NEWS
author wenzelm
Wed Aug 01 16:55:37 2007 +0200 (2007-08-01)
changeset 24110 4ab3084e311c
parent 24086 21900a460ba4
child 24172 06e42cf7df4e
permissions -rw-r--r--
tuned config options: eliminated separate attribute "option";
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Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
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==============================================
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New in this Isabelle version
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----------------------------
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*** General ***
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* More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
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warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
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tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
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legacy features will disappear eventually.
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* Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
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discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
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fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
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discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
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with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
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function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
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'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
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quotes.
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* Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
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header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
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accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  Potential
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INCOMPATIBILITY, may need to refine theory headers.
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* Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
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identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
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path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
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(cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
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non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
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files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
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* Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
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to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
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functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
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by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
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Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
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these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
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used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
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* Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
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criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
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support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
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* The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
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by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
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suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
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settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
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older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
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limit is imposed.
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* Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
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``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
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contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
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that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
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generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
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and scalability.
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* Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
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discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
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*** Document preparation ***
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* Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
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after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
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current context.
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* Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
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check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
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* Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
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"c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
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arguments may be given on the LHS.)
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*** Pure ***
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* code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now referred
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  to by usual term syntax (including optional type annotations).
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* code generator: 
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  - Isar 'definition's, 'constdef's and primitive instance definitions are added
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    explicitly to the table of defining equations
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  - primitive definitions are not used as defining equations by default any longer
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  - defining equations are now definitly restricted to meta "==" and object
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        equality "="
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  - HOL theories have been adopted accordingly
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* class_package.ML offers a combination of axclasses and locales to
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achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  See
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HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples.
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* Yet another code generator framework allows to generate executable
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code for ML and Haskell (including "class"es).  A short usage sketch:
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    internal compilation:
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        code_gen <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
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    writing SML code to a file:
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        code_gen <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
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    writing OCaml code to a file:
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        code_gen <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
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    writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
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        code_gen <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
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Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL/Main.
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Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
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    [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
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    [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
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    [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
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    [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
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User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
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    code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
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      {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
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    code_type <and-list of type constructors>
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      {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
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    code_instance <and-list of instances>
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      {(target)}+
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        where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
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    code_class <and_list of classes>
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      {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
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        where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
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code_instance and code_class only apply to target Haskell.
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See HOL theories and HOL/ex/Codegenerator*.thy for usage examples.
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Doc/Isar/Advanced/Codegen/ provides a tutorial.
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* Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
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syntax.
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* Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
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dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
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that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
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correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
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INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
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exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
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Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
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instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
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declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
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c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
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as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
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recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
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impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
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LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
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Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
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equations, see section "definitions".
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* Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
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context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
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interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
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declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
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these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
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associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
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declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
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'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
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very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
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toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
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* Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
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data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see
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src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
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attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
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just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
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for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
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order.
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* Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
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declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
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being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
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difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
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context encountered later on.
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* Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
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'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
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text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
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context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
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* Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
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abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
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which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
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the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
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declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
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'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
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* Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
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takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
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an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
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assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
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goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
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without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
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Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
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more permissive.
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* Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
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considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
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may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
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referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
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maintainability of proof texts.
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* Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
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the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
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  assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
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  then guess x and y by clarify
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This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
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proof tools being involved here.
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* Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
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propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
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named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
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methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
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according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
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provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
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theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
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`A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
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There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
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for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
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certain special cases of literal facts:
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  have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
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  have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
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  have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
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  have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
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* Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
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outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
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additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
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* Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
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both named and unnamed ones.
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* Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
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  def x == "t" and y == "u"
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* Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
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'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
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rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
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'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
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* Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
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and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
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(potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
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analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
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Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
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* Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
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method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
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sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
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simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
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simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
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originally first one.
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* Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
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patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
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expected.
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* Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
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'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
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(essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
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assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
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adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
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  lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
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    assumes "EX x. P x"
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    obtains x where "P x"
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  lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
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    assumes "A & B"
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    obtains A and B
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  lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
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    assumes "A | B"
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    obtains
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      A
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    | B
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The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
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explicitly:
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  lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
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    obtains "~ thesis"
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  lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
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    obtains "thesis ==> something"
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The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
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Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
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Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
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available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
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resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
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case_names).
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* Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
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"assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
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(historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
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context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
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* Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
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proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
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top-level lemma.
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* Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
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introduction rule (default "that").
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* Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
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explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
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to occur.
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* Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
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according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
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syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
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representations independently of name spaces.
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* Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
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instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
wenzelm@21537
   335
in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@21537
   336
wenzelm@21209
   337
* Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
wenzelm@21209
   338
primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
wenzelm@21209
   339
fixed variables).  Type declaration and internal syntactic
wenzelm@21209
   340
representation of given constants retrieved from the context.
wenzelm@19682
   341
wenzelm@19665
   342
* Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
wenzelm@19665
   343
'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
wenzelm@19083
   344
object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
wenzelm@19083
   345
isar-ref manual.  Examples:
wenzelm@19081
   346
wenzelm@19665
   347
  axiomatization
wenzelm@21595
   348
    eq  (infix "===" 50) where
wenzelm@21595
   349
    eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
wenzelm@21595
   350
wenzelm@21595
   351
  definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
wenzelm@21595
   352
  definition g where "g x = f x x"
wenzelm@19081
   353
wenzelm@19363
   354
  abbreviation
wenzelm@21595
   355
    neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
wenzelm@19363
   356
    "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
wenzelm@19081
   357
wenzelm@19083
   358
These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
wenzelm@19083
   359
constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
wenzelm@19083
   360
constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
wenzelm@19083
   361
abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
wenzelm@19088
   362
parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
wenzelm@19083
   363
HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
wenzelm@19083
   364
entities from a monomorphic theory.
wenzelm@19083
   365
wenzelm@19083
   366
Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
wenzelm@19363
   367
not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
wenzelm@19363
   368
'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
wenzelm@19363
   369
'translations' in common applications.
wenzelm@19084
   370
wenzelm@19682
   371
Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
wenzelm@19682
   372
independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
wenzelm@21209
   373
slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
wenzelm@19682
   374
'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
wenzelm@19665
   375
wenzelm@21735
   376
* Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
wenzelm@21735
   377
the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
wenzelm@21735
   378
abbreviations on output.
wenzelm@21735
   379
ballarin@19783
   380
* Isar/locales: improved parameter handling:
ballarin@19783
   381
- use of locales "var" and "struct" no longer necessary;
ballarin@19783
   382
- parameter renamings are no longer required to be injective.
ballarin@19783
   383
  This enables, for example, to define a locale for endomorphisms thus:
ballarin@19783
   384
  locale endom = homom mult mult h.
ballarin@19783
   385
ballarin@19931
   386
* Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
ballarin@19931
   387
Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
wenzelm@22126
   388
now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
wenzelm@22126
   389
locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
wenzelm@22126
   390
predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
wenzelm@22126
   391
removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
wenzelm@22126
   392
`unfold_locales'; see below.
wenzelm@22126
   393
wenzelm@22126
   394
* Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
wenzelm@22126
   395
provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
wenzelm@22126
   396
aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
wenzelm@22126
   397
`intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
wenzelm@22126
   398
unfold predicates to assumptions.
ballarin@19931
   399
ballarin@19931
   400
* Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
wenzelm@22126
   401
has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
wenzelm@22126
   402
to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
ballarin@19931
   403
ballarin@23920
   404
* Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
ballarin@23920
   405
extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
ballarin@23920
   406
unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
ballarin@23920
   407
defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
ballarin@23920
   408
concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
ballarin@23920
   409
ballarin@23920
   410
  interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
ballarin@23920
   411
    where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
ballarin@23920
   412
ballarin@23977
   413
Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a definition
ballarin@23977
   414
specification element in the context of locale partial_order.
ballarin@23920
   415
wenzelm@18233
   416
* Provers/induct: improved internal context management to support
wenzelm@18233
   417
local fixes and defines on-the-fly.  Thus explicit meta-level
wenzelm@18233
   418
connectives !! and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
wenzelm@18233
   419
(using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
wenzelm@18233
   420
obsolete anyway).  The subsequent proof patterns illustrate advanced
wenzelm@18233
   421
techniques of natural induction; general datatypes and inductive sets
wenzelm@18267
   422
work analogously (see also src/HOL/Lambda for realistic examples).
wenzelm@18267
   423
wenzelm@18267
   424
(1) This is how to ``strengthen'' an inductive goal wrt. certain
wenzelm@18239
   425
parameters:
wenzelm@18233
   426
wenzelm@18233
   427
  lemma
wenzelm@18233
   428
    fixes n :: nat and x :: 'a
wenzelm@18233
   429
    assumes a: "A n x"
wenzelm@18233
   430
    shows "P n x"
wenzelm@18233
   431
    using a                     -- {* make induct insert fact a *}
wenzelm@20503
   432
  proof (induct n arbitrary: x) -- {* generalize goal to "!!x. A n x ==> P n x" *}
wenzelm@18248
   433
    case 0
wenzelm@18233
   434
    show ?case sorry
wenzelm@18233
   435
  next
wenzelm@18248
   436
    case (Suc n)
wenzelm@18239
   437
    note `!!x. A n x ==> P n x` -- {* induction hypothesis, according to induction rule *}
wenzelm@18239
   438
    note `A (Suc n) x`          -- {* induction premise, stemming from fact a *}
wenzelm@18233
   439
    show ?case sorry
wenzelm@18233
   440
  qed
wenzelm@18233
   441
wenzelm@18267
   442
(2) This is how to perform induction over ``expressions of a certain
wenzelm@18233
   443
form'', using a locally defined inductive parameter n == "a x"
wenzelm@18239
   444
together with strengthening (the latter is usually required to get
wenzelm@18267
   445
sufficiently flexible induction hypotheses):
wenzelm@18233
   446
wenzelm@18233
   447
  lemma
wenzelm@18233
   448
    fixes a :: "'a => nat"
wenzelm@18233
   449
    assumes a: "A (a x)"
wenzelm@18233
   450
    shows "P (a x)"
wenzelm@18233
   451
    using a
wenzelm@20503
   452
  proof (induct n == "a x" arbitrary: x)
wenzelm@18233
   453
    ...
wenzelm@18233
   454
wenzelm@18267
   455
See also HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy for an application of the this
wenzelm@18267
   456
particular technique.
wenzelm@18267
   457
wenzelm@18901
   458
(3) This is how to perform existential reasoning ('obtains' or
wenzelm@18901
   459
'obtain') by induction, while avoiding explicit object-logic
wenzelm@18901
   460
encodings:
wenzelm@18901
   461
wenzelm@18901
   462
  lemma
wenzelm@18901
   463
    fixes n :: nat
wenzelm@18901
   464
    obtains x :: 'a where "P n x" and "Q n x"
wenzelm@20503
   465
  proof (induct n arbitrary: thesis)
wenzelm@18267
   466
    case 0
wenzelm@18267
   467
    obtain x where "P 0 x" and "Q 0 x" sorry
wenzelm@18399
   468
    then show thesis by (rule 0)
wenzelm@18267
   469
  next
wenzelm@18267
   470
    case (Suc n)
wenzelm@18267
   471
    obtain x where "P n x" and "Q n x" by (rule Suc.hyps)
wenzelm@18267
   472
    obtain x where "P (Suc n) x" and "Q (Suc n) x" sorry
wenzelm@18267
   473
    then show thesis by (rule Suc.prems)
wenzelm@18267
   474
  qed
wenzelm@18267
   475
wenzelm@20503
   476
Here the 'arbitrary: thesis' specification essentially modifies the
wenzelm@20503
   477
scope of the formal thesis parameter, in order to the get the whole
wenzelm@18267
   478
existence statement through the induction as expected.
wenzelm@18233
   479
wenzelm@18506
   480
* Provers/induct: mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
wenzelm@18506
   481
of rule sharing the same induction cases.  HOL packages usually
wenzelm@18506
   482
provide foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar
wenzelm@18506
   483
(e.g. inductive sets or datatypes).  INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to
wenzelm@18506
   484
specify mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
wenzelm@18506
   485
wenzelm@18506
   486
  (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
wenzelm@18506
   487
  (induct set: foo bar)
wenzelm@18506
   488
  (induct type: foo bar)
wenzelm@18506
   489
wenzelm@18506
   490
The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
wenzelm@18506
   491
new format.
wenzelm@18506
   492
wenzelm@18506
   493
* Provers/induct: improved handling of simultaneous goals.  Instead of
wenzelm@18506
   494
introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
wenzelm@18506
   495
several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are
wenzelm@18601
   496
nested accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured
wenzelm@18601
   497
explicitly.  For example:
wenzelm@18480
   498
wenzelm@18480
   499
  lemma
wenzelm@18480
   500
    fixes n :: nat
wenzelm@18480
   501
    shows "P n" and "Q n"
wenzelm@18480
   502
  proof (induct n)
wenzelm@18601
   503
    case 0 case 1
wenzelm@18480
   504
    show "P 0" sorry
wenzelm@18480
   505
  next
wenzelm@18601
   506
    case 0 case 2
wenzelm@18480
   507
    show "Q 0" sorry
wenzelm@18480
   508
  next
wenzelm@18601
   509
    case (Suc n) case 1
wenzelm@18480
   510
    note `P n` and `Q n`
wenzelm@18480
   511
    show "P (Suc n)" sorry
wenzelm@18480
   512
  next
wenzelm@18601
   513
    case (Suc n) case 2
wenzelm@18480
   514
    note `P n` and `Q n`
wenzelm@18480
   515
    show "Q (Suc n)" sorry
wenzelm@18480
   516
  qed
wenzelm@18480
   517
wenzelm@18601
   518
The split into subcases may be deferred as follows -- this is
wenzelm@18601
   519
particularly relevant for goal statements with local premises.
