src/Pure/library.ML
author wenzelm
Wed Aug 13 20:57:20 2008 +0200 (2008-08-13)
changeset 27850 49503146b853
parent 26449 283107142592
child 28022 2cc19d1d4a42
permissions -rw-r--r--
removed obsolete untabify (superceded by SymbolPos.tabify_content);
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(*  Title:      Pure/library.ML
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    ID:         $Id$
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    Author:     Lawrence C Paulson, Cambridge University Computer Laboratory
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    Author:     Markus Wenzel, TU Muenchen
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Basic library: functions, options, pairs, booleans, lists, integers,
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strings, lists as sets, orders, current directory, misc.
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See also General/basics.ML for the most fundamental concepts.
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*)
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infix 1 |>>>
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infix 2 ?
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infix 3 o oo ooo oooo
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infix 4 ~~ upto downto
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infix orf andf \ \\ mem mem_int mem_string union union_int
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  union_string inter inter_int inter_string subset subset_int subset_string
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signature BASIC_LIBRARY =
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sig
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  (*functions*)
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  val undefined: 'a -> 'b
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  val I: 'a -> 'a
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  val K: 'a -> 'b -> 'a
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  val curry: ('a * 'b -> 'c) -> 'a -> 'b -> 'c
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  val uncurry: ('a -> 'b -> 'c) -> 'a * 'b -> 'c
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  val |>>> : ('a * 'c) * ('a -> 'b * 'd) -> 'b * ('c * 'd)
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  val ? : bool * ('a -> 'a) -> 'a -> 'a
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  val oo: ('a -> 'b) * ('c -> 'd -> 'a) -> 'c -> 'd -> 'b
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  val ooo: ('a -> 'b) * ('c -> 'd -> 'e -> 'a) -> 'c -> 'd -> 'e -> 'b
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  val oooo: ('a -> 'b) * ('c -> 'd -> 'e -> 'f -> 'a) -> 'c -> 'd -> 'e -> 'f -> 'b
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  val funpow: int -> ('a -> 'a) -> 'a -> 'a
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  (*errors*)
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  exception SYS_ERROR of string
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  val sys_error: string -> 'a
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  exception ERROR of string
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  val error: string -> 'a
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  val cat_error: string -> string -> 'a
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  val assert_all: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> ('a -> string) -> unit
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  (*pairs*)
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  val pair: 'a -> 'b -> 'a * 'b
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  val rpair: 'a -> 'b -> 'b * 'a
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  val fst: 'a * 'b -> 'a
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  val snd: 'a * 'b -> 'b
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  val eq_fst: ('a * 'c -> bool) -> ('a * 'b) * ('c * 'd) -> bool
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  val eq_snd: ('b * 'd -> bool) -> ('a * 'b) * ('c * 'd) -> bool
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  val eq_pair: ('a * 'c -> bool) -> ('b * 'd -> bool) -> ('a * 'b) * ('c * 'd) -> bool
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  val swap: 'a * 'b -> 'b * 'a
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  val apfst: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a * 'c -> 'b * 'c
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  val apsnd: ('a -> 'b) -> 'c * 'a -> 'c * 'b
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  val pairself: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a * 'a -> 'b * 'b
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  (*booleans*)
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  val equal: ''a -> ''a -> bool
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  val not_equal: ''a -> ''a -> bool
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  val orf: ('a -> bool) * ('a -> bool) -> 'a -> bool
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  val andf: ('a -> bool) * ('a -> bool) -> 'a -> bool
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  val exists: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> bool
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  val forall: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> bool
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  val set: bool ref -> bool
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  val reset: bool ref -> bool
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  val toggle: bool ref -> bool
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  val change: 'a ref -> ('a -> 'a) -> unit
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  val setmp_noncritical: 'a ref -> 'a -> ('b -> 'c) -> 'b -> 'c
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  val setmp: 'a ref -> 'a -> ('b -> 'c) -> 'b -> 'c
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  val setmp_thread_data: 'a Universal.tag -> 'a -> 'a -> ('b -> 'c) -> 'b -> 'c
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  (*lists*)
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  exception UnequalLengths
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  val single: 'a -> 'a list
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  val the_single: 'a list -> 'a
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  val singleton: ('a list -> 'b list) -> 'a -> 'b
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  val yield_singleton: ('a list -> 'c -> 'b list * 'c) -> 'a -> 'c -> 'b * 'c
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  val apply: ('a -> 'a) list -> 'a -> 'a
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  val perhaps_apply: ('a -> 'a option) list -> 'a -> 'a option
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  val perhaps_loop: ('a -> 'a option) -> 'a -> 'a option
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  val foldl1: ('a * 'a -> 'a) -> 'a list -> 'a
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  val foldr1: ('a * 'a -> 'a) -> 'a list -> 'a
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  val foldl_map: ('a * 'b -> 'a * 'c) -> 'a * 'b list -> 'a * 'c list
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  val flat: 'a list list -> 'a list
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  val unflat: 'a list list -> 'b list -> 'b list list
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  val burrow: ('a list -> 'b list) -> 'a list list -> 'b list list
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  val burrow_options: ('a list -> 'b list) -> 'a option list -> 'b option list
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  val fold_burrow: ('a list -> 'c -> 'b list * 'd) -> 'a list list -> 'c -> 'b list list * 'd
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  val maps: ('a -> 'b list) -> 'a list -> 'b list
