NEWS
author wenzelm
Tue Sep 06 16:59:50 2005 +0200 (2005-09-06)
changeset 17275 44d8fbc2e52d
parent 17269 c5a52602c4a7
child 17371 923ef4a8c672
permissions -rw-r--r--
axclass: name space prefix is now "c_class" instead of just "c";
typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets;
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Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
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==============================================
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New in this Isabelle release
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----------------------------
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*** General ***
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* Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
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  theory <name>
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  imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
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  uses <file1> ... <fileM>
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  begin
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where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
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  theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
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will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
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existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
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non-Isar theories now, but these are likely to disappear soon.
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* Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
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relative and absolute paths.
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* Improved version of thms_containing searches for a list of criteria
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instead of a list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest,
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name:string, simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-'
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to select theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select
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theorems that match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose
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fully qualified name contain s, and simp:term selects all
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simplification rules whose lhs match term.  Any other term is
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interpreted as pattern and selects all theorems matching the
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pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under 'ProofGeneral -> Find
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Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
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  C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
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prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
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matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
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in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
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*** Document preparation ***
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* Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
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of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
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LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
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displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
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and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
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DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
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* Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
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notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
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theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
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commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
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"invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
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specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
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interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
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preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
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isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
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\isadroptag.
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Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
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usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
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specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
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theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
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proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
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these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
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default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
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specified above.
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* Several new antiquotation:
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  @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
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  @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
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  @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
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  argument is a known logical constant;
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  @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
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  theorem applying a "style" to it
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  @{ML text}
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Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
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definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
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conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem9'
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to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
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interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
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document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
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type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
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* Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
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and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
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specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
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example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
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* Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
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context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
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[locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.
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* Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within
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a proof context.
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* Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a
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proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').
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* Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX
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macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).
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* isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option
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-D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false
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prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.
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*** Pure ***
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* Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command.  Now performs
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automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for
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local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also
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isar-ref manual.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly
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sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'
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section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier.  If
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all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.
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* Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures.  First of all,
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indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted
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application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary
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expressions.  Secondly, in a local context with structure
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declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default
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number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option
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show_structs controls printing of implicit structures.  Typical
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applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.
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* New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and
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translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is
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interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.
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* 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend
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on the signature of the theory context being presently used for
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parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.
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* Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an
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ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of
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type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle
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is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;
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INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"
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before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.
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INCOMPATIBILITY.  This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for
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axclasses vs. locales.
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* Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes
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instead of base 26 numbers.
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* New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question
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marks in schematic variable names.
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* In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or
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\<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name.  For example, the
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following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:
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  lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"
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    by simp
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* Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).
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* Pretty pinter now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix
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annotations as "(00...)".
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* Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter
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may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.
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Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class
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"logic" vs. "{}".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper
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use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'.  Some very
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exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption
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(e.g. Cube/Base.thy).
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* Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.
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Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'
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rather than 'types'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic
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specifications.
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* Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be
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locally fixed variables as well.
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* Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting
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is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth
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Limit.
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* Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current
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simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc
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interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier
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recursively.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs
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is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead.  Moreover, the
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low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to
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allow for use in a context of fixed variables.
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* thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!
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or ==>.  More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of
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the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.
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* Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived
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from Pure, which contains all common declarations already.  Both
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theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.
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INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /
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CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;
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use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.
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* New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific
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selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.
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* 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference
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wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),
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in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');
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* More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive
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theory development.
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*** Locales ***
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* New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in theories (1),
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locales (2) and proof contexts (3).  These generate proof obligations from
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the expression specification.  After the obligations have been discharged,
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theorems of the expression are added to the theory, target locale or proof
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context.  The synopsis of the commands is a follows:
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  (1) interpretation expr inst
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  (2) interpretation target < expr
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  (3) interpret expr inst
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Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter
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instantiation of terms from the current context.  This is applied to
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specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.  Interpretation
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in locales only permits parameter renaming through the locale expression.
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Interpretation is smart in that interpretations that are active already
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do not occur in proof obligations, neither are instantiated theorems stored
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in duplicate.  Use 'print_interps' to inspect active interpretations of
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a particular locale.  For details, see the Isar Reference manual.
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INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use
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'interpret' instead.
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* New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to parameters.
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* Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax redeclaration.
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* Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.
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* Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /
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facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition
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context, independently of the context of later invocations.  Moreover,
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locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied
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to attribute arguments as expected.
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INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of
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actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to
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embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.
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Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static
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binding mechanism.  Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and
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Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further
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intervention.  Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"
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(cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both
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on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed
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values to argument tokens explicitly.
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* Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal
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statements with 'includes'.  INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different
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theorem statement in rare situations.
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* Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements.  Use
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'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.
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*** Provers ***
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* Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for
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single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is
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'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may
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rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is
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still available as 'simplesubst'.
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* Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only
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and quasi orders.
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* Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and
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reflexive-transitive closure of relations.
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* Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth
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limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.
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* Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup
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is peformed already.  Object-logics merely need to finish their
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initial simpset configuration as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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*** HOL ***
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* Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:
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  syntax (epsilon)
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    "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a"    ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)
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The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX
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and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.
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Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>
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becomes available as variable, constant etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
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* "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".
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Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc.  The x-symbol for >=
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is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to 
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support corresponding Isar calculations.
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* "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"
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instead of ":".
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* theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:
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  Old       New
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  {..n(}    {..<n}
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  {)n..}    {n<..}
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  {m..n(}   {m..<n}
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  {)m..n}   {m<..n}
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  {)m..n(}  {m<..<n}
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The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next
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release.  For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace
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patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):
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  {)\([^\.]*\)\.\.  ->  {\1<\.\.}
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  \.\.\([^(}]*\)(}  ->  \.\.<\1}
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* theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over
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finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is
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now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can 
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   339
be a tuple pattern.
wenzelm@16234
   340
wenzelm@16234
   341
Some new syntax forms are available:
wenzelm@16234
   342
wenzelm@16234
   343
  "\<Sum>x | P. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"
wenzelm@16234
   344
  "\<Sum>x = a..b. e"   for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"
wenzelm@16234
   345
  "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e"  for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"
wenzelm@16234
   346
  "\<Sum>x < k. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"
wenzelm@16234
   347
wenzelm@16234
   348
The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate
wenzelm@16234
   349
function "Summation", which has been discontinued.
wenzelm@16234
   350
wenzelm@16234
   351
* theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case
wenzelm@16234
   352
is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case
wenzelm@16234
   353
(insert F x)'.
wenzelm@16234
   354
wenzelm@16234
   355
* The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger
wenzelm@16234
   356
fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and
wenzelm@16234
   357
typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.
wenzelm@16234
   358
wenzelm@16234
   359
* Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the
wenzelm@16234
   360
induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by
wenzelm@16234
   361
induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather
wenzelm@16234
   362
than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
wenzelm@16234
   363
in unstructured proof scripts.
wenzelm@16234
   364
wenzelm@16234
   365
* Reworked implementation of records.  Improved scalability for
wenzelm@16234
   366
records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type
wenzelm@16234
   367
inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but
wenzelm@16234
   368
of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear
wenzelm@16234
   369
in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields.  The
wenzelm@16234
   370
top-level (users) view on records is preserved.  Potential
wenzelm@16234
   371
INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the
wenzelm@16234
   372
old record representation. The type generated for a record is called
wenzelm@16234
   373
<record_name>_ext_type.
wenzelm@16234
   374
wenzelm@16234
   375
Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the
wenzelm@16234
   376
proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if
wenzelm@16234
   377
quick_and_dirty is enabled).  Definitions of large records can take
wenzelm@16234
   378
quite long.
wenzelm@16234
   379
wenzelm@16234
   380
New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record
wenzelm@16234
   381
updates enabled by default.  Moreover, trivial updates are also
wenzelm@16234
   382
removed: r(|x := x r|) = r.  INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break
wenzelm@16234
   383
occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.
wenzelm@16234
   384
wenzelm@17275
   385
* typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra
wenzelm@17275
   386
type-variables in the term.
wenzelm@17275
   387
wenzelm@16234
   388
* Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains
wenzelm@16234
   389
involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics
wenzelm@16234
   390
provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
wenzelm@16234
   391
old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more
wenzelm@16234
   392
goals than previously.
wenzelm@16234
   393
wenzelm@16234
   394
* Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is
wenzelm@16234
   395
present.  Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular
wenzelm@16234
   396
numbers and sets.  For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y
wenzelm@16234
   397
just like y <= x.
wenzelm@16234
   398
wenzelm@16234
   399
* Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x".  If a is a free or
wenzelm@16234
   400
bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded.  Otherwise
wenzelm@16234
   401
first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If
wenzelm@16234
   402
possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",
wenzelm@16234
   403
otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g.  The simproc can be
wenzelm@16234
   404
enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc.  Potential
wenzelm@16234
   405
INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.
webertj@15776
   406
paulson@16563
   407
* Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.
paulson@16563
   408
wenzelm@16891
   409
* Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and
wenzelm@16891
   410
improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and
wenzelm@16891
   411
inequalities.
wenzelm@16891
   412
wenzelm@16891
   413
The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
wenzelm@16891
   414
(INCOMPATIBILITY):
avigad@16888
   415
avigad@16888
   416
  abs_eq             now named abs_of_nonneg
avigad@16888
   417
  abs_of_ge_0        now named abs_of_nonneg 
avigad@16888
   418
  abs_minus_eq       now named abs_of_nonpos  
avigad@16888
   419
  imp_abs_id         now named abs_of_nonneg
avigad@16888
   420
  imp_abs_neg_id     now named abs_of_nonpos
avigad@16888
   421
  mult_pos           now named mult_pos_pos
avigad@16888
   422
  mult_pos_le        now named mult_nonneg_nonneg
avigad@16888
   423
  mult_pos_neg_le    now named mult_nonneg_nonpos
avigad@16888
   424
  mult_pos_neg2_le   now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2
avigad@16888
   425
  mult_neg           now named mult_neg_neg
avigad@16888
   426
  mult_neg_le        now named mult_nonpos_nonpos
avigad@16888
   427
wenzelm@16891
   428
* Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.
wenzelm@16891
   429
nipkow@17092
   430
* Theory List:
nipkow@17092
   431
nipkow@17092
   432
The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
nipkow@17092
   433
(INCOMPATIBILITY):
nipkow@17092
   434
nipkow@17092
   435
  list_all_Nil       now named list_all.simps(1)
nipkow@17092
   436
  list_all_Cons      now named list_all.simps(2)
nipkow@17092
   437
  list_all_conv      now named list_all_iff
nipkow@17092
   438
  set_mem_eq         now named mem_iff
nipkow@17092
   439
wenzelm@16929
   440
* Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support
wenzelm@16929
   441
asymptotic "big O" calculations.  See the notes in BigO.thy.
wenzelm@16929
   442
avigad@16888
   443
avigad@16888
   444
*** HOL-Complex ***
avigad@16888
   445
wenzelm@16891
   446
* Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and
wenzelm@16891
   447
integers in the reals.
wenzelm@16891
   448
wenzelm@16891
   449
The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
wenzelm@16891
   450
(INCOMPATIBILITY):
wenzelm@16891
   451
avigad@17016
   452
  exp_ge_add_one_self  now requires no hypotheses
avigad@17016
   453
  real_of_int_add      reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
avigad@17016
   454
  real_of_int_minus    reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
avigad@17016
   455
  real_of_int_diff     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
avigad@17016
   456
  real_of_int_mult     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
wenzelm@16891
   457
wenzelm@16891
   458
* Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.
avigad@16888
   459
avigad@16962
   460
* Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm
avigad@16962
   461
wenzelm@14655
   462
wenzelm@14682
   463
*** HOLCF ***
wenzelm@14682
   464
wenzelm@14682
   465
* HOLCF: discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to
wenzelm@16234
   466
support continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with
wenzelm@16234
   467
full type-inference.
wenzelm@14682
   468
wenzelm@14682
   469
paulson@14885
   470
*** ZF ***
paulson@14885
   471
wenzelm@16234
   472
* ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,
wenzelm@16234
   473
including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel
wenzelm@16234
   474
of a homomorphism).
wenzelm@15089
   475
wenzelm@15089
   476
* ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually
wenzelm@16234
   477
makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);
wenzelm@16234
   478
the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.
wenzelm@15703
   479
wenzelm@15703
   480
wenzelm@15703
   481
*** ML ***
wenzelm@15703
   482
wenzelm@15973
   483
* Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses
wenzelm@16234
   484
that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of
wenzelm@16234
   485
None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.
wenzelm@16234
   486
The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted
wenzelm@16234
   487
accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.
wenzelm@15973
   488
wenzelm@16860
   489
* Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of
wenzelm@16860
   490
the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as
wenzelm@16860
   491
Library.UnequalLengths.  Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are
wenzelm@16860
   492
superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.
wenzelm@16860
   493
wenzelm@16860
   494
A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML
wenzelm@16860
   495
toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions.  The following
wenzelm@16234
   496
suggests how one can translate existing code:
wenzelm@15973
   497
wenzelm@15973
   498
    rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)
wenzelm@15973
   499
    nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)
wenzelm@15973
   500
    last_elem xs = List.last xs
wenzelm@15973
   501
    flat xss = List.concat xss
wenzelm@16234
   502
    seq fs = List.app fs
wenzelm@15973
   503
    partition P xs = List.partition P xs
wenzelm@15973
   504
    mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs
wenzelm@15973
   505
wenzelm@16860
   506
* Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional
wenzelm@16860
   507
transformations, notably reverse application and composition:
wenzelm@16860
   508
wenzelm@16860
   509
  x |> f		f #> g
wenzelm@16860
   510
  (x, y) |-> f		f #-> g
wenzelm@16860
   511
wenzelm@16860
   512
* Pure/library.ML: canonical list combinators fold, fold_rev, and
haftmann@16869
   513
fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting.  For
wenzelm@16860
   514
example:
wenzelm@16860
   515
wenzelm@16860
   516
  fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =
wenzelm@16860
   517
    y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN
wenzelm@16860
   518
wenzelm@16860
   519
  (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =
wenzelm@16860
   520
    y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN
wenzelm@16860
   521
wenzelm@16860
   522
  fold f [x1, ..., xN] =
wenzelm@16860
   523
    f x1 #> ... #> f xN
wenzelm@16860
   524
wenzelm@16860
   525
  (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =
wenzelm@16860
   526
    fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN
wenzelm@16860
   527
wenzelm@16860
   528
* Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,
wenzelm@16860
   529
fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing
wenzelm@16860
   530
canonical argument order.  Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions,
wenzelm@16868
   531
add_frees, add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@16860
   532
wenzelm@15703
   533
* Pure: output via the Isabelle channels of writeln/warning/error
wenzelm@16234
   534
etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a hook for arbitrary
wenzelm@16234
   535
transformations depending on the print_mode (cf. Output.add_mode --
wenzelm@16234
   536
the first active mode that provides a output function wins).  Already
wenzelm@16234
   537
formatted output may be embedded into further text via Output.raw; the
wenzelm@16234
   538
result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived functions
wenzelm@16234
   539
(string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to accommodate
wenzelm@16234
   540
easy composition of diagnostic messages etc.  Programmers rarely need
wenzelm@16234
   541
to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with some notable
wenzelm@16234
   542
exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the standard
wenzelm@16234
   543
channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce properly
wenzelm@16234
   544
formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing already
wenzelm@16234
   545
output material that will eventually be presented to the user a second
wenzelm@16234
   546
time.  For the default print mode, both Output.output and Output.raw
wenzelm@16234
   547
have no effect.
wenzelm@16234
   548
wenzelm@16718
   549
* Pure: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a -> 'b) ->
wenzelm@16718
   550
'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the cumulative
wenzelm@16718
   551
results are displayed at the end of a batch session.
wenzelm@16718
   552
wenzelm@16718
   553
* Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.
wenzelm@16718
   554
Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing
wenzelm@16718
   555
and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)
wenzelm@16718
   556
controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space
wenzelm@16718
   557
(both increase the runtime).
wenzelm@15703
   558
wenzelm@16799
   559
* Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,
wenzelm@16799
   560
i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the
wenzelm@16799
   561
elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.
wenzelm@16799
   562
 
wenzelm@16689
   563
* Pure: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML) provides a
wenzelm@16690
   564
reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as lists.
wenzelm@16689
   565
wenzelm@16689
   566
* Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added
wenzelm@16689
   567
fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord
wenzelm@16689
   568
and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is
wenzelm@16689
   569
NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast
wenzelm@16689
   570
orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a
wenzelm@16689
   571
particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using
wenzelm@16689
   572
Library.sort_strings on result).
wenzelm@16689
   573
wenzelm@16151
   574
* Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the
wenzelm@16234
   575
internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY.  Renamed cond_extern(_table)
wenzelm@16234
   576
to extern(_table).  The plain name entry path is superceded by a
wenzelm@16234
   577
general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce
wenzelm@16234
   578
a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified
wenzelm@16234
   579
name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent
wenzelm@16234
   580
Sign.declare_name.  Several theory and proof context operations modify
wenzelm@16234
   581
the naming context.  Especially note Theory.restore_naming and
wenzelm@16234
   582
ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that
wenzelm@16234
   583
Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from
wenzelm@16234
   584
Theory.absolute_path in particular.
wenzelm@16234
   585
wenzelm@16234
   586
* Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names
wenzelm@16234
   587
(default true) for controlling output of qualified names.  If
wenzelm@16234
   588
short_names is set, names are printed unqualified.  If unique_names is
wenzelm@16234
   589
reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve
wenzelm@16234
   590
the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap
wenzelm@16234
   591
with earlier declarations.