wenzelm@18601
   520
wenzelm@18601
   521
  lemma
wenzelm@18601
   522
    fixes n :: nat
wenzelm@18601
   523
    shows "A n ==> P n" and "B n ==> Q n"
wenzelm@18601
   524
  proof (induct n)
wenzelm@18601
   525
    case 0
wenzelm@18601
   526
    {
wenzelm@18601
   527
      case 1
wenzelm@18601
   528
      note `A 0`
wenzelm@18601
   529
      show "P 0" sorry
wenzelm@18601
   530
    next
wenzelm@18601
   531
      case 2
wenzelm@18601
   532
      note `B 0`
wenzelm@18601
   533
      show "Q 0" sorry
wenzelm@18601
   534
    }
wenzelm@18601
   535
  next
wenzelm@18601
   536
    case (Suc n)
wenzelm@18601
   537
    note `A n ==> P n` and `B n ==> Q n`
wenzelm@18601
   538
    {
wenzelm@18601
   539
      case 1
wenzelm@18601
   540
      note `A (Suc n)`
wenzelm@18601
   541
      show "P (Suc n)" sorry
wenzelm@18601
   542
    next
wenzelm@18601
   543
      case 2
wenzelm@18601
   544
      note `B (Suc n)`
wenzelm@18601
   545
      show "Q (Suc n)" sorry
wenzelm@18601
   546
    }
wenzelm@18601
   547
  qed
wenzelm@18601
   548
wenzelm@18506
   549
If simultaneous goals are to be used with mutual rules, the statement
wenzelm@18506
   550
needs to be structured carefully as a two-level conjunction, using
wenzelm@18506
   551
lists of propositions separated by 'and':
wenzelm@18506
   552
wenzelm@18507
   553
  lemma
wenzelm@18507
   554
    shows "a : A ==> P1 a"
wenzelm@18507
   555
          "a : A ==> P2 a"
wenzelm@18507
   556
      and "b : B ==> Q1 b"
wenzelm@18507
   557
          "b : B ==> Q2 b"
wenzelm@18507
   558
          "b : B ==> Q3 b"
wenzelm@18507
   559
  proof (induct set: A B)
wenzelm@18480
   560
wenzelm@18399
   561
* Provers/induct: support coinduction as well.  See
wenzelm@18399
   562
src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
wenzelm@18399
   563
wenzelm@20919
   564
* Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
wenzelm@20919
   565
variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@20919
   566
wenzelm@22126
   567
* Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
wenzelm@22126
   568
rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
wenzelm@22126
   569
default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
wenzelm@22126
   570
trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
nipkow@18674
   571
  
wenzelm@18536
   572
* Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
wenzelm@18536
   573
attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
wenzelm@18536
   574
manipulating the claset.
wenzelm@18536
   575
wenzelm@18694
   576
* Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
wenzelm@18694
   577
dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
wenzelm@18694
   578
least one premise.
wenzelm@18694
   579
wenzelm@18694
   580
* Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
wenzelm@18695
   581
weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
wenzelm@18696
   582
ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
wenzelm@18694
   583
rule steps.
paulson@18557
   584
wenzelm@18536
   585
* Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
wenzelm@18536
   586
where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
wenzelm@18536
   587
patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
wenzelm@18536
   588
"{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
wenzelm@18536
   589
INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
wenzelm@18536
   590
constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
wenzelm@18536
   591
wenzelm@18536
   592
* Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
wenzelm@18536
   593
parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
wenzelm@18536
   594
for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
wenzelm@17779
   595
wenzelm@20582
   596
* Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
wenzelm@20582
   597
the graph browser tool.
wenzelm@20582
   598
wenzelm@20620
   599
* Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses entities with internal name
wenzelm@20620
   600
(trailing "_") by default; use '!' option for full details.
wenzelm@20620
   601
wenzelm@17865
   602
nipkow@17806
   603
*** HOL ***
nipkow@17806
   604
haftmann@23850
   605
* Code generator library theories:
haftmann@23850
   606
  * Pretty_Int represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
haftmann@23850
   607
    languages.
haftmann@23850
   608
  * Pretty_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
haftmann@23850
   609
    languages.
haftmann@23850
   610
  * Pretty_Char_chr like Pretty_Char, but also offers treatment of character
haftmann@23850
   611
    codes; includes Pretty_Int.
haftmann@23850
   612
  * Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
haftmann@23850
   613
  * Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
haftmann@23850
   614
    denominator).
haftmann@23850
   615
  * Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
haftmann@23850
   616
    representable by rational numbers.
haftmann@23850
   617
  * Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
haftmann@23850
   618
    result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
haftmann@23850
   619
    includes Pretty_Int.
haftmann@23850
   620
  * ML_String provides an additional datatype ml_string; in the HOL default
haftmann@23850
   621
    setup, strings in HOL are mapped to lists of HOL characters in SML; values
haftmann@23850
   622
    of type ml_string are mapped to strings in SML.
haftmann@23850
   623
  * ML_Int provides an additional datatype ml_int which is mapped to to SML
haftmann@23850
   624
    built-in integers.
haftmann@23850
   625
berghofe@23783
   626
* New package for inductive predicates
berghofe@23783
   627
berghofe@23783
   628
  An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
berghofe@23783
   629
berghofe@23783
   630
    inductive
berghofe@23783
   631
      p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
berghofe@23783
   632
      for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
berghofe@23783
   633
    where
berghofe@23783
   634
      rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
berghofe@23783
   635
    | ...
berghofe@23783
   636
berghofe@23783
   637
  rather than
berghofe@23783
   638
berghofe@23783
   639
    consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
berghofe@23783
   640
berghofe@23783
   641
    abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
berghofe@23783
   642
    where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
berghofe@23783
   643
berghofe@23783
   644
    inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
berghofe@23783
   645
    intros
berghofe@23783
   646
      rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
berghofe@23783
   647
      ...
berghofe@23783
   648
berghofe@23783
   649
  For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
berghofe@23783
   650
  sets to be defined with the new package via
berghofe@23783
   651
berghofe@23783
   652
    inductive_set
berghofe@23783
   653
      s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
berghofe@23783
   654
      for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
berghofe@23783
   655
    where
berghofe@23783
   656
      rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
berghofe@23783
   657
    | ...
berghofe@23783
   658
berghofe@23783
   659
  or
berghofe@23783
   660
berghofe@23783
   661
    inductive_set
berghofe@23783
   662
      s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
berghofe@23783
   663
      and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
berghofe@23783
   664
      for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
berghofe@23783
   665
    where
berghofe@23783
   666
      "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
berghofe@23783
   667
    | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
berghofe@23783
   668
    | ...
berghofe@23783
   669
berghofe@23783
   670
  if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
berghofe@23783
   671
berghofe@23783
   672
  Many examples can be found in the subdirectories Auth, Bali, Induct,
berghofe@23783
   673
  or MicroJava.
berghofe@23783
   674
berghofe@23783
   675
  INCOMPATIBILITIES:
berghofe@23783
   676
berghofe@23783
   677
  - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
berghofe@23783
   678
    is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly introduced
berghofe@23783
   679
    sets or predicates must be specified together with the introduction
berghofe@23783
   680
    rules after the "where" keyword (see example above), rather than before
berghofe@23783
   681
    the actual inductive definition.
berghofe@23783
   682
berghofe@23783
   683
  - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now quantified
berghofe@23783
   684
    in the order of their occurrence in the introduction rules, rather than
berghofe@23783
   685
    in alphabetical order. Since this may break some proofs, these proofs
berghofe@23783
   686
    either have to be repaired, e.g. by reordering the variables
berghofe@23783
   687
    a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar "case" statements of the form
berghofe@23783
   688
berghofe@23783
   689
      case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
berghofe@23783
   690
berghofe@23783
   691
    or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
berghofe@23783
   692
    meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
berghofe@23783
   693
berghofe@23783
   694
      | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
berghofe@23783
   695
berghofe@23783
   696
  - The format of the elimination rules is now
berghofe@23783
   697
berghofe@23783
   698
      p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
berghofe@23783
   699
        (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
berghofe@23783
   700
        ==> ... ==> P
berghofe@23783
   701
berghofe@23783
   702
    for predicates and
berghofe@23783
   703
berghofe@23783
   704
      (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
berghofe@23783
   705
        (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
berghofe@23783
   706
        ==> ... ==> P
berghofe@23783
   707
berghofe@23783
   708
    for sets rather than
berghofe@23783
   709
berghofe@23783
   710
      x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
berghofe@23783
   711
        (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
berghofe@23783
   712
        ==> ... ==> P
berghofe@23783
   713
berghofe@23783
   714
    This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples (e.g. using case_tac
berghofe@23783
   715
    or simplification with the split_paired_all rule) before the above elimination
berghofe@23783
   716
    rule is applicable.
berghofe@23783
   717
berghofe@23783
   718
  - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive sets or
berghofe@23783
   719
    predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The list of rules
berghofe@23783
   720
    "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
berghofe@23783
   721
wenzelm@23562
   722
* Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
wenzelm@23562
   723
resolution prover.  Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  See
wenzelm@23562
   724
also http://gilith.com/software/metis/
paulson@23449
   725
  
wenzelm@23562
   726
* Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
wenzelm@23562
   727
background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
wenzelm@23562
   728
successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
wenzelm@23562
   729
wait for the automatic provers to return.
paulson@23449
   730
nipkow@23564
   731
* Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including "_") and
nipkow@23565
   732
  take their order into account, like in functional programming.
nipkow@23564
   733
  Internally, this is translated into nested case-expressions; missing cases
nipkow@23564
   734
  are added and mapped to the predefined constant "undefined". In complicated
nipkow@23564
   735
  cases printing may no longer show the original input but the internal
nipkow@23565
   736
  form. Lambda-abstractions allow the same form of pattern matching:
nipkow@23564
   737
  "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an abbreviation for
nipkow@23564
   738
  "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new variable.
nipkow@23564
   739
huffman@23468
   740
* IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
huffman@23468
   741
  is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification rules
huffman@23468
   742
  for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did previously.
huffman@23468
   743
  (potential INCOMPATIBILITY)
huffman@23468
   744
  - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
huffman@23468
   745
  - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
huffman@23377
   746
chaieb@23295
   747
* Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
chaieb@23295
   748
  Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and
chaieb@23295
   749
  the tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the
chaieb@23295
   750
  method for a specific type involves instantiating the locale and
chaieb@23295
   751
  possibly adding declarations for computation on the coefficients.
chaieb@23295
   752
  The method is already instantiated for natural numbers and for the
chaieb@23295
   753
  axiomatic class of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by
chaieb@23295
   754
  Chaieb and Wenzel at CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles
chaieb@23295
   755
  underlying this architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
chaieb@23295
   756
haftmann@23029
   757
* constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML antiquotations
haftmann@23029
   758
@{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to circumvent
haftmann@23029
   759
possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
haftmann@23029
   760
haftmann@22997
   761
* Constant renames due to introduction of canonical name prefixing for
haftmann@22997
   762
  class package:
haftmann@22997
   763
haftmann@22997
   764
    HOL.abs ~> HOL.minus_class.abs
haftmann@22997
   765
    HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
haftmann@22997
   766
    Nat.power ~> Nat.power_class.power
haftmann@22997
   767
    Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
haftmann@22997
   768
    Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
haftmann@23129
   769
    FixedPoint.Inf ~> FixedPoint.complete_lattice_class.Inf
haftmann@23129
   770
haftmann@23180
   771
* Rudimentary class target mechanism involves constant renames:
haftmann@23129
   772
haftmann@23129
   773
    Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
haftmann@23129
   774
    Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
haftmann@23129
   775
    FixedPoint.Sup ~> FixedPoint.complete_lattice_class.Sup
haftmann@22997
   776
nipkow@23564
   777
* primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary"
haftmann@22845
   778
haftmann@22845
   779
* new constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined"
haftmann@22845
   780
haftmann@22845
   781
* new class "default" with associated constant "default"
haftmann@22845
   782
nipkow@23104
   783
* new function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
nipkow@23104
   784
  Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
nipkow@23104
   785
nipkow@23210
   786
* new (input only) syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension, eg
nipkow@23210
   787
  [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y]
nipkow@23210
   788
  For details see List.thy.
nipkow@23102
   789
nipkow@23300
   790
* The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x : xs. P] to
nipkow@23300
   791
  [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list comprehension syntax,
nipkow@23300
   792
  and for uniformity. INCOMPATIBILITY
nipkow@23300
   793
krauss@23971
   794
* Lemma "set_take_whileD" renamed to "set_takeWhileD"
krauss@23971
   795
nipkow@23480
   796
* New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps)
nipkow@23480
   797
  for manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies
nipkow@23481
   798
  with all denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations)
nipkow@23480
   799
  or positive/negative (in inequations).