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  val filter: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val filter_out: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val map_filter: ('a -> 'b option) -> 'a list -> 'b list
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  val chop: int -> 'a list -> 'a list * 'a list
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  val dropwhile: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val nth: 'a list -> int -> 'a
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  val nth_map: int -> ('a -> 'a) -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val nth_drop: int -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val nth_list: 'a list list -> int -> 'a list
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  val map_index: (int * 'a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> 'b list
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  val fold_index: (int * 'a -> 'b -> 'b) -> 'a list -> 'b -> 'b
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  val split_last: 'a list -> 'a list * 'a
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  val find_index: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> int
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  val find_index_eq: ''a -> ''a list -> int
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  val find_first: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a option
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  val get_index: ('a -> 'b option) -> 'a list -> (int * 'b) option
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  val get_first: ('a -> 'b option) -> 'a list -> 'b option
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  val eq_list: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> 'a list * 'b list -> bool
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  val map2: ('a -> 'b -> 'c) -> 'a list -> 'b list -> 'c list
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  val fold2: ('a -> 'b -> 'c -> 'c) -> 'a list -> 'b list -> 'c -> 'c
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  val zip_options: 'a list -> 'b option list -> ('a * 'b) list
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  val ~~ : 'a list * 'b list -> ('a * 'b) list
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  val map_split: ('a -> 'b * 'c) -> 'a list -> 'b list * 'c list
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  val split_list: ('a * 'b) list -> 'a list * 'b list
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  val map_product: ('a -> 'b -> 'c) -> 'a list -> 'b list -> 'c list
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  val fold_product: ('a -> 'b -> 'c -> 'c) -> 'a list -> 'b list -> 'c -> 'c
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  val separate: 'a -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val surround: 'a -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val replicate: int -> 'a -> 'a list
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  val is_prefix: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list -> bool
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  val take_prefix: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list * 'a list
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  val chop_prefix: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> 'a list * 'b list -> 'a list * ('a list * 'b list)
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  val take_suffix: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list * 'a list
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  val prefixes1: 'a list -> 'a list list
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  val prefixes: 'a list -> 'a list list
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  val suffixes1: 'a list -> 'a list list
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  val suffixes: 'a list -> 'a list list
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  (*integers*)
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  val inc: int ref -> int
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  val dec: int ref -> int
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  val upto: int * int -> int list
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  val downto: int * int -> int list
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  val radixpand: int * int -> int list
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  val radixstring: int * string * int -> string
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  val string_of_int: int -> string
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  val signed_string_of_int: int -> string
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  val string_of_indexname: string * int -> string
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  val read_radix_int: int -> string list -> int * string list
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  val read_int: string list -> int * string list
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  val oct_char: string -> string
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  (*strings*)
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  val nth_string: string -> int -> string
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  val fold_string: (string -> 'a -> 'a) -> string -> 'a -> 'a
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  val exists_string: (string -> bool) -> string -> bool
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  val forall_string: (string -> bool) -> string -> bool
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  val enclose: string -> string -> string -> string
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  val unenclose: string -> string
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  val quote: string -> string
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  val space_implode: string -> string list -> string
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  val commas: string list -> string
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  val commas_quote: string list -> string
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  val cat_lines: string list -> string
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  val space_explode: string -> string -> string list
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  val split_lines: string -> string list
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  val prefix_lines: string -> string -> string
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  val prefix: string -> string -> string
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  val suffix: string -> string -> string
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  val unprefix: string -> string -> string
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  val unsuffix: string -> string -> string
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  val replicate_string: int -> string -> string
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  val translate_string: (string -> string) -> string -> string
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  val multiply: 'a list -> 'a list list -> 'a list list
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  (*lists as sets -- see also Pure/General/ord_list.ML*)
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  val member: ('b * 'a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'b -> bool
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  val insert: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val remove: ('b * 'a -> bool) -> 'b -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val update: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val subtract: ('b * 'a -> bool) -> 'b list -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val merge: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a list * 'a list -> 'a list