wenzelm@16151
   592
wenzelm@16456
   593
* Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is
wenzelm@16456
   594
now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument
wenzelm@16456
   595
(useful for printing error messages).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@16456
   596
wenzelm@16456
   597
* Pure: major reorganization of the theory context.  Type Sign.sg and
wenzelm@16456
   598
Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal
wenzelm@16456
   599
Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML).  Actual signature and theory
wenzelm@16456
   600
content is managed as theory data.  The old code and interfaces were
wenzelm@16456
   601
spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces
wenzelm@16456
   602
considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:
wenzelm@16456
   603
wenzelm@16456
   604
  Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,
wenzelm@16456
   605
    parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;
wenzelm@16456
   606
wenzelm@16456
   607
  Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,
wenzelm@16456
   608
    types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;
wenzelm@16456
   609
wenzelm@16456
   610
  Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,
wenzelm@16456
   611
    oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,
wenzelm@16456
   612
    types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,
wenzelm@16456
   613
    Theory.merge, etc.)
wenzelm@16456
   614
wenzelm@16456
   615
The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm
wenzelm@16456
   616
etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained
wenzelm@16456
   617
for convenience -- they merely return the theory.
wenzelm@16456
   618
wenzelm@17193
   619
* Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.
wenzelm@17193
   620
wenzelm@16547
   621
* Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure
wenzelm@16547
   622
as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are
wenzelm@16547
   623
aliases, where the latter is the preferred name).  This enables other
wenzelm@16547
   624
Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.
wenzelm@16547
   625
wenzelm@16373
   626
* Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,
wenzelm@16373
   627
typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for
wenzelm@16373
   628
any of these kinds.  For example, Sign.intern typeK is now
wenzelm@16373
   629
Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now
wenzelm@16373
   630
Theory.hide_types.  Also note that former
wenzelm@16373
   631
Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now
wenzelm@16373
   632
Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions
wenzelm@16373
   633
internalize their arguments!  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@16373
   634
wenzelm@16506
   635
* Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects
wenzelm@16506
   636
datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of
wenzelm@16506
   637
plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;
wenzelm@16506
   638
wenzelm@16151
   639
* Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE
wenzelm@16234
   640
means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in
wenzelm@16234
   641
(RAW_)METHOD_CASES.
wenzelm@16151
   642
wenzelm@16373
   643
* Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a
wenzelm@16373
   644
theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:
wenzelm@16373
   645
wenzelm@16373
   646
  Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
wenzelm@16373
   647
  Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
wenzelm@16373
   648
  PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
wenzelm@16373
   649
  PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
wenzelm@16373
   650
wenzelm@16718
   651
* Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.
wenzelm@16718
   652
wenzelm@16997
   653
* Pure/Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless
wenzelm@16997
   654
representation, avoid allocating new strings).  Simprocs that invoke
wenzelm@16997
   655
the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to
wenzelm@16997
   656
avoid local name clashes.
wenzelm@16997
   657
wenzelm@16997
   658
* Pure/Provers: Simplifier and Classical Reasoner now support proof
wenzelm@16997
   659
context dependent plug-ins (simprocs, solvers, wrappers etc.).  These
wenzelm@16997
   660
extra components are stored in the theory and patched into the
wenzelm@16234
   661
simpset/claset when used in an Isar proof context.  Context dependent
wenzelm@16234
   662
components are maintained by the following theory operations:
wenzelm@16234
   663
wenzelm@16234
   664
  Simplifier.add_context_simprocs
wenzelm@16234
   665
  Simplifier.del_context_simprocs
wenzelm@16234
   666
  Simplifier.set_context_subgoaler
wenzelm@16234
   667
  Simplifier.reset_context_subgoaler
wenzelm@16234
   668
  Simplifier.add_context_looper
wenzelm@16234
   669
  Simplifier.del_context_looper
wenzelm@16234
   670
  Simplifier.add_context_unsafe_solver
wenzelm@16234
   671
  Simplifier.add_context_safe_solver
wenzelm@16234
   672
wenzelm@16234
   673
  Classical.add_context_safe_wrapper
wenzelm@16234
   674
  Classical.del_context_safe_wrapper
wenzelm@16234
   675
  Classical.add_context_unsafe_wrapper
wenzelm@16234
   676
  Classical.del_context_unsafe_wrapper
wenzelm@16234
   677
wenzelm@16234
   678
IMPORTANT NOTE: proof tools (methods etc.) need to use
wenzelm@16234
   679
local_simpset_of and local_claset_of to instead of the primitive
wenzelm@16234
   680
Simplifier.get_local_simpset and Classical.get_local_claset,
wenzelm@16234
   681
respectively, in order to see the context dependent fields!
wenzelm@16234
   682
wenzelm@16251
   683
* File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been replaced by
wenzelm@16251
   684
File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate hooks).  This
wenzelm@16251
   685
provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the internal and
wenzelm@16251
   686
external process view of file names are different.
wenzelm@16251
   687
wenzelm@17166
   688
* ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact
wenzelm@17166
   689
bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help
wenzelm@17166
   690
in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof
wenzelm@17166
   691
scripts for the time being.
wenzelm@17166
   692
wenzelm@16234
   693
wenzelm@16234
   694
*** System ***
wenzelm@16234
   695
wenzelm@16234
   696
* Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,
wenzelm@16234
   697
isabelle, isatool etc.).
wenzelm@16234
   698
wenzelm@16234
   699
* ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for
wenzelm@16234
   700
isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).
wenzelm@16234
   701
wenzelm@16234
   702
* isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be
wenzelm@16234
   703
used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.
wenzelm@16234
   704
wenzelm@16251
   705
* New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle
wenzelm@16251
   706
distribution being used.
wenzelm@16251
   707
wenzelm@16251
   708
* HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format
wenzelm@16234
   709
(containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL
wenzelm@16234
   710
theories.
wenzelm@15703
   711
wenzelm@15703
   712
wenzelm@14655
   713
wenzelm@14606
   714
New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)
wenzelm@14606
   715
--------------------------------
wenzelm@13280
   716
skalberg@14171
   717
*** General ***
skalberg@14171
   718
ballarin@14398
   719
* Provers/order.ML:  new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.
ballarin@14398
   720
  Replaces linorder.ML.
ballarin@14398
   721
wenzelm@14606
   722
* Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic
wenzelm@14606
   723
  (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler
skalberg@14173
   724
  (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore
skalberg@14173
   725
  be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until
skalberg@14173
   726
  now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some
skalberg@14173
   727
  terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say
skalberg@14173
   728
  '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed
skalberg@14173
   729
  as an identifier.  Fix it by inserting a space around former
skalberg@14173
   730
  symbols.  Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in
skalberg@14173
   731
  existing theory and ML files.
skalberg@14171
   732
paulson@14237
   733
* Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.
paulson@14237
   734
wenzelm@14731
   735
* Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now
wenzelm@14731
   736
  allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered
wenzelm@14731
   737
  a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat
wenzelm@14731
   738
  \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.
kleing@14233
   739
kleing@14333
   740
* Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one
kleing@14333
   741
  character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in
wenzelm@14606
   742
  ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in
wenzelm@14606
   743
  superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.
kleing@14333
   744
schirmer@14561
   745
* Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the
wenzelm@14606
   746
  content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."
wenzelm@14606
   747
  may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.
schirmer@14361
   748
paulson@14237
   749
* Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions
paulson@14237
   750
  Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to
paulson@14237
   751
  declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition
paulson@14237
   752
  later.  It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically
skalberg@14224
   753
  rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.
skalberg@14224
   754
wenzelm@14606
   755
* Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts
wenzelm@14606
   756
  (i.e. intersections of classes),
skalberg@14503
   757
kleing@14547
   758
* Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout
wenzelm@14731
   759
  (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.
kleing@14547
   760
  It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.
kleing@14547
   761
wenzelm@14556
   762
ballarin@14175
   763
*** Isar ***
ballarin@14175
   764
ballarin@14508
   765
* Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,
ballarin@14508
   766
  cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:
ballarin@14175
   767
  - Now understand static (Isar) contexts.  As a consequence, users of Isar
ballarin@14175
   768
    locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.
ballarin@14175
   769
    For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic
ballarin@14175
   770
    emulations.
ballarin@14175
   771
  - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no
ballarin@14211
   772
    longer be enclosed in quotes.  Instead, precede variable name with `?'.
ballarin@14211
   773
    This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".
ballarin@14211
   774
ballarin@14257
   775
* Attributes "where" and "of":
ballarin@14285
   776
  - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading
ballarin@14285
   777
    the instantiation string.  This fixes a bug that caused instantiated
ballarin@14285
   778
    theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.
ballarin@14285
   779
  - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.
ballarin@14257
   780
wenzelm@14556
   781
* Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with
wenzelm@14556
   782
  current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"
wenzelm@14556
   783
  and derived forms.
kleing@14283
   784
ballarin@14211
   785
* Locales:
ballarin@14211
   786
  - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer
ballarin@14211
   787
    generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on
ballarin@14211
   788
    "_axioms") in the premise.
ballarin@14211
   789
    Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.
ballarin@14211
   790
  - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target
ballarin@14211
   791
    specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.
ballarin@14254
   792
  - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as
ballarin@14254
   793
    [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.
ballarin@14508
   794
  - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:
ballarin@14551
   795
        instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>
ballarin@14508
   796
    Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context
ballarin@14551
   797
    taking into account their attributes.  Label and attrs are optional
ballarin@14551
   798
    modifiers, like in theorem declarations.  If present, names of
ballarin@14551
   799
    instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes
ballarin@14551
   800
    <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.
ballarin@14551
   801
      If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form
ballarin@14508
   802
    "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters
ballarin@14551
   803
    are derived.  The command does not support old-style locales declared
ballarin@14551
   804
    with "locale (open)".
ballarin@14551
   805
      A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.
ballarin@14175
   806
ballarin@14175
   807
* HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static
ballarin@14175
   808
  (Isar) contexts.
ballarin@14175
   809
wenzelm@14556
   810
kleing@14136
   811
*** HOL ***
kleing@14136
   812
kleing@14624
   813
* Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from
kleing@14624
   814
  the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by
kleing@14624
   815
  replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image
kleing@14624
   816
  can be used like any other Isabelle image.  See
kleing@14624
   817
  HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.
kleing@14624
   818
ballarin@14398
   819
* Simplifier:
ballarin@14398
   820
  - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.
ballarin@14398
   821
    Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes
ballarin@14398
   822
    "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset
ballarin@14398
   823
    as solvers.  This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains
ballarin@14398
   824
    to solve goals from the assumptions.
ballarin@14398
   825
  - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally.  Typically, applications
ballarin@14398
   826
    of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal
ballarin@14398
   827
    is solved by simplification already.
ballarin@14398
   828
wenzelm@14731
   829
* Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,
paulson@14389
   830
    all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.
paulson@14389
   831
paulson@14389
   832
* Numerics:
paulson@14389
   833
  - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are
wenzelm@14731
   834
    now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.
paulson@14389
   835
  - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently
paulson@14389
   836
    than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.
wenzelm@14731
   837
  - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.
paulson@14480
   838
    Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern
paulson@14480
   839
    exponentiation).
paulson@14389
   840
paulson@14401
   841
* Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.
paulson@14389
   842
schirmer@14255
   843
* Records:
schirmer@14255
   844
  - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation
schirmer@14255
   845
    instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via
schirmer@14255
   846
    the reference "print_record_type_abbr".
wenzelm@14731
   847
  - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added
schirmer@14255
   848
    (not enabled by default).
schirmer@14427
   849
  - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.
schirmer@14427
   850
    EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).
schirmer@14255
   851
  - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.
wenzelm@14731
   852
kleing@14136
   853
* 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by
skalberg@14224
   854
  specification.  There is also an 'ax_specification' command that
skalberg@14224
   855
  introduces the new constants axiomatically.
kleing@14136
   856
nipkow@14375
   857
* arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.
nipkow@14375
   858
ballarin@14399
   859
* HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.
ballarin@14399
   860
paulson@14243
   861
* HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function
kleing@14610
   862
  definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.
kleing@14610
   863
wenzelm@14731
   864
* HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of
kleing@14610
   865
  matrix theory to linear programming.
kleing@14136
   866
nipkow@14380
   867
* Unions and Intersections:
nipkow@15119
   868
  The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed
nipkow@15119
   869
  from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"
nipkow@15119
   870
  i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.
nipkow@15119
   871
  Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.
nipkow@14380
   872
kleing@14418
   873
* Unions and Intersections over Intervals:
wenzelm@14731
   874
  There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is
wenzelm@14731
   875
  also an x-symbol version with subscripts "\<Union>\<^bsub>i <= n\<^esub>. A"
kleing@14418
   876
  like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.
kleing@14418
   877
nipkow@15677
   878
* HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard
nipkow@15677
   879
  lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".
nipkow@15677
   880
paulson@14401
   881
* ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had
paulson@14401
   882
  conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.
nipkow@14380
   883
webertj@14464
   884
* 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels.  Only works
webertj@14464
   885
  for a fragment of HOL.  The installation of an external SAT solver is
webertj@14464
   886
  highly recommended.  See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.
webertj@14464
   887
berghofe@14602
   888
* 'quickcheck' command: Allows to find counterexamples by evaluating
berghofe@14602
   889
  formulae under an assignment of free variables to random values.
berghofe@14602
   890
  In contrast to 'refute', it can deal with inductive datatypes,
berghofe@14602
   891
  but cannot handle quantifiers. See "HOL/ex/Quickcheck_Examples.thy"
berghofe@14602
   892
  for examples.
webertj@14464
   893
wenzelm@14606
   894
oheimb@14536
   895
*** HOLCF ***
oheimb@14536
   896
oheimb@14536
   897
* Streams now come with concatenation and are part of the HOLCF image
oheimb@14536
   898
wenzelm@14572
   899
wenzelm@14572
   900
kleing@14136
   901
New in Isabelle2003 (May 2003)
wenzelm@14606
   902
------------------------------
kleing@14136
   903
wenzelm@13280
   904
*** General ***
wenzelm@13280
   905
berghofe@13618
   906
* Provers/simplifier:
berghofe@13618
   907
nipkow@13781
   908
  - Completely reimplemented method simp (ML: Asm_full_simp_tac):
berghofe@13618
   909
    Assumptions are now subject to complete mutual simplification,
berghofe@13618
   910
    not just from left to right. The simplifier now preserves
berghofe@13618
   911
    the order of assumptions.
berghofe@13618
   912
berghofe@13618
   913
    Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
berghofe@13618
   914
nipkow@13781
   915
    -- simp sometimes diverges where the old version did
nipkow@13781
   916
       not, e.g. invoking simp on the goal
berghofe@13618
   917
berghofe@13618
   918
        [| P (f x); y = x; f x = f y |] ==> Q
berghofe@13618
   919
nipkow@13781
   920
       now gives rise to the infinite reduction sequence
nipkow@13781
   921
nipkow@13781
   922
        P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> P(f y) --(y = x)--> P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> ...
nipkow@13781
   923
nipkow@13781
   924
       Using "simp (asm_lr)" (ML: Asm_lr_simp_tac) instead often solves this
nipkow@13781
   925
       kind of problem.
nipkow@13781
   926
nipkow@13781
   927
    -- Tactics combining classical reasoner and simplification (such as auto)
nipkow@13781
   928
       are also affected by this change, because many of them rely on
nipkow@13781
   929
       simp. They may sometimes diverge as well or yield a different numbers
nipkow@13781
   930
       of subgoals. Try to use e.g. force, fastsimp, or safe instead of auto
nipkow@13781
   931
       in case of problems. Sometimes subsequent calls to the classical
nipkow@13781
   932
       reasoner will fail because a preceeding call to the simplifier too
nipkow@13781
   933
       eagerly simplified the goal, e.g. deleted redundant premises.
berghofe@13618
   934
berghofe@13618
   935
  - The simplifier trace now shows the names of the applied rewrite rules
berghofe@13618
   936
nipkow@13829
   937
  - You can limit the number of recursive invocations of the simplifier
nipkow@13829
   938
    during conditional rewriting (where the simplifie tries to solve the
nipkow@13829
   939
    conditions before applying the rewrite rule):
nipkow@13829
   940
    ML "simp_depth_limit := n"
nipkow@13829
   941
    where n is an integer. Thus you can force termination where previously
nipkow@13829
   942
    the simplifier would diverge.
nipkow@13829
   943
ballarin@13835
   944
  - Accepts free variables as head terms in congruence rules.  Useful in Isar.
nipkow@13829
   945
ballarin@13938
   946
  - No longer aborts on failed congruence proof.  Instead, the
ballarin@13938
   947
    congruence is ignored.
ballarin@13938
   948
berghofe@14008
   949
* Pure: New generic framework for extracting programs from constructive
berghofe@14008
   950
  proofs. See HOL/Extraction.thy for an example instantiation, as well
berghofe@14008
   951
  as HOL/Extraction for some case studies.
berghofe@14008
   952
nipkow@13868
   953
* Pure: The main goal of the proof state is no longer shown by default, only
nipkow@13868
   954
the subgoals. This behaviour is controlled by a new flag.
ballarin@13835
   955
   PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Settings -> Show Main Goal
nipkow@13815
   956
(ML: Proof.show_main_goal).
nipkow@13815
   957
nipkow@13815
   958
* Pure: You can find all matching introduction rules for subgoal 1, i.e. all
nipkow@13815
   959
rules whose conclusion matches subgoal 1:
nipkow@13815
   960
      PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Show me -> matching rules
nipkow@13815
   961
The rules are ordered by how closely they match the subgoal.
nipkow@13815
   962
In particular, rules that solve a subgoal outright are displayed first
nipkow@13815
   963
(or rather last, the way they are printed).
nipkow@13815
   964
(ML: ProofGeneral.print_intros())
nipkow@13815
   965
nipkow@13815
   966
* Pure: New flag trace_unify_fail causes unification to print
nipkow@13781
   967
diagnostic information (PG: in trace buffer) when it fails. This is
nipkow@13781
   968
useful for figuring out why single step proofs like rule, erule or
nipkow@13781
   969
assumption failed.
