  2047
named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
wenzelm@18020
  2048
methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
wenzelm@18020
  2049
according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
wenzelm@18020
  2050
provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
wenzelm@18020
  2051
theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
wenzelm@18020
  2052
`A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
wenzelm@18020
  2053
wenzelm@18020
  2054
There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
wenzelm@18044
  2055
for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
wenzelm@18044
  2056
certain special cases of literal facts:
wenzelm@18020
  2057
wenzelm@18020
  2058
  have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
wenzelm@18020
  2059
  have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
wenzelm@18020
  2060
  have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
wenzelm@18020
  2061
  have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
wenzelm@18020
  2062
wenzelm@20118
  2063
* Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
wenzelm@20118
  2064
outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
wenzelm@20118
  2065
additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
wenzelm@20118
  2066
wenzelm@20013
  2067
* Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
wenzelm@20013
  2068
both named and unnamed ones.
wenzelm@20013
  2069
wenzelm@18308
  2070
* Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
wenzelm@18308
  2071
wenzelm@18308
  2072
  def x == "t" and y == "u"
wenzelm@18308
  2073
wenzelm@18540
  2074
* Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
wenzelm@18540
  2075
'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
wenzelm@18815
  2076
rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
wenzelm@18540
  2077
'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
wenzelm@18540
  2078
wenzelm@18815
  2079
* Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
wenzelm@18815
  2080
and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
wenzelm@18815
  2081
(potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
wenzelm@18815
  2082
analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
wenzelm@18815
  2083
Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
wenzelm@18815
  2084
kleing@24238
  2085
* Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
kleing@24238
  2086
premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
kleing@24238
  2087
wenzelm@19220
  2088
* Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
wenzelm@19220
  2089
method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
wenzelm@19240
  2090
sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
wenzelm@19240
  2091
simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
wenzelm@19240
  2092
simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
wenzelm@19240
  2093
originally first one.
wenzelm@19220
  2094
wenzelm@19814
  2095
* Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
wenzelm@19814
  2096
patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
wenzelm@19814
  2097
expected.
wenzelm@19814
  2098
wenzelm@18901
  2099
* Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
wenzelm@18901
  2100
'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
wenzelm@18901
  2101
(essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
wenzelm@18901
  2102
assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
wenzelm@18910
  2103
adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
wenzelm@18901
  2104
wenzelm@18901
  2105
  lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
wenzelm@18901
  2106
    assumes "EX x. P x"
wenzelm@18901
  2107
    obtains x where "P x"
wenzelm@18901
  2108
wenzelm@18901
  2109
  lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
wenzelm@18901
  2110
    assumes "A & B"
wenzelm@18901
  2111
    obtains A and B
wenzelm@18901
  2112
wenzelm@18901
  2113
  lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
wenzelm@18901
  2114
    assumes "A | B"
wenzelm@18901
  2115
    obtains
wenzelm@18901
  2116
      A
wenzelm@18901
  2117
    | B
wenzelm@18901
  2118
wenzelm@18910
  2119
The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
wenzelm@18901
  2120
explicitly:
wenzelm@18901
  2121
wenzelm@18901
  2122
  lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
wenzelm@18901
  2123
    obtains "~ thesis"
wenzelm@18901
  2124
wenzelm@18910
  2125
  lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
wenzelm@18910
  2126
    obtains "thesis ==> something"
wenzelm@18901
  2127
wenzelm@18901
  2128
The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
wenzelm@18910
  2129
Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
wenzelm@18910
  2130
Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
wenzelm@18910
  2131
available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
wenzelm@18910
  2132
resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
wenzelm@18910
  2133
case_names).
wenzelm@18901
  2134
wenzelm@21447
  2135
* Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
wenzelm@21447
  2136
"assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
wenzelm@21447
  2137
(historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
wenzelm@21447
  2138
context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
wenzelm@21447
  2139
wenzelm@19263
  2140
* Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
wenzelm@19263
  2141
proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
wenzelm@19263
  2142
top-level lemma.