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  val mem: ''a * ''a list -> bool
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  val mem_int: int * int list -> bool
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  val mem_string: string * string list -> bool
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  val union: ''a list * ''a list -> ''a list
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  val union_int: int list * int list -> int list
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  val union_string: string list * string list -> string list
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  val gen_union: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a list * 'a list -> 'a list
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  val gen_inter: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> 'a list * 'b list -> 'a list
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  val inter: ''a list * ''a list -> ''a list
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  val inter_int: int list * int list -> int list
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  val inter_string: string list * string list -> string list
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  val subset: ''a list * ''a list -> bool
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  val subset_int: int list * int list -> bool
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  val subset_string: string list * string list -> bool
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  val eq_set: ''a list * ''a list -> bool
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  val eq_set_string: string list * string list -> bool
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  val gen_subset: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> 'a list * 'b list -> bool
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  val gen_eq_set: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> 'a list * 'b list -> bool
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  val \ : ''a list * ''a -> ''a list
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  val \\ : ''a list * ''a list -> ''a list
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  val distinct: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val duplicates: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val has_duplicates: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a list -> bool
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  (*lists as multisets*)
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  val remove1: ('b * 'a -> bool) -> 'b -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val submultiset: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> 'a list * 'b list -> bool
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  (*orders*)
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  val is_equal: order -> bool
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  val rev_order: order -> order
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  val make_ord: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a * 'a -> order
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  val bool_ord: bool * bool -> order
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  val int_ord: int * int -> order
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  val string_ord: string * string -> order
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  val fast_string_ord: string * string -> order
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  val option_ord: ('a * 'b -> order) -> 'a option * 'b option -> order
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  val prod_ord: ('a * 'b -> order) -> ('c * 'd -> order) -> ('a * 'c) * ('b * 'd) -> order
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  val dict_ord: ('a * 'b -> order) -> 'a list * 'b list -> order
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  val list_ord: ('a * 'b -> order) -> 'a list * 'b list -> order
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  val sort: ('a * 'a -> order) -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val sort_distinct: ('a * 'a -> order) -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val sort_strings: string list -> string list
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  val sort_wrt: ('a -> string) -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  (*random numbers*)
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  exception RANDOM
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  val random: unit -> real
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  val random_range: int -> int -> int
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  val one_of: 'a list -> 'a
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  val frequency: (int * 'a) list -> 'a
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  (*misc*)
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  val divide_and_conquer: ('a -> 'a list * ('b list -> 'b)) -> 'a -> 'b
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  val partition_eq: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list list
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  val partition_list: (int -> 'a -> bool) -> int -> int -> 'a list -> 'a list list
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  val gensym: string -> string
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  type stamp
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  val stamp: unit -> stamp
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  type serial
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  val serial: unit -> serial
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  val serial_string: unit -> string
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  structure Object: sig type T end
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end;
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signature LIBRARY =
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sig
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  include BASIC_LIBRARY
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  val foldl: ('a * 'b -> 'a) -> 'a * 'b list -> 'a
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  val foldr: ('a * 'b -> 'b) -> 'a list * 'b -> 'b
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  val take: int * 'a list -> 'a list
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  val drop: int * 'a list -> 'a list
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  val last_elem: 'a list -> 'a
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end;
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structure Library: LIBRARY =
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struct
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(* functions *)
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fun undefined _ = raise Match;
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fun I x = x;
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fun K x = fn _ => x;
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fun curry f x y = f (x, y);
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fun uncurry f (x, y) = f x y;
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(*application and structured results -- old version*)
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fun (x, y) |>>> f = let val (x', z) = f x in (x', (y, z)) end;
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(*conditional application*)
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fun b ? f = fn x => if b then f x else x;
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(*composition with multiple args*)
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fun (f oo g) x y = f (g x y);
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fun (f ooo g) x y z = f (g x y z);