nipkow@13781
   970
nipkow@13815
   971
* Pure: Locale specifications now produce predicate definitions
wenzelm@13410
   972
according to the body of text (covering assumptions modulo local
wenzelm@13410
   973
definitions); predicate "loc_axioms" covers newly introduced text,
wenzelm@13410
   974
while "loc" is cumulative wrt. all included locale expressions; the
wenzelm@13410
   975
latter view is presented only on export into the global theory
wenzelm@13410
   976
context; potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use "(open)" option to fall back
wenzelm@13410
   977
on the old view without predicates;
wenzelm@13410
   978
wenzelm@13459
   979
* Pure: predefined locales "var" and "struct" are useful for sharing
wenzelm@13459
   980
parameters (as in CASL, for example); just specify something like
wenzelm@13459
   981
``var x + var y + struct M'' as import;
wenzelm@13459
   982
wenzelm@13463
   983
* Pure: improved thms_containing: proper indexing of facts instead of
wenzelm@13463
   984
raw theorems; check validity of results wrt. current name space;
wenzelm@13463
   985
include local facts of proof configuration (also covers active
wenzelm@13541
   986
locales), cover fixed variables in index; may use "_" in term
wenzelm@13541
   987
specification; an optional limit for the number of printed facts may
wenzelm@13541
   988
be given (the default is 40);
wenzelm@13541
   989
wenzelm@13541
   990
* Pure: disallow duplicate fact bindings within new-style theory files
wenzelm@13541
   991
(batch-mode only);
wenzelm@13540
   992
wenzelm@13463
   993
* Provers: improved induct method: assumptions introduced by case
wenzelm@13463
   994
"foo" are split into "foo.hyps" (from the rule) and "foo.prems" (from
wenzelm@13463
   995
the goal statement); "foo" still refers to all facts collectively;
wenzelm@13463
   996
paulson@13550
   997
* Provers: the function blast.overloaded has been removed: all constants
paulson@13550
   998
are regarded as potentially overloaded, which improves robustness in exchange
paulson@13550
   999
for slight decrease in efficiency;
paulson@13550
  1000
nipkow@13781
  1001
* Provers/linorder: New generic prover for transitivity reasoning over
nipkow@13781
  1002
linear orders.  Note: this prover is not efficient!
nipkow@13781
  1003
wenzelm@13522
  1004
* Isar: preview of problems to finish 'show' now produce an error
wenzelm@13522
  1005
rather than just a warning (in interactive mode);
wenzelm@13522
  1006
wenzelm@13280
  1007
nipkow@13158
  1008
*** HOL ***
nipkow@13158
  1009
nipkow@13899
  1010
* arith(_tac)
nipkow@13899
  1011
nipkow@13899
  1012
 - Produces a counter example if it cannot prove a goal.
nipkow@13899
  1013
   Note that the counter example may be spurious if the goal is not a formula
nipkow@13899
  1014
   of quantifier-free linear arithmetic.
nipkow@13899
  1015
   In ProofGeneral the counter example appears in the trace buffer.
nipkow@13899
  1016
nipkow@13899
  1017
 - Knows about div k and mod k where k is a numeral of type nat or int.
nipkow@13899
  1018
nipkow@13899
  1019
 - Calls full Presburger arithmetic (by Amine Chaieb) if quantifier-free
nipkow@13899
  1020
   linear arithmetic fails. This takes account of quantifiers and divisibility.
wenzelm@14731
  1021
   Presburger arithmetic can also be called explicitly via presburger(_tac).
nipkow@13899
  1022
nipkow@13899
  1023
* simp's arithmetic capabilities have been enhanced a bit: it now
nipkow@13899
  1024
takes ~= in premises into account (by performing a case split);
nipkow@13899
  1025
nipkow@13899
  1026
* simp reduces "m*(n div m) + n mod m" to n, even if the two summands
nipkow@13899
  1027
are distributed over a sum of terms;
nipkow@13899
  1028
ballarin@13735
  1029
* New tactic "trans_tac" and method "trans" instantiate
ballarin@13735
  1030
Provers/linorder.ML for axclasses "order" and "linorder" (predicates
wenzelm@14731
  1031
"<=", "<" and "=").
wenzelm@14731
  1032
wenzelm@14731
  1033
* function INCOMPATIBILITIES: Pi-sets have been redefined and moved from main
paulson@13587
  1034
HOL to Library/FuncSet; constant "Fun.op o" is now called "Fun.comp";
paulson@13587
  1035
wenzelm@13443
  1036
* 'typedef' command has new option "open" to suppress the set
wenzelm@13443
  1037
definition;
wenzelm@13443
  1038
wenzelm@13522
  1039
* functions Min and Max on finite sets have been introduced (theory
wenzelm@13522
  1040
Finite_Set);
nipkow@13492
  1041
wenzelm@13443
  1042
* attribute [symmetric] now works for relations as well; it turns
wenzelm@13443
  1043
(x,y) : R^-1 into (y,x) : R, and vice versa;
wenzelm@13443
  1044
nipkow@13613
  1045
* induct over a !!-quantified statement (say !!x1..xn):
nipkow@13613
  1046
  each "case" automatically performs "fix x1 .. xn" with exactly those names.
nipkow@13613
  1047
nipkow@13899
  1048
* Map: `empty' is no longer a constant but a syntactic abbreviation for
nipkow@13899
  1049
%x. None. Warning: empty_def now refers to the previously hidden definition
nipkow@13899
  1050
of the empty set.
nipkow@13899
  1051
ballarin@14018
  1052
* Algebra: formalization of classical algebra.  Intended as base for
ballarin@14018
  1053
any algebraic development in Isabelle.  Currently covers group theory
ballarin@14018
  1054
(up to Sylow's theorem) and ring theory (Universal Property of
ballarin@14018
  1055
Univariate Polynomials).  Contributions welcome;
paulson@13960
  1056
paulson@13960
  1057
* GroupTheory: deleted, since its material has been moved to Algebra;
paulson@13960
  1058
wenzelm@14731
  1059
* Complex: new directory of the complex numbers with numeric constants,
wenzelm@14731
  1060
nonstandard complex numbers, and some complex analysis, standard and
paulson@13966
  1061
nonstandard (Jacques Fleuriot);
paulson@13966
  1062
paulson@13966
  1063
* HOL-Complex: new image for analysis, replacing HOL-Real and HOL-Hyperreal;
paulson@13966
  1064
wenzelm@14731
  1065
* Hyperreal: introduced Gauge integration and hyperreal logarithms (Jacques
paulson@13966
  1066
Fleuriot);
paulson@13960
  1067
wenzelm@13549
  1068
* Real/HahnBanach: updated and adapted to locales;
wenzelm@13549
  1069
ballarin@13995
  1070
* NumberTheory: added Gauss's law of quadratic reciprocity (by Avigad,
ballarin@13995
  1071
Gray and Kramer);
paulson@13872
  1072
paulson@13872
  1073
* UNITY: added the Meier-Sanders theory of progress sets;
paulson@13872
  1074
kleing@14011
  1075
* MicroJava: bytecode verifier and lightweight bytecode verifier
kleing@14011
  1076
as abstract algorithms, instantiated to the JVM;
kleing@14011
  1077
schirmer@14010
  1078
* Bali: Java source language formalization. Type system, operational
schirmer@14010
  1079
semantics, axiomatic semantics. Supported language features:
schirmer@14010
  1080
classes, interfaces, objects,virtual methods, static methods,
schirmer@14010
  1081
static/instance fields, arrays, access modifiers, definite
schirmer@14010
  1082
assignment, exceptions.
wenzelm@13549
  1083
kleing@14011
  1084
wenzelm@13549
  1085
*** ZF ***
wenzelm@13549
  1086
webertj@15154
  1087
* ZF/Constructible: consistency proof for AC (Gdel's constructible
wenzelm@13549
  1088
universe, etc.);
wenzelm@13549
  1089
paulson@13872
  1090
* Main ZF: virtually all theories converted to new-style format;
nipkow@13518
  1091
wenzelm@13280
  1092
wenzelm@13478
  1093
*** ML ***
wenzelm@13478
  1094
wenzelm@13478
  1095
* Pure: Tactic.prove provides sane interface for internal proofs;
wenzelm@13478
  1096
omits the infamous "standard" operation, so this is more appropriate
wenzelm@13478
  1097
than prove_goalw_cterm in many situations (e.g. in simprocs);
wenzelm@13478
  1098
wenzelm@13478
  1099
* Pure: improved error reporting of simprocs;
wenzelm@13478
  1100
wenzelm@13478
  1101
* Provers: Simplifier.simproc(_i) provides sane interface for setting
wenzelm@13478
  1102
up simprocs;
wenzelm@13478
  1103
wenzelm@13478
  1104
kleing@13953
  1105
*** Document preparation ***
kleing@13953
  1106
kleing@13953
  1107
* uses \par instead of \\ for line breaks in theory text. This may
kleing@13953
  1108
shift some page breaks in large documents. To get the old behaviour
kleing@13953
  1109
use \renewcommand{\isanewline}{\mbox{}\\\mbox{}} in root.tex.
kleing@13953
  1110
wenzelm@14731
  1111
* minimized dependencies of isabelle.sty and isabellesym.sty on
kleing@13953
  1112
other packages
kleing@13953
  1113
kleing@13953
  1114
* \<euro> now needs package babel/greek instead of marvosym (which
kleing@13953
  1115
broke \Rightarrow)
kleing@13953
  1116
wenzelm@14731
  1117
* normal size for \<zero>...\<nine> (uses \mathbf instead of
kleing@13954
  1118
textcomp package)
kleing@13953
  1119
wenzelm@13280
  1120
wenzelm@14572
  1121
wenzelm@12984
  1122
New in Isabelle2002 (March 2002)
wenzelm@12984
  1123
--------------------------------
wenzelm@11474
  1124
wenzelm@11572
  1125
*** Document preparation ***
wenzelm@11572
  1126
wenzelm@11842
  1127
* greatly simplified document preparation setup, including more
wenzelm@11842
  1128
graceful interpretation of isatool usedir -i/-d/-D options, and more
wenzelm@11842
  1129
instructive isatool mkdir; users should basically be able to get
wenzelm@12899
  1130
started with "isatool mkdir HOL Test && isatool make"; alternatively,
wenzelm@12899
  1131
users may run a separate document processing stage manually like this:
wenzelm@12899
  1132
"isatool usedir -D output HOL Test && isatool document Test/output";
wenzelm@11842
  1133
wenzelm@11842
  1134
* theory dependency graph may now be incorporated into documents;
wenzelm@11842
  1135
isatool usedir -g true will produce session_graph.eps/.pdf for use
wenzelm@11842
  1136
with \includegraphics of LaTeX;
wenzelm@11842
  1137
wenzelm@11864
  1138
* proper spacing of consecutive markup elements, especially text
wenzelm@11864
  1139
blocks after section headings;
wenzelm@11864
  1140
wenzelm@11572
  1141
* support bold style (for single symbols only), input syntax is like
wenzelm@11572
  1142
this: "\<^bold>\<alpha>" or "\<^bold>A";
wenzelm@11572
  1143
wenzelm@11814
  1144
* \<bullet> is now output as bold \cdot by default, which looks much
wenzelm@11572
  1145
better in printed text;
wenzelm@11572
  1146
wenzelm@11712
  1147
* added default LaTeX bindings for \<tturnstile> and \<TTurnstile>;
wenzelm@11712
  1148
note that these symbols are currently unavailable in Proof General /
wenzelm@12769
  1149
X-Symbol; new symbols \<zero>, \<one>, ..., \<nine>, and \<euro>;
wenzelm@12690
  1150
wenzelm@12690
  1151
* isatool latex no longer depends on changed TEXINPUTS, instead
wenzelm@12690
  1152
isatool document copies the Isabelle style files to the target
wenzelm@12690
  1153
location;
wenzelm@11712
  1154
wenzelm@11572
  1155
wenzelm@11633
  1156
*** Isar ***
wenzelm@11633
  1157
wenzelm@12312
  1158
* Pure/Provers: improved proof by cases and induction;
wenzelm@12280
  1159
  - 'case' command admits impromptu naming of parameters (such as
wenzelm@12280
  1160
    "case (Suc n)");
wenzelm@12280
  1161
  - 'induct' method divinates rule instantiation from the inductive
wenzelm@12280
  1162
    claim; no longer requires excessive ?P bindings for proper
wenzelm@12280
  1163
    instantiation of cases;
wenzelm@12280
  1164
  - 'induct' method properly enumerates all possibilities of set/type
wenzelm@12280
  1165
    rules; as a consequence facts may be also passed through *type*
wenzelm@12280
  1166
    rules without further ado;
wenzelm@12280
  1167
  - 'induct' method now derives symbolic cases from the *rulified*
wenzelm@12280
  1168
    rule (before it used to rulify cases stemming from the internal
wenzelm@12280
  1169
    atomized version); this means that the context of a non-atomic
wenzelm@12280
  1170
    statement becomes is included in the hypothesis, avoiding the
wenzelm@12280
  1171
    slightly cumbersome show "PROP ?case" form;
wenzelm@12280
  1172
  - 'induct' may now use elim-style induction rules without chaining
wenzelm@12280
  1173
    facts, using ``missing'' premises from the goal state; this allows
wenzelm@12280
  1174
    rules stemming from inductive sets to be applied in unstructured
wenzelm@12280
  1175
    scripts, while still benefitting from proper handling of non-atomic
wenzelm@12280
  1176
    statements; NB: major inductive premises need to be put first, all
wenzelm@12280
  1177
    the rest of the goal is passed through the induction;
wenzelm@12280
  1178
  - 'induct' proper support for mutual induction involving non-atomic
wenzelm@12280
  1179
    rule statements (uses the new concept of simultaneous goals, see
wenzelm@12280
  1180
    below);
wenzelm@12853
  1181
  - append all possible rule selections, but only use the first
wenzelm@12853
  1182
    success (no backtracking);
wenzelm@11995
  1183
  - removed obsolete "(simplified)" and "(stripped)" options of methods;
wenzelm@12754
  1184
  - undeclared rule case names default to numbers 1, 2, 3, ...;
wenzelm@12754
  1185
  - added 'print_induct_rules' (covered by help item in recent Proof
wenzelm@12754
  1186
    General versions);
wenzelm@11995
  1187
  - moved induct/cases attributes to Pure, methods to Provers;
wenzelm@11995
  1188
  - generic method setup instantiated for FOL and HOL;
wenzelm@11986
  1189
wenzelm@12163
  1190
* Pure: support multiple simultaneous goal statements, for example
wenzelm@12163
  1191
"have a: A and b: B" (same for 'theorem' etc.); being a pure
wenzelm@12163
  1192
meta-level mechanism, this acts as if several individual goals had
wenzelm@12163
  1193
been stated separately; in particular common proof methods need to be
wenzelm@12163
  1194
repeated in order to cover all claims; note that a single elimination
wenzelm@12163
  1195
step is *not* sufficient to establish the two conjunctions, so this
wenzelm@12163
  1196
fails:
wenzelm@12163
  1197
wenzelm@12163
  1198
  assume "A & B" then have A and B ..   (*".." fails*)
wenzelm@12163
  1199
wenzelm@12163
  1200
better use "obtain" in situations as above; alternative refer to
wenzelm@12163
  1201
multi-step methods like 'auto', 'simp_all', 'blast+' etc.;
wenzelm@12163
  1202
wenzelm@12078
  1203
* Pure: proper integration with ``locales''; unlike the original
webertj@15154
  1204
version by Florian Kammller, Isar locales package high-level proof
wenzelm@12078
  1205
contexts rather than raw logical ones (e.g. we admit to include
wenzelm@12280
  1206
attributes everywhere); operations on locales include merge and
wenzelm@12964
  1207
rename; support for implicit arguments (``structures''); simultaneous
wenzelm@12964
  1208
type-inference over imports and text; see also HOL/ex/Locales.thy for
wenzelm@12964
  1209
some examples;
wenzelm@12078
  1210
wenzelm@12707
  1211
* Pure: the following commands have been ``localized'', supporting a
wenzelm@12707
  1212
target locale specification "(in name)": 'lemma', 'theorem',
wenzelm@12707
  1213
'corollary', 'lemmas', 'theorems', 'declare'; the results will be
wenzelm@12707
  1214
stored both within the locale and at the theory level (exported and
wenzelm@12707
  1215
qualified by the locale name);
wenzelm@12707
  1216
wenzelm@12964
  1217
* Pure: theory goals may now be specified in ``long'' form, with
wenzelm@12964
  1218
ad-hoc contexts consisting of arbitrary locale elements. for example
wenzelm@12964
  1219
``lemma foo: fixes x assumes "A x" shows "B x"'' (local syntax and
wenzelm@12964
  1220
definitions may be given, too); the result is a meta-level rule with
wenzelm@12964
  1221
the context elements being discharged in the obvious way;
wenzelm@12964
  1222
wenzelm@12964
  1223
* Pure: new proof command 'using' allows to augment currently used
wenzelm@12964
  1224
facts after a goal statement ('using' is syntactically analogous to
wenzelm@12964
  1225
'apply', but acts on the goal's facts only); this allows chained facts
wenzelm@12964
  1226
to be separated into parts given before and after a claim, as in
wenzelm@12964
  1227
``from a and b have C using d and e <proof>'';
wenzelm@12078
  1228
wenzelm@11722
  1229
* Pure: renamed "antecedent" case to "rule_context";
wenzelm@11722
  1230
wenzelm@12964
  1231
* Pure: new 'judgment' command records explicit information about the
wenzelm@12964
  1232
object-logic embedding (used by several tools internally); no longer
wenzelm@12964
  1233
use hard-wired "Trueprop";
wenzelm@12964
  1234
wenzelm@11738
  1235
* Pure: added 'corollary' command;
wenzelm@11738
  1236
wenzelm@11722
  1237
* Pure: fixed 'token_translation' command;
wenzelm@11722
  1238
wenzelm@11899
  1239
* Pure: removed obsolete 'exported' attribute;
wenzelm@11899
  1240
wenzelm@11933
  1241
* Pure: dummy pattern "_" in is/let is now automatically lifted over
wenzelm@11933
  1242
bound variables: "ALL x. P x --> Q x" (is "ALL x. _ --> ?C x")
wenzelm@11899
  1243
supersedes more cumbersome ... (is "ALL x. _ x --> ?C x");
wenzelm@11899
  1244
wenzelm@11952
  1245
* Pure: method 'atomize' presents local goal premises as object-level
wenzelm@11952
  1246
statements (atomic meta-level propositions); setup controlled via
wenzelm@11952
  1247
rewrite rules declarations of 'atomize' attribute; example
wenzelm@11952
  1248
application: 'induct' method with proper rule statements in improper
wenzelm@11952
  1249
proof *scripts*;
wenzelm@11952
  1250
wenzelm@12106
  1251
* Pure: emulation of instantiation tactics (rule_tac, cut_tac, etc.)