nipkow@23480
   800
nipkow@23480
   801
* Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
nipkow@23478
   802
  have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and ring_distribs.
nipkow@23509
   803
  Removed lemmas field_xyz in Ring_and_Field
nipkow@23509
   804
  because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.
nipkow@23509
   805
INCOMPATIBILITY.
nipkow@23478
   806
haftmann@22799
   807
* Library/Pretty_Int.thy: maps HOL numerals on target language integer literals
nipkow@23480
   808
  when generating code.
haftmann@22799
   809
haftmann@22799
   810
* Library/Pretty_Char.thy: maps HOL characters on target language character literals
nipkow@23480
   811
  when generating code.
haftmann@22799
   812
haftmann@22735
   813
* Library/Commutative_Ring.thy: switched from recdef to function package;
nipkow@23480
   814
  constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for algebraic operations.
haftmann@22735
   815
haftmann@22450
   816
* Some steps towards more uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
haftmann@22422
   817
haftmann@22422
   818
    constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
haftmann@22422
   819
    constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
haftmann@22422
   820
haftmann@22450
   821
    classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
haftmann@22450
   822
      "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
haftmann@22450
   823
    class "lorder" now named "lattice"
haftmann@22450
   824
    class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
haftmann@22450
   825
haftmann@22450
   826
    Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
haftmann@22450
   827
    for "inf" and "sup" operations.
haftmann@22450
   828
haftmann@23129
   829
  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
haftmann@22450
   830
haftmann@22422
   831
    meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
haftmann@22422
   832
    meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
haftmann@22422
   833
    join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
haftmann@22422
   834
    join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
haftmann@22422
   835
    meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
haftmann@22422
   836
    le_meetI                ~> le_infI
haftmann@22422
   837
    join_leI                ~> le_supI
haftmann@22422
   838
    le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
haftmann@22422
   839
    le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
haftmann@22422
   840
    meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
haftmann@22422
   841
    join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
haftmann@22422
   842
    meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
haftmann@22422
   843
    join_comm               ~> sup_commute
haftmann@22422
   844
    meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
haftmann@22422
   845
    meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
haftmann@22422
   846
    le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
haftmann@22422
   847
    le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
haftmann@22422
   848
    meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
haftmann@22422
   849
    join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
haftmann@22422
   850
    meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
haftmann@22422
   851
    meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
haftmann@22422
   852
    join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
haftmann@22422
   853
    join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
haftmann@22422
   854
    meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
haftmann@22422
   855
    join_aci                ~> sup_aci
haftmann@22422
   856
    le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
haftmann@22422
   857
    le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
haftmann@22422
   858
    join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
haftmann@22422
   859
    join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
haftmann@22422
   860
    meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
haftmann@22422
   861
    meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
haftmann@22422
   862
    meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
haftmann@22422
   863
    join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
haftmann@22422
   864
    distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
haftmann@22422
   865
    distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
haftmann@22422
   866
haftmann@22422
   867
    add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
haftmann@22422
   868
    add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
haftmann@22422
   869
    is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
haftmann@22422
   870
    is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
haftmann@22422
   871
    add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
haftmann@22422
   872
    add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
haftmann@22422
   873
    add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
haftmann@22422
   874
    join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
haftmann@22422
   875
    meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
haftmann@22422
   876
    add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
haftmann@22422
   877
    meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
haftmann@22422
   878
    join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
haftmann@22422
   879
    meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
haftmann@22422
   880
    join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
haftmann@22422
   881
    neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
haftmann@22422
   882
    neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
haftmann@22422
   883
    join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
haftmann@22422
   884
haftmann@22422
   885
    mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
haftmann@22422
   886
    mono_join               ~> mono_sup
haftmann@22422
   887
    meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
haftmann@22422
   888
    join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
haftmann@22422
   889
    meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
haftmann@22422
   890
    join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
haftmann@22422
   891
    meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
haftmann@22422
   892
    join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
haftmann@22422
   893
    meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
haftmann@22422
   894
    meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
haftmann@22422
   895
    meet1I                  ~> inf1I
haftmann@22422
   896
    meet2I                  ~> inf2I
haftmann@22422
   897
    meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
haftmann@22422
   898
    meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
haftmann@22422
   899
    meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
haftmann@22422
   900
    meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
haftmann@22422
   901
    meet1E                  ~> inf1E
haftmann@22422
   902
    meet2E                  ~> inf2E
haftmann@22422
   903
    join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
haftmann@22422
   904
    join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
haftmann@22422
   905
    join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
haftmann@22422
   906
    join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
haftmann@22422
   907
    join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
haftmann@22422
   908
    join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
haftmann@22422
   909
    join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
haftmann@22422
   910
    join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
haftmann@22422
   911
    join1E                  ~> sup1E
haftmann@22422
   912
    join2E                  ~> sup2E
haftmann@22422
   913
haftmann@22422
   914
    is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
haftmann@22422
   915
    Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
haftmann@22422
   916
    Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
haftmann@22422
   917
    Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
haftmann@22422
   918
    Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
haftmann@22422
   919
    Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
haftmann@22422
   920
haftmann@22422
   921
    listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
haftmann@22422
   922
    listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
haftmann@22422
   923
haftmann@22450
   924
    meet_min                ~> inf_min
haftmann@22450
   925
    join_max                ~> sup_max
haftmann@22450
   926
haftmann@22845
   927
* Classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
haftmann@22384
   928
"cases" renamed ro "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to
haftmann@22384
   929
avoid clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans". INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@22384
   930
haftmann@22845
   931
* Classes "order" and "linorder": 
haftmann@22316
   932
potential INCOMPATIBILITY: order of proof goals in order/linorder instance
haftmann@22316
   933
proofs changed.
haftmann@22316
   934
haftmann@22218
   935
* Dropped lemma duplicate def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
haftmann@22218
   936
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@22218
   937
haftmann@22218
   938
* Dropped lemma duplicate if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
haftmann@22218
   939
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@22218
   940
wenzelm@22126
   941
* Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
wenzelm@22126
   942
type "'a::size ==> bool"
wenzelm@22126
   943
wenzelm@22126
   944
* Renamed constants "Divides.op div", "Divides.op mod" and "Divides.op
haftmann@22997
   945
dvd" to "Divides.div_class.div", "Divides.div_class.mod" and "Divides.dvd". INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@22126
   946
wenzelm@22126
   947
* Added method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes
wenzelm@22126
   948
termination relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures
wenzelm@22126
   949
-- 'function' package.
wenzelm@22126
   950
wenzelm@22126
   951
* HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
wenzelm@22126
   952
field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
wenzelm@22126
   953
(K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
schirmer@21226
   954
INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
schirmer@21226
   955
adapted.
schirmer@21226
   956
 
wenzelm@22126
   957
* axclass "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and
wenzelm@22126
   958
0 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do
wenzelm@22126
   959
not inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a
wenzelm@22126
   960
theorem there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of
wenzelm@22126
   961
semiring_0, there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
wenzelm@22126
   962
wenzelm@22126
   963
* axclass "recpower" was generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
wenzelm@22126
   964
commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: If you use recpower and need
wenzelm@22126
   965
commutativity or a semiring property, add the corresponding classes.
wenzelm@22126
   966
wenzelm@22126
   967
* Unified locale partial_order with class definition (cf. theory
wenzelm@22126
   968
Orderings), added parameter ``less''.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@21215
   969
haftmann@21099
   970
* Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
wenzelm@22126
   971
INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong.  On
wenzelm@22126
   972
Isar level, use abbreviations instead.
wenzelm@22126
   973
wenzelm@22126
   974
* Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.memberl" INCOMPATIBILITY:
wenzelm@22126
   975
rarely occuring name references (e.g. ``List.op mem.simps'') require
wenzelm@22126
   976
renaming (e.g. ``List.memberl.simps'').
wenzelm@22126
   977
haftmann@22997
   978
* Renamed constants "0" to "HOL.zero_class.zero" and "1" to "HOL.one_class.one".
wenzelm@22126
   979
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@22126
   980
haftmann@23251
   981
* Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic equality.
wenzelm@22126
   982
wenzelm@22126
   983
* Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
wenzelm@22126
   984
been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'. INCOMPATIBILITY --
wenzelm@22126
   985
significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
haftmann@20485
   986
haftmann@20485
   987
  - new constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
haftmann@20485
   988
      of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
haftmann@20485
   989
  - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
haftmann@20485
   990
  - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
haftmann@20485
   991
  - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
haftmann@20485
   992
haftmann@20485
   993
See HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
haftmann@20485
   994
wenzelm@22126
   995
* New top level command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a
wenzelm@22126
   996
term that may contain free variables. For example ``normal_form
wenzelm@22126
   997
"rev[a,b,c]"'' produces ``[b,c,a]'' (without proof).  This command is
wenzelm@22126
   998
suitable for heavy-duty computations because the functions are
wenzelm@22126
   999
compiled to ML first.
nipkow@19895
  1000
wenzelm@17996
  1001
* Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
wenzelm@17996
  1002
25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
wenzelm@17996
  1003
"A = B" (with priority 50).
wenzelm@17996
  1004
ballarin@19279
  1005
* Renamed constants in HOL.thy and Orderings.thy:
haftmann@22997
  1006
    op +   ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
haftmann@22997
  1007
    op -   ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
haftmann@22997
  1008
    uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
haftmann@23881
  1009
    abs    ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
haftmann@22997
  1010
    op *   ~> HOL.times_class.times
haftmann@23881
  1011
    op <   ~> HOL.ord_class.less
haftmann@23881
  1012
    op <=  ~> HOL.ord_class.less_eq
haftmann@19233
  1013
haftmann@19233
  1014
Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
haftmann@19233
  1015
nipkow@19377
  1016
a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus", "times",
nipkow@19377
  1017
"less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for "+", "-" and "*"
nipkow@19377
  1018
may go wrong.
haftmann@19233
  1019
INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
haftmann@19233
  1020
haftmann@19277
  1021
b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
haftmann@19233
  1022
INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
haftmann@19233
  1023
nipkow@19377
  1024
c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
nipkow@19377
  1025
Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
nipkow@19377
  1026
rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows that
nipkow@19377
  1027
this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
nipkow@19377
  1028
distribution).
nipkow@19377
  1029
INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
haftmann@19233
  1030
haftmann@19233
  1031
d) ML code directly refering to constant names
haftmann@19233
  1032
This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and so on.
haftmann@22997
  1033
INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.  Consider use
haftmann@22997
  1034
of const_name ML antiquotations.
haftmann@19233
  1035
wenzelm@21265
  1036
* Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
wenzelm@21265
  1037
Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
wenzelm@21265
  1038
e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".
wenzelm@21265
  1039
nipkow@18674
  1040
* "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
nipkow@18674
  1041
krauss@20716
  1042
* Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
krauss@20716
  1043
stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
krauss@20716
  1044
wenzelm@22126
  1045
* The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
wenzelm@22126
  1046
removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
nipkow@19377
  1047
wenzelm@17865
  1048
* In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
wenzelm@17865
  1049
"t = s" to False (by simproc "neq_simproc").  For backward
wenzelm@17865
  1050
compatibility this can be disabled by ML "reset use_neq_simproc".
wenzelm@17779
  1051
wenzelm@22126
  1052
* "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to True/False by
wenzelm@22126
  1053
simp.
wenzelm@22126
  1054
wenzelm@22126
  1055
* Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as ``simp''.
nipkow@19211
  1056
ballarin@19279
  1057
* Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
ballarin@19279
  1058
nipkow@19211
  1059
* Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
wenzelm@22126
  1060
``rule'' method.
wenzelm@22126
  1061
wenzelm@22126
  1062
* Reimplemented methods ``sat'' and ``satx'', with several
wenzelm@22126
  1063
improvements: goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==>
wenzelm@22126
  1064
False", equivalences (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable
wenzelm@22126
  1065
names of the form "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant
wenzelm@22126
  1066
speedup.
wenzelm@22126
  1067
wenzelm@22126
  1068
* Methods ``sat'' and ``satx'' can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
wenzelm@22126
  1069
zChaff is still supported as well.
wenzelm@22126
  1070
wenzelm@22126
  1071
* 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
wenzelm@22126
  1072
bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
wenzelm@22126
  1073
wenzelm@22126
  1074
* Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
wenzelm@22126
  1075
Library.
wenzelm@21256
  1076
wenzelm@21256
  1077
* Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
wenzelm@19572
  1078
wenzelm@18446
  1079
* Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
wenzelm@18446
  1080
as greatest fixed-point.
wenzelm@18399
  1081
wenzelm@19254
  1082
* Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
schirmer@19252
  1083
association lists.
webertj@17809
  1084
wenzelm@22126
  1085
* Added proof method ``evaluation'' for efficiently solving a goal
wenzelm@22126
  1086
(i.e. a boolean expression) by compiling it to ML. The goal is
wenzelm@22126
  1087
"proved" (via an oracle) if it evaluates to True.
wenzelm@20807
  1088
wenzelm@20807
  1089
* Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
wenzelm@20807
  1090
also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the simplifier
haftmann@21056
  1091
being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Set
wenzelm@20807
  1092
fast_arith_split_limit to 0 to obtain the old behavior.