wenzelm@19263
  2143
wenzelm@18901
  2144
* Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
wenzelm@18901
  2145
introduction rule (default "that").
wenzelm@18901
  2146
wenzelm@19587
  2147
* Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
wenzelm@19587
  2148
explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
wenzelm@19587
  2149
to occur.
wenzelm@19587
  2150
wenzelm@19682
  2151
* Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
wenzelm@19682
  2152
according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
wenzelm@19682
  2153
syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
wenzelm@19682
  2154
representations independently of name spaces.
wenzelm@19682
  2155
wenzelm@21537
  2156
* Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
wenzelm@21537
  2157
instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
wenzelm@21537
  2158
in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@21537
  2159
wenzelm@21209
  2160
* Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
wenzelm@21209
  2161
primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
wenzelm@24950
  2162
fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
wenzelm@24950
  2163
of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
wenzelm@24950
  2164
'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
wenzelm@24950
  2165
current context.
wenzelm@19682
  2166
wenzelm@19665
  2167
* Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
wenzelm@19665
  2168
'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
wenzelm@19083
  2169
object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
wenzelm@19083
  2170
isar-ref manual.  Examples:
wenzelm@19081
  2171
wenzelm@19665
  2172
  axiomatization
wenzelm@21595
  2173
    eq  (infix "===" 50) where
wenzelm@21595
  2174
    eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
wenzelm@21595
  2175
wenzelm@21595
  2176
  definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
wenzelm@21595
  2177
  definition g where "g x = f x x"
wenzelm@19081
  2178
wenzelm@19363
  2179
  abbreviation
wenzelm@21595
  2180
    neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
wenzelm@19363
  2181
    "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
wenzelm@19081
  2182
wenzelm@19083
  2183
These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
wenzelm@19083
  2184
constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
wenzelm@19083
  2185
constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
wenzelm@19083
  2186
abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
wenzelm@19088
  2187
parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
wenzelm@25177
  2188
src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
wenzelm@19083
  2189
entities from a monomorphic theory.
wenzelm@19083
  2190
wenzelm@19083
  2191
Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
wenzelm@19363
  2192
not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
wenzelm@19363
  2193
'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
wenzelm@24735
  2194
'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
wenzelm@24735
  2195
prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
wenzelm@19084
  2196
wenzelm@19682
  2197
Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
wenzelm@19682
  2198
independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
wenzelm@21209
  2199
slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
wenzelm@19682
  2200
'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
wenzelm@19665
  2201
wenzelm@24800
  2202
* Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
wenzelm@24800
  2203
(e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
wenzelm@24800
  2204
full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
wenzelm@24735
  2205
wenzelm@24735
  2206
  definition "K x _ = x"
wenzelm@24735
  2207
wenzelm@24738
  2208
  inductive conj for A B
wenzelm@24738
  2209
  where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
wenzelm@24738
  2210
wenzelm@21735
  2211
* Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
wenzelm@21735
  2212
the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
wenzelm@21735
  2213
abbreviations on output.
wenzelm@21735
  2214
wenzelm@24800
  2215
* Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
wenzelm@24800
  2216
"struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
wenzelm@24800
  2217
required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
wenzelm@24800
  2218
endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
ballarin@19783
  2219
ballarin@19931
  2220
* Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
ballarin@19931
  2221
Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
wenzelm@22126
  2222
now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
wenzelm@22126
  2223
locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
wenzelm@22126
  2224
predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
wenzelm@22126
  2225
removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
wenzelm@22126
  2226
`unfold_locales'; see below.
wenzelm@22126
  2227
wenzelm@22126
  2228
* Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
wenzelm@22126
  2229
provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
wenzelm@22126
  2230
aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
wenzelm@22126
  2231
`intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
wenzelm@22126
  2232
unfold predicates to assumptions.