wenzelm@12106
  1252
now consider the syntactic context of assumptions, giving a better
wenzelm@12106
  1253
chance to get type-inference of the arguments right (this is
wenzelm@12106
  1254
especially important for locales);
wenzelm@12106
  1255
wenzelm@12312
  1256
* Pure: "sorry" no longer requires quick_and_dirty in interactive
wenzelm@12312
  1257
mode;
wenzelm@12312
  1258
wenzelm@12405
  1259
* Pure/obtain: the formal conclusion "thesis", being marked as
wenzelm@12405
  1260
``internal'', may no longer be reference directly in the text;
wenzelm@12405
  1261
potential INCOMPATIBILITY, may need to use "?thesis" in rare
wenzelm@12405
  1262
situations;
wenzelm@12405
  1263
wenzelm@12405
  1264
* Pure: generic 'sym' attribute which declares a rule both as pure
wenzelm@12405
  1265
'elim?' and for the 'symmetric' operation;
wenzelm@12405
  1266
wenzelm@12877
  1267
* Pure: marginal comments ``--'' may now occur just anywhere in the
wenzelm@12877
  1268
text; the fixed correlation with particular command syntax has been
wenzelm@12877
  1269
discontinued;
wenzelm@12877
  1270
berghofe@13023
  1271
* Pure: new method 'rules' is particularly well-suited for proof
berghofe@13023
  1272
search in intuitionistic logic; a bit slower than 'blast' or 'fast',
berghofe@13023
  1273
but often produces more compact proof terms with less detours;
berghofe@13023
  1274
wenzelm@12364
  1275
* Pure/Provers/classical: simplified integration with pure rule
wenzelm@12364
  1276
attributes and methods; the classical "intro?/elim?/dest?"
wenzelm@12364
  1277
declarations coincide with the pure ones; the "rule" method no longer
wenzelm@12364
  1278
includes classically swapped intros; "intro" and "elim" methods no
wenzelm@12364
  1279
longer pick rules from the context; also got rid of ML declarations
wenzelm@12364
  1280
AddXIs/AddXEs/AddXDs; all of this has some potential for
wenzelm@12364
  1281
INCOMPATIBILITY;
wenzelm@12364
  1282
wenzelm@12405
  1283
* Provers/classical: attribute 'swapped' produces classical inversions
wenzelm@12405
  1284
of introduction rules;
wenzelm@12405
  1285
wenzelm@12364
  1286
* Provers/simplifier: 'simplified' attribute may refer to explicit
wenzelm@12364
  1287
rules instead of full simplifier context; 'iff' attribute handles
wenzelm@12364
  1288
conditional rules;
wenzelm@11936
  1289
wenzelm@11745
  1290
* HOL: 'typedef' now allows alternative names for Rep/Abs morphisms;
wenzelm@11745
  1291
wenzelm@11690
  1292
* HOL: 'recdef' now fails on unfinished automated proofs, use
wenzelm@11633
  1293
"(permissive)" option to recover old behavior;
wenzelm@11633
  1294
wenzelm@11933
  1295
* HOL: 'inductive' no longer features separate (collective) attributes
wenzelm@11933
  1296
for 'intros' (was found too confusing);
wenzelm@11933
  1297
wenzelm@12405
  1298
* HOL: properly declared induction rules less_induct and
wenzelm@12405
  1299
wf_induct_rule;
wenzelm@12405
  1300
kleing@11788
  1301
wenzelm@11474
  1302
*** HOL ***
wenzelm@11474
  1303
wenzelm@11702
  1304
* HOL: moved over to sane numeral syntax; the new policy is as
wenzelm@11702
  1305
follows:
wenzelm@11702
  1306
wenzelm@11702
  1307
  - 0 and 1 are polymorphic constants, which are defined on any
wenzelm@11702
  1308
  numeric type (nat, int, real etc.);
wenzelm@11702
  1309
wenzelm@11702
  1310
  - 2, 3, 4, ... and -1, -2, -3, ... are polymorphic numerals, based
wenzelm@11702
  1311
  binary representation internally;
wenzelm@11702
  1312
wenzelm@11702
  1313
  - type nat has special constructor Suc, and generally prefers Suc 0
wenzelm@11702
  1314
  over 1::nat and Suc (Suc 0) over 2::nat;
wenzelm@11702
  1315
wenzelm@12364
  1316
This change may cause significant problems of INCOMPATIBILITY; here
wenzelm@12364
  1317
are some hints on converting existing sources:
wenzelm@11702
  1318
wenzelm@11702
  1319
  - due to the new "num" token, "-0" and "-1" etc. are now atomic
wenzelm@11702
  1320
  entities, so expressions involving "-" (unary or binary minus) need
wenzelm@11702
  1321
  to be spaced properly;
wenzelm@11702
  1322
wenzelm@11702
  1323
  - existing occurrences of "1" may need to be constraint "1::nat" or
wenzelm@11702
  1324
  even replaced by Suc 0; similar for old "2";
wenzelm@11702
  1325
wenzelm@11702
  1326
  - replace "#nnn" by "nnn", and "#-nnn" by "-nnn";
wenzelm@11702
  1327
wenzelm@11702
  1328
  - remove all special provisions on numerals in proofs;
wenzelm@11702
  1329
wenzelm@13042
  1330
* HOL: simp rules nat_number expand numerals on nat to Suc/0
wenzelm@12837
  1331
representation (depends on bin_arith_simps in the default context);
wenzelm@12837
  1332
wenzelm@12736
  1333
* HOL: symbolic syntax for x^2 (numeral 2);
wenzelm@12736
  1334
wenzelm@12335
  1335
* HOL: the class of all HOL types is now called "type" rather than
wenzelm@12335
  1336
"term"; INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt references to this type class
wenzelm@12335
  1337
in axclass/classes, instance/arities, and (usually rare) occurrences
wenzelm@12335
  1338
in typings (of consts etc.); internally the class is called
wenzelm@12335
  1339
"HOL.type", ML programs should refer to HOLogic.typeS;
wenzelm@12335
  1340
wenzelm@12280
  1341
* HOL/record package improvements:
wenzelm@12280
  1342
  - new derived operations "fields" to build a partial record section,
wenzelm@12280
  1343
    "extend" to promote a fixed record to a record scheme, and
wenzelm@12280
  1344
    "truncate" for the reverse; cf. theorems "xxx.defs", which are *not*
wenzelm@12280
  1345
    declared as simp by default;
wenzelm@12587
  1346
  - shared operations ("more", "fields", etc.) now need to be always
wenzelm@12587
  1347
    qualified) --- potential INCOMPATIBILITY;
wenzelm@12280
  1348
  - removed "make_scheme" operations (use "make" with "extend") --
wenzelm@12280
  1349
    INCOMPATIBILITY;
wenzelm@11937
  1350
  - removed "more" class (simply use "term") -- INCOMPATIBILITY;
wenzelm@12253
  1351
  - provides cases/induct rules for use with corresponding Isar
wenzelm@12253
  1352
    methods (for concrete records, record schemes, concrete more
wenzelm@12280
  1353
    parts, and schematic more parts -- in that order);
wenzelm@11930
  1354
  - internal definitions directly based on a light-weight abstract
wenzelm@11930
  1355
    theory of product types over typedef rather than datatype;
wenzelm@11930
  1356
berghofe@13023
  1357
* HOL: generic code generator for generating executable ML code from
berghofe@13023
  1358
specifications; specific support for HOL constructs such as inductive
berghofe@13023
  1359
datatypes and sets, as well as recursive functions; can be invoked
berghofe@13023
  1360
via 'generate_code' theory section;
berghofe@13023
  1361
wenzelm@11933
  1362
* HOL: canonical cases/induct rules for n-tuples (n = 3..7);
wenzelm@11933
  1363
paulson@13824
  1364
* HOL: consolidated and renamed several theories.  In particular:
wenzelm@14731
  1365
        Ord.thy has been absorbed into HOL.thy
wenzelm@14731
  1366
        String.thy has been absorbed into List.thy
wenzelm@14731
  1367
wenzelm@11802
  1368
* HOL: concrete setsum syntax "\<Sum>i:A. b" == "setsum (%i. b) A"
wenzelm@11802
  1369
(beware of argument permutation!);
wenzelm@11802
  1370
wenzelm@11657
  1371
* HOL: linorder_less_split superseded by linorder_cases;
wenzelm@11657
  1372
wenzelm@12917
  1373
* HOL/List: "nodups" renamed to "distinct";
nipkow@12889
  1374
wenzelm@11633
  1375
* HOL: added "The" definite description operator; move Hilbert's "Eps"
paulson@13824
  1376
to peripheral theory "Hilbert_Choice"; some INCOMPATIBILITIES:
paulson@13824
  1377
  - Ex_def has changed, now need to use some_eq_ex
wenzelm@11437
  1378
wenzelm@11572
  1379
* HOL: made split_all_tac safe; EXISTING PROOFS MAY FAIL OR LOOP, so
wenzelm@11572
  1380
in this (rare) case use:
wenzelm@11572
  1381
wenzelm@11572
  1382
  delSWrapper "split_all_tac"
wenzelm@11572
  1383
  addSbefore ("unsafe_split_all_tac", unsafe_split_all_tac)
wenzelm@11572
  1384
wenzelm@11572
  1385
* HOL: added safe wrapper "split_conv_tac" to claset; EXISTING PROOFS
wenzelm@11474
  1386
MAY FAIL;
nipkow@11361
  1387
wenzelm@11572
  1388
* HOL: introduced f^n = f o ... o f; warning: due to the limits of
wenzelm@11572
  1389
Isabelle's type classes, ^ on functions and relations has too general
wenzelm@11572
  1390
a domain, namely ('a * 'b) set and 'a => 'b; this means that it may be
wenzelm@11572
  1391
necessary to attach explicit type constraints;
nipkow@11307
  1392
wenzelm@12917
  1393
* HOL/Relation: the prefix name of the infix "O" has been changed from
wenzelm@12917
  1394
"comp" to "rel_comp"; INCOMPATIBILITY: a few theorems have been
wenzelm@12917
  1395
renamed accordingly (eg "compI" -> "rel_compI").
nipkow@12489
  1396
wenzelm@11487
  1397
* HOL: syntax translations now work properly with numerals and records
wenzelm@11487
  1398
expressions;
wenzelm@11474
  1399
wenzelm@12457
  1400
* HOL: bounded abstraction now uses syntax "%" / "\<lambda>" instead
wenzelm@12457
  1401
of "lam" -- INCOMPATIBILITY;
wenzelm@11474
  1402
wenzelm@11933
  1403
* HOL: got rid of some global declarations (potential INCOMPATIBILITY
wenzelm@11933
  1404
for ML tools): const "()" renamed "Product_Type.Unity", type "unit"
wenzelm@11933
  1405
renamed "Product_Type.unit";
wenzelm@11611
  1406
nipkow@12564
  1407
* HOL: renamed rtrancl_into_rtrancl2 to converse_rtrancl_into_rtrancl
nipkow@12564
  1408
wenzelm@12924
  1409
* HOL: removed obsolete theorem "optionE" (use "option.exhaust", or
wenzelm@12924
  1410
the "cases" method);
wenzelm@12924
  1411
wenzelm@12597
  1412
* HOL/GroupTheory: group theory examples including Sylow's theorem (by
webertj@15154
  1413
Florian Kammller);
wenzelm@12597
  1414
wenzelm@12608
  1415
* HOL/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory format; several
wenzelm@12608
  1416
parts turned into readable document, with proper Isar proof texts and
wenzelm@12608
  1417
some explanations (by Gerwin Klein);
wenzelm@12597
  1418
wenzelm@12734
  1419
* HOL-Real: added Complex_Numbers (by Gertrud Bauer);
wenzelm@12734
  1420
wenzelm@12690
  1421
* HOL-Hyperreal is now a logic image;
wenzelm@12690
  1422
wenzelm@11611
  1423
wenzelm@12022
  1424
*** HOLCF ***
wenzelm@12022
  1425
wenzelm@12622
  1426
* Isar: consts/constdefs supports mixfix syntax for continuous
wenzelm@12622
  1427
operations;
wenzelm@12622
  1428
wenzelm@12622
  1429
* Isar: domain package adapted to new-style theory format, e.g. see
wenzelm@12622
  1430
HOLCF/ex/Dnat.thy;
wenzelm@12622
  1431
wenzelm@12622
  1432
* theory Lift: proper use of rep_datatype lift instead of ML hacks --
wenzelm@12280
  1433
potential INCOMPATIBILITY; now use plain induct_tac instead of former
wenzelm@12280
  1434
lift.induct_tac, always use UU instead of Undef;
wenzelm@12022
  1435
wenzelm@12597
  1436
* HOLCF/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory;
wenzelm@12597
  1437
wenzelm@12022
  1438
wenzelm@11474
  1439
*** ZF ***
wenzelm@11474
  1440
wenzelm@12622
  1441
* Isar: proper integration of logic-specific tools and packages,
wenzelm@12622
  1442
including theory commands '(co)inductive', '(co)datatype',
wenzelm@12622
  1443
'rep_datatype', 'inductive_cases', as well as methods 'ind_cases',
wenzelm@12622
  1444
'induct_tac', 'case_tac', and 'typecheck' (with attribute 'TC');
wenzelm@12622
  1445
wenzelm@12622
  1446
* theory Main no longer includes AC; for the Axiom of Choice, base
wenzelm@12622
  1447
your theory on Main_ZFC;
wenzelm@12622
  1448
wenzelm@12622
  1449
* the integer library now covers quotients and remainders, with many
wenzelm@12622
  1450
laws relating division to addition, multiplication, etc.;
paulson@12563
  1451
wenzelm@12280
  1452
* ZF/UNITY: Chandy and Misra's UNITY is now available in ZF, giving a
wenzelm@12280
  1453
typeless version of the formalism;
wenzelm@12280
  1454
wenzelm@13025
  1455
* ZF/AC, Coind, IMP, Resid: updated and converted to new-style theory
wenzelm@13025
  1456
format;
wenzelm@12608
  1457
wenzelm@12280
  1458
* ZF/Induct: new directory for examples of inductive definitions,
wenzelm@12608
  1459
including theory Multiset for multiset orderings; converted to
wenzelm@12608
  1460
new-style theory format;
wenzelm@12177
  1461
wenzelm@13025
  1462
* ZF: many new theorems about lists, ordinals, etc.;
paulson@12850
  1463
wenzelm@11474
  1464
wenzelm@11474
  1465
*** General ***
wenzelm@11474
  1466
wenzelm@12280
  1467
* Pure/kernel: meta-level proof terms (by Stefan Berghofer); reference
wenzelm@12280
  1468
variable proof controls level of detail: 0 = no proofs (only oracle
wenzelm@12280
  1469
dependencies), 1 = lemma dependencies, 2 = compact proof terms; see
wenzelm@12280
  1470
also ref manual for further ML interfaces;
wenzelm@12280
  1471
wenzelm@12280
  1472
* Pure/axclass: removed obsolete ML interface
wenzelm@12280
  1473
goal_subclass/goal_arity;
wenzelm@12280
  1474
wenzelm@12280
  1475
* Pure/syntax: new token syntax "num" for plain numerals (without "#"
wenzelm@12280
  1476
of "xnum"); potential INCOMPATIBILITY, since -0, -1 etc. are now
wenzelm@12280
  1477
separate tokens, so expressions involving minus need to be spaced
wenzelm@12280
  1478
properly;
wenzelm@12280
  1479
wenzelm@12312
  1480
* Pure/syntax: support non-oriented infixes, using keyword "infix"
wenzelm@12312
  1481
rather than "infixl" or "infixr";
wenzelm@12312
  1482
wenzelm@12312
  1483
* Pure/syntax: concrete syntax for dummy type variables admits genuine
wenzelm@12312
  1484
sort constraint specifications in type inference; e.g. "x::_::foo"
wenzelm@12312
  1485
ensures that the type of "x" is of sort "foo" (but not necessarily a
wenzelm@12312
  1486
type variable);
wenzelm@12280
  1487
wenzelm@12280
  1488
* Pure/syntax: print modes "type_brackets" and "no_type_brackets"
wenzelm@12280
  1489
control output of nested => (types); the default behavior is
wenzelm@12280
  1490
"type_brackets";
wenzelm@12280
  1491
wenzelm@12280
  1492
* Pure/syntax: builtin parse translation for "_constify" turns valued
wenzelm@11817
  1493
tokens into AST constants;
wenzelm@11474
  1494
wenzelm@12280
  1495
* Pure/syntax: prefer later declarations of translations and print
wenzelm@12280
  1496
translation functions; potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to reverse
wenzelm@12280
  1497
multiple declarations for same syntax element constant;
wenzelm@12280
  1498
wenzelm@12832
  1499
* Pure/show_hyps reset by default (in accordance to existing Isar
wenzelm@12832
  1500
practice);
wenzelm@12832
  1501
wenzelm@12280
  1502
* Provers/classical: renamed addaltern to addafter, addSaltern to
wenzelm@12280
  1503
addSafter;
wenzelm@12280
  1504
wenzelm@12280
  1505
* Provers/clasimp: ``iff'' declarations now handle conditional rules
wenzelm@12280
  1506
as well;
wenzelm@12253
  1507
wenzelm@12538
  1508
* system: tested support for MacOS X; should be able to get Isabelle +
wenzelm@12538
  1509
Proof General to work in a plain Terminal after installing Poly/ML
wenzelm@12538
  1510
(e.g. from the Isabelle distribution area) and GNU bash alone
wenzelm@12538
  1511
(e.g. from http://www.apple.com); full X11, XEmacs and X-Symbol
wenzelm@12538
  1512
support requires further installations, e.g. from
wenzelm@12538
  1513
http://fink.sourceforge.net/);
wenzelm@12538
  1514
wenzelm@12280
  1515
* system: support Poly/ML 4.1.1 (able to manage larger heaps);
wenzelm@11551
  1516
wenzelm@12753
  1517
* system: reduced base memory usage by Poly/ML (approx. 20 MB instead
wenzelm@12753
  1518
of 40 MB), cf. ML_OPTIONS;