webertj@20217
  1093
wenzelm@22126
  1094
* Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
wenzelm@19254
  1095
wenzelm@20807
  1096
* New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
wenzelm@20807
  1097
interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
wenzelm@20807
  1098
parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
wenzelm@20807
  1099
theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
wenzelm@20807
  1100
resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
wenzelm@20807
  1101
s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
wenzelm@20807
  1102
wenzelm@20807
  1103
* New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
wenzelm@20807
  1104
are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
wenzelm@20807
  1105
where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
wenzelm@20807
  1106
generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
wenzelm@20807
  1107
applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
wenzelm@20807
  1108
r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
wenzelm@20807
  1109
subgoal. An Example is available in HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
wenzelm@20807
  1110
haftmann@23881
  1111
* Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example
wenzelm@20807
  1112
is available in HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
wenzelm@20807
  1113
wenzelm@20807
  1114
ballarin@20169
  1115
*** HOL-Algebra ***
ballarin@20169
  1116
wenzelm@21170
  1117
* Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
wenzelm@21170
  1118
wenzelm@21170
  1119
* Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
wenzelm@21170
  1120
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@21170
  1121
wenzelm@22126
  1122
* Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
wenzelm@22126
  1123
greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
ballarin@21896
  1124
wenzelm@21170
  1125
* Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
ballarin@21896
  1126
Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
wenzelm@21170
  1127
of algebraic structures.
ballarin@20318
  1128
wenzelm@22126
  1129
* Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
ballarin@20169
  1130
wenzelm@20807
  1131
wenzelm@19653
  1132
*** HOL-Complex ***
wenzelm@19653
  1133
wenzelm@19653
  1134
* Theory Real: new method ferrack implements quantifier elimination
wenzelm@19653
  1135
for linear arithmetic over the reals. The quantifier elimination
wenzelm@19653
  1136
feature is used only for decision, for compatibility with arith. This
wenzelm@19653
  1137
means a goal is either solved or left unchanged, no simplification.
wenzelm@19653
  1138
huffman@22971
  1139
* Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
huffman@22971
  1140
inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
huffman@22971
  1141
Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
huffman@22971
  1142
that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
huffman@22971
  1143
INCOMPATIBILITY.
huffman@22971
  1144
huffman@21791
  1145
* Real: New axiomatic classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
huffman@21791
  1146
algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
huffman@21791
  1147
and norm :: 'a => real.
huffman@21791
  1148
wenzelm@22126
  1149
* Real: New constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects
wenzelm@22126
  1150
from reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set
wenzelm@22126
  1151
is now defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@22126
  1152
nipkow@23013
  1153
* Real: ML code generation is supported now and hence also quickcheck.
nipkow@23013
  1154
Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
nipkow@23013
  1155
wenzelm@22126
  1156
* Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
wenzelm@22126
  1157
reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
wenzelm@22126
  1158
spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
wenzelm@22126
  1159
INCOMPATIBILITY.
huffman@21791
  1160
huffman@22972
  1161
  Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
huffman@22972
  1162
  HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
huffman@22972
  1163
  HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
huffman@21791
  1164
  approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
huffman@21791
  1165
  monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
huffman@21791
  1166
  galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
huffman@22972
  1167
  (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
huffman@21791
  1168
  (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
huffman@21791
  1169
  (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
huffman@21791
  1170
  (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
huffman@21791
  1171
  (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
huffman@21791
  1172
  is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
huffman@21791
  1173
  deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
huffman@22972
  1174
  sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
huffman@23116
  1175
  exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
huffman@21791
  1176
huffman@21791
  1177
* Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
wenzelm@22126
  1178
overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
wenzelm@22126
  1179
hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
wenzelm@22126
  1180
polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
huffman@21791
  1181
huffman@21791
  1182
  approx        <-- capprox
huffman@21791
  1183
  HFinite       <-- CFinite
huffman@21791
  1184
  HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
huffman@21791
  1185
  Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
huffman@21791
  1186
  monad         <-- cmonad
huffman@21791
  1187
  galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
huffman@21791
  1188
  (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
huffman@21791
  1189
  is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
huffman@21791
  1190
  (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
huffman@21791
  1191
wenzelm@19653
  1192
wenzelm@17878
  1193
*** ML ***
wenzelm@17878
  1194
haftmann@23251
  1195
* Generic arithmetic modules: Tools/integer.ML, Tools/rat.ML, Tools/float.ML
haftmann@23251
  1196
wenzelm@22848
  1197
* Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
wenzelm@22863
  1198
name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
wenzelm@22863
  1199
init only required for impure data.  INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really
wenzelm@22863
  1200
need to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
wenzelm@22848
  1201
wenzelm@22138
  1202
* ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
wenzelm@22138
  1203
formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
wenzelm@22138
  1204
compile-time.  For example:
wenzelm@22138
  1205
wenzelm@22138
  1206
ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1207
ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1208
ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1209
ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1210
ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1211
ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1212
ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1213
ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
wenzelm@22376
  1214
ML {* @{const_name c} *}
wenzelm@22376
  1215
ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1216
ML {* @{context} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1217
ML {* @{theory} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1218
ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1219
ML {* @{simpset} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1220
ML {* @{claset} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1221
ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1222
wenzelm@22151
  1223
The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
wenzelm@22151
  1224
wenzelm@22152
  1225
* ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
wenzelm@22152
  1226
Toplevel.debug enabled.
wenzelm@22152
  1227
haftmann@20348
  1228
* Pure/library:
haftmann@20348
  1229
haftmann@18450
  1230
  val burrow: ('a list -> 'b list) -> 'a list list -> 'b list list
haftmann@18549
  1231
  val fold_burrow: ('a list -> 'c -> 'b list * 'd) -> 'a list list -> 'c -> 'b list list * 'd
haftmann@18450
  1232
wenzelm@18540
  1233
The semantics of "burrow" is: "take a function with *simulatanously*
wenzelm@18540
  1234
transforms a list of value, and apply it *simulatanously* to a list of
wenzelm@22126
  1235
list of values of the appropriate type". Compare this with "map" which
wenzelm@18540
  1236
would *not* apply its argument function simulatanously but in
wenzelm@22126
  1237
sequence; "fold_burrow" has an additional context.
haftmann@18450
  1238
wenzelm@18446
  1239
* Pure/library: functions map2 and fold2 with curried syntax for
wenzelm@18446
  1240
simultanous mapping and folding:
wenzelm@18446
  1241
haftmann@18422
  1242
    val map2: ('a -> 'b -> 'c) -> 'a list -> 'b list -> 'c list
haftmann@18422
  1243
    val fold2: ('a -> 'b -> 'c -> 'c) -> 'a list -> 'b list -> 'c -> 'c
haftmann@18422
  1244
wenzelm@18446
  1245
* Pure/library: indexed lists - some functions in the Isabelle library
wenzelm@18446
  1246
treating lists over 'a as finite mappings from [0...n] to 'a have been
wenzelm@18446
  1247
given more convenient names and signatures reminiscent of similar
wenzelm@18446
  1248
functions for alists, tables, etc:
haftmann@18051
  1249
haftmann@18051
  1250
  val nth: 'a list -> int -> 'a 
haftmann@18051
  1251
  val nth_map: int -> ('a -> 'a) -> 'a list -> 'a list
haftmann@18051
  1252
  val fold_index: (int * 'a -> 'b -> 'b) -> 'a list -> 'b -> 'b
haftmann@18051
  1253
wenzelm@18446
  1254
Note that fold_index starts counting at index 0, not 1 like foldln
wenzelm@18446
  1255
used to.
wenzelm@18446
  1256
wenzelm@22126
  1257
* Pure/library: added general ``divide_and_conquer'' combinator on
wenzelm@22126
  1258
lists.
wenzelm@19032
  1259
wenzelm@19032
  1260
* Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
wenzelm@19081
  1261
DUP/SAME instead of type option.  This is simpler in simple cases, and
wenzelm@19081
  1262
admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
wenzelm@18446
  1263
wenzelm@18642
  1264
* Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
wenzelm@18644
  1265
provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
wenzelm@18642
  1266
context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
wenzelm@18642
  1267
wenzelm@18862
  1268
* Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
wenzelm@18862
  1269
use Context.generic instead of just theory.
wenzelm@18862
  1270
wenzelm@18737
  1271
* Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
wenzelm@18737
  1272
Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm.  Global (theory)
wenzelm@18737
  1273
vs. local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
wenzelm@18738
  1274
minimizing code duplication.  Thm.rule_attribute and
wenzelm@18738
  1275
Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also
wenzelm@19006
  1276
structure Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
wenzelm@19006
  1277
GenericDataFun.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
wenzelm@19006
  1278
declarations and definitions.
wenzelm@19006
  1279
wenzelm@19508
  1280
* Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
wenzelm@19508
  1281
signature declarations.  (This information is not relevant to the
wenzelm@22126
  1282
logic, but only for type inference.)  IMPORTANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
wenzelm@22126
  1283
potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@19508
  1284
wenzelm@19508
  1285
* Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
wenzelm@19508
  1286
explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
wenzelm@19508
  1287
internally.  See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
wenzelm@19508
  1288
notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
wenzelm@19508
  1289
AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supercede
wenzelm@19508
  1290
Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
wenzelm@19508
  1291
wenzelm@19006
  1292
* Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
wenzelm@19006
  1293
global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
wenzelm@19006
  1294
discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
wenzelm@19006
  1295
accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
wenzelm@19006
  1296
attributes, methods, etc.
wenzelm@18642
  1297
wenzelm@18446
  1298
* Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
wenzelm@18446
  1299
have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
wenzelm@18446
  1300
allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
wenzelm@18446
  1301
fold_map combinators.
haftmann@18051
  1302
wenzelm@21647
  1303
* Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
wenzelm@21647
  1304
comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
wenzelm@21647
  1305
maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
wenzelm@21647
  1306
derivation.
wenzelm@21647
  1307
wenzelm@18020
  1308
* Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
wenzelm@18145
  1309
actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
wenzelm@18020
  1310
achieve the old behaviour.
wenzelm@18020
  1311
wenzelm@18020
  1312
* Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
wenzelm@18020
  1313
slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
wenzelm@18020
  1314
statements.
wenzelm@18020
  1315
wenzelm@20040
  1316
* Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
wenzelm@20040
  1317
enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
wenzelm@20040
  1318
Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
wenzelm@20040
  1319
wenzelm@20090
  1320
* Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
wenzelm@20090
  1321
internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
wenzelm@20090
  1322
some popular functions from term.ML:
wenzelm@20090
  1323
wenzelm@20090
  1324
  Term.variant		->  Name.variant
wenzelm@20090
  1325
  Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list  (*canonical argument order*)
wenzelm@20090
  1326
  Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
wenzelm@20090
  1327
wenzelm@20090
  1328
Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
wenzelm@20090
  1329
from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
wenzelm@20090
  1330
wenzelm@20040
  1331
* Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
wenzelm@20040
  1332
treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
wenzelm@20040
  1333
Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
wenzelm@20040
  1334
Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
wenzelm@20040
  1335
various freeze_thaw operations.
wenzelm@20040
  1336
wenzelm@18567
  1337
* Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
wenzelm@17981
  1338
init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
wenzelm@20040
  1339
Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
wenzelm@20040
  1340
within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
wenzelm@20040
  1341
theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
wenzelm@20040
  1342
OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
wenzelm@20040
  1343
ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
wenzelm@20040
  1344
in a locale context).
wenzelm@17981
  1345
wenzelm@18815
  1346
* Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
wenzelm@18687
  1347
ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
wenzelm@18686
  1348
without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
wenzelm@18686
  1349
care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
wenzelm@18686
  1350
handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
wenzelm@18686
  1351
wenzelm@18686
  1352
  ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
wenzelm@18686
  1353
wenzelm@18686
  1354
Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
wenzelm@18687
  1355
embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
wenzelm@18687
  1356
this:
wenzelm@18686
  1357
wenzelm@18686
  1358
  Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
wenzelm@18686
  1359
wenzelm@18686
  1360
INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
wenzelm@18686
  1361
obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
wenzelm@18686
  1362
Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
wenzelm@18686
  1363
-- use plain ERROR instead.
wenzelm@18686
  1364
wenzelm@18815
  1365
* Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
wenzelm@18722
  1366
list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
wenzelm@18722
  1367
wenzelm@18815
  1368
* Isar: installed ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context,
wenzelm@18815
  1369
subject to ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
wenzelm@18815
  1370
wenzelm@18815
  1371
* Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
wenzelm@18815
  1372
theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
wenzelm@18815
  1373
quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
wenzelm@18590
  1374
batch mode.
wenzelm@18567
  1375
wenzelm@17878
  1376
* Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
wenzelm@17878
  1377
contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
wenzelm@17878
  1378
very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
wenzelm@17890
  1379
simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
wenzelm@17878
  1380
(solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
wenzelm@17878
  1381
wenzelm@17878
  1382
* Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
wenzelm@17878
  1383
local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
wenzelm@17878
  1384
etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
wenzelm@17878
  1385
former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
wenzelm@17890
  1386
INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
wenzelm@17890
  1387
specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
wenzelm@17878
  1388
wenzelm@17878
  1389
* Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
wenzelm@17878
  1390
change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
wenzelm@17878
  1391
theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
wenzelm@17878
  1392
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@17878
  1393
wenzelm@18540
  1394
* Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
wenzelm@18540
  1395
"Trueprop" etc.