ballarin@19931
  2233
ballarin@19931
  2234
* Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
wenzelm@22126
  2235
has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
wenzelm@22126
  2236
to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
ballarin@19931
  2237
ballarin@23920
  2238
* Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
ballarin@23920
  2239
extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
ballarin@23920
  2240
unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
ballarin@23920
  2241
defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
ballarin@23920
  2242
concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
ballarin@23920
  2243
ballarin@23920
  2244
  interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
ballarin@23920
  2245
    where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
ballarin@23920
  2246
wenzelm@24800
  2247
Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
wenzelm@24800
  2248
definition specification element in the context of locale
wenzelm@24800
  2249
partial_order.
wenzelm@24800
  2250
wenzelm@24859
  2251
* Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
wenzelm@24800
  2252
local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
wenzelm@24800
  2253
connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
wenzelm@24800
  2254
(using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
wenzelm@24800
  2255
obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
wenzelm@25177
  2256
src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
wenzelm@25177
  2257
src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
wenzelm@25177
  2258
examples.
wenzelm@24606
  2259
wenzelm@24859
  2260
* Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
wenzelm@24606
  2261
introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
wenzelm@24606
  2262
several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
wenzelm@24606
  2263
accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
wenzelm@25177
  2264
see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
wenzelm@24606
  2265
wenzelm@24859
  2266
* Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
wenzelm@24800
  2267
of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
wenzelm@24606
  2268
foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
wenzelm@24859
  2269
predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
wenzelm@24859
  2270
mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
wenzelm@18506
  2271
wenzelm@18506
  2272
  (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
wenzelm@18506
  2273
  (induct set: foo bar)
wenzelm@24859
  2274
  (induct pred: foo bar)
wenzelm@18506
  2275
  (induct type: foo bar)
wenzelm@18506
  2276
wenzelm@18506
  2277
The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
wenzelm@18506
  2278
new format.
wenzelm@18506
  2279
wenzelm@24859
  2280
* Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
wenzelm@18399
  2281
src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
wenzelm@18399
  2282
wenzelm@24859
  2283
* Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
wenzelm@24859
  2284
considered a legacy feature.
wenzelm@24859
  2285
wenzelm@20919
  2286
* Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
wenzelm@20919
  2287
variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@20919
  2288
wenzelm@22126
  2289
* Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
wenzelm@22126
  2290
rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
wenzelm@22126
  2291
default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
wenzelm@22126
  2292
trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
nipkow@18674
  2293
  
wenzelm@18536
  2294
* Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
wenzelm@18536
  2295
attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
wenzelm@18536
  2296
manipulating the claset.
wenzelm@18536
  2297
wenzelm@18694
  2298
* Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
wenzelm@18694
  2299
dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
wenzelm@18694
  2300
least one premise.
wenzelm@18694
  2301
wenzelm@18694
  2302
* Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
wenzelm@18695
  2303
weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
wenzelm@18696
  2304
ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
wenzelm@18694
  2305
rule steps.
paulson@18557
  2306
wenzelm@18536
  2307
* Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
wenzelm@18536
  2308
where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
wenzelm@18536
  2309
patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
wenzelm@18536
  2310
"{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
wenzelm@18536
  2311
INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
wenzelm@18536
  2312
constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
wenzelm@18536
  2313
wenzelm@18536
  2314
* Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
wenzelm@18536
  2315
parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
wenzelm@18536
  2316
for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
wenzelm@17779
  2317
wenzelm@20582
  2318
* Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
wenzelm@20582
  2319
the graph browser tool.
wenzelm@20582
  2320
wenzelm@24800
  2321
* Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
wenzelm@24800
  2322
default; use '!' option for full details.
wenzelm@20620
  2323
wenzelm@17865
  2324
nipkow@17806
  2325
*** HOL ***
nipkow@17806
  2326
wenzelm@25129
  2327
* Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
wenzelm@25129
  2328
resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
wenzelm@25129
  2329
Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
wenzelm@25129
  2330
Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
wenzelm@25129
  2331
multi-threading.