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fun (f oooo g) x y z w = f (g x y z w);
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(*function exponentiation: f(...(f x)...) with n applications of f*)
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fun funpow (0: int) _ x = x
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  | funpow n f x = funpow (n - 1) f (f x);
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(* errors *)
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exception SYS_ERROR of string;
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fun sys_error msg = raise SYS_ERROR msg;
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exception ERROR of string;
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fun error msg = raise ERROR msg;
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fun cat_error "" msg = error msg
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  | cat_error msg1 msg2 = error (msg1 ^ "\n" ^ msg2);
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fun assert_all pred list msg =
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  let
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    fun ass [] = ()
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      | ass (x :: xs) = if pred x then ass xs else error (msg x);
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  in ass list end;
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(* pairs *)
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fun pair x y = (x, y);
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fun rpair x y = (y, x);
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fun fst (x, y) = x;
wenzelm@233
   297
fun snd (x, y) = y;
wenzelm@233
   298
haftmann@17498
   299
fun eq_fst eq ((x1, _), (x2, _)) = eq (x1, x2);
haftmann@17498
   300
fun eq_snd eq ((_, y1), (_, y2)) = eq (y1, y2);
haftmann@19454
   301
fun eq_pair eqx eqy ((x1, y1), (x2, y2)) = eqx (x1, x2) andalso eqy (y1, y2);
wenzelm@233
   302
wenzelm@233
   303
fun swap (x, y) = (y, x);
wenzelm@233
   304
wenzelm@233
   305
fun apfst f (x, y) = (f x, y);
wenzelm@233
   306
fun apsnd f (x, y) = (x, f y);
wenzelm@4212
   307
fun pairself f (x, y) = (f x, f y);
wenzelm@233
   308
wenzelm@233
   309
wenzelm@21395
   310
(* booleans *)
wenzelm@233
   311
wenzelm@21395
   312
(*polymorphic equality*)
wenzelm@233
   313
fun equal x y = x = y;
wenzelm@233
   314
fun not_equal x y = x <> y;
wenzelm@233
   315
wenzelm@21395
   316
(*combining predicates*)
wenzelm@16721
   317
fun p orf q = fn x => p x orelse q x;
wenzelm@16721
   318
fun p andf q = fn x => p x andalso q x;
wenzelm@233
   319
wenzelm@25752
   320
val exists = List.exists;
wenzelm@25752
   321
val forall = List.all;
clasohm@0
   322
wenzelm@19644
   323
wenzelm@380
   324
(* flags *)
wenzelm@380
   325
wenzelm@380
   326
fun set flag = (flag := true; true);
wenzelm@380
   327
fun reset flag = (flag := false; false);
wenzelm@380
   328
fun toggle flag = (flag := not (! flag); ! flag);
wenzelm@380
   329
wenzelm@9118
   330
fun change r f = r := f (! r);
wenzelm@9118
   331
wenzelm@18712
   332
(*temporarily set flag during execution*)
wenzelm@23932
   333
fun setmp_noncritical flag value f x =
wenzelm@26079
   334
  uninterruptible (fn restore_attributes => fn () =>
wenzelm@26079
   335
    let
wenzelm@26079
   336
      val orig_value = ! flag;
wenzelm@26079
   337
      val _ = flag := value;
wenzelm@26079
   338
      val result = Exn.capture (restore_attributes f) x;
wenzelm@26079
   339
      val _ = flag := orig_value;
wenzelm@26079
   340
    in Exn.release result end) ();
wenzelm@2958
   341
wenzelm@26079
   342
fun setmp flag value f x =
wenzelm@26079
   343
  NAMED_CRITICAL "setmp" (fn () => setmp_noncritical flag value f x);
wenzelm@23932
   344
wenzelm@25797
   345
fun setmp_thread_data tag orig_data data f x =
wenzelm@26079
   346
  uninterruptible (fn restore_attributes => fn () =>
wenzelm@26079
   347
    let
wenzelm@26079
   348
      val _ = Multithreading.put_data (tag, data);
wenzelm@26079
   349
      val result = Exn.capture (restore_attributes f) x;
wenzelm@26079
   350
      val _ = Multithreading.put_data (tag, orig_data);
wenzelm@26079
   351
    in Exn.release result end) ();
wenzelm@25797
   352
wenzelm@19644
   353
wenzelm@21395
   354
wenzelm@233
   355
(** lists **)
wenzelm@233
   356
skalberg@15570
   357
exception UnequalLengths;
wenzelm@233
   358
wenzelm@5285
   359
fun single x = [x];
wenzelm@233
   360
wenzelm@20882
   361
fun the_single [x] = x
wenzelm@20882
   362
  | the_single _ = raise Empty;
wenzelm@20882
   363
wenzelm@20882
   364
fun singleton f x = the_single (f [x]);
wenzelm@19273
   365
haftmann@25061
   366
fun yield_singleton f x = f [x] #>> the_single;
haftmann@25061
   367
wenzelm@5904
   368
fun apply [] x = x
wenzelm@5904
   369
  | apply (f :: fs) x = apply fs (f x);
wenzelm@5904
   370
wenzelm@25058
   371
fun perhaps_apply funs arg =
wenzelm@25058
   372
  let
wenzelm@25058
   373
    fun app [] res = res
wenzelm@25058
   374
      | app (f :: fs) (changed, x) =
wenzelm@25058
   375
          (case f x of
wenzelm@25058
   376
            NONE => app fs (changed, x)
wenzelm@25058
   377
          | SOME x' => app fs (true, x'));
wenzelm@25058
   378
  in (case app funs (false, arg) of (false, _) => NONE | (true, arg') => SOME arg') end;
wenzelm@25058
   379
wenzelm@25058
   380
fun perhaps_loop f arg =
wenzelm@25058
   381
  let
wenzelm@25058
   382
    fun loop (changed, x) =
wenzelm@25058
   383
      (case f x of
wenzelm@25058
   384
        NONE => (changed, x)
wenzelm@25058
   385
      | SOME x' => loop (true, x'));
wenzelm@25058
   386
  in (case loop (false, arg) of (false, _) => NONE | (true, arg') => SOME arg') end;
wenzelm@25058
   387
wenzelm@233
   388
wenzelm@21395
   389
(* fold -- old versions *)
haftmann@16691
   390
wenzelm@233
   391
(*the following versions of fold are designed to fit nicely with infixes*)
clasohm@0
   392
wenzelm@233
   393
(*  (op @) (e, [x1, ..., xn])  ===>  ((e @ x1) @ x2) ... @ xn
wenzelm@233
   394
    for operators that associate to the left (TAIL RECURSIVE)*)
wenzelm@233
   395
fun foldl (f: 'a * 'b -> 'a) : 'a * 'b list -> 'a =
wenzelm@233
   396
  let fun itl (e, [])  = e
wenzelm@233
   397
        | itl (e, a::l) = itl (f(e, a), l)
wenzelm@233
   398
  in  itl end;
wenzelm@233
   399
wenzelm@233
   400
(*  (op @) ([x1, ..., xn], e)  ===>   x1 @ (x2 ... @ (xn @ e))
wenzelm@233
   401
    for operators that associate to the right (not tail recursive)*)
wenzelm@233
   402
fun foldr f (l, e) =
wenzelm@233
   403
  let fun itr [] = e
wenzelm@233
   404
        | itr (a::l) = f(a, itr l)
wenzelm@233
   405
  in  itr l  end;
wenzelm@233
   406
berghofe@25681
   407
(*  (op @) [x1, ..., xn]  ===>  ((x1 @ x2) @ x3) ... @ xn
berghofe@25681
   408
    for operators that associate to the left (TAIL RECURSIVE)*)
berghofe@25681
   409
fun foldl1 f [] = raise Empty
berghofe@25681
   410
  | foldl1 f (x :: xs) = foldl f (x, xs);
berghofe@25681
   411
wenzelm@233
   412
(*  (op @) [x1, ..., xn]  ===>   x1 @ (x2 ... @ (x[n-1] @ xn))
wenzelm@233
   413
    for n > 0, operators that associate to the right (not tail recursive)*)
paulson@20443
   414
fun foldr1 f [] = raise Empty
wenzelm@20510
   415
  | foldr1 f l =
paulson@20443
   416
      let fun itr [x] = x
wenzelm@20510
   417
            | itr (x::l) = f(x, itr l)
paulson@20443
   418
      in  itr l  end;
wenzelm@233
   419
wenzelm@16705
   420
fun foldl_map f =
wenzelm@16705
   421
  let
wenzelm@16705
   422
    fun fold_aux (x, []) = (x, [])
wenzelm@16705
   423
      | fold_aux (x, y :: ys) =
wenzelm@16705
   424
          let
wenzelm@16705
   425
            val (x', y') = f (x, y);
wenzelm@16705
   426
            val (x'', ys') = fold_aux (x', ys);
wenzelm@16705
   427
          in (x'', y' :: ys') end;
wenzelm@16705
   428
  in fold_aux end;
wenzelm@16705
   429
wenzelm@233
   430
wenzelm@233
   431
(* basic list functions *)
wenzelm@233