wenzelm@18540
  1396
wenzelm@17878
  1397
wenzelm@20988
  1398
*** System ***
wenzelm@20988
  1399
wenzelm@21471
  1400
* settings: ML_IDENTIFIER -- which is appended to user specific heap
wenzelm@21471
  1401
locations -- now includes the Isabelle version identifier as well.
wenzelm@21471
  1402
This simplifies use of multiple Isabelle installations.
wenzelm@21471
  1403
wenzelm@20988
  1404
* isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
wenzelm@20988
  1405
operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
wenzelm@20988
  1406
code.
wenzelm@20988
  1407
wenzelm@17754
  1408
wenzelm@17720
  1409
New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
wenzelm@17720
  1410
----------------------------------
wenzelm@14655
  1411
wenzelm@14655
  1412
*** General ***
wenzelm@14655
  1413
nipkow@15130
  1414
* Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
nipkow@15130
  1415
nipkow@15130
  1416
  theory <name>
wenzelm@16234
  1417
  imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
wenzelm@16234
  1418
  uses <file1> ... <fileM>
nipkow@15130
  1419
  begin
nipkow@15130
  1420
wenzelm@16234
  1421
where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
wenzelm@16234
  1422
wenzelm@16234
  1423
  theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
wenzelm@16234
  1424
wenzelm@16717
  1425
will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
wenzelm@16717
  1426
existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
wenzelm@17371
  1427
non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
nipkow@15130
  1428
berghofe@15475
  1429
* Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
wenzelm@16234
  1430
relative and absolute paths.
wenzelm@16234
  1431
wenzelm@17408
  1432
* Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
wenzelm@17408
  1433
list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
wenzelm@17408
  1434
simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
wenzelm@17408
  1435
theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
wenzelm@17408
  1436
match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
wenzelm@17408
  1437
name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
wenzelm@17408
  1438
lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
wenzelm@17408
  1439
all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
wenzelm@17408
  1440
'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
wenzelm@16234
  1441
wenzelm@17275
  1442
  C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
wenzelm@16234
  1443
wenzelm@16234
  1444
prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
wenzelm@16234
  1445
matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
wenzelm@16234
  1446
in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
wenzelm@16013
  1447
wenzelm@17408
  1448
* Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
wenzelm@17408
  1449
'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@17408
  1450
wenzelm@17385
  1451
* Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
wenzelm@17385
  1452
Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
wenzelm@17408
  1453
formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
wenzelm@17538
  1454
General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
wenzelm@17538
  1455
wenzelm@17538
  1456
  http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
wenzelm@17538
  1457
  http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
wenzelm@17385
  1458
wenzelm@17425
  1459
* Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
wenzelm@17425
  1460
Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
wenzelm@17425
  1461
faster.
wenzelm@17425
  1462
wenzelm@15703
  1463
wenzelm@15703
  1464
*** Document preparation ***
wenzelm@15703
  1465
wenzelm@16234
  1466
* Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
wenzelm@16234
  1467
of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
wenzelm@16234
  1468
LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
wenzelm@16234
  1469
displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
wenzelm@16234
  1470
and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
wenzelm@16234
  1471
DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
wenzelm@16234
  1472
wenzelm@17047
  1473
* Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
wenzelm@17047
  1474
notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
wenzelm@17047
  1475
theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
wenzelm@17047
  1476
commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
wenzelm@17047
  1477
"invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
wenzelm@17047
  1478
specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
wenzelm@17047
  1479
interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
wenzelm@17047
  1480
preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
wenzelm@17047
  1481
isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
wenzelm@17047
  1482
\isadroptag.
wenzelm@17047
  1483
wenzelm@17047
  1484
Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
wenzelm@17047
  1485
usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
wenzelm@17047
  1486
specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
wenzelm@17047
  1487
theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
wenzelm@17047
  1488
proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
wenzelm@17047
  1489
these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
wenzelm@17047
  1490
default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
wenzelm@17047
  1491
specified above.
wenzelm@16234
  1492
haftmann@17402
  1493
* Several new antiquotations:
wenzelm@15979
  1494
wenzelm@15979
  1495
  @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
wenzelm@15979
  1496
wenzelm@15979
  1497
  @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
wenzelm@15979
  1498
wenzelm@16234
  1499
  @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
wenzelm@16234
  1500
  argument is a known logical constant;
wenzelm@15979
  1501
wenzelm@15979
  1502
  @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
wenzelm@16234
  1503
  theorem applying a "style" to it
wenzelm@16234
  1504
wenzelm@17117
  1505
  @{ML text}
wenzelm@17117
  1506
wenzelm@16234
  1507
Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
wenzelm@16234
  1508
definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
schirmer@17393
  1509
conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
wenzelm@16234
  1510
to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
wenzelm@16234
  1511
interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
wenzelm@17117
  1512
document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
wenzelm@17117
  1513
type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
wenzelm@16234
  1514
wenzelm@17259
  1515
* Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
wenzelm@17259
  1516
and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
wenzelm@17269
  1517
specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
wenzelm@17269
  1518
example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
wenzelm@17259
  1519
wenzelm@17259
  1520
* Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
wenzelm@17259
  1521
context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
wenzelm@17269
  1522
[locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.
wenzelm@17259
  1523
wenzelm@17097
  1524
* Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within
wenzelm@17097
  1525
a proof context.
wenzelm@17097
  1526
wenzelm@17097
  1527
* Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a
wenzelm@17097
  1528
proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').
wenzelm@17097
  1529
wenzelm@17193
  1530
* Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX
wenzelm@17193
  1531
macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).
wenzelm@17193
  1532
wenzelm@17193
  1533
* isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option
wenzelm@17193
  1534
-D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false
wenzelm@17193
  1535
prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.
wenzelm@17193
  1536
wenzelm@16234
  1537
wenzelm@16234
  1538
*** Pure ***
wenzelm@16234
  1539
wenzelm@16234
  1540
* Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command.  Now performs
wenzelm@16234
  1541
automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for
wenzelm@16234
  1542
local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also
wenzelm@16234
  1543
isar-ref manual.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly
wenzelm@16234
  1544
sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'
wenzelm@16234
  1545
section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier.  If
wenzelm@16234
  1546
all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.
wenzelm@16234
  1547
wenzelm@16234
  1548
* Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures.  First of all,
wenzelm@16234
  1549
indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted
wenzelm@16234
  1550
application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary
wenzelm@16234
  1551
expressions.  Secondly, in a local context with structure
wenzelm@16234
  1552
declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default
wenzelm@16234
  1553
number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option
wenzelm@16234
  1554
show_structs controls printing of implicit structures.  Typical
wenzelm@16234
  1555
applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.
wenzelm@16234
  1556
wenzelm@16234
  1557
* New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and
wenzelm@16234
  1558
translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is
wenzelm@16234
  1559
interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.
wenzelm@16234
  1560
wenzelm@16234
  1561
* 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend
wenzelm@16234
  1562
on the signature of the theory context being presently used for
wenzelm@16234
  1563
parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.
wenzelm@16234
  1564
wenzelm@16856
  1565
* Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an
wenzelm@16856
  1566
ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of
wenzelm@16856
  1567
type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle
wenzelm@16856
  1568
is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;
wenzelm@16856
  1569
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@16856
  1570
wenzelm@17275
  1571
* axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"
wenzelm@17275
  1572
before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.
wenzelm@17275
  1573
INCOMPATIBILITY.  This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for
wenzelm@17275
  1574
axclasses vs. locales.
wenzelm@17275
  1575
wenzelm@16234
  1576
* Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes
wenzelm@16234
  1577
instead of base 26 numbers.
wenzelm@16234
  1578
wenzelm@16234
  1579
* New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question
wenzelm@16234
  1580
marks in schematic variable names.
wenzelm@16234
  1581
wenzelm@16234
  1582
* In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or
wenzelm@16234
  1583
\<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name.  For example, the
wenzelm@16234
  1584
following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:
wenzelm@16234
  1585
wenzelm@16234
  1586
  lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"
wenzelm@16234
  1587
    by simp
wenzelm@16234
  1588
wenzelm@16234
  1589
* Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).
wenzelm@16234
  1590
wenzelm@17548
  1591
* Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix
wenzelm@16234
  1592
annotations as "(00...)".
wenzelm@16234
  1593
wenzelm@16234
  1594
* Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter
wenzelm@16234
  1595
may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.
wenzelm@16234
  1596
Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class
wenzelm@16234
  1597
"logic" vs. "{}".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper
wenzelm@16234
  1598
use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'.  Some very
wenzelm@16234
  1599
exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption
wenzelm@17691
  1600
(e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).
wenzelm@16234
  1601
wenzelm@16234
  1602
* Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.
wenzelm@16234
  1603
Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'
wenzelm@16234
  1604
rather than 'types'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic
wenzelm@16234
  1605
specifications.
wenzelm@16234
  1606
ballarin@17095
  1607
* Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be
ballarin@17095
  1608
locally fixed variables as well.
ballarin@17095
  1609
wenzelm@16234
  1610
* Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting
wenzelm@16234
  1611
is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth
wenzelm@16234
  1612
Limit.
wenzelm@16234
  1613
wenzelm@16234
  1614
* Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current
wenzelm@16234
  1615
simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc
wenzelm@16234
  1616
interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier
wenzelm@16234
  1617
recursively.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs
wenzelm@16234
  1618
is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead.  Moreover, the
wenzelm@16234
  1619
low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to
wenzelm@16234
  1620
allow for use in a context of fixed variables.
wenzelm@16234
  1621
wenzelm@16234
  1622
* thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!
wenzelm@16234
  1623
or ==>.  More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of
wenzelm@16234
  1624
the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.
wenzelm@16234
  1625
wenzelm@17597
  1626
* Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
nipkow@17590
  1627
wenzelm@16234
  1628
* Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived
wenzelm@16234
  1629
from Pure, which contains all common declarations already.  Both
wenzelm@16234
  1630
theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.
wenzelm@16234
  1631
INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /
wenzelm@16234
  1632
CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;
wenzelm@16234
  1633
use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.
wenzelm@16234
  1634
wenzelm@16234
  1635
* New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific
wenzelm@16234
  1636
selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.
wenzelm@16234
  1637
wenzelm@17097
  1638
* 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference
wenzelm@17097
  1639
wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),
wenzelm@17097
  1640
in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');
wenzelm@17097
  1641
wenzelm@17397
  1642
* 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.
wenzelm@17397
  1643
wenzelm@17275
  1644
* More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive
wenzelm@17275
  1645
theory development.
wenzelm@17275
  1646
berghofe@17663
  1647
* Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code
wenzelm@17664
  1648
generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures
wenzelm@17664
  1649
for each theory).  INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'
wenzelm@17664
  1650
must be quoted when used as identifiers.
wenzelm@17664
  1651
wenzelm@17664
  1652
* New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using
wenzelm@17664
  1653
the code generator.  INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be
wenzelm@17664
  1654
quoted when used as identifier.
berghofe@17663
  1655
wenzelm@16234
  1656
wenzelm@16234
  1657
*** Locales ***
ballarin@17095
  1658
wenzelm@17385
  1659
* New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in
wenzelm@17385
  1660
theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3).  These generate
wenzelm@17385
  1661
proof obligations from the expression specification.  After the
wenzelm@17385
  1662
obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added
wenzelm@17385
  1663
to the theory, target locale or proof context.  The synopsis of the
wenzelm@17385
  1664
commands is a follows:
wenzelm@17385
  1665
ballarin@17095
  1666
  (1) interpretation expr inst
ballarin@17095
  1667
  (2) interpretation target < expr
ballarin@17095
  1668
  (3) interpret expr inst
wenzelm@17385
  1669
ballarin@17095
  1670
Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter
ballarin@17095
  1671
instantiation of terms from the current context.  This is applied to
wenzelm@17385
  1672
specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.
wenzelm@17385
  1673
Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the
wenzelm@17385
  1674
locale expression.  Interpretation is smart in that interpretations
wenzelm@17385
  1675
that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are
wenzelm@17385
  1676
instantiated theorems stored in duplicate.  Use 'print_interps' to
wenzelm@17385
  1677
inspect active interpretations of a particular locale.  For details,
ballarin@17436
  1678
see the Isar Reference manual.  Examples can be found in
ballarin@17436
  1679
HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.
wenzelm@16234
  1680
wenzelm@16234
  1681
INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use
wenzelm@16234
  1682
'interpret' instead.
wenzelm@16234
  1683
wenzelm@17385
  1684
* New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to
wenzelm@17385
  1685
parameters.
wenzelm@17385
  1686
wenzelm@17385
  1687
* Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax
wenzelm@17385
  1688
redeclaration.
ballarin@17095
  1689
ballarin@17095
  1690
* Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.
ballarin@17095
  1691
wenzelm@16234
  1692
* Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /
wenzelm@16234
  1693
facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition
wenzelm@16234
  1694
context, independently of the context of later invocations.  Moreover,
wenzelm@16234
  1695
locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied
wenzelm@16234
  1696
to attribute arguments as expected.