wenzelm@25129
  2332
  
wenzelm@25129
  2333
* Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
wenzelm@25129
  2334
background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
wenzelm@25129
  2335
successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
wenzelm@25129
  2336
wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
wenzelm@25129
  2337
work with multi-threading.
wenzelm@25129
  2338
wenzelm@24804
  2339
* New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
wenzelm@24804
  2340
potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
wenzelm@24804
  2341
auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
wenzelm@25129
  2342
5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
wenzelm@25129
  2343
executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
wenzelm@24804
  2344
haftmann@25184
  2345
* New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
haftmann@25184
  2346
haftmann@25184
  2347
* Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
haftmann@25184
  2348
equality.
haftmann@25184
  2349
haftmann@25184
  2350
* Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
haftmann@25184
  2351
the new 'class' package:
haftmann@25184
  2352
haftmann@25184
  2353
    HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
haftmann@25184
  2354
    HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
haftmann@25184
  2355
    0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
haftmann@25184
  2356
    1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
haftmann@25184
  2357
    op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
haftmann@25184
  2358
    op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
haftmann@25184
  2359
    uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
haftmann@25184
  2360
    op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
haftmann@25184
  2361
    op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
haftmann@25184
  2362
    op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
haftmann@25184
  2363
    Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
haftmann@25184
  2364
    Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
haftmann@25184
  2365
    Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
haftmann@25184
  2366
    FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
haftmann@25184
  2367
    FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
haftmann@25184
  2368
    Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
haftmann@25184
  2369
    Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
haftmann@25184
  2370
    Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
haftmann@25184
  2371
    Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
haftmann@25184
  2372
    Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
haftmann@25184
  2373
haftmann@25184
  2374
INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
haftmann@25184
  2375
haftmann@25184
  2376
a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
haftmann@25184
  2377
"times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
haftmann@25184
  2378
"+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
haftmann@25184
  2379
names.
haftmann@25184
  2380
haftmann@25184
  2381
b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
haftmann@25184
  2382
INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
haftmann@25184
  2383
haftmann@25184
  2384
c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
haftmann@25184
  2385
Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
haftmann@25184
  2386
rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
haftmann@25184
  2387
that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
haftmann@25184
  2388
distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
haftmann@25184
  2389
haftmann@25184
  2390
d) ML code directly refering to constant names
haftmann@25184
  2391
This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
haftmann@25184
  2392
so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
haftmann@25184
  2393
Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
haftmann@25184
  2394
haftmann@25184
  2395
* New class "default" with associated constant "default".
haftmann@25184
  2396
haftmann@25184
  2397
* Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
haftmann@25184
  2398
(and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
haftmann@25184
  2399
sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
haftmann@25184
  2400
sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
haftmann@25184
  2401
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@25184
  2402
haftmann@25184
  2403
* Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
haftmann@25184
  2404
Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@25184
  2405
haftmann@25184
  2406
* Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
haftmann@25184
  2407
"cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
haftmann@25184
  2408
clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@25184
  2409
haftmann@25184
  2410
* Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
haftmann@25184
  2411
changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
haftmann@25184
  2412
haftmann@25184
  2413
* The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
haftmann@25184
  2414
for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
haftmann@25184
  2415
in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
haftmann@25184
  2416
Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
haftmann@25184
  2417
is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
haftmann@25184
  2418
command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
haftmann@25184
  2419
in the current context.
haftmann@25184
  2420
haftmann@25184
  2421
* Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
haftmann@25184
  2422
lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
haftmann@25184
  2423
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@25184
  2424
haftmann@25184
  2425
* Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
haftmann@25184
  2426
with new class dense_linear_order.