wenzelm@12753
  1519
wenzelm@11633
  1520
* system: Proof General keywords specification is now part of the
wenzelm@11633
  1521
Isabelle distribution (see etc/isar-keywords.el);
wenzelm@11633
  1522
wenzelm@12728
  1523
* system: support for persistent Proof General sessions (refrain from
wenzelm@12728
  1524
outdating all loaded theories on startup); user may create writable
wenzelm@12728
  1525
logic images like this: ``isabelle -q HOL Test'';
wenzelm@12597
  1526
wenzelm@11551
  1527
* system: smart selection of Isabelle process versus Isabelle
wenzelm@11572
  1528
interface, accommodates case-insensitive file systems (e.g. HFS+); may
wenzelm@11572
  1529
run both "isabelle" and "Isabelle" even if file names are badly
wenzelm@11572
  1530
damaged (executable inspects the case of the first letter of its own
wenzelm@11572
  1531
name); added separate "isabelle-process" and "isabelle-interface";
wenzelm@11551
  1532
wenzelm@12472
  1533
* system: refrain from any attempt at filtering input streams; no
wenzelm@12472
  1534
longer support ``8bit'' encoding of old isabelle font, instead proper
wenzelm@12472
  1535
iso-latin characters may now be used; the related isatools
wenzelm@12472
  1536
"symbolinput" and "nonascii" have disappeared as well;
wenzelm@12472
  1537
wenzelm@12472
  1538
* system: removed old "xterm" interface (the print modes "xterm" and
wenzelm@12472
  1539
"xterm_color" are still available for direct use in a suitable
wenzelm@12472
  1540
terminal);
wenzelm@12472
  1541
paulson@11314
  1542
oheimb@11169
  1543
wenzelm@11062
  1544
New in Isabelle99-2 (February 2001)
wenzelm@11062
  1545
-----------------------------------
wenzelm@11062
  1546
nipkow@10224
  1547
*** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***
nipkow@10224
  1548
paulson@11241
  1549
* HOL: please note that theories in the Library and elsewhere often use the
paulson@11241
  1550
new-style (Isar) format; to refer to their theorems in an ML script you must
wenzelm@12622
  1551
bind them to ML identifers by e.g.      val thm_name = thm "thm_name";
paulson@11241
  1552
wenzelm@11043
  1553
* HOL: inductive package no longer splits induction rule aggressively,
wenzelm@11043
  1554
but only as far as specified by the introductions given; the old
oheimb@11130
  1555
format may be recovered via ML function complete_split_rule or attribute
wenzelm@11043
  1556
'split_rule (complete)';
wenzelm@11043
  1557
wenzelm@10998
  1558
* HOL: induct renamed to lfp_induct, lfp_Tarski to lfp_unfold,
wenzelm@10998
  1559
gfp_Tarski to gfp_unfold;
nipkow@10224
  1560
paulson@10288
  1561
* HOL: contrapos, contrapos2 renamed to contrapos_nn, contrapos_pp;
paulson@10288
  1562
wenzelm@10858
  1563
* HOL: infix "dvd" now has priority 50 rather than 70 (because it is a
wenzelm@10858
  1564
relation); infix "^^" has been renamed "``"; infix "``" has been
wenzelm@10858
  1565
renamed "`"; "univalent" has been renamed "single_valued";
nipkow@10793
  1566
wenzelm@10998
  1567
* HOL/Real: "rinv" and "hrinv" replaced by overloaded "inverse"
wenzelm@10998
  1568
operation;
wenzelm@10998
  1569
nipkow@10868
  1570
* HOLCF: infix "`" has been renamed "$"; the symbol syntax is \<cdot>;
nipkow@10856
  1571
wenzelm@10391
  1572
* Isar: 'obtain' no longer declares "that" fact as simp/intro;
wenzelm@10391
  1573
wenzelm@10401
  1574
* Isar/HOL: method 'induct' now handles non-atomic goals; as a
wenzelm@10401
  1575
consequence, it is no longer monotonic wrt. the local goal context
wenzelm@10401
  1576
(which is now passed through the inductive cases);
wenzelm@10401
  1577
wenzelm@10976
  1578
* Document preparation: renamed standard symbols \<ll> to \<lless> and
wenzelm@10976
  1579
\<gg> to \<ggreater>;
wenzelm@10976
  1580
nipkow@10224
  1581
wenzelm@10245
  1582
*** Document preparation ***
wenzelm@10245
  1583
wenzelm@10858
  1584
* \isabellestyle{NAME} selects version of Isabelle output (currently
wenzelm@10858
  1585
available: are "it" for near math-mode best-style output, "sl" for
wenzelm@10858
  1586
slanted text style, and "tt" for plain type-writer; if no
wenzelm@10858
  1587
\isabellestyle command is given, output is according to slanted
wenzelm@10858
  1588
type-writer);
wenzelm@10858
  1589
wenzelm@10322
  1590
* support sub/super scripts (for single symbols only), input syntax is
wenzelm@10322
  1591
like this: "A\<^sup>*" or "A\<^sup>\<star>";
wenzelm@10322
  1592
wenzelm@10858
  1593
* some more standard symbols; see Appendix A of the system manual for
wenzelm@11062
  1594
the complete list of symbols defined in isabellesym.sty;
wenzelm@10858
  1595
wenzelm@10998
  1596
* improved isabelle style files; more abstract symbol implementation
wenzelm@10998
  1597
(should now use \isamath{...} and \isatext{...} in custom symbol
wenzelm@10998
  1598
definitions);
wenzelm@10998
  1599
wenzelm@10634
  1600
* antiquotation @{goals} and @{subgoals} for output of *dynamic* goals
wenzelm@10634
  1601
state; Note that presentation of goal states does not conform to
wenzelm@10634
  1602
actual human-readable proof documents.  Please do not include goal
wenzelm@10634
  1603
states into document output unless you really know what you are doing!
wenzelm@10322
  1604
wenzelm@11062
  1605
* proper indentation of antiquoted output with proportional LaTeX
wenzelm@11062
  1606
fonts;
wenzelm@10862
  1607
wenzelm@11050
  1608
* no_document ML operator temporarily disables LaTeX document
wenzelm@11050
  1609
generation;
wenzelm@11050
  1610
wenzelm@11062
  1611
* isatool unsymbolize tunes sources for plain ASCII communication;
wenzelm@11062
  1612
wenzelm@10322
  1613
wenzelm@10306
  1614
*** Isar ***
wenzelm@10306
  1615
wenzelm@10547
  1616
* Pure: Isar now suffers initial goal statements to contain unbound
wenzelm@10547
  1617
schematic variables (this does not conform to actual readable proof
wenzelm@10547
  1618
documents, due to unpredictable outcome and non-compositional proof
wenzelm@10547
  1619
checking); users who know what they are doing may use schematic goals
wenzelm@10547
  1620
for Prolog-style synthesis of proven results;
wenzelm@10547
  1621
wenzelm@10391
  1622
* Pure: assumption method (an implicit finishing) now handles actual
wenzelm@10391
  1623
rules as well;
wenzelm@10391
  1624
wenzelm@10391
  1625
* Pure: improved 'obtain' --- moved to Pure, insert "that" into
wenzelm@10391
  1626
initial goal, declare "that" only as Pure intro (only for single
wenzelm@10391
  1627
steps); the "that" rule assumption may now be involved in implicit
wenzelm@10391
  1628
finishing, thus ".." becomes a feasible for trivial obtains;
wenzelm@10391
  1629
wenzelm@10391
  1630
* Pure: default proof step now includes 'intro_classes'; thus trivial
wenzelm@10391
  1631
instance proofs may be performed by "..";
wenzelm@10391
  1632
wenzelm@10391
  1633
* Pure: ?thesis / ?this / "..." now work for pure meta-level
wenzelm@10391
  1634
statements as well;
wenzelm@10306
  1635
wenzelm@11097
  1636
* Pure: more robust selection of calculational rules;
wenzelm@11097
  1637
wenzelm@10858
  1638
* Pure: the builtin notion of 'finished' goal now includes the ==-refl
wenzelm@10858
  1639
rule (as well as the assumption rule);
wenzelm@10858
  1640
wenzelm@10858
  1641
* Pure: 'thm_deps' command visualizes dependencies of theorems and
wenzelm@10858
  1642
lemmas, using the graph browser tool;
wenzelm@10858
  1643
wenzelm@10944
  1644
* Pure: predict failure of "show" in interactive mode;
wenzelm@10944
  1645
wenzelm@11016
  1646
* Pure: 'thms_containing' now takes actual terms as arguments;
wenzelm@11016
  1647
wenzelm@10401
  1648
* HOL: improved method 'induct' --- now handles non-atomic goals
wenzelm@10401
  1649
(potential INCOMPATIBILITY); tuned error handling;
wenzelm@10401
  1650
wenzelm@10557
  1651
* HOL: cases and induct rules now provide explicit hints about the
wenzelm@10547
  1652
number of facts to be consumed (0 for "type" and 1 for "set" rules);
wenzelm@10547
  1653
any remaining facts are inserted into the goal verbatim;
wenzelm@10547
  1654
wenzelm@10858
  1655
* HOL: local contexts (aka cases) may now contain term bindings as
wenzelm@10858
  1656
well; the 'cases' and 'induct' methods new provide a ?case binding for
wenzelm@10858
  1657
the result to be shown in each case;
wenzelm@10858
  1658
wenzelm@10770
  1659
* HOL: added 'recdef_tc' command;
wenzelm@10770
  1660
wenzelm@11016
  1661
* isatool convert assists in eliminating legacy ML scripts;
wenzelm@11016
  1662
wenzelm@10306
  1663
wenzelm@10245
  1664
*** HOL ***
wenzelm@10245
  1665
wenzelm@10245
  1666
* HOL/Library: a collection of generic theories to be used together
wenzelm@10245
  1667
with main HOL; the theory loader path already includes this directory
wenzelm@10245
  1668
by default; the following existing theories have been moved here:
wenzelm@10245
  1669
HOL/Induct/Multiset, HOL/Induct/Acc (as Accessible_Part), HOL/While
wenzelm@10337
  1670
(as While_Combinator), HOL/Lex/Prefix (as List_Prefix);
wenzelm@10245
  1671
wenzelm@10966
  1672
* HOL/Unix: "Some aspects of Unix file-system security", a typical
wenzelm@10966
  1673
modelling and verification task performed in Isabelle/HOL +
wenzelm@10966
  1674
Isabelle/Isar + Isabelle document preparation (by Markus Wenzel).
wenzelm@10966
  1675
wenzelm@11094
  1676
* HOL/Algebra: special summation operator SUM no longer exists, it has
wenzelm@11094
  1677
been replaced by setsum; infix 'assoc' now has priority 50 (like
wenzelm@11094
  1678
'dvd'); axiom 'one_not_zero' has been moved from axclass 'ring' to
wenzelm@11094
  1679
'domain', this makes the theory consistent with mathematical
wenzelm@11094
  1680
literature;
wenzelm@11094
  1681
wenzelm@10514
  1682
* HOL basics: added overloaded operations "inverse" and "divide"
wenzelm@10726
  1683
(infix "/"), syntax for generic "abs" operation, generic summation
wenzelm@11094
  1684
operator \<Sum>;
wenzelm@10452
  1685
wenzelm@10391
  1686
* HOL/typedef: simplified package, provide more useful rules (see also
wenzelm@10391
  1687
HOL/subset.thy);
wenzelm@10391
  1688
wenzelm@10915
  1689
* HOL/datatype: induction rule for arbitrarily branching datatypes is
wenzelm@10915
  1690
now expressed as a proper nested rule (old-style tactic scripts may
wenzelm@10915
  1691
require atomize_strip_tac to cope with non-atomic premises);
wenzelm@10915
  1692
wenzelm@10915
  1693
* HOL: renamed theory "Prod" to "Product_Type", renamed "split" rule
wenzelm@10915
  1694
to "split_conv" (old name still available for compatibility);
wenzelm@10915
  1695
wenzelm@10915
  1696
* HOL: improved concrete syntax for strings (e.g. allows translation
wenzelm@10915
  1697
rules with string literals);
wenzelm@10915
  1698
paulson@12245
  1699
* HOL-Real-Hyperreal: this extends HOL-Real with the hyperreals
paulson@12245
  1700
 and Fleuriot's mechanization of analysis, including the transcendental
paulson@12245
  1701
 functions for the reals;
paulson@10756
  1702
wenzelm@11094
  1703
* HOL/Real, HOL/Hyperreal: improved arithmetic simplification;
wenzelm@10391
  1704
wenzelm@10858
  1705
paulson@10474
  1706
*** CTT ***
paulson@10474
  1707
wenzelm@10547
  1708
* CTT: x-symbol support for Pi, Sigma, -->, : (membership); note that
wenzelm@10547
  1709
"lam" is displayed as TWO lambda-symbols
paulson@10474
  1710
wenzelm@10547
  1711
* CTT: theory Main now available, containing everything (that is, Bool
wenzelm@10547
  1712
and Arith);
wenzelm@10547
  1713
paulson@10474
  1714
wenzelm@10391
  1715
*** General ***
wenzelm@10391
  1716
wenzelm@10547
  1717
* Pure: the Simplifier has been implemented properly as a derived rule
wenzelm@10547
  1718
outside of the actual kernel (at last!); the overall performance
wenzelm@10547
  1719
penalty in practical applications is about 50%, while reliability of
wenzelm@10547
  1720
the Isabelle inference kernel has been greatly improved;
wenzelm@10547
  1721
wenzelm@11112
  1722
* print modes "brackets" and "no_brackets" control output of nested =>
wenzelm@11112
  1723
(types) and ==> (props); the default behaviour is "brackets";
wenzelm@11112
  1724
wenzelm@10391
  1725
* Provers: fast_tac (and friends) now handle actual object-logic rules
wenzelm@10391
  1726
as assumptions as well;
wenzelm@10391
  1727
wenzelm@11124
  1728
* system: support Poly/ML 4.0;
wenzelm@11124
  1729
wenzelm@11124
  1730
* system: isatool install handles KDE version 1 or 2;
wenzelm@11124
  1731
wenzelm@10391
  1732
wenzelm@10245
  1733
wenzelm@10103
  1734
New in Isabelle99-1 (October 2000)
wenzelm@10103
  1735
----------------------------------
wenzelm@8015
  1736
wenzelm@10003
  1737
*** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***
paulson@8014
  1738
wenzelm@8848
  1739
* HOL: simplification of natural numbers is much changed; to partly
wenzelm@8848
  1740
recover the old behaviour (e.g. to prevent n+n rewriting to #2*n)
wenzelm@8848
  1741
issue the following ML commands:
wenzelm@8848
  1742
wenzelm@8848
  1743
  Delsimprocs Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.cancel_numerals;
wenzelm@8848
  1744
  Delsimprocs [Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.combine_numerals];
paulson@8788
  1745
wenzelm@10129
  1746
* HOL: simplification no longer dives into case-expressions; this is
wenzelm@10129
  1747
controlled by "t.weak_case_cong" for each datatype t;
wenzelm@10003
  1748
wenzelm@10003
  1749
* HOL: nat_less_induct renamed to less_induct;
wenzelm@10003
  1750
wenzelm@10003
  1751
* HOL: systematic renaming of the SOME (Eps) rules, may use isatool
wenzelm@10003
  1752
fixsome to patch .thy and .ML sources automatically;
paulson@8967
  1753
wenzelm@10003
  1754
  select_equality  -> some_equality
wenzelm@10003
  1755
  select_eq_Ex     -> some_eq_ex
wenzelm@10003
  1756
  selectI2EX       -> someI2_ex
wenzelm@10003
  1757
  selectI2         -> someI2
wenzelm@10003
  1758
  selectI          -> someI
wenzelm@10003
  1759
  select1_equality -> some1_equality
wenzelm@10003
  1760
  Eps_sym_eq       -> some_sym_eq_trivial
wenzelm@10003
  1761
  Eps_eq           -> some_eq_trivial
wenzelm@10003
  1762
wenzelm@10003
  1763
* HOL: exhaust_tac on datatypes superceded by new generic case_tac;
wenzelm@10003
  1764
wenzelm@10003
  1765
* HOL: removed obsolete theorem binding expand_if (refer to split_if
wenzelm@10003
  1766
instead);
wenzelm@10003
  1767
wenzelm@10003
  1768
* HOL: the recursion equations generated by 'recdef' are now called
wenzelm@10003
  1769
f.simps instead of f.rules;
wenzelm@10003
  1770
wenzelm@10003
  1771
* HOL: qed_spec_mp now also handles bounded ALL as well;
wenzelm@10003
  1772
wenzelm@10003
  1773
* HOL: 0 is now overloaded, so the type constraint ":: nat" may
wenzelm@10003
  1774
sometimes be needed;
wenzelm@10003
  1775
wenzelm@10003
  1776
* HOL: the constant for "f``x" is now "image" rather than "op ``";
paulson@8014
  1777
paulson@10065
  1778
* HOL: the constant for "f-``x" is now "vimage" rather than "op -``";
paulson@10065
  1779
wenzelm@9330
  1780
* HOL: the disjoint sum is now "<+>" instead of "Plus"; the cartesian
wenzelm@9330
  1781
product is now "<*>" instead of "Times"; the lexicographic product is
wenzelm@9330
  1782
now "<*lex*>" instead of "**";
nipkow@8705
  1783
wenzelm@10003
  1784
* HOL: theory Sexp is now in HOL/Induct examples (it used to be part
wenzelm@10003
  1785
of main HOL, but was unused); better use HOL's datatype package;
paulson@9971
  1786
wenzelm@10137
  1787
* HOL: removed "symbols" syntax for constant "override" of theory Map;
wenzelm@10137
  1788
the old syntax may be recovered as follows:
wenzelm@10137
  1789
wenzelm@10137
  1790
  syntax (symbols)
wenzelm@10137
  1791
    override  :: "('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b)"
wenzelm@10137
  1792
      (infixl "\\<oplus>" 100)
wenzelm@10137
  1793
wenzelm@8848
  1794
* HOL/Real: "rabs" replaced by overloaded "abs" function;
wenzelm@8848
  1795
wenzelm@8887
  1796
* HOL/ML: even fewer consts are declared as global (see theories Ord,
wenzelm@8887
  1797
Lfp, Gfp, WF); this only affects ML packages that refer to const names
wenzelm@8887
  1798
internally;
wenzelm@8887
  1799
wenzelm@10003
  1800
* HOL and ZF: syntax for quotienting wrt an equivalence relation
wenzelm@10003
  1801
changed from A/r to A//r;
wenzelm@9908
  1802
wenzelm@10003
  1803
* ZF: new treatment of arithmetic (nat & int) may break some old
wenzelm@10003
  1804
proofs;
wenzelm@8921
  1805
wenzelm@10003
  1806
* Isar: renamed some attributes (RS -> THEN, simplify -> simplified,
wenzelm@10003
  1807
rulify -> rule_format, elimify -> elim_format, ...);
paulson@9542
  1808
wenzelm@9941
  1809
* Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed
wenzelm@9941
  1810
intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (in most cases, one
wenzelm@9937
  1811
should have to change intro!! to intro? only); replaced "delrule" by
wenzelm@9937
  1812
"rule del";
wenzelm@9437
  1813
wenzelm@9612
  1814
* Isar/HOL: renamed "intrs" to "intros" in inductive definitions;
wenzelm@9612
  1815
wenzelm@9437
  1816
* Provers: strengthened force_tac by using new first_best_tac;
oheimb@9402
  1817
wenzelm@10003
  1818
* LaTeX document preparation: several changes of isabelle.sty (see
wenzelm@10003
  1819
lib/texinputs);
wenzelm@8729
  1820
paulson@8014
  1821
wenzelm@8487
  1822
*** Document preparation ***
wenzelm@8358
  1823
wenzelm@9198
  1824
* formal comments (text blocks etc.) in new-style theories may now
wenzelm@9753
  1825
contain antiquotations of thm/prop/term/typ/text to be presented
wenzelm@9753
  1826
according to latex print mode; concrete syntax is like this:
wenzelm@9753
  1827
@{term[show_types] "f(x) = a + x"};
wenzelm@9198
  1828
wenzelm@8358
  1829
* isatool mkdir provides easy setup of Isabelle session directories,
wenzelm@8518
  1830
including proper document sources;
wenzelm@8358
  1831
wenzelm@8358
  1832
* generated LaTeX sources are now deleted after successful run
wenzelm@8358
  1833
(isatool document -c); may retain a copy somewhere else via -D option
wenzelm@8358
  1834
of isatool usedir;
wenzelm@8358
  1835
wenzelm@8566
  1836
* isatool usedir -D now lets isatool latex -o sty update the Isabelle
wenzelm@10003
  1837
style files, achieving self-contained LaTeX sources and simplifying
wenzelm@10003
  1838
LaTeX debugging;
wenzelm@8566
  1839
wenzelm@8518
  1840
* old-style theories now produce (crude) LaTeX output as well;
wenzelm@8358
  1841
wenzelm@9057
  1842
* browser info session directories are now self-contained (may be put
wenzelm@9437
  1843
on WWW server seperately); improved graphs of nested sessions; removed
wenzelm@9437
  1844
graph for 'all sessions';
wenzelm@9057
  1845
wenzelm@10003
  1846
* several improvements in isabelle style files; \isabellestyle{it}
wenzelm@10003
  1847
produces fake math mode output; \isamarkupheader is now \section by
wenzelm@10003
  1848
default; see lib/texinputs/isabelle.sty etc.;
wenzelm@9489
  1849
wenzelm@8358
  1850
wenzelm@8184
  1851
*** Isar ***
wenzelm@8184
  1852
wenzelm@10003
  1853
* Isar/Pure: local results and corresponding term bindings are now
wenzelm@10003
  1854
subject to Hindley-Milner polymorphism (similar to ML); this
wenzelm@10003
  1855
accommodates incremental type-inference very nicely;
wenzelm@8283
  1856
wenzelm@10003
  1857
* Isar/Pure: new derived language element 'obtain' supports
wenzelm@10003
  1858
generalized existence reasoning;
wenzelm@8621
  1859
wenzelm@10003
  1860
* Isar/Pure: new calculational elements 'moreover' and 'ultimately'
wenzelm@10003
  1861
support accumulation of results, without applying any rules yet;
wenzelm@10003
  1862
useful to collect intermediate results without explicit name
wenzelm@10003
  1863
references, and for use with transitivity rules with more than 2
wenzelm@10003
  1864
premises;
wenzelm@8184
  1865
wenzelm@10003
  1866
* Isar/Pure: scalable support for case-analysis type proofs: new
wenzelm@10003
  1867
'case' language element refers to local contexts symbolically, as
wenzelm@10003
  1868
produced by certain proof methods; internally, case names are attached
wenzelm@10003
  1869
to theorems as "tags";
wenzelm@8440
  1870
wenzelm@10003
  1871
* Isar/Pure: theory command 'hide' removes declarations from
wenzelm@9330
  1872
class/type/const name spaces;
wenzelm@9330
  1873
wenzelm@10003
  1874
* Isar/Pure: theory command 'defs' supports option "(overloaded)" to
wenzelm@9330
  1875
indicate potential overloading;
wenzelm@9330
  1876
wenzelm@10003
  1877
* Isar/Pure: changed syntax of local blocks from {{ }} to { };
wenzelm@8621
  1878
wenzelm@10003
  1879
* Isar/Pure: syntax of sorts made 'inner', i.e. have to write
wenzelm@10003
  1880
"{a,b,c}" instead of {a,b,c};
wenzelm@9011
  1881
wenzelm@10003
  1882
* Isar/Pure now provides its own version of intro/elim/dest
wenzelm@10003
  1883
attributes; useful for building new logics, but beware of confusion
wenzelm@10003
  1884
with the version in Provers/classical;
wenzelm@9612
  1885
wenzelm@10003
  1886
* Isar/Pure: the local context of (non-atomic) goals is provided via
wenzelm@10003
  1887
case name 'antecedent';
wenzelm@8440
  1888
wenzelm@10003
  1889
* Isar/Pure: removed obsolete 'transfer' attribute (transfer of thms
wenzelm@10003
  1890
to the current context is now done automatically);
wenzelm@9383
  1891
wenzelm@10003
  1892
* Isar/Pure: theory command 'method_setup' provides a simple interface
wenzelm@10003
  1893
for definining proof methods in ML;
wenzelm@9612
  1894
wenzelm@10003
  1895
* Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed
wenzelm@9941
  1896
intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (INCOMPATIBILITY, in
wenzelm@9941
  1897
most cases, one should have to change intro!! to intro? only);
wenzelm@9941
  1898
replaced "delrule" by "rule del";
wenzelm@8283
  1899
wenzelm@10003
  1900
* Isar/Provers: new 'hypsubst' method, plain 'subst' method and
wenzelm@10003
  1901
'symmetric' attribute (the latter supercedes [RS sym]);
wenzelm@10003
  1902
wenzelm@10003
  1903
* Isar/Provers: splitter support (via 'split' attribute and 'simp'
wenzelm@10003
  1904
method modifier); 'simp' method: 'only:' modifier removes loopers as
wenzelm@10003
  1905
well (including splits);
wenzelm@10003
  1906
wenzelm@10003
  1907
* Isar/Provers: Simplifier and Classical methods now support all kind
wenzelm@10003
  1908
of modifiers used in the past, including 'cong', 'iff', etc.
wenzelm@10003
  1909
wenzelm@10003
  1910
* Isar/Provers: added 'fastsimp' and 'clarsimp' methods (combination
wenzelm@10003
  1911
of Simplifier and Classical reasoner);
wenzelm@10003
  1912
wenzelm@10003
  1913
* Isar/HOL: new proof method 'cases' and improved version of 'induct'
wenzelm@10003
  1914
now support named cases; major packages (inductive, datatype, primrec,
wenzelm@10003
  1915
recdef) support case names and properly name parameters;
wenzelm@9612
  1916
wenzelm@10003
  1917
* Isar/HOL: new transitivity rules for substitution in inequalities --
wenzelm@10003
  1918
monotonicity conditions are extracted to be proven at end of
wenzelm@10003
  1919
calculations;
wenzelm@10003
  1920
wenzelm@10003
  1921
* Isar/HOL: removed 'case_split' thm binding, should use 'cases' proof
wenzelm@10003
  1922
method anyway;
wenzelm@10003
  1923
wenzelm@10003
  1924
* Isar/HOL: removed old expand_if = split_if; theorems if_splits =
wenzelm@10003
  1925
split_if split_if_asm; datatype package provides theorems foo.splits =
wenzelm@10003
  1926
foo.split foo.split_asm for each datatype;
wenzelm@10003
  1927
wenzelm@10003
  1928
* Isar/HOL: tuned inductive package, rename "intrs" to "intros"
wenzelm@10003
  1929
(potential INCOMPATIBILITY), emulation of mk_cases feature for proof
wenzelm@10003
  1930
scripts: new 'inductive_cases' command and 'ind_cases' method; (Note:
wenzelm@10003
  1931
use "(cases (simplified))" method in proper proof texts);
wenzelm@10003
  1932
wenzelm@10003
  1933
* Isar/HOL: added global 'arith_split' attribute for 'arith' method;
wenzelm@10003
  1934
wenzelm@10003
  1935
* Isar: names of theorems etc. may be natural numbers as well;
wenzelm@10003
  1936
wenzelm@10003
  1937
* Isar: 'pr' command: optional arguments for goals_limit and
wenzelm@9724
  1938
ProofContext.prems_limit; no longer prints theory contexts, but only
wenzelm@9724
  1939
proof states;
wenzelm@8487
  1940
wenzelm@10003
  1941
* Isar: diagnostic commands 'pr', 'thm', 'prop', 'term', 'typ' admit
wenzelm@8518
  1942
additional print modes to be specified; e.g. "pr(latex)" will print
wenzelm@8518
  1943
proof state according to the Isabelle LaTeX style;
wenzelm@8487
  1944
wenzelm@10003
  1945
* Isar: improved support for emulating tactic scripts, including proof
wenzelm@9612
  1946
methods 'rule_tac' etc., 'cut_tac', 'thin_tac', 'subgoal_tac',
wenzelm@9612
  1947
'rename_tac', 'rotate_tac', 'tactic', and 'case_tac' / 'induct_tac'
wenzelm@9612
  1948
(for HOL datatypes);
wenzelm@8534
  1949
wenzelm@10003
  1950
* Isar: simplified (more robust) goal selection of proof methods: 1st
wenzelm@10003
  1951
goal, all goals, or explicit goal specifier (tactic emulation); thus
wenzelm@10003
  1952
'proof method scripts' have to be in depth-first order;
wenzelm@8673
  1953
wenzelm@10003
  1954
* Isar: tuned 'let' syntax: replaced 'as' keyword by 'and';
wenzelm@8729
  1955
wenzelm@10003
  1956
* Isar: removed 'help' command, which hasn't been too helpful anyway;
wenzelm@10003
  1957
should instead use individual commands for printing items
wenzelm@10003
  1958
(print_commands, print_methods etc.);
wenzelm@9224
  1959
wenzelm@10003
  1960
* Isar: added 'nothing' --- the empty list of theorems;
wenzelm@9239
  1961
wenzelm@8184
  1962
paulson@8014
  1963
*** HOL ***
paulson@8014
  1964
wenzelm@10080
  1965
* HOL/MicroJava: formalization of a fragment of Java, together with a
wenzelm@10080
  1966
corresponding virtual machine and a specification of its bytecode
wenzelm@10080
  1967
verifier and a lightweight bytecode verifier, including proofs of
wenzelm@10080
  1968
type-safety; by Gerwin Klein, Tobias Nipkow, David von Oheimb, and
wenzelm@10080
  1969
Cornelia Pusch (see also the homepage of project Bali at
wenzelm@10080
  1970
http://isabelle.in.tum.de/Bali/);
wenzelm@10080
  1971
wenzelm@8518
  1972
* HOL/Algebra: new theory of rings and univariate polynomials, by
wenzelm@8518
  1973
Clemens Ballarin;
paulson@8014
  1974
wenzelm@10157
  1975
* HOL/NumberTheory: fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, Chinese
wenzelm@10003
  1976
Remainder Theorem, Fermat/Euler Theorem, Wilson's Theorem, by Thomas M
wenzelm@10003
  1977
Rasmussen;
wenzelm@8570
  1978
wenzelm@10157
  1979
* HOL/Lattice: fundamental concepts of lattice theory and order
wenzelm@10157
  1980
structures, including duals, properties of bounds versus algebraic
wenzelm@10157
  1981
laws, lattice operations versus set-theoretic ones, the Knaster-Tarski
wenzelm@10157
  1982
Theorem for complete lattices etc.; may also serve as a demonstration
wenzelm@10157
  1983
for abstract algebraic reasoning using axiomatic type classes, and
wenzelm@10157
  1984
mathematics-style proof in Isabelle/Isar; by Markus Wenzel;
wenzelm@10157
  1985
wenzelm@10003
  1986
* HOL/Prolog: a (bare-bones) implementation of Lambda-Prolog, by David
wenzelm@10003
  1987
von Oheimb;
paulson@9542
  1988
wenzelm@10164
  1989
* HOL/IMPP: extension of IMP with local variables and mutually
wenzelm@10164
  1990
recursive procedures, by David von Oheimb;
wenzelm@10164
  1991
wenzelm@10003
  1992
* HOL/Lambda: converted into new-style theory and document;
paulson@9542
  1993
wenzelm@10003
  1994
* HOL/ex/Multiquote: example of multiple nested quotations and
wenzelm@10003
  1995
anti-quotations -- basically a generalized version of de-Bruijn
wenzelm@10003
  1996
representation; very useful in avoiding lifting of operations;
wenzelm@8848
  1997
wenzelm@9612
  1998
* HOL/record: added general record equality rule to simpset; fixed
wenzelm@9612
  1999
select-update simplification procedure to handle extended records as
wenzelm@9612
  2000
well; admit "r" as field name;
paulson@9542
  2001
paulson@8967
  2002
* HOL: 0 is now overloaded over the new sort "zero", allowing its use with
paulson@8967
  2003
other numeric types and also as the identity of groups, rings, etc.;
paulson@8967
  2004
paulson@8967
  2005
* HOL: new axclass plus_ac0 for addition with the AC-laws and 0 as identity.
paulson@8967
  2006
Types nat and int belong to this axclass;
paulson@8967
  2007
wenzelm@10003
  2008
* HOL: greatly improved simplification involving numerals of type nat, int, real:
paulson@8788
  2009
   (i + #8 + j) = Suc k simplifies to  #7 + (i + j) = k
paulson@8832
  2010
   i*j + k + j*#3*i     simplifies to  #4*(i*j) + k
paulson@8832
  2011
  two terms #m*u and #n*u are replaced by #(m+n)*u
paulson@8832
  2012
    (where #m, #n and u can implicitly be 1; this is simproc combine_numerals)
paulson@8832
  2013
  and the term/formula #m*u+x ~~ #n*u+y simplifies simplifies to #(m-n)+x ~~ y
paulson@8832
  2014
    or x ~~ #(n-m)+y, where ~~ is one of = < <= or - (simproc cancel_numerals);
paulson@8736
  2015
wenzelm@10003
  2016
* HOL: meson_tac is available (previously in ex/meson.ML); it is a
wenzelm@10003
  2017
powerful prover for predicate logic but knows nothing of clasets; see
wenzelm@10003
  2018
ex/mesontest.ML and ex/mesontest2.ML for example applications;
paulson@9835
  2019
wenzelm@8848
  2020
* HOL: new version of "case_tac" subsumes both boolean case split and
wenzelm@8440
  2021
"exhaust_tac" on datatypes; INCOMPATIBILITY: exhaust_tac no longer
wenzelm@8518
  2022
exists, may define val exhaust_tac = case_tac for ad-hoc portability;
wenzelm@8440
  2023
wenzelm@8848
  2024
* HOL: simplification no longer dives into case-expressions: only the
wenzelm@10129
  2025
selector expression is simplified, but not the remaining arms; to
wenzelm@10129
  2026
enable full simplification of case-expressions for datatype t, you may
wenzelm@10129
  2027
remove t.weak_case_cong from the simpset, either globally (Delcongs
wenzelm@10129
  2028
[thm"t.weak_case_cong"];) or locally (delcongs [...]).
nipkow@8603
  2029
wenzelm@8848
  2030
* HOL/recdef: the recursion equations generated by 'recdef' for
wenzelm@8848
  2031
function 'f' are now called f.simps instead of f.rules; if all
wenzelm@8848
  2032
termination conditions are proved automatically, these simplification
wenzelm@8848
  2033
rules are added to the simpset, as in primrec; rules may be named
wenzelm@8848
  2034
individually as well, resulting in a separate list of theorems for
wenzelm@8848
  2035
each equation;
wenzelm@8848
  2036
wenzelm@9489
  2037
* HOL/While is a new theory that provides a while-combinator. It
wenzelm@9489
  2038
permits the definition of tail-recursive functions without the
wenzelm@9489
  2039
provision of a termination measure. The latter is necessary once the
wenzelm@9489
  2040
invariant proof rule for while is applied.
nipkow@9457
  2041
wenzelm@10003
  2042
* HOL: new (overloaded) notation for the set of elements below/above
wenzelm@10003
  2043
some element: {..u}, {..u(}, {l..}, {)l..}. See theory SetInterval.