wenzelm@16234
  1697
wenzelm@16234
  1698
INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of
wenzelm@16234
  1699
actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to
wenzelm@16234
  1700
embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.
wenzelm@16234
  1701
Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static
wenzelm@16234
  1702
binding mechanism.  Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and
wenzelm@16234
  1703
Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further
wenzelm@16234
  1704
intervention.  Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"
wenzelm@16234
  1705
(cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both
wenzelm@16234
  1706
on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed
wenzelm@16234
  1707
values to argument tokens explicitly.
wenzelm@16234
  1708
wenzelm@16234
  1709
* Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal
wenzelm@16234
  1710
statements with 'includes'.  INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different
wenzelm@16234
  1711
theorem statement in rare situations.
wenzelm@16234
  1712
ballarin@17228
  1713
* Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements.  Use
ballarin@17228
  1714
'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.
ballarin@17228
  1715
wenzelm@16234
  1716
wenzelm@16234
  1717
*** Provers ***
wenzelm@16234
  1718
wenzelm@16234
  1719
* Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for
wenzelm@16234
  1720
single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is
wenzelm@16234
  1721
'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may
wenzelm@16234
  1722
rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is
wenzelm@16234
  1723
still available as 'simplesubst'.
wenzelm@16234
  1724
wenzelm@16234
  1725
* Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only
wenzelm@16234
  1726
and quasi orders.
wenzelm@16234
  1727
wenzelm@16234
  1728
* Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and
wenzelm@16234
  1729
reflexive-transitive closure of relations.
wenzelm@16234
  1730
wenzelm@16234
  1731
* Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth
wenzelm@16234
  1732
limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.
wenzelm@16234
  1733
wenzelm@16234
  1734
* Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup
wenzelm@16234
  1735
is peformed already.  Object-logics merely need to finish their
wenzelm@16234
  1736
initial simpset configuration as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@15703
  1737
berghofe@15475
  1738
schirmer@14700
  1739
*** HOL ***
schirmer@14700
  1740
wenzelm@16234
  1741
* Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:
wenzelm@14878
  1742
wenzelm@14878
  1743
  syntax (epsilon)
wenzelm@14878
  1744
    "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a"    ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)
wenzelm@14878
  1745
wenzelm@16234
  1746
The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX
wenzelm@16234
  1747
and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.
wenzelm@16234
  1748
Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>
wenzelm@16234
  1749
becomes available as variable, constant etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
wenzelm@16234
  1750
wenzelm@16234
  1751
* "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".
wenzelm@16234
  1752
Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc.  The x-symbol for >=
wenzelm@17371
  1753
is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to
avigad@17016
  1754
support corresponding Isar calculations.
wenzelm@16234
  1755
wenzelm@16234
  1756
* "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"
wenzelm@16234
  1757
instead of ":".
wenzelm@16234
  1758
wenzelm@16234
  1759
* theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:
wenzelm@16234
  1760
wenzelm@16234
  1761
  Old       New
wenzelm@16234
  1762
  {..n(}    {..<n}
wenzelm@16234
  1763
  {)n..}    {n<..}
wenzelm@16234
  1764
  {m..n(}   {m..<n}
wenzelm@16234
  1765
  {)m..n}   {m<..n}
wenzelm@16234
  1766
  {)m..n(}  {m<..<n}
wenzelm@16234
  1767
wenzelm@16234
  1768
The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next
wenzelm@16234
  1769
release.  For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace
wenzelm@16234
  1770
patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):
nipkow@15046
  1771
nipkow@15046
  1772
  {)\([^\.]*\)\.\.  ->  {\1<\.\.}
nipkow@15046
  1773
  \.\.\([^(}]*\)(}  ->  \.\.<\1}
nipkow@15046
  1774
wenzelm@17533
  1775
* Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving
wenzelm@17533
  1776
equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic
wenzelm@17533
  1777
interface.
wenzelm@17389
  1778
wenzelm@17389
  1779
* Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over
wenzelm@16234
  1780
finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is
wenzelm@17371
  1781
now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can
paulson@17189
  1782
be a tuple pattern.
wenzelm@16234
  1783
wenzelm@16234
  1784
Some new syntax forms are available:
wenzelm@16234
  1785
wenzelm@16234
  1786
  "\<Sum>x | P. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"
wenzelm@16234
  1787
  "\<Sum>x = a..b. e"   for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"
wenzelm@16234
  1788
  "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e"  for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"
wenzelm@16234
  1789
  "\<Sum>x < k. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"
wenzelm@16234
  1790
wenzelm@16234
  1791
The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate
wenzelm@16234
  1792
function "Summation", which has been discontinued.
wenzelm@16234
  1793
wenzelm@16234
  1794
* theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case
wenzelm@16234
  1795
is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case
wenzelm@16234
  1796
(insert F x)'.
wenzelm@16234
  1797
wenzelm@16234
  1798
* The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger
wenzelm@16234
  1799
fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and
wenzelm@16234
  1800
typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.
wenzelm@16234
  1801
webertj@17700
  1802
* New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.
webertj@17700
  1803
Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed.  See
webertj@17700
  1804
HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.
webertj@17619
  1805
wenzelm@16234
  1806
* Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the
wenzelm@16234
  1807
induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by
wenzelm@16234
  1808
induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather
wenzelm@16234
  1809
than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
wenzelm@16234
  1810
in unstructured proof scripts.
wenzelm@16234
  1811
wenzelm@16234
  1812
* Reworked implementation of records.  Improved scalability for
wenzelm@16234
  1813
records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type
wenzelm@16234
  1814
inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but
wenzelm@16234
  1815
of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear
wenzelm@16234
  1816
in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields.  The
wenzelm@16234
  1817
top-level (users) view on records is preserved.  Potential
wenzelm@16234
  1818
INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the
wenzelm@16234
  1819
old record representation. The type generated for a record is called
wenzelm@16234
  1820
<record_name>_ext_type.
wenzelm@16234
  1821
wenzelm@16234
  1822
Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the
wenzelm@16234
  1823
proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if
wenzelm@16234
  1824
quick_and_dirty is enabled).  Definitions of large records can take
wenzelm@16234
  1825
quite long.
wenzelm@16234
  1826
wenzelm@16234
  1827
New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record
wenzelm@16234
  1828
updates enabled by default.  Moreover, trivial updates are also
wenzelm@16234
  1829
removed: r(|x := x r|) = r.  INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break
wenzelm@16234
  1830
occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.
wenzelm@16234
  1831
wenzelm@17275
  1832
* typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra
wenzelm@17275
  1833
type-variables in the term.
wenzelm@17275
  1834
wenzelm@16234
  1835
* Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains
wenzelm@16234
  1836
involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics
wenzelm@16234
  1837
provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
wenzelm@16234
  1838
old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more
wenzelm@16234
  1839
goals than previously.
wenzelm@16234
  1840
wenzelm@16234
  1841
* Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is
wenzelm@16234
  1842
present.  Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular
wenzelm@16234
  1843
numbers and sets.  For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y
wenzelm@16234
  1844
just like y <= x.
wenzelm@16234
  1845
wenzelm@16234
  1846
* Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x".  If a is a free or
wenzelm@16234
  1847
bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded.  Otherwise
wenzelm@16234
  1848
first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If
wenzelm@16234
  1849
possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",
wenzelm@16234
  1850
otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g.  The simproc can be
wenzelm@16234
  1851
enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc.  Potential
wenzelm@16234
  1852
INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.
webertj@15776
  1853
paulson@16563
  1854
* Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.
paulson@16563
  1855
paulson@17595
  1856
* Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background
paulson@17595
  1857
jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.
paulson@17595
  1858
wenzelm@16891
  1859
* Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and
wenzelm@16891
  1860
improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and
wenzelm@16891
  1861
inequalities.
wenzelm@16891
  1862
wenzelm@16891
  1863
The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
wenzelm@16891
  1864
(INCOMPATIBILITY):
avigad@16888
  1865
avigad@16888
  1866
  abs_eq             now named abs_of_nonneg
wenzelm@17371
  1867
  abs_of_ge_0        now named abs_of_nonneg
wenzelm@17371
  1868
  abs_minus_eq       now named abs_of_nonpos
avigad@16888
  1869
  imp_abs_id         now named abs_of_nonneg
avigad@16888
  1870
  imp_abs_neg_id     now named abs_of_nonpos
avigad@16888
  1871
  mult_pos           now named mult_pos_pos
avigad@16888
  1872
  mult_pos_le        now named mult_nonneg_nonneg
avigad@16888
  1873
  mult_pos_neg_le    now named mult_nonneg_nonpos
avigad@16888
  1874
  mult_pos_neg2_le   now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2
avigad@16888
  1875
  mult_neg           now named mult_neg_neg
avigad@16888
  1876
  mult_neg_le        now named mult_nonpos_nonpos
avigad@16888
  1877
obua@23495
  1878
* The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:
obua@23495
  1879
     
obua@23495
  1880
     zero_le_square
obua@23495
  1881
     not_square_less_zero 
obua@23495
  1882
obua@23495
  1883
  The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:
obua@23495
  1884
  
obua@23495
  1885
     realpow_zero_zero
obua@23495
  1886
     realpow_two
obua@23495
  1887
     realpow_less
obua@23495
  1888
     zero_le_power
obua@23495
  1889
     realpow_two_le
obua@23495
  1890
     abs_realpow_two
obua@23495
  1891
     realpow_two_abs     
obua@23495
  1892
wenzelm@16891
  1893
* Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.
wenzelm@16891
  1894
nipkow@17092
  1895
* Theory List:
nipkow@17092
  1896
nipkow@17092
  1897
The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
nipkow@17092
  1898
(INCOMPATIBILITY):
nipkow@17092
  1899
nipkow@17092
  1900
  list_all_Nil       now named list_all.simps(1)
nipkow@17092
  1901
  list_all_Cons      now named list_all.simps(2)
nipkow@17092
  1902
  list_all_conv      now named list_all_iff
nipkow@17092
  1903
  set_mem_eq         now named mem_iff
nipkow@17092
  1904
wenzelm@16929
  1905
* Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support
wenzelm@16929
  1906
asymptotic "big O" calculations.  See the notes in BigO.thy.
wenzelm@16929
  1907
avigad@16888
  1908
avigad@16888
  1909
*** HOL-Complex ***
avigad@16888
  1910
wenzelm@16891
  1911
* Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and
wenzelm@16891
  1912
integers in the reals.
wenzelm@16891
  1913
wenzelm@16891
  1914
The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
wenzelm@16891
  1915
(INCOMPATIBILITY):
wenzelm@16891
  1916
avigad@17016
  1917
  exp_ge_add_one_self  now requires no hypotheses
avigad@17016
  1918
  real_of_int_add      reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
avigad@17016
  1919
  real_of_int_minus    reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
avigad@17016
  1920
  real_of_int_diff     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
avigad@17016
  1921
  real_of_int_mult     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
wenzelm@16891
  1922
wenzelm@16891
  1923
* Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.