haftmann@25184
  2427
haftmann@25184
  2428
* Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
haftmann@25184
  2429
haftmann@25184
  2430
    constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
haftmann@25184
  2431
    constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
haftmann@25184
  2432
haftmann@25184
  2433
    classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
haftmann@25184
  2434
      "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
haftmann@25184
  2435
    class "lorder" now named "lattice"
haftmann@25184
  2436
    class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
haftmann@25184
  2437
haftmann@25184
  2438
    Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
haftmann@25184
  2439
    for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
haftmann@25184
  2440
haftmann@25184
  2441
  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
haftmann@25184
  2442
haftmann@25184
  2443
    meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
haftmann@25184
  2444
    meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
haftmann@25184
  2445
    join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
haftmann@25184
  2446
    join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
haftmann@25184
  2447
    meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
haftmann@25184
  2448
    le_meetI                ~> le_infI
haftmann@25184
  2449
    join_leI                ~> le_supI
haftmann@25184
  2450
    le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
haftmann@25184
  2451
    le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
haftmann@25184
  2452
    meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
haftmann@25184
  2453
    join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
haftmann@25184
  2454
    meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
haftmann@25184
  2455
    join_comm               ~> sup_commute
haftmann@25184
  2456
    meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
haftmann@25184
  2457
    meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
haftmann@25184
  2458
    le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
haftmann@25184
  2459
    le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
haftmann@25184
  2460
    meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
haftmann@25184
  2461
    join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
haftmann@25184
  2462
    meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
haftmann@25184
  2463
    meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
haftmann@25184
  2464
    join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
haftmann@25184
  2465
    join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
haftmann@25184
  2466
    meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
haftmann@25184
  2467
    join_aci                ~> sup_aci
haftmann@25184
  2468
    le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
haftmann@25184
  2469
    le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
haftmann@25184
  2470
    join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
haftmann@25184
  2471
    join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
haftmann@25184
  2472
    meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
haftmann@25184
  2473
    meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
haftmann@25184
  2474
    meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
haftmann@25184
  2475
    join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
haftmann@25184
  2476
    distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
haftmann@25184
  2477
    distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
haftmann@25184
  2478
haftmann@25184
  2479
    add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
haftmann@25184
  2480
    add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
haftmann@25184
  2481
    is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
haftmann@25184
  2482
    is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
haftmann@25184
  2483
    add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
haftmann@25184
  2484
    add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
haftmann@25184
  2485
    add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
haftmann@25184
  2486
    join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
haftmann@25184
  2487
    meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
haftmann@25184
  2488
    add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
haftmann@25184
  2489
    meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
haftmann@25184
  2490
    join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
haftmann@25184
  2491
    meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
haftmann@25184
  2492
    join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
haftmann@25184
  2493
    neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
haftmann@25184
  2494
    neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
haftmann@25184
  2495
    join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
haftmann@25184
  2496
haftmann@25184
  2497
    mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
haftmann@25184
  2498
    mono_join               ~> mono_sup
haftmann@25184
  2499
    meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
haftmann@25184
  2500
    join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
haftmann@25184
  2501
    meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
haftmann@25184
  2502
    join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
haftmann@25184
  2503
    meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
haftmann@25184
  2504
    join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
haftmann@25184
  2505
    meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
haftmann@25184
  2506
    meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
haftmann@25184
  2507
    meet1I                  ~> inf1I
haftmann@25184
  2508
    meet2I                  ~> inf2I
haftmann@25184
  2509
    meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
haftmann@25184
  2510
    meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
haftmann@25184
  2511
    meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
haftmann@25184
  2512
    meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
haftmann@25184
  2513
    meet1E                  ~> inf1E
haftmann@25184
  2514
    meet2E                  ~> inf2E
haftmann@25184
  2515
    join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
haftmann@25184
  2516
    join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
haftmann@25184
  2517
    join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
haftmann@25184
  2518
    join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
haftmann@25184
  2519
    join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
haftmann@25184
  2520
    join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
haftmann@25184
  2521
    join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
haftmann@25184
  2522
    join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
haftmann@25184
  2523
    join1E                  ~> sup1E
haftmann@25184
  2524
    join2E                  ~> sup2E
haftmann@25184
  2525
haftmann@25184
  2526
    is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
haftmann@25184
  2527
    Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
haftmann@25184
  2528
    Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
haftmann@25184
  2529
    Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
haftmann@25184
  2530
    Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
haftmann@25184
  2531
    Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
haftmann@25184
  2532
haftmann@25184
  2533
    Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
haftmann@25184
  2534
    Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
haftmann@25184
  2535
    Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
haftmann@25184
  2536
    Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
haftmann@25184
  2537
haftmann@25184
  2538
    listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
haftmann@25184
  2539
    listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
haftmann@25184
  2540
haftmann@25184
  2541
    meet_min                ~> inf_min
haftmann@25184
  2542
    join_max                ~> sup_max
haftmann@25184
  2543
haftmann@25184
  2544
* Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
haftmann@25184
  2545
type "'a::size ==> bool"
haftmann@25184
  2546
wenzelm@24800
  2547
* Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
wenzelm@24800
  2548
"foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
wenzelm@24800
  2549
simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
haftmann@25184
  2550
"*.size".