nipkow@8925
  2044
wenzelm@8848
  2045
* HOL: theorems impI, allI, ballI bound as "strip";
wenzelm@8848
  2046
wenzelm@10003
  2047
* HOL: new tactic induct_thm_tac: thm -> string -> int -> tactic
nipkow@9746
  2048
induct_tac th "x1 ... xn" expects th to have a conclusion of the form
nipkow@9746
  2049
P v1 ... vn and abbreviates res_inst_tac [("v1","x1"),...,("vn","xn")] th;
nipkow@9746
  2050
wenzelm@10003
  2051
* HOL/Real: "rabs" replaced by overloaded "abs" function;
nipkow@9737
  2052
wenzelm@10003
  2053
* HOL: theory Sexp now in HOL/Induct examples (it used to be part of
wenzelm@10003
  2054
main HOL, but was unused);
nipkow@8626
  2055
wenzelm@10003
  2056
* HOL: fewer consts declared as global (e.g. have to refer to
wenzelm@10003
  2057
"Lfp.lfp" instead of "lfp" internally; affects ML packages only);
wenzelm@8887
  2058
wenzelm@10003
  2059
* HOL: tuned AST representation of nested pairs, avoiding bogus output
wenzelm@10003
  2060
in case of overlap with user translations (e.g. judgements over
wenzelm@10003
  2061
tuples); (note that the underlying logical represenation is still
wenzelm@10003
  2062
bogus);
wenzelm@9349
  2063
nipkow@8412
  2064
paulson@9542
  2065
*** ZF ***
paulson@9542
  2066
wenzelm@10003
  2067
* ZF: simplification automatically cancels common terms in arithmetic
wenzelm@10003
  2068
expressions over nat and int;
paulson@9542
  2069
wenzelm@10003
  2070
* ZF: new treatment of nat to minimize type-checking: all operators
wenzelm@10003
  2071
coerce their operands to a natural number using the function natify,
wenzelm@10003
  2072
making the algebraic laws unconditional;
paulson@9542
  2073
wenzelm@10003
  2074
* ZF: as above, for int: operators coerce their operands to an integer
wenzelm@10003
  2075
using the function intify;
paulson@9542
  2076
wenzelm@10003
  2077
* ZF: the integer library now contains many of the usual laws for the
wenzelm@10003
  2078
orderings, including $<=, and monotonicity laws for $+ and $*;
paulson@9542
  2079
wenzelm@10003
  2080
* ZF: new example ZF/ex/NatSum to demonstrate integer arithmetic
wenzelm@10003
  2081
simplification;
paulson@9388
  2082
wenzelm@10003
  2083
* FOL and ZF: AddIffs now available, giving theorems of the form P<->Q
wenzelm@10003
  2084
to the simplifier and classical reasoner simultaneously;
paulson@9388
  2085
paulson@9388
  2086
wenzelm@8358
  2087
*** General ***
wenzelm@8358
  2088
wenzelm@10003
  2089
* Provers: blast_tac now handles actual object-logic rules as
wenzelm@10003
  2090
assumptions; note that auto_tac uses blast_tac internally as well;
wenzelm@10003
  2091
wenzelm@10003
  2092
* Provers: new functions rulify/rulify_no_asm: thm -> thm for turning
wenzelm@10003
  2093
outer -->/All/Ball into ==>/!!; qed_spec_mp now uses rulify_no_asm;
wenzelm@10003
  2094
wenzelm@9941
  2095
* Provers: delrules now handles destruct rules as well (no longer need
wenzelm@9941
  2096
explicit make_elim);
wenzelm@9941
  2097
wenzelm@10003
  2098
* Provers: Blast_tac now warns of and ignores "weak elimination rules" e.g.
wenzelm@10003
  2099
  [| inj ?f;          ?f ?x = ?f ?y; ?x = ?y ==> ?W |] ==> ?W
wenzelm@10003
  2100
use instead the strong form,
wenzelm@10003
  2101
  [| inj ?f; ~ ?W ==> ?f ?x = ?f ?y; ?x = ?y ==> ?W |] ==> ?W
wenzelm@10003
  2102
in HOL, FOL and ZF the function cla_make_elim will create such rules
wenzelm@10003
  2103
from destruct-rules;
wenzelm@9489
  2104
wenzelm@9709
  2105
* Provers: Simplifier.easy_setup provides a fast path to basic
wenzelm@9709
  2106
Simplifier setup for new object-logics;
wenzelm@9709
  2107
wenzelm@9709
  2108
* Pure: AST translation rules no longer require constant head on LHS;
wenzelm@9349
  2109
wenzelm@9709
  2110
* Pure: improved name spaces: ambiguous output is qualified; support
wenzelm@9709
  2111
for hiding of names;
wenzelm@8729
  2112
wenzelm@10003
  2113
* system: smart setup of canonical ML_HOME, ISABELLE_INTERFACE, and
wenzelm@10003
  2114
XSYMBOL_HOME; no longer need to do manual configuration in most
wenzelm@10003
  2115
situations;
wenzelm@10003
  2116
wenzelm@9709
  2117
* system: compression of ML heaps images may now be controlled via -c
wenzelm@9709
  2118
option of isabelle and isatool usedir (currently only observed by
wenzelm@9709
  2119
Poly/ML);
wenzelm@8358
  2120
wenzelm@9981
  2121
* system: isatool installfonts may handle X-Symbol fonts as well (very
wenzelm@9981
  2122
useful for remote X11);
wenzelm@9981
  2123
wenzelm@9709
  2124
* system: provide TAGS file for Isabelle sources;
wenzelm@9052
  2125
wenzelm@9288
  2126
* ML: infix 'OF' is a version of 'MRS' with more appropriate argument
wenzelm@9288
  2127
order;
wenzelm@9288
  2128
wenzelm@8994
  2129
* ML: renamed flags Syntax.trace_norm_ast to Syntax.trace_ast; global
wenzelm@8994
  2130
timing flag supersedes proof_timing and Toplevel.trace;
wenzelm@8994
  2131
wenzelm@10003
  2132
* ML: new combinators |>> and |>>> for incremental transformations
wenzelm@10003
  2133
with secondary results (e.g. certain theory extensions):
wenzelm@10003
  2134
wenzelm@9330
  2135
* ML: PureThy.add_defs gets additional argument to indicate potential
wenzelm@9330
  2136
overloading (usually false);
wenzelm@9330
  2137
wenzelm@10003
  2138
* ML: PureThy.add_thms/add_axioms/add_defs now return theorems as
wenzelm@10003
  2139
results;
wenzelm@8440
  2140
wenzelm@8358
  2141
wenzelm@8015
  2142
wenzelm@7986
  2143
New in Isabelle99 (October 1999)
wenzelm@7986
  2144
--------------------------------
oheimb@4649
  2145
paulson@5931
  2146
*** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***
paulson@5931
  2147
paulson@6922
  2148
* HOL: The THEN and ELSE parts of conditional expressions (if P then x else y)
paulson@6922
  2149
are no longer simplified.  (This allows the simplifier to unfold recursive
paulson@6922
  2150
functional programs.)  To restore the old behaviour, declare
wenzelm@7215
  2151
wenzelm@7215
  2152
    Delcongs [if_weak_cong];
paulson@6922
  2153
wenzelm@6269
  2154
* HOL: Removed the obsolete syntax "Compl A"; use -A for set
wenzelm@6269
  2155
complement;
paulson@5931
  2156
wenzelm@6269
  2157
* HOL: the predicate "inj" is now defined by translation to "inj_on";
paulson@6174
  2158
berghofe@7847
  2159
* HOL/datatype: mutual_induct_tac no longer exists --
berghofe@7847
  2160
  use induct_tac "x_1 ... x_n" instead of mutual_induct_tac ["x_1", ..., "x_n"]
berghofe@7847
  2161
wenzelm@6386
  2162
* HOL/typedef: fixed type inference for representing set; type
wenzelm@6386
  2163
arguments now have to occur explicitly on the rhs as type constraints;
wenzelm@6386
  2164
wenzelm@6269
  2165
* ZF: The con_defs part of an inductive definition may no longer refer
wenzelm@6269
  2166
to constants declared in the same theory;
nipkow@6057
  2167
wenzelm@6269
  2168
* HOL, ZF: the function mk_cases, generated by the inductive
wenzelm@6269
  2169
definition package, has lost an argument.  To simplify its result, it
wenzelm@6269
  2170
uses the default simpset instead of a supplied list of theorems.
paulson@6141
  2171
wenzelm@7215
  2172
* HOL/List: the constructors of type list are now Nil and Cons;
wenzelm@7215
  2173
nipkow@7619
  2174
* Simplifier: the type of the infix ML functions
wenzelm@8729
  2175
        setSSolver addSSolver setSolver addSolver
nipkow@7619
  2176
is now  simpset * solver -> simpset  where `solver' is a new abstract type
nipkow@7619
  2177
for packaging solvers. A solver is created via
wenzelm@8729
  2178
        mk_solver: string -> (thm list -> int -> tactic) -> solver
nipkow@7619
  2179
where the string argument is only a comment.
nipkow@6057
  2180
wenzelm@7647
  2181
paulson@6069
  2182
*** Proof tools ***
paulson@6069
  2183
wenzelm@6343
  2184
* Provers/Arith/fast_lin_arith.ML contains a functor for creating a
wenzelm@6343
  2185
decision procedure for linear arithmetic. Currently it is used for
wenzelm@7593
  2186
types `nat', `int', and `real' in HOL (see below); it can, should and
wenzelm@7593
  2187
will be instantiated for other types and logics as well.
paulson@6069
  2188
nipkow@7324
  2189
* The simplifier now accepts rewrite rules with flexible heads, eg
nipkow@7324
  2190
     hom ?f ==> ?f(?x+?y) = ?f ?x + ?f ?y
nipkow@7324
  2191
  They are applied like any rule with a non-pattern lhs, i.e. by first-order
nipkow@7324
  2192
  matching.
paulson@6069
  2193
wenzelm@7593
  2194
paulson@6014
  2195
*** General ***
paulson@6014
  2196
wenzelm@7986
  2197
* New Isabelle/Isar subsystem provides an alternative to traditional
wenzelm@7215
  2198
tactical theorem proving; together with the ProofGeneral/isar user
wenzelm@7215
  2199
interface it offers an interactive environment for developing human
wenzelm@7215
  2200
readable proof documents (Isar == Intelligible semi-automated
wenzelm@7886
  2201
reasoning); for further information see isatool doc isar-ref,
wenzelm@7986
  2202
src/HOL/Isar_examples and http://isabelle.in.tum.de/Isar/
wenzelm@7886
  2203
wenzelm@9612
  2204
* improved and simplified presentation of theories: better HTML markup
wenzelm@9612
  2205
(including colors), graph views in several sizes; isatool usedir now
wenzelm@9612
  2206
provides a proper interface for user theories (via -P option); actual
wenzelm@9612
  2207
document preparation based on (PDF)LaTeX is available as well (for
wenzelm@9612
  2208
new-style theories only); see isatool doc system for more information;
wenzelm@7215
  2209
wenzelm@7252
  2210
* native support for Proof General, both for classic Isabelle and
wenzelm@7986
  2211
Isabelle/Isar;
wenzelm@7215
  2212
wenzelm@7791
  2213
* ML function thm_deps visualizes dependencies of theorems and lemmas,
wenzelm@7791
  2214
using the graph browser tool;
wenzelm@7791
  2215
wenzelm@6751
  2216
* Isabelle manuals now also available as PDF;
wenzelm@6751
  2217
wenzelm@6449
  2218
* theory loader rewritten from scratch (may not be fully
wenzelm@6449
  2219
bug-compatible); old loadpath variable has been replaced by show_path,
wenzelm@6671
  2220
add_path, del_path, reset_path functions; new operations such as
wenzelm@7593
  2221
update_thy, touch_thy, remove_thy, use/update_thy_only (see also
wenzelm@7593
  2222
isatool doc ref);
wenzelm@6449
  2223
wenzelm@7215
  2224
* improved isatool install: option -k creates KDE application icon,
wenzelm@7215
  2225
option -p DIR installs standalone binaries;
wenzelm@7215
  2226
wenzelm@7215
  2227
* added ML_PLATFORM setting (useful for cross-platform installations);
wenzelm@7215
  2228
more robust handling of platform specific ML images for SML/NJ;
wenzelm@7215
  2229
wenzelm@7886
  2230
* the settings environment is now statically scoped, i.e. it is never
wenzelm@7986
  2231
created again in sub-processes invoked from isabelle, isatool, or
wenzelm@7886
  2232
Isabelle;
wenzelm@7886
  2233
wenzelm@7215
  2234
* path element specification '~~' refers to '$ISABELLE_HOME';
wenzelm@7215
  2235
wenzelm@6343
  2236
* in locales, the "assumes" and "defines" parts may be omitted if
wenzelm@6343
  2237
empty;
wenzelm@5973
  2238
wenzelm@6269
  2239
* new print_mode "xsymbols" for extended symbol support (e.g. genuine
wenzelm@6269
  2240
long arrows);
wenzelm@6259
  2241
wenzelm@6343
  2242
* new print_mode "HTML";
wenzelm@6343
  2243
wenzelm@6343
  2244
* new flag show_tags controls display of tags of theorems (which are
wenzelm@6343
  2245
basically just comments that may be attached by some tools);
wenzelm@6343
  2246
wenzelm@6461
  2247
* Isamode 2.6 requires patch to accomodate change of Isabelle font
wenzelm@6461
  2248
mode and goal output format:
wenzelm@6461
  2249
wenzelm@6461
  2250
diff -r Isamode-2.6/elisp/isa-load.el Isamode/elisp/isa-load.el
wenzelm@6461
  2251
244c244
wenzelm@6461
  2252
<       (list (isa-getenv "ISABELLE") "-msymbols" logic-name)
wenzelm@6461
  2253
---
wenzelm@6533
  2254
>       (list (isa-getenv "ISABELLE") "-misabelle_font" "-msymbols" logic-name)
wenzelm@6461
  2255
diff -r Isabelle-2.6/elisp/isa-proofstate.el Isamode/elisp/isa-proofstate.el
wenzelm@6461
  2256
181c181
wenzelm@6461
  2257
< (defconst proofstate-proofstart-regexp "^Level [0-9]+$"
wenzelm@6461
  2258
---
wenzelm@6461
  2259
> (defconst proofstate-proofstart-regexp "^Level [0-9]+"
wenzelm@6461
  2260
wenzelm@7450
  2261
* function bind_thms stores lists of theorems (cf. bind_thm);
wenzelm@7450
  2262
wenzelm@7593
  2263
* new shorthand tactics ftac, eatac, datac, fatac;
wenzelm@7593
  2264
wenzelm@7593
  2265
* qed (and friends) now accept "" as result name; in that case the
wenzelm@7986
  2266
theorem is not stored, but proper checks and presentation of the
wenzelm@7986
  2267
result still apply;
wenzelm@7593
  2268
wenzelm@7805
  2269
* theorem database now also indexes constants "Trueprop", "all",
wenzelm@7805
  2270
"==>", "=="; thus thms_containing, findI etc. may retrieve more rules;
wenzelm@7805
  2271
oheimb@6028
  2272
nipkow@6057
  2273
*** HOL ***
nipkow@6057
  2274
wenzelm@7215
  2275
** HOL arithmetic **
wenzelm@7215
  2276
wenzelm@6343
  2277
* There are now decision procedures for linear arithmetic over nat and
wenzelm@6343
  2278
int:
nipkow@6131
  2279
wenzelm@6343
  2280
1. arith_tac copes with arbitrary formulae involving `=', `<', `<=',
wenzelm@6343
  2281
`+', `-', `Suc', `min', `max' and numerical constants; other subterms
wenzelm@6343
  2282
are treated as atomic; subformulae not involving type `nat' or `int'
wenzelm@6343
  2283
are ignored; quantified subformulae are ignored unless they are
wenzelm@6343
  2284
positive universal or negative existential. The tactic has to be
wenzelm@6343
  2285
invoked by hand and can be a little bit slow. In particular, the
wenzelm@6343
  2286
running time is exponential in the number of occurrences of `min' and
wenzelm@6343
  2287
`max', and `-' on `nat'.
nipkow@6131
  2288
wenzelm@6343
  2289
2. fast_arith_tac is a cut-down version of arith_tac: it only takes
wenzelm@6343
  2290
(negated) (in)equalities among the premises and the conclusion into
wenzelm@6343
  2291
account (i.e. no compound formulae) and does not know about `min' and
wenzelm@6343
  2292
`max', and `-' on `nat'. It is fast and is used automatically by the
wenzelm@6343
  2293
simplifier.
nipkow@6131
  2294
wenzelm@6343
  2295
NB: At the moment, these decision procedures do not cope with mixed
wenzelm@6343
  2296
nat/int formulae where the two parts interact, such as `m < n ==>
wenzelm@6343
  2297
int(m) < int(n)'.