avigad@16888
  1924
avigad@16962
  1925
* Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm
avigad@16962
  1926
wenzelm@17423
  1927
* Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making
wenzelm@17423
  1928
nonstandard types.  The old type names are now type synonyms:
wenzelm@17423
  1929
wenzelm@17423
  1930
  hypreal = real star
wenzelm@17423
  1931
  hypnat = nat star
wenzelm@17423
  1932
  hcomplex = complex star
wenzelm@17423
  1933
wenzelm@17423
  1934
* Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been
huffman@17442
  1935
replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
wenzelm@17423
  1936
wenzelm@17423
  1937
  star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex
wenzelm@17423
  1938
wenzelm@17423
  1939
  starset      <-- starsetNat, starsetC
wenzelm@17423
  1940
  *s*          <-- *sNat*, *sc*
wenzelm@17423
  1941
  starset_n    <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n
wenzelm@17423
  1942
  *sn*         <-- *sNatn*, *scn*
wenzelm@17423
  1943
  InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets
wenzelm@17423
  1944
huffman@17442
  1945
  starfun      <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
wenzelm@17423
  1946
  *f*          <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*
huffman@17442
  1947
  starfun_n    <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n
wenzelm@17423
  1948
  *fn*         <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*
huffman@17442
  1949
  InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs
wenzelm@17423
  1950
wenzelm@17423
  1951
* Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of
huffman@17442
  1952
theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):
huffman@17442
  1953
huffman@17442
  1954
  add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute
huffman@17442
  1955
  add_assoc   <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs
huffman@17442
  1956
  OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left
huffman@17442
  1957
  OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right
wenzelm@17423
  1958
  right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus
huffman@17442
  1959
  left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left
huffman@17442
  1960
  mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute
huffman@17442
  1961
  mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc
huffman@17442
  1962
  mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left
wenzelm@17423
  1963
  mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right
wenzelm@17423
  1964
  mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left
huffman@17442
  1965
  left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib
wenzelm@17423
  1966
  right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2
huffman@17442
  1967
  zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one
wenzelm@17423
  1968
  right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse
wenzelm@17423
  1969
  left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left
huffman@17442
  1970
  order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl
huffman@17442
  1971
  order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans
huffman@17442
  1972
  order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym
huffman@17442
  1973
  order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le
huffman@17442
  1974
  linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear
huffman@17442
  1975
  add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono
huffman@17442
  1976
  mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2
wenzelm@17423
  1977
  add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order
wenzelm@17423
  1978
wenzelm@17423
  1979
* Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific
wenzelm@17423
  1980
versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the
huffman@17442
  1981
new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):
huffman@17442
  1982
huffman@17442
  1983
  STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set
huffman@17442
  1984
  STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set
huffman@17442
  1985
  STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un
huffman@17442
  1986
  STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int
huffman@17442
  1987
  STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl
huffman@17442
  1988
  STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset
huffman@17442
  1989
  STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem
huffman@17442
  1990
  STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl
huffman@17442
  1991
  STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff
huffman@17442
  1992
  STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,
huffman@17442
  1993
    STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset
huffman@17442
  1994
  starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un
huffman@17442
  1995
  starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int
huffman@17442
  1996
  starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl
huffman@17442
  1997
  starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff
huffman@17442
  1998
  InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un
huffman@17442
  1999
  InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int
huffman@17442
  2000
  InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl
huffman@17442
  2001
  InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff
huffman@17442
  2002
  InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff
huffman@17442
  2003
  InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n
huffman@17442
  2004
  starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq
huffman@17442
  2005
  starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}
huffman@17442
  2006
  starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
huffman@17442
  2007
  starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
huffman@17442
  2008
  starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult
huffman@17442
  2009
  starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add
huffman@17442
  2010
  starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus
huffman@17442
  2011
  starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff
huffman@17442
  2012
  starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o
huffman@17442
  2013
  starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2
huffman@17442
  2014
  starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun
huffman@17442
  2015
  starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse
huffman@17442
  2016
  starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq
huffman@17442
  2017
  starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff
wenzelm@17423
  2018
  starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id
huffman@17442
  2019
  starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx
huffman@17442
  2020
  starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox
wenzelm@17423
  2021
  starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs
huffman@17442
  2022
  starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel
huffman@17442
  2023
  starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2
wenzelm@17423
  2024
  starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox
huffman@17442
  2025
  starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox
huffman@17442
  2026
  starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox
wenzelm@17423
  2027
  starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx
wenzelm@17423
  2028
  starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse
huffman@17442
  2029
  starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide
huffman@17442
  2030
  starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n
huffman@17442
  2031
  starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult
huffman@17442
  2032
  starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add
wenzelm@17423
  2033
  starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus
huffman@17442
  2034
  starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun
huffman@17442
  2035
  starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus
huffman@17442
  2036
  starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq
huffman@17442
  2037
huffman@17442
  2038
  star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add
huffman@17442
  2039
  star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus
huffman@17442
  2040
  star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff
huffman@17442
  2041
  star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult
huffman@17442
  2042
  star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse
huffman@17442
  2043
  star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le
huffman@17442
  2044
  star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less
huffman@17442
  2045
  star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num
huffman@17442
  2046
  star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num
wenzelm@17423
  2047
  star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs
wenzelm@17423
  2048
  star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide
wenzelm@17423
  2049
huffman@17442
  2050
  star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add
huffman@17442
  2051
  star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus
wenzelm@17423
  2052
  star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff
huffman@17442
  2053
  star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult
huffman@17442
  2054
  star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one
huffman@17442
  2055
  star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero
huffman@17442
  2056
  star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff
huffman@17442
  2057
  star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff
huffman@17442
  2058
  star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff
huffman@17442
  2059
  star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse
huffman@17442
  2060
  star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide
huffman@17442
  2061
  star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat
huffman@17442
  2062
  star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int
huffman@17442
  2063
  star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of
wenzelm@17423
  2064
  star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff
wenzelm@17423
  2065
  star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff
wenzelm@17423
  2066
  star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff
wenzelm@17423
  2067
  star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff
wenzelm@17423
  2068
  star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff
wenzelm@17423
  2069
  star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power
wenzelm@17423
  2070
  star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff
wenzelm@17423
  2071
huffman@17442
  2072
* Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer
huffman@17442
  2073
principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions
huffman@17442
  2074
nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"
huffman@17442
  2075
replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.
huffman@17442
  2076
To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-
huffman@17442
  2077
standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.
huffman@17442
  2078
wenzelm@17641
  2079
* Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.
wenzelm@17641
  2080
wenzelm@14655
  2081
wenzelm@14682
  2082
*** HOLCF ***
wenzelm@14682
  2083
wenzelm@17533
  2084
* Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support
wenzelm@17533
  2085
continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full
wenzelm@17533
  2086
type-inference.
wenzelm@17533
  2087
wenzelm@17533
  2088
* New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it
wenzelm@17533
  2089
is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic
huffman@17442
  2090
instead of exponential time).
huffman@17442
  2091
wenzelm@17533
  2092
* New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.
huffman@17442
  2093
Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:
huffman@17442
  2094
huffman@17442
  2095
  domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")
huffman@17442
  2096
wenzelm@17533
  2097
* New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern
wenzelm@17533
  2098
matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also
wenzelm@17533
  2099
supported.  Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,
wenzelm@17533
  2100
sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given
wenzelm@17533
  2101
equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
wenzelm@17533
  2102
syntax and examples.
wenzelm@17533
  2103
wenzelm@17533
  2104
* New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes
wenzelm@17533
  2105
of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,
wenzelm@17533
  2106
but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility
wenzelm@17533
  2107
requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,
wenzelm@17533
  2108
with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.
huffman@17442
  2109
huffman@17584
  2110
* HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming
huffman@17584
  2111
scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):
huffman@17584
  2112
huffman@17584
  2113
  foo_inject:  "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"
huffman@17584
  2114
  foo_eq:      "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"
huffman@17584
  2115
  foo_less:    "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"
huffman@17584
  2116
  foo_strict:  "foo$UU = UU"
huffman@17584
  2117
  foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"
huffman@17584
  2118
  foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"
huffman@17584
  2119
wenzelm@14682
  2120
paulson@14885
  2121
*** ZF ***
paulson@14885
  2122
wenzelm@16234
  2123
* ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,
wenzelm@16234
  2124
including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel
wenzelm@16234
  2125
of a homomorphism).
wenzelm@15089
  2126
wenzelm@15089
  2127
* ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually
wenzelm@16234
  2128
makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);
wenzelm@16234
  2129
the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.
wenzelm@15703
  2130
wenzelm@15703
  2131
wenzelm@17445
  2132
*** Cube ***
wenzelm@17445
  2133
wenzelm@17445
  2134
* Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic
wenzelm@17445
  2135
theories.
wenzelm@17445
  2136
wenzelm@17445
  2137
wenzelm@15703
  2138
*** ML ***
wenzelm@15703
  2139
haftmann@21339
  2140
* Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts
haftmann@21339
  2141
for ||>, ||>>, |>>,
haftmann@21339
  2142
wenzelm@15973
  2143
* Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses
wenzelm@16234
  2144
that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of
wenzelm@16234
  2145
None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.
wenzelm@16234
  2146
The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted
wenzelm@16234
  2147
accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.
wenzelm@15973
  2148
wenzelm@16860
  2149
* Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of
wenzelm@16860
  2150
the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as
wenzelm@16860
  2151
Library.UnequalLengths.  Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are
wenzelm@16860
  2152
superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.
wenzelm@16860
  2153
wenzelm@16860
  2154
A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML
wenzelm@16860
  2155
toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions.  The following
wenzelm@16234
  2156
suggests how one can translate existing code:
wenzelm@15973
  2157
wenzelm@15973
  2158
    rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)
wenzelm@15973
  2159
    nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)
wenzelm@15973
  2160
    last_elem xs = List.last xs
wenzelm@15973
  2161
    flat xss = List.concat xss
wenzelm@16234
  2162
    seq fs = List.app fs
wenzelm@15973
  2163
    partition P xs = List.partition P xs
wenzelm@15973
  2164
    mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs
wenzelm@15973
  2165
wenzelm@16860
  2166
* Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional
wenzelm@16860
  2167
transformations, notably reverse application and composition:
wenzelm@16860
  2168
wenzelm@17371
  2169
  x |> f                f #> g
wenzelm@17371
  2170
  (x, y) |-> f          f #-> g
wenzelm@16860
  2171
haftmann@17495
  2172
* Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:
haftmann@17495
  2173
haftmann@17495
  2174
  infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;
haftmann@17495
  2175
  infix 2 ?;
haftmann@17495
  2176
  infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;
haftmann@17495
  2177
  infix 4 ~~ upto downto;
haftmann@17495
  2178
haftmann@17495
  2179
Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other
haftmann@17495
  2180
infix operators.
haftmann@17495
  2181
wenzelm@17408
  2182
* Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and
haftmann@16869
  2183
fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting.  For
wenzelm@16860
  2184
example:
wenzelm@16860
  2185
wenzelm@16860
  2186
  fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =
wenzelm@16860
  2187
    y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN
wenzelm@16860
  2188
wenzelm@16860
  2189
  (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =
wenzelm@16860
  2190
    y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN
wenzelm@16860
  2191
wenzelm@16860
  2192
  fold f [x1, ..., xN] =
wenzelm@16860
  2193
    f x1 #> ... #> f xN
wenzelm@16860
  2194
wenzelm@16860
  2195
  (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =
wenzelm@16860
  2196
    fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN
wenzelm@16860
  2197
wenzelm@17408
  2198
* Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are
wenzelm@17408
  2199
available:
wenzelm@17408
  2200
wenzelm@17408
  2201
  the:               'a option -> 'a  (*partial*)
wenzelm@17408
  2202
  these:             'a option -> 'a  where 'a = 'b list
haftmann@17402
  2203
  the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a
haftmann@17402
  2204
  the_list:          'a option -> 'a list
haftmann@17402
  2205
wenzelm@17408
  2206
* Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
wenzelm@17408
  2207
basic operations for association lists, following natural argument
haftmann@17564
  2208
order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids
haftmann@17495
  2209
potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.
haftmann@17495
  2210
The old functions may be expressed as follows:
wenzelm@17408
  2211
wenzelm@17408
  2212
  assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))
wenzelm@17408
  2213
  assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)
wenzelm@17408
  2214
  overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap
wenzelm@17408
  2215
haftmann@17564
  2216
* Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
haftmann@17564
  2217
haftmann@17564
  2218
  val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list
haftmann@17564
  2219
  val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list
haftmann@17564
  2220
haftmann@17564
  2221
replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)
haftmann@17564
  2222
Naive rewrites:
haftmann@17564
  2223
haftmann@17564
  2224
  make_keylist = AList.make
haftmann@17564
  2225
  keyfilter = AList.find (op =)
haftmann@17564
  2226
haftmann@17564
  2227
* eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus
haftmann@17564
  2228
  avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:
haftmann@17564
  2229
haftmann@17564
  2230
    eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)
haftmann@17564
  2231
    eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)
haftmann@17564
  2232
haftmann@17564
  2233
* Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).
haftmann@17564
  2234
  Naive rewrites:
haftmann@17564
  2235
haftmann@17564
  2236
    apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n
haftmann@17564
  2237
    apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)
haftmann@17564
  2238
wenzelm@17408
  2239
* Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)
wenzelm@17408
  2240
provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as
wenzelm@17408
  2241
lists.
wenzelm@17408
  2242
wenzelm@17408
  2243
* Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a
wenzelm@17408
  2244
few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to
wenzelm@17408
  2245
follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);
wenzelm@17408
  2246
INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.
wenzelm@17408
  2247
wenzelm@17408
  2248
* Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of
wenzelm@17408
  2249
writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a
wenzelm@17408
  2250
hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode
wenzelm@17408
  2251
(cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output
wenzelm@17408
  2252
function wins).  Already formatted output may be embedded into further
wenzelm@17408
  2253
text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived
wenzelm@17408
  2254
functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to
wenzelm@17408
  2255
accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc.  Programmers
wenzelm@17408
  2256
rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with
wenzelm@17408
  2257
some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the
wenzelm@17408
  2258
standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce
wenzelm@17408
  2259
properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing
wenzelm@17408
  2260
already output material that will eventually be presented to the user
wenzelm@17408
  2261
a second time.  For the default print mode, both Output.output and
wenzelm@17408
  2262
Output.raw have no effect.
wenzelm@17408
  2263
wenzelm@17408
  2264
* Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a
wenzelm@17408
  2265
-> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the
wenzelm@17408
  2266
cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.
wenzelm@17408
  2267
wenzelm@17408
  2268
* Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been
wenzelm@17408
  2269
replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate
wenzelm@17408
  2270
hooks).  This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the
wenzelm@17408
  2271
internal and external process view of file names are different.
wenzelm@17408
  2272
wenzelm@16689
  2273
* Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added
wenzelm@16689
  2274
fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord
wenzelm@16689
  2275
and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is
wenzelm@16689
  2276
NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast
wenzelm@16689
  2277
orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a
wenzelm@16689
  2278
particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using
wenzelm@16689
  2279
Library.sort_strings on result).