haftmann@25184
  2551
haftmann@25184
  2552
* Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
haftmann@25184
  2553
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
  2554
wenzelm@24800
  2555
* HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
wenzelm@24800
  2556
Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
wenzelm@24800
  2557
fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
  2558
wenzelm@25129
  2559
* HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@25129
  2560
wenzelm@24800
  2561
* HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
wenzelm@24800
  2562
machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
wenzelm@24800
  2563
operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
wenzelm@24800
  2564
linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
wenzelm@24800
  2565
lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
wenzelm@24800
  2566
arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
wenzelm@24800
  2567
numerals on all operations.
kleing@24333
  2568
kleing@24333
  2569
* Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
kleing@24333
  2570
kleing@24333
  2571
* Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
kleing@24333
  2572
haftmann@23850
  2573
* Code generator library theories:
haftmann@24993
  2574
  - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
haftmann@23850
  2575
    languages.
haftmann@24993
  2576
  - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
haftmann@23850
  2577
    languages.
haftmann@24993
  2578
  - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
haftmann@24993
  2579
    codes; includes Code_Integer.
wenzelm@24800
  2580
  - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
wenzelm@24800
  2581
  - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
haftmann@23850
  2582
    denominator).
wenzelm@24800
  2583
  - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
haftmann@23850
  2584
    representable by rational numbers.
wenzelm@24800
  2585
  - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
haftmann@23850
  2586
    result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
haftmann@24993
  2587
    includes Code_Integer.
haftmann@24993
  2588
  - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
haftmann@24993
  2589
    target-language built-in integers.
haftmann@26355
  2590
  - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
haftmann@24993
  2591
    strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
haftmann@23850
  2592
berghofe@23783
  2593
* New package for inductive predicates
berghofe@23783
  2594
berghofe@23783
  2595
  An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
berghofe@23783
  2596
berghofe@23783
  2597
    inductive
berghofe@23783
  2598
      p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
berghofe@23783
  2599
      for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
berghofe@23783
  2600
    where
berghofe@23783
  2601
      rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
berghofe@23783
  2602
    | ...
berghofe@23783
  2603
wenzelm@24800
  2604
  with full support for type-inference, rather than
berghofe@23783
  2605
berghofe@23783
  2606
    consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
berghofe@23783
  2607
berghofe@23783
  2608
    abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
berghofe@23783
  2609
    where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
berghofe@23783
  2610
berghofe@23783
  2611
    inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
berghofe@23783
  2612
    intros
berghofe@23783
  2613
      rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
berghofe@23783
  2614
      ...
berghofe@23783
  2615
berghofe@23783
  2616
  For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
berghofe@23783
  2617
  sets to be defined with the new package via
berghofe@23783
  2618
berghofe@23783
  2619
    inductive_set
berghofe@23783
  2620
      s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
berghofe@23783
  2621
      for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
berghofe@23783
  2622
    where
berghofe@23783
  2623
      rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"