oheimb@6028
  2298
wenzelm@7215
  2299
* HOL/Numeral provides a generic theory of numerals (encoded
wenzelm@7313
  2300
efficiently as bit strings); setup for types nat/int/real is in place;
wenzelm@7215
  2301
INCOMPATIBILITY: since numeral syntax is now polymorphic, rather than
wenzelm@7215
  2302
int, existing theories and proof scripts may require a few additional
wenzelm@7215
  2303
type constraints;
wenzelm@7215
  2304
wenzelm@7215
  2305
* integer division and remainder can now be performed on constant
wenzelm@7215
  2306
arguments;
paulson@7157
  2307
wenzelm@7215
  2308
* many properties of integer multiplication, division and remainder
wenzelm@7215
  2309
are now available;
paulson@6922
  2310
paulson@7287
  2311
* An interface to the Stanford Validity Checker (SVC) is available through the
paulson@7287
  2312
tactic svc_tac.  Propositional tautologies and theorems of linear arithmetic
paulson@7287
  2313
are proved automatically.  SVC must be installed separately, and its results
paulson@7287
  2314
must be TAKEN ON TRUST (Isabelle does not check the proofs, but tags any
paulson@7287
  2315
invocation of the underlying oracle).  For SVC see
paulson@7444
  2316
  http://verify.stanford.edu/SVC
paulson@6922
  2317
wenzelm@7125
  2318
* IsaMakefile: the HOL-Real target now builds an actual image;
wenzelm@7125
  2319
wenzelm@7215
  2320
wenzelm@7215
  2321
** HOL misc **
wenzelm@7215
  2322
wenzelm@7595
  2323
* HOL/Real/HahnBanach: the Hahn-Banach theorem for real vector spaces
wenzelm@7595
  2324
(in Isabelle/Isar) -- by Gertrud Bauer;
wenzelm@7595
  2325
wenzelm@7691
  2326
* HOL/BCV: generic model of bytecode verification, i.e. data-flow
wenzelm@7691
  2327
analysis for assembly languages with subtypes;
wenzelm@7691
  2328
wenzelm@6278
  2329
* HOL/TLA (Lamport's Temporal Logic of Actions): major reorganization
wenzelm@6278
  2330
-- avoids syntactic ambiguities and treats state, transition, and
wenzelm@6278
  2331
temporal levels more uniformly; introduces INCOMPATIBILITIES due to
wenzelm@6278
  2332
changed syntax and (many) tactics;
wenzelm@6278
  2333
wenzelm@7791
  2334
* HOL/inductive: Now also handles more general introduction rules such
wenzelm@7791
  2335
  as "ALL y. (y, x) : r --> y : acc r ==> x : acc r"; monotonicity
wenzelm@7791
  2336
  theorems are now maintained within the theory (maintained via the
wenzelm@7791
  2337
  "mono" attribute);
berghofe@7780
  2338
wenzelm@7238
  2339
* HOL/datatype: Now also handles arbitrarily branching datatypes
wenzelm@7238
  2340
  (using function types) such as
wenzelm@7238
  2341
wenzelm@7238
  2342
  datatype 'a tree = Atom 'a | Branch "nat => 'a tree"
berghofe@7047
  2343
wenzelm@7326
  2344
* HOL/record: record_simproc (part of the default simpset) takes care
wenzelm@7326
  2345
of selectors applied to updated records; record_split_tac is no longer
wenzelm@7327
  2346
part of the default claset; update_defs may now be removed from the
wenzelm@7327
  2347
simpset in many cases; COMPATIBILITY: old behavior achieved by
wenzelm@7326
  2348
wenzelm@7326
  2349
  claset_ref () := claset() addSWrapper record_split_wrapper;
wenzelm@7326
  2350
  Delsimprocs [record_simproc]
wenzelm@7326
  2351
wenzelm@6386
  2352
* HOL/typedef: fixed type inference for representing set; type
wenzelm@6386
  2353
arguments now have to occur explicitly on the rhs as type constraints;
wenzelm@6386
  2354
paulson@7287
  2355
* HOL/recdef (TFL): 'congs' syntax now expects comma separated list of theorem
paulson@7287
  2356
names rather than an ML expression;
paulson@7287
  2357
paulson@7287
  2358
* HOL/defer_recdef (TFL): like recdef but the well-founded relation can be
paulson@7287
  2359
supplied later.  Program schemes can be defined, such as
paulson@7287
  2360
    "While B C s = (if B s then While B C (C s) else s)"
paulson@7287
  2361
where the well-founded relation can be chosen after B and C have been given.
wenzelm@6563
  2362
wenzelm@7215
  2363
* HOL/List: the constructors of type list are now Nil and Cons;
wenzelm@7215
  2364
INCOMPATIBILITY: while [] and infix # syntax is still there, of
wenzelm@7215
  2365
course, ML tools referring to List.list.op # etc. have to be adapted;
wenzelm@7215
  2366
wenzelm@7238
  2367
* HOL_quantifiers flag superseded by "HOL" print mode, which is
wenzelm@7238
  2368
disabled by default; run isabelle with option -m HOL to get back to
wenzelm@7238
  2369
the original Gordon/HOL-style output;
wenzelm@7238
  2370
wenzelm@7238
  2371
* HOL/Ord.thy: new bounded quantifier syntax (input only): ALL x<y. P,
wenzelm@7238
  2372
ALL x<=y. P, EX x<y. P, EX x<=y. P;
wenzelm@7238
  2373
wenzelm@7238
  2374
* HOL basic syntax simplified (more orthogonal): all variants of
wenzelm@7238
  2375
All/Ex now support plain / symbolic / HOL notation; plain syntax for
wenzelm@7238
  2376
Eps operator is provided as well: "SOME x. P[x]";
wenzelm@7238
  2377
berghofe@7320
  2378
* HOL/Sum.thy: sum_case has been moved to HOL/Datatype;
wenzelm@7261
  2379
wenzelm@7280
  2380
* HOL/Univ.thy: infix syntax <*>, <+>, <**>, <+> eliminated and made
wenzelm@7280
  2381
thus available for user theories;
wenzelm@7280
  2382
wenzelm@7300
  2383
* HOLCF/IOA/Sequents: renamed 'Cons' to 'Consq' to avoid clash with
wenzelm@7300
  2384
HOL/List; hardly an INCOMPATIBILITY since '>>' syntax is used all the
wenzelm@7300
  2385
time;
wenzelm@7300
  2386
wenzelm@7986
  2387
* HOL: new tactic smp_tac: int -> int -> tactic, which applies spec
wenzelm@7986
  2388
several times and then mp;
oheimb@7492
  2389
wenzelm@7215
  2390
paulson@7113
  2391
*** LK ***
paulson@7113
  2392
wenzelm@7215
  2393
* the notation <<...>> is now available as a notation for sequences of
wenzelm@7215
  2394
formulas;
paulson@7113
  2395
paulson@7113
  2396
* the simplifier is now installed
paulson@7113
  2397
wenzelm@8729
  2398
* the axiom system has been generalized (thanks to Soren Heilmann)
paulson@7113
  2399
paulson@7113
  2400
* the classical reasoner now has a default rule database
paulson@7113
  2401
paulson@7113
  2402
paulson@6064
  2403
*** ZF ***
paulson@6064
  2404
paulson@6064
  2405
* new primrec section allows primitive recursive functions to be given
wenzelm@6269
  2406
directly (as in HOL) over datatypes and the natural numbers;
paulson@6064
  2407
wenzelm@6269
  2408
* new tactics induct_tac and exhaust_tac for induction (or case
wenzelm@6269
  2409
analysis) over datatypes and the natural numbers;
paulson@6064
  2410
paulson@6064
  2411
* the datatype declaration of type T now defines the recursor T_rec;
paulson@6064
  2412
paulson@6141
  2413
* simplification automatically does freeness reasoning for datatype
wenzelm@6269
  2414
constructors;
paulson@6141
  2415
wenzelm@6269
  2416
* automatic type-inference, with AddTCs command to insert new
wenzelm@6269
  2417
type-checking rules;
paulson@6155
  2418
wenzelm@6269
  2419
* datatype introduction rules are now added as Safe Introduction rules
wenzelm@6269
  2420
to the claset;
paulson@6155
  2421
wenzelm@6269
  2422
* the syntax "if P then x else y" is now available in addition to
wenzelm@6269
  2423
if(P,x,y);
wenzelm@6269
  2424
paulson@6069
  2425
wenzelm@6343
  2426
*** Internal programming interfaces ***
wenzelm@6343
  2427
wenzelm@7919
  2428
* tuned simplifier trace output; new flag debug_simp;
wenzelm@7919
  2429
wenzelm@7420
  2430
* structures Vartab / Termtab (instances of TableFun) offer efficient
wenzelm@7420
  2431
tables indexed by indexname_ord / term_ord (compatible with aconv);
wenzelm@7420
  2432
wenzelm@6386
  2433
* AxClass.axclass_tac lost the theory argument;
wenzelm@6386
  2434
wenzelm@6343
  2435
* tuned current_goals_markers semantics: begin / end goal avoids
wenzelm@6343
  2436
printing empty lines;
wenzelm@6343
  2437
wenzelm@6343
  2438
* removed prs and prs_fn hook, which was broken because it did not
wenzelm@6343
  2439
include \n in its semantics, forcing writeln to add one
wenzelm@6343
  2440
uncoditionally; replaced prs_fn by writeln_fn; consider std_output:
wenzelm@6343
  2441
string -> unit if you really want to output text without newline;
wenzelm@6343
  2442
wenzelm@6343
  2443
* Symbol.output subject to print mode; INCOMPATIBILITY: defaults to
wenzelm@6343
  2444
plain output, interface builders may have to enable 'isabelle_font'
wenzelm@6343
  2445
mode to get Isabelle font glyphs as before;
wenzelm@6343
  2446
wenzelm@6343
  2447
* refined token_translation interface; INCOMPATIBILITY: output length
wenzelm@6343
  2448
now of type real instead of int;
wenzelm@6343
  2449
wenzelm@7196
  2450
* theory loader actions may be traced via new ThyInfo.add_hook
wenzelm@7196
  2451
interface (see src/Pure/Thy/thy_info.ML); example application: keep
wenzelm@7196
  2452
your own database of information attached to *whole* theories -- as
wenzelm@7196
  2453
opposed to intra-theory data slots offered via TheoryDataFun;
wenzelm@7196
  2454
wenzelm@7647
  2455
* proper handling of dangling sort hypotheses (at last!);
wenzelm@7647
  2456
Thm.strip_shyps and Drule.strip_shyps_warning take care of removing
wenzelm@7647
  2457
extra sort hypotheses that can be witnessed from the type signature;
wenzelm@7986
  2458
the force_strip_shyps flag is gone, any remaining shyps are simply
wenzelm@7986
  2459
left in the theorem (with a warning issued by strip_shyps_warning);
wenzelm@7647
  2460
wenzelm@6343
  2461
paulson@6064
  2462
wenzelm@5781
  2463
New in Isabelle98-1 (October 1998)
wenzelm@5781
  2464
----------------------------------
wenzelm@5781
  2465
wenzelm@5127
  2466
*** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***
wenzelm@4842
  2467
wenzelm@5726
  2468
* several changes of automated proof tools;
wenzelm@5373
  2469
wenzelm@5726
  2470
* HOL: major changes to the inductive and datatype packages, including
wenzelm@5726
  2471
some minor incompatibilities of theory syntax;
berghofe@5214
  2472
wenzelm@5726
  2473
* HOL: renamed r^-1 to 'converse' from 'inverse'; 'inj_onto' is now
wenzelm@5217
  2474
called `inj_on';
paulson@5160
  2475
nipkow@5275
  2476
* HOL: removed duplicate thms in Arith:
nipkow@5275
  2477
  less_imp_add_less  should be replaced by  trans_less_add1
nipkow@5275
  2478
  le_imp_add_le      should be replaced by  trans_le_add1
paulson@5160
  2479
wenzelm@5726
  2480
* HOL: unary minus is now overloaded (new type constraints may be
wenzelm@5726
  2481
required);
paulson@5490
  2482
wenzelm@5726
  2483
* HOL and ZF: unary minus for integers is now #- instead of #~.  In
wenzelm@5726
  2484
ZF, expressions such as n#-1 must be changed to n#- 1, since #-1 is
wenzelm@5726
  2485
now taken as an integer constant.
paulson@5541
  2486
wenzelm@5726
  2487
* Pure: ML function 'theory_of' renamed to 'theory';
wenzelm@5397
  2488
wenzelm@5363
  2489
wenzelm@5127
  2490
*** Proof tools ***
nipkow@4880
  2491
nipkow@5657
  2492
* Simplifier:
nipkow@5657
  2493
  1. Asm_full_simp_tac is now more aggressive.
nipkow@5657
  2494
     1. It will sometimes reorient premises if that increases their power to
nipkow@5657
  2495
        simplify.
nipkow@5657
  2496
     2. It does no longer proceed strictly from left to right but may also
nipkow@5657
  2497
        rotate premises to achieve further simplification.
nipkow@5657
  2498
     For compatibility reasons there is now Asm_lr_simp_tac which is like the
nipkow@5657
  2499
     old Asm_full_simp_tac in that it does not rotate premises.
nipkow@5657
  2500
  2. The simplifier now knows a little bit about nat-arithmetic.
nipkow@4880
  2501
wenzelm@5127
  2502
* Classical reasoner: wrapper mechanism for the classical reasoner now
wenzelm@5127
  2503
allows for selected deletion of wrappers, by introduction of names for
wenzelm@5127
  2504
wrapper functionals.  This implies that addbefore, addSbefore,
wenzelm@5127
  2505
addaltern, and addSaltern now take a pair (name, tactic) as argument,
wenzelm@5127
  2506
and that adding two tactics with the same name overwrites the first
wenzelm@5127
  2507
one (emitting a warning).
oheimb@4824
  2508
  type wrapper = (int -> tactic) -> (int -> tactic)
oheimb@4649
  2509
  setWrapper, setSWrapper, compWrapper and compSWrapper are replaced by
oheimb@4824
  2510
  addWrapper, addSWrapper: claset * (string * wrapper) -> claset
oheimb@4824
  2511
  delWrapper, delSWrapper: claset *  string            -> claset
oheimb@4649
  2512
  getWrapper is renamed to appWrappers, getSWrapper to appSWrappers;
oheimb@4649
  2513
wenzelm@5705
  2514
* Classical reasoner: addbefore/addSbefore now have APPEND/ORELSE
wenzelm@5726
  2515
semantics; addbefore now affects only the unsafe part of step_tac
wenzelm@5726
  2516
etc.; this affects addss/auto_tac/force_tac, so EXISTING PROOFS MAY
wenzelm@5726
  2517
FAIL, but proofs should be fixable easily, e.g. by replacing Auto_tac
wenzelm@5726
  2518
by Force_tac;
oheimb@5524
  2519
wenzelm@5726
  2520
* Classical reasoner: setwrapper to setWrapper and compwrapper to
wenzelm@5726
  2521
compWrapper; added safe wrapper (and access functions for it);
oheimb@5524
  2522
wenzelm@5127
  2523
* HOL/split_all_tac is now much faster and fails if there is nothing
wenzelm@5726
  2524
to split.  Some EXISTING PROOFS MAY REQUIRE ADAPTION because the order
wenzelm@5726
  2525
and the names of the automatically generated variables have changed.
wenzelm@5726
  2526
split_all_tac has moved within claset() from unsafe wrappers to safe
wenzelm@5726
  2527
wrappers, which means that !!-bound variables are split much more
wenzelm@5726
  2528
aggressively, and safe_tac and clarify_tac now split such variables.
wenzelm@5726
  2529
If this splitting is not appropriate, use delSWrapper "split_all_tac".
wenzelm@5726
  2530
Note: the same holds for record_split_tac, which does the job of
wenzelm@5726
  2531
split_all_tac for record fields.
wenzelm@5127
  2532
wenzelm@5726
  2533
* HOL/Simplifier: Rewrite rules for case distinctions can now be added
wenzelm@5726
  2534
permanently to the default simpset using Addsplits just like
wenzelm@5726
  2535
Addsimps. They can be removed via Delsplits just like
wenzelm@5726
  2536
Delsimps. Lower-case versions are also available.
wenzelm@5127
  2537
wenzelm@5726
  2538
* HOL/Simplifier: The rule split_if is now part of the default
wenzelm@5726
  2539
simpset. This means that the simplifier will eliminate all occurrences
wenzelm@5726
  2540
of if-then-else in the conclusion of a goal. To prevent this, you can
wenzelm@5726
  2541
either remove split_if completely from the default simpset by
wenzelm@5726
  2542
`Delsplits [split_if]' or remove it in a specific call of the
wenzelm@5726
  2543
simplifier using `... delsplits [split_if]'.  You can also add/delete
wenzelm@5726
  2544
other case splitting rules to/from the default simpset: every datatype
wenzelm@5726
  2545
generates suitable rules `split_t_case' and `split_t_case_asm' (where
wenzelm@5726
  2546
t is the name of the datatype).
wenzelm@5127
  2547
wenzelm@5726
  2548
* Classical reasoner / Simplifier combination: new force_tac (and
wenzelm@5127
  2549
derivatives Force_tac, force) combines rewriting and classical
wenzelm@5127
  2550
reasoning (and whatever other tools) similarly to auto_tac, but is
wenzelm@5726
  2551
aimed to solve the given subgoal completely.
wenzelm@5127
  2552
wenzelm@5127
  2553
wenzelm@5127
  2554
*** General ***
wenzelm@5127
  2555
wenzelm@5217
  2556
* new top-level commands `Goal' and `Goalw' that improve upon `goal'
wenzelm@5127
  2557
and `goalw': the theory is no longer needed as an explicit argument -
wenzelm@5127
  2558
the current theory context is used; assumptions are no longer returned
wenzelm@5127
  2559
at the ML-level unless one of them starts with ==> or !!; it is
wenzelm@5217
  2560
recommended to convert to these new commands using isatool fixgoal
wenzelm@5217
  2561
(backup your sources first!);
wenzelm@4842
  2562
wenzelm@5217
  2563
* new top-level commands 'thm' and 'thms' for retrieving theorems from
wenzelm@5207
  2564
the current theory context, and 'theory' to lookup stored theories;
paulson@4806
  2565
paulson@5722
  2566
* new theory section 'locale' for declaring constants, assumptions and
paulson@5722
  2567
definitions that have local scope;
paulson@5722
  2568
wenzelm@5127
  2569
* new theory section 'nonterminals' for purely syntactic types;
wenzelm@4858
  2570
wenzelm@5127
  2571
* new theory section 'setup' for generic ML setup functions
wenzelm@5127
  2572
(e.g. package initialization);
wenzelm@4869
  2573
wenzelm@5131
  2574
* the distribution now includes Isabelle icons: see
wenzelm@5131
  2575
lib/logo/isabelle-{small,tiny}.xpm;
wenzelm@5131
  2576
wenzelm@5363
  2577
* isatool install - install binaries with absolute references to
wenzelm@5363
  2578
ISABELLE_HOME/bin;