   432
wenzelm@20510
   433
fun eq_list eq (list1, list2) =
haftmann@20348
   434
  let
wenzelm@20510
   435
    fun eq_lst (x :: xs, y :: ys) = eq (x, y) andalso eq_lst (xs, ys)
wenzelm@20510
   436
      | eq_lst _ = true;
wenzelm@20510
   437
  in length list1 = length list2 andalso eq_lst (list1, list2) end;
haftmann@20348
   438
wenzelm@19483
   439
fun maps f [] = []
wenzelm@19483
   440
  | maps f (x :: xs) = f x @ maps f xs;
wenzelm@19483
   441
haftmann@25538
   442
val filter = List.filter;
haftmann@25538
   443
fun filter_out f = filter (not o f);
haftmann@25538
   444
val map_filter = List.mapPartial;
haftmann@25538
   445
wenzelm@24593
   446
fun chop (0: int) xs = ([], xs)
wenzelm@23220
   447
  | chop _ [] = ([], [])
wenzelm@23220
   448
  | chop n (x :: xs) = chop (n - 1) xs |>> cons x;
wenzelm@19011
   449
wenzelm@233
   450
(*take the first n elements from a list*)
wenzelm@24593
   451
fun take (n: int, []) = []
wenzelm@233
   452
  | take (n, x :: xs) =
wenzelm@233
   453
      if n > 0 then x :: take (n - 1, xs) else [];
wenzelm@233
   454
wenzelm@233
   455
(*drop the first n elements from a list*)
wenzelm@24593
   456
fun drop (n: int, []) = []
wenzelm@233
   457
  | drop (n, x :: xs) =
wenzelm@233
   458
      if n > 0 then drop (n - 1, xs) else x :: xs;
clasohm@0
   459
nipkow@4713
   460
fun dropwhile P [] = []
nipkow@4713
   461
  | dropwhile P (ys as x::xs) = if P x then dropwhile P xs else ys;
nipkow@4713
   462
wenzelm@233
   463
(*return nth element of a list, where 0 designates the first element;
wenzelm@18461
   464
  raise Subscript if list too short*)
haftmann@18011
   465
fun nth xs i = List.nth (xs, i);
wenzelm@233
   466
wenzelm@18461
   467
fun nth_list xss i = nth xss i handle Subscript => [];
wenzelm@18461
   468
haftmann@18011
   469
fun nth_map 0 f (x :: xs) = f x :: xs
haftmann@18011
   470
  | nth_map n f (x :: xs) = x :: nth_map (n - 1) f xs
wenzelm@24593
   471
  | nth_map (_: int) _ [] = raise Subscript;
wenzelm@11773
   472
haftmann@24846
   473
fun nth_drop n xs =
haftmann@24846
   474
  List.take (xs, n) @ List.drop (xs, n + 1);
haftmann@24846
   475
haftmann@18514
   476
fun map_index f =
haftmann@18514
   477
  let
wenzelm@24593
   478
    fun mapp (_: int) [] = []
wenzelm@24593
   479
      | mapp i (x :: xs) = f (i, x) :: mapp (i + 1) xs
haftmann@18514
   480
  in mapp 0 end;
haftmann@18514
   481
haftmann@21118
   482
fun fold_index f =
haftmann@21118
   483
  let
wenzelm@24593
   484
    fun fold_aux (_: int) [] y = y
wenzelm@24593
   485
      | fold_aux i (x :: xs) y = fold_aux (i + 1) xs (f (i, x) y);
haftmann@21118
   486
  in fold_aux 0 end;
haftmann@21118
   487
skalberg@15570
   488
val last_elem = List.last;
wenzelm@233
   489
wenzelm@3762
   490
(*rear decomposition*)
skalberg@15570
   491
fun split_last [] = raise Empty
wenzelm@3762
   492
  | split_last [x] = ([], x)
wenzelm@3762
   493
  | split_last (x :: xs) = apfst (cons x) (split_last xs);
wenzelm@3762
   494
wenzelm@4212
   495
(*find the position of an element in a list*)
wenzelm@4212
   496
fun find_index pred =
wenzelm@24593
   497
  let fun find (_: int) [] = ~1
wenzelm@4212
   498
        | find n (x :: xs) = if pred x then n else find (n + 1) xs;
wenzelm@4212
   499
  in find 0 end;
wenzelm@3762
   500
wenzelm@4224
   501
fun find_index_eq x = find_index (equal x);
wenzelm@4212
   502
wenzelm@4212
   503
(*find first element satisfying predicate*)
paulson@22593
   504
val find_first = List.find;
wenzelm@233
   505
wenzelm@4916
   506
(*get first element by lookup function*)
skalberg@15531
   507
fun get_first _ [] = NONE
wenzelm@4916
   508
  | get_first f (x :: xs) =
wenzelm@4916
   509
      (case f x of
skalberg@15531
   510
        NONE => get_first f xs
wenzelm@4916
   511
      | some => some);
wenzelm@4916
   512
haftmann@19233
   513
fun get_index f =
haftmann@19233
   514
  let
wenzelm@24593
   515
    fun get (_: int) [] = NONE
wenzelm@19461
   516
      | get i (x :: xs) =
haftmann@19233
   517
          case f x
wenzelm@19461
   518
           of NONE => get (i + 1) xs
haftmann@19233
   519
            | SOME y => SOME (i, y)
haftmann@19233
   520
  in get 0 end;
haftmann@19233
   521
skalberg@15531
   522
val flat = List.concat;
wenzelm@233
   523
wenzelm@12136
   524
fun unflat (xs :: xss) ys =
wenzelm@19424
   525
      let val (ps, qs) = chop (length xs) ys
nipkow@13629
   526
      in ps :: unflat xss qs end
wenzelm@12136
   527
  | unflat [] [] = []
skalberg@15570
   528
  | unflat _ _ = raise UnequalLengths;
wenzelm@12136
   529
wenzelm@21479
   530
fun burrow f xss = unflat xss (f (flat xss));
haftmann@18359
   531
wenzelm@24864
   532
fun burrow_options f os = map (try hd) (burrow f (map the_list os));
wenzelm@24864
   533
haftmann@18549
   534
fun fold_burrow f xss s =
haftmann@18549
   535
  apfst (unflat xss) (f (flat xss) s);
haftmann@18359
   536
wenzelm@233
   537
(*separate s [x1, x2, ..., xn]  ===>  [x1, s, x2, s, ..., s, xn]*)
wenzelm@233
   538
fun separate s (x :: (xs as _ :: _)) = x :: s :: separate s xs
wenzelm@233
   539
  | separate _ xs = xs;
wenzelm@233
   540
wenzelm@25980
   541
fun surround s (x :: xs) = s :: x :: surround s xs
wenzelm@25980
   542
  | surround s [] = [s];
wenzelm@25980
   543
wenzelm@233
   544
(*make the list [x, x, ..., x] of length n*)
wenzelm@24593
   545
fun replicate (n: int) x =
wenzelm@233
   546
  let fun rep (0, xs) = xs
wenzelm@233
   547
        | rep (n, xs) = rep (n - 1, x :: xs)
wenzelm@233
   548
  in
skalberg@15570
   549
    if n < 0 then raise Subscript
wenzelm@233
   550
    else rep (n, [])
wenzelm@233
   551
  end;
wenzelm@233
   552
wenzelm@14926
   553
fun translate_string f = String.translate (f o String.str);
wenzelm@14926
   554
wenzelm@4248
   555
(*multiply [a, b, c, ...] * [xs, ys, zs, ...]*)
wenzelm@18148
   556
fun multiply [] _ = []
wenzelm@18148
   557
  | multiply (x :: xs) yss = map (cons x) yss @ multiply xs yss;
wenzelm@4248
   558
wenzelm@25549
   559
wenzelm@25549
   560
(* direct product *)
wenzelm@25549
   561
haftmann@25538
   562
fun map_product f _ [] = []
haftmann@25538
   563
  | map_product f [] _ = []
haftmann@25538
   564
  | map_product f (x :: xs) ys = map (f x) ys @ map_product f xs ys;
wenzelm@233
   565
haftmann@25538
   566
fun fold_product f _ [] z = z
haftmann@25538
   567
  | fold_product f [] _ z = z
haftmann@25538
   568
  | fold_product f (x :: xs) ys z = z |> fold (f x) ys |> fold_product f xs ys;
wenzelm@233
   569
wenzelm@25549
   570
wenzelm@25549
   571
(* lists of pairs *)
wenzelm@233
   572
skalberg@15570
   573
exception UnequalLengths;
skalberg@15570
   574
haftmann@18330
   575
fun map2 _ [] [] = []
haftmann@18330
   576
  | map2 f (x :: xs) (y :: ys) = f x y :: map2 f xs ys
haftmann@18330
   577
  | map2 _ _ _ = raise UnequalLengths;
wenzelm@380
   578
wenzelm@23220
   579
fun fold2 f [] [] z = z
wenzelm@23220
   580
  | fold2 f (x :: xs) (y :: ys) z = fold2 f xs ys (f x y z)
wenzelm@23220
   581
  | fold2 f _ _ _ = raise UnequalLengths;
wenzelm@380
   582
haftmann@25943
   583
fun map_split f [] = ([], [])
haftmann@25943
   584
  | map_split f (x :: xs) =
haftmann@25943
   585
      let
haftmann@25943
   586
        val (y, w) = f x;
haftmann@25943
   587
        val (ys, ws) = map_split f xs;
haftmann@25943
   588
      in (y :: ys, w :: ws) end;
haftmann@25943
   589
wenzelm@19799
   590
fun zip_options (x :: xs) (SOME y :: ys) = (x, y) :: zip_options xs ys
wenzelm@19799
   591
  | zip_options (_ :: xs) (NONE :: ys) = zip_options xs ys
wenzelm@19799
   592
  | zip_options _ [] = []
wenzelm@19799
   593
  | zip_options [] _ = raise UnequalLengths;
wenzelm@4956
   594
wenzelm@233
   595
(*combine two lists forming a list of pairs:
wenzelm@233
   596
  [x1, ..., xn] ~~ [y1, ..., yn]  ===>  [(x1, y1), ..., (xn, yn)]*)
wenzelm@233
   597
fun [] ~~ [] = []
wenzelm@233
   598
  | (x :: xs) ~~ (y :: ys) = (x, y) :: (xs ~~ ys)
skalberg@15570
   599
  | _ ~~ _ = raise UnequalLengths;
wenzelm@233
   600