wenzelm@16689
  2280
wenzelm@17408
  2281
* Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,
wenzelm@17408
  2282
fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural
wenzelm@17408
  2283
argument order.  Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,
wenzelm@17408
  2284
add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@17408
  2285
wenzelm@16151
  2286
* Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the
wenzelm@16234
  2287
internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY.  Renamed cond_extern(_table)
wenzelm@16234
  2288
to extern(_table).  The plain name entry path is superceded by a
wenzelm@16234
  2289
general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce
wenzelm@16234
  2290
a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified
wenzelm@16234
  2291
name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent
wenzelm@16234
  2292
Sign.declare_name.  Several theory and proof context operations modify
wenzelm@16234
  2293
the naming context.  Especially note Theory.restore_naming and
wenzelm@16234
  2294
ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that
wenzelm@16234
  2295
Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from
wenzelm@16234
  2296
Theory.absolute_path in particular.
wenzelm@16234
  2297
wenzelm@16234
  2298
* Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names
wenzelm@16234
  2299
(default true) for controlling output of qualified names.  If
wenzelm@16234
  2300
short_names is set, names are printed unqualified.  If unique_names is
wenzelm@16234
  2301
reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve
wenzelm@16234
  2302
the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap
wenzelm@16234
  2303
with earlier declarations.
wenzelm@16151
  2304
wenzelm@16456
  2305
* Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is
wenzelm@16456
  2306
now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument
wenzelm@16456
  2307
(useful for printing error messages).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@16456
  2308
wenzelm@16456
  2309
* Pure: major reorganization of the theory context.  Type Sign.sg and
wenzelm@16456
  2310
Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal
wenzelm@16456
  2311
Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML).  Actual signature and theory
wenzelm@16456
  2312
content is managed as theory data.  The old code and interfaces were
wenzelm@16456
  2313
spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces
wenzelm@16456
  2314
considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:
wenzelm@16456
  2315
wenzelm@16456
  2316
  Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,
wenzelm@16456
  2317
    parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;
wenzelm@16456
  2318
wenzelm@16456
  2319
  Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,
wenzelm@16456
  2320
    types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;
wenzelm@16456
  2321
wenzelm@16456
  2322
  Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,
wenzelm@16456
  2323
    oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,
wenzelm@16456
  2324
    types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,
wenzelm@16456
  2325
    Theory.merge, etc.)
wenzelm@16456
  2326
wenzelm@16456
  2327
The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm
wenzelm@16456
  2328
etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained
wenzelm@16456
  2329
for convenience -- they merely return the theory.
wenzelm@16456
  2330
wenzelm@17193
  2331
* Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.
wenzelm@17193
  2332
wenzelm@16547
  2333
* Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure
wenzelm@16547
  2334
as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are
wenzelm@16547
  2335
aliases, where the latter is the preferred name).  This enables other
wenzelm@16547
  2336
Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.
wenzelm@16547
  2337
wenzelm@16373
  2338
* Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,
wenzelm@16373
  2339
typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for
wenzelm@16373
  2340
any of these kinds.  For example, Sign.intern typeK is now
wenzelm@16373
  2341
Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now
wenzelm@16373
  2342
Theory.hide_types.  Also note that former
wenzelm@16373
  2343
Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now
wenzelm@16373
  2344
Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions
wenzelm@16373
  2345
internalize their arguments!  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@16373
  2346
wenzelm@16506
  2347
* Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects
wenzelm@16506
  2348
datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of
wenzelm@16506
  2349
plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;
wenzelm@16506
  2350
wenzelm@16151
  2351
* Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE
wenzelm@16234
  2352
means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in
wenzelm@16234
  2353
(RAW_)METHOD_CASES.
wenzelm@16151
  2354
wenzelm@16373
  2355
* Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a
wenzelm@16373
  2356
theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:
wenzelm@16373
  2357
wenzelm@16373
  2358
  Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
wenzelm@16373
  2359
  Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
wenzelm@16373
  2360
  PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
wenzelm@16373
  2361
  PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
wenzelm@16373
  2362
wenzelm@16718
  2363
* Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.
wenzelm@16718
  2364
wenzelm@17408
  2365
* Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.
wenzelm@17408
  2366
Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing
wenzelm@17408
  2367
and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)
wenzelm@17408
  2368
controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space
wenzelm@17408
  2369
(both increase the runtime).
wenzelm@17408
  2370
wenzelm@17408
  2371
* Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,
wenzelm@17408
  2372
i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the
wenzelm@17408
  2373
elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.
wenzelm@17408
  2374
wenzelm@17408
  2375
* Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless
wenzelm@16997
  2376
representation, avoid allocating new strings).  Simprocs that invoke
wenzelm@16997
  2377
the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to
wenzelm@17720
  2378
avoid local name clashes.  Failure to do so produces warnings
wenzelm@17720
  2379
"Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds
wenzelm@17720
  2380
for further details.
wenzelm@16234
  2381
wenzelm@17166
  2382
* ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact
wenzelm@17166
  2383
bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help
wenzelm@17166
  2384
in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof
wenzelm@17166
  2385
scripts for the time being.
wenzelm@17166
  2386
wenzelm@17457
  2387
* ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for
wenzelm@17457
  2388
generated HTML files.  For example:
wenzelm@17457
  2389
wenzelm@17457
  2390
  HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";
wenzelm@17538
  2391
  HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";
wenzelm@17457
  2392
wenzelm@16234
  2393
wenzelm@16234
  2394
*** System ***
wenzelm@16234
  2395
wenzelm@16234
  2396
* Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,
wenzelm@16234
  2397
isabelle, isatool etc.).
wenzelm@16234
  2398
wenzelm@16234
  2399
* ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for
wenzelm@16234
  2400
isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).
wenzelm@16234
  2401
wenzelm@16234
  2402
* isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be
wenzelm@16234
  2403
used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.
wenzelm@16234
  2404
wenzelm@16251
  2405
* New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle
wenzelm@16251
  2406
distribution being used.
wenzelm@16251
  2407
wenzelm@16251
  2408
* HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format
wenzelm@16234
  2409
(containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL
wenzelm@16234
  2410
theories.
wenzelm@15703
  2411
wenzelm@15703
  2412
wenzelm@14655
  2413
wenzelm@14606
  2414
New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)
wenzelm@14606
  2415
--------------------------------
wenzelm@13280
  2416
skalberg@14171
  2417
*** General ***
skalberg@14171
  2418
ballarin@14398
  2419
* Provers/order.ML:  new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.
ballarin@14398
  2420
  Replaces linorder.ML.
ballarin@14398
  2421
wenzelm@14606
  2422
* Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic
wenzelm@14606
  2423
  (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler
skalberg@14173
  2424
  (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore
skalberg@14173
  2425
  be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until
skalberg@14173
  2426
  now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some
skalberg@14173
  2427
  terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say
skalberg@14173
  2428
  '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed
skalberg@14173
  2429
  as an identifier.  Fix it by inserting a space around former
skalberg@14173
  2430
  symbols.  Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in
skalberg@14173
  2431
  existing theory and ML files.
skalberg@14171
  2432
paulson@14237
  2433
* Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.
paulson@14237
  2434
wenzelm@14731
  2435
* Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now
wenzelm@14731
  2436
  allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered
wenzelm@14731
  2437
  a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat
wenzelm@14731
  2438
  \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.
kleing@14233
  2439
kleing@14333
  2440
* Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one
kleing@14333
  2441
  character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in
wenzelm@14606
  2442
  ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in
wenzelm@14606
  2443
  superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.
kleing@14333
  2444
schirmer@14561
  2445
* Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the
wenzelm@14606
  2446
  content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."
wenzelm@14606
  2447
  may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.
schirmer@14361
  2448
paulson@14237
  2449
* Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions
paulson@14237
  2450
  Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to
paulson@14237
  2451
  declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition
paulson@14237
  2452
  later.  It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically
skalberg@14224
  2453
  rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.
skalberg@14224
  2454
wenzelm@14606
  2455
* Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts
wenzelm@14606
  2456
  (i.e. intersections of classes),
skalberg@14503
  2457
kleing@14547
  2458
* Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout
wenzelm@14731
  2459
  (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.
kleing@14547
  2460
  It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.
kleing@14547
  2461
wenzelm@14556
  2462
ballarin@14175
  2463
*** Isar ***
ballarin@14175
  2464
ballarin@14508
  2465
* Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,
ballarin@14508
  2466
  cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:
ballarin@14175
  2467
  - Now understand static (Isar) contexts.  As a consequence, users of Isar
ballarin@14175
  2468
    locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.
ballarin@14175
  2469
    For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic
ballarin@14175
  2470
    emulations.
ballarin@14175
  2471
  - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no
ballarin@14211
  2472
    longer be enclosed in quotes.  Instead, precede variable name with `?'.
ballarin@14211
  2473
    This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".
ballarin@14211
  2474
ballarin@14257
  2475
* Attributes "where" and "of":
ballarin@14285
  2476
  - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading
ballarin@14285
  2477
    the instantiation string.  This fixes a bug that caused instantiated
ballarin@14285
  2478
    theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.
ballarin@14285
  2479
  - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.
ballarin@14257
  2480
wenzelm@14556
  2481
* Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with
wenzelm@14556
  2482
  current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"
wenzelm@14556
  2483
  and derived forms.
kleing@14283
  2484
ballarin@14211
  2485
* Locales:
ballarin@14211
  2486
  - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer
ballarin@14211
  2487
    generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on
ballarin@14211
  2488
    "_axioms") in the premise.
ballarin@14211
  2489
    Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.
ballarin@14211
  2490
  - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target
ballarin@14211
  2491
    specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.
ballarin@14254
  2492
  - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as
ballarin@14254
  2493
    [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.
ballarin@14508
  2494
  - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:
ballarin@14551
  2495
        instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>
ballarin@14508
  2496
    Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context
ballarin@14551
  2497
    taking into account their attributes.  Label and attrs are optional
ballarin@14551
  2498
    modifiers, like in theorem declarations.  If present, names of
ballarin@14551
  2499
    instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes
ballarin@14551
  2500
    <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.
ballarin@14551
  2501
      If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form
ballarin@14508
  2502
    "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters
ballarin@14551
  2503
    are derived.  The command does not support old-style locales declared
ballarin@14551
  2504
    with "locale (open)".
ballarin@14551
  2505
      A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.
ballarin@14175
  2506
ballarin@14175
  2507
* HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static
ballarin@14175
  2508
  (Isar) contexts.
ballarin@14175
  2509
wenzelm@14556
  2510
kleing@14136
  2511
*** HOL ***
kleing@14136
  2512
kleing@14624
  2513
* Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from
kleing@14624
  2514
  the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by
kleing@14624
  2515
  replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image
kleing@14624
  2516
  can be used like any other Isabelle image.  See
kleing@14624
  2517
  HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.
kleing@14624
  2518
ballarin@14398
  2519
* Simplifier:
ballarin@14398
  2520
  - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.
ballarin@14398
  2521
    Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes
ballarin@14398
  2522
    "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset
ballarin@14398
  2523
    as solvers.  This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains
ballarin@14398
  2524
    to solve goals from the assumptions.
ballarin@14398
  2525
  - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally.  Typically, applications
ballarin@14398
  2526
    of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal
ballarin@14398
  2527
    is solved by simplification already.
ballarin@14398
  2528
wenzelm@14731
  2529
* Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,
paulson@14389
  2530
    all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.
paulson@14389
  2531
paulson@14389
  2532
* Numerics:
paulson@14389
  2533
  - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are
wenzelm@14731
  2534
    now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.
paulson@14389
  2535
  - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently
paulson@14389
  2536
    than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.
wenzelm@14731
  2537
  - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.
paulson@14480
  2538
    Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern
paulson@14480
  2539
    exponentiation).
paulson@14389
  2540
paulson@14401
  2541
* Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.
paulson@14389
  2542
schirmer@14255
  2543
* Records:
schirmer@14255
  2544
  - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation
schirmer@14255
  2545
    instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via
schirmer@14255
  2546
    the reference "print_record_type_abbr".
wenzelm@14731
  2547
  - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added
schirmer@14255
  2548
    (not enabled by default).
schirmer@14427
  2549
  - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.
schirmer@14427
  2550
    EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).
schirmer@14255
  2551
  - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.
wenzelm@14731
  2552
kleing@14136
  2553
* 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by
skalberg@14224
  2554
  specification.  There is also an 'ax_specification' command that
skalberg@14224
  2555
  introduces the new constants axiomatically.
kleing@14136
  2556
nipkow@14375
  2557
* arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.
nipkow@14375
  2558
ballarin@14399
  2559
* HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.
ballarin@14399
  2560
paulson@14243
  2561
* HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function
kleing@14610
  2562
  definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.
kleing@14610
  2563
wenzelm@14731
  2564
* HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of
kleing@14610
  2565
  matrix theory to linear programming.
kleing@14136
  2566
nipkow@14380
  2567
* Unions and Intersections:
nipkow@15119
  2568
  The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed
nipkow@15119
  2569
  from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"
nipkow@15119
  2570
  i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.
nipkow@15119
  2571
  Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.
nipkow@14380
  2572
kleing@14418
  2573
* Unions and Intersections over Intervals:
wenzelm@14731
  2574
  There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is
wenzelm@14731
  2575
  also an x-symbol version with subscripts