wenzelm@233
   601
(*inverse of ~~; the old 'split':
wenzelm@233
   602
  [(x1, y1), ..., (xn, yn)]  ===>  ([x1, ..., xn], [y1, ..., yn])*)
skalberg@15570
   603
val split_list = ListPair.unzip;
wenzelm@233
   604
wenzelm@233
   605
wenzelm@233
   606
(* prefixes, suffixes *)
wenzelm@233
   607
haftmann@18441
   608
fun is_prefix _ [] _ = true
haftmann@18441
   609
  | is_prefix eq (x :: xs) (y :: ys) = eq (x, y) andalso is_prefix eq xs ys
haftmann@18441
   610
  | is_prefix eq _ _ = false;
wenzelm@233
   611
wenzelm@233
   612
(* [x1, ..., xi, ..., xn]  --->  ([x1, ..., x(i-1)], [xi, ..., xn])
wenzelm@233
   613
   where xi is the first element that does not satisfy the predicate*)
wenzelm@233
   614
fun take_prefix (pred : 'a -> bool)  (xs: 'a list) : 'a list * 'a list =
wenzelm@233
   615
  let fun take (rxs, []) = (rev rxs, [])
wenzelm@255
   616
        | take (rxs, x :: xs) =
wenzelm@255
   617
            if  pred x  then  take(x :: rxs, xs)  else  (rev rxs, x :: xs)
wenzelm@233
   618
  in  take([], xs)  end;
wenzelm@233
   619
haftmann@20108
   620
fun chop_prefix eq ([], ys) = ([], ([], ys))
haftmann@20108
   621
  | chop_prefix eq (xs, []) = ([], (xs, []))
wenzelm@23220
   622
  | chop_prefix eq (xs as x :: xs', ys as y :: ys') =
haftmann@20108
   623
      if eq (x, y) then
haftmann@20108
   624
        let val (ps', xys'') = chop_prefix eq (xs', ys')
wenzelm@23220
   625
        in (x :: ps', xys'') end
haftmann@20108
   626
      else ([], (xs, ys));
haftmann@20108
   627
wenzelm@233
   628
(* [x1, ..., xi, ..., xn]  --->  ([x1, ..., xi], [x(i+1), ..., xn])
wenzelm@233
   629
   where xi is the last element that does not satisfy the predicate*)
wenzelm@233
   630
fun take_suffix _ [] = ([], [])
wenzelm@233
   631
  | take_suffix pred (x :: xs) =
wenzelm@233
   632
      (case take_suffix pred xs of
wenzelm@233
   633
        ([], sffx) => if pred x then ([], x :: sffx) else ([x], sffx)
wenzelm@233
   634
      | (prfx, sffx) => (x :: prfx, sffx));
wenzelm@233
   635
wenzelm@12249
   636
fun prefixes1 [] = []
wenzelm@12249
   637
  | prefixes1 (x :: xs) = map (cons x) ([] :: prefixes1 xs);
wenzelm@12249
   638
wenzelm@19011
   639
fun prefixes xs = [] :: prefixes1 xs;
wenzelm@19011
   640
wenzelm@12249
   641
fun suffixes1 xs = map rev (prefixes1 (rev xs));
wenzelm@19011
   642
fun suffixes xs = [] :: suffixes1 xs;
wenzelm@233
   643
wenzelm@23220
   644
wenzelm@23220
   645
wenzelm@233
   646
(** integers **)
wenzelm@233
   647
wenzelm@24593
   648
fun inc i = (i := ! i + (1: int); ! i);
wenzelm@24593
   649
fun dec i = (i := ! i - (1: int); ! i);
wenzelm@233
   650
wenzelm@233
   651
wenzelm@233
   652
(* lists of integers *)
wenzelm@233
   653
wenzelm@233
   654
(*make the list [from, from + 1, ..., to]*)
wenzelm@24593
   655
fun ((i: int) upto j) =
wenzelm@21859
   656
  if i > j then [] else i :: (i + 1 upto j);
wenzelm@233
   657
wenzelm@233
   658
(*make the list [from, from - 1, ..., to]*)
wenzelm@24593
   659
fun ((i: int) downto j) =
wenzelm@21859
   660
  if i < j then [] else i :: (i - 1 downto j);
wenzelm@233
   661
wenzelm@233
   662
wenzelm@233
   663
(* convert integers to strings *)
wenzelm@233
   664
wenzelm@233
   665
(*expand the number in the given base;
wenzelm@233
   666
  example: radixpand (2, 8) gives [1, 0, 0, 0]*)
wenzelm@233
   667
fun radixpand (base, num) : int list =
wenzelm@233
   668
  let
wenzelm@233
   669
    fun radix (n, tail) =
wenzelm@233
   670
      if n < base then n :: tail
wenzelm@233
   671
      else radix (n div base, (n mod base) :: tail)
wenzelm@233
   672
  in radix (num, []) end;
wenzelm@233
   673
wenzelm@233
   674
(*expands a number into a string of characters starting from "zerochar";
wenzelm@233
   675
  example: radixstring (2, "0", 8) gives "1000"*)
wenzelm@233
   676
fun radixstring (base, zerochar, num) =
wenzelm@233
   677
  let val offset = ord zerochar;
wenzelm@233
   678
      fun chrof n = chr (offset + n)
wenzelm@233
   679
  in implode (map chrof (radixpand (base, num))) end;
wenzelm@233
   680
wenzelm@233
   681
paulson@3407
   682
val string_of_int = Int.toString;
wenzelm@233
   683
wenzelm@21942
   684
fun signed_string_of_int i =
wenzelm@21942
   685
  if i < 0 then "-" ^ string_of_int (~ i) else string_of_int i;
wenzelm@21942
   686
wenzelm@23220
   687
fun string_of_indexname (a, 0) = a
wenzelm@23220
   688
  | string_of_indexname (a, i) = a ^ "_" ^ string_of_int i;
wenzelm@233
   689
wenzelm@233
   690
wenzelm@14826
   691
(* read integers *)
wenzelm@14826
   692
wenzelm@24630
   693
fun read_radix_int radix cs =
wenzelm@20095
   694
  let
wenzelm@20095
   695
    val zero = ord "0";
wenzelm@20095
   696
    val limit = zero + radix;
wenzelm@20095
   697
    fun scan (num, []) = (num, [])
wenzelm@20095
   698
      | scan (num, c :: cs) =
wenzelm@20095
   699
        if zero <= ord c andalso ord c < limit then
wenzelm@24630
   700
          scan (radix * num + (ord c - zero), cs)
wenzelm@20095
   701
        else (num, c :: cs);
wenzelm@24630
   702
  in scan (0, cs) end;
wenzelm@14826
   703
wenzelm@24630
   704
val read_int = read_radix_int 10;
wenzelm@14826
   705
wenzelm@24630
   706
fun oct_char s = chr (#1 (read_radix_int 8 (explode s)));
wenzelm@14826
   707
wenzelm@14826
   708
wenzelm@14826
   709
wenzelm@233
   710
(** strings **)
wenzelm@233
   711
wenzelm@16188
   712
(* functions tuned for strings, avoiding explode *)
wenzelm@6312
   713
haftmann@18011
   714
fun nth_string str i =
wenzelm@6959
   715
  (case try String.substring (str, i, 1) of
skalberg@15531
   716
    SOME s => s
skalberg@15570
   717
  | NONE => raise Subscript);
wenzelm@6312
   718
wenzelm@16188
   719
fun fold_string f str x0 =
wenzelm@6282
   720
  let
wenzelm@6282
   721
    val n = size str;
wenzelm@16188
   722
    fun iter (x, i) =
wenzelm@16188
   723
      if i < n then iter (f (String.substring (str, i, 1)) x, i + 1) else x;
wenzelm@16188
   724
  in iter (x0, 0) end;
wenzelm@6282
   725
wenzelm@14968
   726
fun exists_string pred str =
wenzelm@14968
   727
  let
wenzelm@14968
   728
    val n = size str;
wenzelm@14968
   729
    fun ex i = i < n andalso (pred (String.substring (str, i, 1)) orelse ex (i + 1));
wenzelm@14968
   730
  in ex 0 end;
wenzelm@6312
   731
wenzelm@16188
   732
fun forall_string pred = not o exists_string (not o pred);
wenzelm@16188
   733
lcp@512
   734
(*enclose in brackets*)
lcp@512
   735
fun enclose lpar rpar str = lpar ^ str ^ rpar;
wenzelm@6642
   736
fun unenclose str = String.substring (str, 1, size str - 2);
wenzelm@255
   737
wenzelm@233
   738
(*simple quoting (does not escape special chars)*)
lcp@512
   739
val quote = enclose "\"" "\"";
wenzelm@233
   740
wenzelm@4212
   741
(*space_implode "..." (explode "hello") = "h...e...l...l...o"*)
wenzelm@233
   742
fun space_implode a bs = implode (separate a bs);
wenzelm@233
   743
wenzelm@255
   744
val commas = space_implode ", ";
wenzelm@380
   745
val commas_quote = commas o map quote;
wenzelm@255
   746
wenzelm@233
   747
(*concatenate messages, one per line, into a string*)
wenzelm@255
   748
val cat_lines = space_implode "\n";
wenzelm@233
   749
wenzelm@4212
   750
(*space_explode "." "h.e..l.lo" = ["h", "e", "", "l", "lo"]*)
wenzelm@3832
   751
fun space_explode _ "" = []
paulson@21899
   752
  | space_explode sep s = String.fields (fn c => str c = sep) s;
wenzelm@3832
   753
wenzelm@3832
   754
val split_lines = space_explode "\n";
wenzelm@3832
   755
wenzelm@14826
   756
fun prefix_lines "" txt = txt
wenzelm@14826
   757
  | prefix_lines prfx txt = txt |> split_lines |> map (fn s => prfx ^ s) |> cat_lines;
wenzelm@14826
   758
wenzelm@18681
   759
fun prefix prfx s = prfx ^ s;
wenzelm@16188
   760
fun suffix sffx s = s ^ sffx;
wenzelm@5285
   761
wenzelm@18681
   762
fun unprefix prfx s =
wenzelm@18681
   763
  if String.isPrefix prfx s then String.substring (s, size prfx, size s - size prfx)
wenzelm@18681
   764
  else raise Fail "unprefix";
wenzelm@18681
   765
wenzelm@16188
   766
fun unsuffix sffx s =
wenzelm@17061
   767
  if String.isSuffix sffx s then String.substring (s, 0, size s - size sffx)
wenzelm@17061
   768
  else raise Fail "unsuffix";
wenzelm@5285
   769
wenzelm@24593
   770
fun replicate_string (0: int) _ = ""
wenzelm@10951
   771
  | replicate_string 1 a = a
wenzelm@10951
   772
  | replicate_string k a =
wenzelm@10951
   773
      if k mod 2 = 0 then replicate_string (k div 2) (a ^ a)
wenzelm@10951
   774
      else replicate_string (k div 2) (a ^ a) ^ a;
wenzelm@10951
   775
wenzelm@233
   776
wenzelm@23220
   777
wenzelm@16492
   778
(** lists as sets -- see also Pure/General/ord_list.ML **)
wenzelm@233
   779
wenzelm@26439
   780
(* canonical operations *)
wenzelm@26439
   781
wenzelm@18923
   782
fun member eq list x =
wenzelm@18923
   783
  let
wenzelm@18923
   784
    fun memb [] = false
wenzelm@18923
   785
      | memb (y :: ys) = eq (x, y) orelse memb ys;
wenzelm@18923
   786
  in memb list end;
berghofe@1576
   787
wenzelm@18923
   788
fun insert eq x xs = if member eq xs x then xs else x :: xs;
wenzelm@18923
   789
fun remove eq x xs = if member eq xs x then filter_out (fn y => eq (x, y)) xs else xs;
wenzelm@24049
   790
fun update eq x xs = cons x (remove eq x xs);
wenzelm@233
   791
wenzelm@19301
   792
fun subtract eq = fold (remove eq);
wenzelm@19301
   793
wenzelm@18923
   794
fun merge _ ([], ys) = ys
wenzelm@18923
   795
  | merge eq (xs, ys) = fold_rev (insert eq) ys xs;
clasohm@0
   796
wenzelm@26439
   797
wenzelm@26439
   798
(* old-style infixes *)
wenzelm@26439
   799
wenzelm@18923
   800
fun x mem xs = member (op =) xs x;
wenzelm@18923
   801
fun (x: int) mem_int xs = member (op =) xs x;
wenzelm@18923
   802
fun (x: string) mem_string xs = member (op =) xs x;
berghofe@1576
   803
wenzelm@233
   804
(*union of sets represented as lists: no repetitions*)
wenzelm@233
   805
fun xs union [] = xs
wenzelm@233
   806
  | [] union ys = ys
haftmann@20854
   807
  | (x :: xs) union ys = xs union (insert (op =) x ys);
clasohm@0
   808
paulson@2175
   809
(*union of sets, optimized version for ints*)
berghofe@1576
   810
fun (xs:int list) union_int [] = xs
berghofe@1576
   811
  | [] union_int ys = ys
haftmann@20854
   812
  | (x :: xs) union_int ys = xs union_int (insert (op =) x ys);
berghofe@1576
   813
paulson@2175
   814
(*union of sets, optimized version for strings*)
berghofe@1576
   815
fun (xs:string list) union_string [] = xs
berghofe@1576
   816
  | [] union_string ys = ys
haftmann@20854
   817
  | (x :: xs) union_string ys = xs union_string (insert (op =) x ys);
berghofe@1576
   818
clasohm@0
   819
(*generalized union*)
wenzelm@233
   820
fun gen_union eq (xs, []) = xs
wenzelm@233
   821
  | gen_union eq ([], ys) = ys
wenzelm@18923
   822
  | gen_union eq (x :: xs, ys) = gen_union eq (xs, insert eq x ys);
wenzelm@233
   823
wenzelm@233
   824
wenzelm@233
   825
(*intersection*)
wenzelm@233
   826
fun [] inter ys = []
wenzelm@233
   827
  | (x :: xs) inter ys =
wenzelm@233
   828
      if x mem ys then x :: (xs inter ys) else xs inter ys;
wenzelm@233
   829
paulson@2175
   830
(*intersection, optimized version for ints*)
berghofe@1576
   831
fun ([]:int list) inter_int ys = []
berghofe@1576
   832
  | (x :: xs) inter_int ys =
berghofe@1576
   833
      if x mem_int ys then x :: (xs inter_int ys) else xs inter_int ys;
berghofe@1576
   834
paulson@2175
   835
(*intersection, optimized version for strings *)
berghofe@1576
   836
fun ([]:string list) inter_string ys = []
berghofe@1576
   837
  | (x :: xs) inter_string ys =
berghofe@1576
   838
      if x mem_string ys then x :: (xs inter_string ys) else xs inter_string ys;
berghofe@1576
   839
paulson@7090
   840
(*generalized intersection*)
paulson@7090
   841
fun gen_inter eq ([], ys) = []
wenzelm@12284
   842
  | gen_inter eq (x::xs, ys) =
wenzelm@18923
   843
      if member eq ys x then x :: gen_inter eq (xs, ys)
wenzelm@18923
   844
      else gen_inter eq (xs, ys);
paulson@7090
   845
wenzelm@233
   846
wenzelm@233
   847
(*subset*)
wenzelm@233
   848
fun [] subset ys = true
wenzelm@233
   849
  | (x :: xs) subset ys = x mem ys andalso xs subset ys;
wenzelm@233
   850
paulson@2175
   851
(*subset, optimized version for ints*)
wenzelm@16439
   852
fun ([]: int list) subset_int ys = true
berghofe@1576
   853
  | (x :: xs) subset_int ys = x mem_int ys andalso xs subset_int ys;
berghofe@1576
   854
paulson@2175
   855
(*subset, optimized version for strings*)
wenzelm@16439
   856
fun ([]: string list) subset_string ys = true
berghofe@1576
   857
  | (x :: xs) subset_string ys = x mem_string ys andalso xs subset_string ys;
berghofe@1576
   858
wenzelm@4363
   859
(*set equality*)
wenzelm@4363
   860
fun eq_set (xs, ys) =
wenzelm@4363
   861
  xs = ys orelse (xs subset ys andalso ys subset xs);
wenzelm@4363
   862
paulson@2182
   863
(*set equality for strings*)
wenzelm@16439
   864
fun eq_set_string ((xs: string list), ys) =
berghofe@1576
   865
  xs = ys orelse (xs subset_string ys andalso ys subset_string xs);
berghofe@1576
   866
wenzelm@18923
   867
fun gen_subset eq (xs, ys) = forall (member eq ys) xs;
paulson@2182
   868
wenzelm@19301
   869
fun gen_eq_set eq (xs, ys) =
haftmann@20348
   870
  eq_list eq (xs, ys) orelse
wenzelm@19301
   871
    (gen_subset eq (xs, ys) andalso gen_subset (eq o swap) (ys, xs));
wenzelm@19301
   872
wenzelm@265
   873
wenzelm@233
   874
(*removing an element from a list WITHOUT duplicates*)
wenzelm@233
   875
fun (y :: ys) \ x = if x = y then ys else y :: (ys \ x)
wenzelm@233
   876
  | [] \ x = [];
paulson@2243
   877
fun ys \\ xs = foldl (op \) (ys,xs);
clasohm@0
   878
wenzelm@233
   879
wenzelm@233
   880
(*makes a list of the distinct members of the input; preserves order, takes
wenzelm@233
   881
  first of equal elements*)
wenzelm@19046
   882
fun distinct eq lst =
wenzelm@233
   883
  let
wenzelm@233
   884
    fun dist (rev_seen, []) = rev rev_seen
wenzelm@233
   885
      | dist (rev_seen, x :: xs) =
wenzelm@18923
   886
          if member eq rev_seen x then dist (rev_seen, xs)
wenzelm@233
   887
          else dist (x :: rev_seen, xs);
wenzelm@19046
   888
  in dist ([], lst) end;
wenzelm@233
   889
wenzelm@255
   890
(*returns a list containing all repeated elements exactly once; preserves
wenzelm@255
   891
  order, takes first of equal elements*)
wenzelm@18966
   892
fun duplicates eq lst =
wenzelm@255
   893
  let
wenzelm@255
   894
    fun dups (rev_dups, []) = rev rev_dups
wenzelm@255
   895
      | dups (rev_dups, x :: xs) =
wenzelm@18923
   896
          if member eq rev_dups x orelse not (member eq xs x) then
wenzelm@255
   897
            dups (rev_dups, xs)
wenzelm@255
   898
          else dups (x :: rev_dups, xs);
wenzelm@18966
   899
  in dups ([], lst) end;
wenzelm@255
   900
wenzelm@16878
   901
fun has_duplicates eq =
wenzelm@16878
   902
  let
wenzelm@16878
   903
    fun dups [] = false
wenzelm@16878
   904
      | dups (x :: xs) = member eq xs x orelse dups xs;
wenzelm@16878
   905
  in dups end;
wenzelm@16878
   906
wenzelm@255
   907
wenzelm@23220
   908
nipkow@22142
   909
(** lists as multisets **)
nipkow@22142
   910
nipkow@22142
   911
fun remove1 _ _ [] = raise Empty
wenzelm@23220
   912
  | remove1 eq y (x::xs) = if eq (y, x) then xs else x :: remove1 eq y xs;
nipkow@22142
   913
wenzelm@23220
   914
fun submultiset _ ([], _)  = true
wenzelm@23220
   915
  | submultiset eq (x :: xs, ys) = member eq ys x andalso submultiset eq (xs, remove1 eq x ys);
wenzelm@233
   916
clasohm@0
   917
clasohm@0
   918
wenzelm@2506
   919
(** orders **)
wenzelm@2506
   920
wenzelm@18966
   921
fun is_equal EQUAL = true
wenzelm@18966
   922
  | is_equal _ = false;
wenzelm@18966
   923
wenzelm@4445
   924
fun rev_order LESS = GREATER
wenzelm@4445
   925
  | rev_order EQUAL = EQUAL
wenzelm@4445
   926
  | rev_order GREATER = LESS;
wenzelm@4445
   927
wenzelm@4479
   928
(*assume rel is a linear strict order*)
wenzelm@4445
   929
fun make_ord rel (x, y) =
wenzelm@4445
   930
  if rel (x, y) then LESS
wenzelm@4445
   931
  else if rel (y, x) then GREATER
wenzelm@4445
   932
  else EQUAL;
wenzelm@4445
   933
wenzelm@25224
   934
fun bool_ord (false, true) = LESS
wenzelm@25224
   935
  | bool_ord (true, false) = GREATER
wenzelm@25224
   936
  | bool_ord _ = EQUAL;
wenzelm@25224
   937
wenzelm@15051
   938
val int_ord = Int.compare;
wenzelm@15051
   939
val string_ord = String.compare;
wenzelm@2506
   940
wenzelm@16676
   941
fun fast_string_ord (s1, s2) =
wenzelm@16676
   942
  (case int_ord (size s1, size s2) of EQUAL => string_ord (s1, s2) | ord => ord);
wenzelm@16676
   943
wenzelm@16492
   944
fun option_ord ord (SOME x, SOME y) = ord (x, y)
wenzelm@16492
   945
  | option_ord _ (NONE, NONE) = EQUAL
wenzelm@16492
   946
  | option_ord _ (NONE, SOME _) = LESS
wenzelm@16492
   947
  | option_ord _ (SOME _, NONE) = GREATER;
wenzelm@16492
   948
wenzelm@4343
   949
(*lexicographic product*)
wenzelm@4343
   950
fun prod_ord a_ord b_ord ((x, y), (x', y')) =
wenzelm@4343
   951
  (case a_ord (x, x') of EQUAL => b_ord (y, y') | ord => ord);
wenzelm@4343
   952
wenzelm@4343
   953
(*dictionary order -- in general NOT well-founded!*)
wenzelm@16984
   954
fun dict_ord elem_ord (x :: xs, y :: ys) =
wenzelm@16984
   955
      (case elem_ord (x, y) of EQUAL => dict_ord elem_ord (xs, ys) | ord => ord)
wenzelm@16984
   956
  | dict_ord _ ([], []) = EQUAL
wenzelm@4343
   957
  | dict_ord _ ([], _ :: _) = LESS
wenzelm@16984
   958
  | dict_ord _ (_ :: _, []) = GREATER;
wenzelm@4343
   959
wenzelm@4343
   960
(*lexicographic product of lists*)
wenzelm@4343
   961
fun list_ord elem_ord (xs, ys) =
wenzelm@16676
   962
  (case int_ord (length xs, length ys) of EQUAL => dict_ord elem_ord (xs, ys) | ord => ord);
wenzelm@4343
   963
wenzelm@2506
   964
wenzelm@4621
   965
(* sorting *)
wenzelm@4621
   966
wenzelm@18427
   967
(*quicksort -- stable, i.e. does not reorder equal elements*)
wenzelm@18427
   968
fun quicksort unique ord =
wenzelm@4621
   969
  let
wenzelm@16878
   970
    fun qsort [] = []
wenzelm@16878
   971
      | qsort (xs as [_]) = xs
wenzelm@18427
   972
      | qsort (xs as [x, y]) =
wenzelm@18427
   973
          (case ord (x, y) of
wenzelm@18427
   974
            LESS => xs
wenzelm@18427
   975
          | EQUAL => if unique then [x] else xs
wenzelm@18427
   976
          | GREATER => [y, x])
wenzelm@16878
   977
      | qsort xs =
haftmann@18011
   978
          let val (lts, eqs, gts) = part (nth xs (length xs div 2)) xs
wenzelm@16878
   979
          in qsort lts @ eqs @ qsort gts end
wenzelm@4621
   980
    and part _ [] = ([], [], [])
wenzelm@4621
   981
      | part pivot (x :: xs) = add (ord (x, pivot)) x (part pivot xs)
wenzelm@4621
   982
    and add LESS x (lts, eqs, gts) = (x :: lts, eqs, gts)
wenzelm@18427
   983
      | add EQUAL x (lts, [], gts) = (lts, [x], gts)
wenzelm@18427
   984
      | add EQUAL x (res as (lts, eqs, gts)) = if unique then res else (lts, x :: eqs, gts)
wenzelm@4621
   985
      | add GREATER x (lts, eqs, gts) = (lts, eqs, x :: gts);
wenzelm@4621
   986
  in qsort end;
wenzelm@4621
   987
wenzelm@18427
   988
fun sort ord = quicksort false ord;
wenzelm@18427
   989
fun sort_distinct ord = quicksort true ord;
wenzelm@18427
   990
wenzelm@4621
   991
val sort_strings = sort string_ord;
wenzelm@4621
   992
fun sort_wrt sel xs = sort (string_ord o pairself sel) xs;
wenzelm@4621
   993
wenzelm@4621
   994
wenzelm@2506
   995
berghofe@14106
   996
(** random numbers **)
berghofe@14106
   997
berghofe@14106
   998
exception RANDOM;
berghofe@14106
   999
berghofe@14618
  1000
fun rmod x y = x - y * Real.realFloor (x / y);
berghofe@14106
  1001
berghofe@14106
  1002
local
berghofe@14106
  1003
  val a = 16807.0;
berghofe@14106
  1004
  val m = 2147483647.0;
berghofe@14106
  1005
  val random_seed = ref 1.0;
berghofe@14106
  1006
in
berghofe@14106
  1007
wenzelm@23922
  1008
fun random () = CRITICAL (fn () =>
wenzelm@23922
  1009
  let val r = rmod (a * ! random_seed) m
wenzelm@23922
  1010
  in (random_seed := r; r) end);
berghofe@14106
  1011
berghofe@14106
  1012
end;
berghofe@14106
  1013
berghofe@14106
  1014
fun random_range l h =
berghofe@14106
  1015
  if h < l orelse l < 0 then raise RANDOM
berghofe@14106
  1016
  else l + Real.floor (rmod (random ()) (real (h - l + 1)));
berghofe@14106
  1017
haftmann@18011
  1018
fun one_of xs = nth xs (random_range 0 (length xs - 1));
berghofe@14106
  1019
berghofe@14106
  1020
fun frequency xs =
berghofe@14106
  1021
  let
berghofe@14106
  1022
    val sum = foldl op + (0, map fst xs);
wenzelm@17756
  1023
    fun pick n ((k: int, x) :: xs) =
berghofe@14106
  1024
      if n <= k then x else pick (n - k) xs
berghofe@14106
  1025
  in pick (random_range 1 sum) xs end;
berghofe@14106
  1026
berghofe@14106
  1027
wenzelm@23220
  1028
wenzelm@4621
  1029
(** misc **)
wenzelm@233
  1030
wenzelm@19644
  1031
fun divide_and_conquer decomp x =
wenzelm@19644
  1032
  let val (ys, recomb) = decomp x
wenzelm@19644
  1033
  in recomb (map (divide_and_conquer decomp) ys) end;
wenzelm@19644
  1034
clasohm@0
  1035
wenzelm@233
  1036
(*Partition a list into buckets  [ bi, b(i+1), ..., bj ]
clasohm@0
  1037
   putting x in bk if p(k)(x) holds.  Preserve order of elements if possible.*)
clasohm@0
  1038
fun partition_list p i j =
wenzelm@233
  1039
  let fun part k xs =
wenzelm@233
  1040
            if k>j then
clasohm@0
  1041
              (case xs of [] => []
skalberg@15570
  1042
                         | _ => raise Fail "partition_list")
clasohm@0
  1043
            else
wenzelm@19691
  1044
            let val (ns, rest) = List.partition (p k) xs;
wenzelm@233
  1045
            in  ns :: part(k+1)rest  end
wenzelm@24593
  1046
  in  part (i: int) end;
clasohm@0
  1047
wenzelm@19691
  1048
fun partition_eq (eq:'a * 'a -> bool) =
wenzelm@19691
  1049
  let
wenzelm@19691
  1050
    fun part [] = []
wenzelm@19691
  1051
      | part (x :: ys) =
wenzelm@19691
  1052
          let val (xs, xs') = List.partition (fn y => eq (x, y)) ys
wenzelm@19691
  1053
          in (x::xs)::(part xs') end
wenzelm@19691
  1054
  in part end;
wenzelm@19691
  1055
wenzelm@19691
  1056
clasohm@0
  1057
wenzelm@233
  1058
(* generating identifiers *)
clasohm@0
  1059
paulson@4063
  1060
(** Freshly generated identifiers; supplied prefix MUST start with a letter **)
wenzelm@22369
  1061
local
wenzelm@22369
  1062
(*Maps 0-61 to A-Z, a-z, 0-9; exclude _ or ' to avoid clash with internal/unusual indentifiers*)
wenzelm@22582
  1063
fun gensym_char i =
paulson@22368
  1064
  if i<26 then chr (ord "A" + i)
paulson@22368
  1065
  else if i<52 then chr (ord "a" + i - 26)
wenzelm@22369
  1066
  else chr (ord "0" + i - 52);
paulson@4063
  1067
wenzelm@22369
  1068
val char_vec = Vector.tabulate (62, gensym_char);
wenzelm@22369
  1069
fun newid n = implode (map (fn i => Vector.sub (char_vec, i)) (radixpand (62, n)));
wenzelm@4284
  1070
wenzelm@24593
  1071
val gensym_seed = ref (0: int);
paulson@2003
  1072
wenzelm@22369
  1073
in
wenzelm@24148
  1074
  fun gensym pre = pre ^ newid (NAMED_CRITICAL "gensym" (fn () => inc gensym_seed));
wenzelm@22369
  1075
end;
paulson@4063
  1076
paulson@4063
  1077
wenzelm@16439
  1078
(* stamps and serial numbers *)
wenzelm@16439
  1079
wenzelm@16439
  1080
type stamp = unit ref;
wenzelm@16439
  1081
val stamp: unit -> stamp = ref;
wenzelm@16439
  1082
wenzelm@16439
  1083
type serial = int;
wenzelm@25702
  1084
val serial = Multithreading.serial;
wenzelm@19512
  1085
val serial_string = string_of_int o serial;
wenzelm@19512
  1086
wenzelm@16535
  1087
wenzelm@16535
  1088
(* generic objects *)
wenzelm@16535
  1089
wenzelm@16535
  1090
(*note that the builtin exception datatype may be extended by new
wenzelm@16535
  1091
  constructors at any time*)
wenzelm@16535
  1092
structure Object = struct type T = exn end;
wenzelm@16535
  1093
clasohm@1364
  1094
end;
clasohm@1364
  1095
wenzelm@15745
  1096
structure BasicLibrary: BASIC_LIBRARY = Library;
wenzelm@15745
  1097
open BasicLibrary;