src/HOL/Auth/OtwayRees.ML
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Fri, 17 Jan 1997 12:49:31 +0100
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(*  Title:      HOL/Auth/OtwayRees
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    ID:         $Id$
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    Author:     Lawrence C Paulson, Cambridge University Computer Laboratory
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    Copyright   1996  University of Cambridge
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Inductive relation "otway" for the Otway-Rees protocol.
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Version that encrypts Nonce NB
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From page 244 of
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  Burrows, Abadi and Needham.  A Logic of Authentication.
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  Proc. Royal Soc. 426 (1989)
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*)
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open OtwayRees;
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proof_timing:=true;
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HOL_quantifiers := false;
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(*A "possibility property": there are traces that reach the end*)
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goal thy 
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 "!!A B. [| A ~= B; A ~= Server; B ~= Server |]   \
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\        ==> EX K. EX NA. EX evs: otway lost.          \
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\               Says B A {|Nonce NA, Crypt (shrK A) {|Nonce NA, Key K|}|} \
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\                 : set_of_list evs";
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by (REPEAT (resolve_tac [exI,bexI] 1));
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by (rtac (otway.Nil RS otway.OR1 RS otway.OR2 RS otway.OR3 RS otway.OR4) 2);
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by possibility_tac;
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result();
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(**** Inductive proofs about otway ****)
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(*Monotonicity*)
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goal thy "!!evs. lost' <= lost ==> otway lost' <= otway lost";
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by (rtac subsetI 1);
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by (etac otway.induct 1);
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by (REPEAT_FIRST
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    (best_tac (!claset addIs (impOfSubs (sees_mono RS analz_mono RS synth_mono)
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                              :: otway.intrs))));
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qed "otway_mono";
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(*Nobody sends themselves messages*)
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goal thy "!!evs. evs : otway lost ==> ALL A X. Says A A X ~: set_of_list evs";
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by (etac otway.induct 1);
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by (Auto_tac());
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qed_spec_mp "not_Says_to_self";
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Addsimps [not_Says_to_self];
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AddSEs   [not_Says_to_self RSN (2, rev_notE)];
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(** For reasoning about the encrypted portion of messages **)
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goal thy "!!evs. Says A' B {|N, Agent A, Agent B, X|} : set_of_list evs \
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\                ==> X : analz (sees lost Spy evs)";
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by (fast_tac (!claset addSDs [Says_imp_sees_Spy RS analz.Inj]) 1);
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qed "OR2_analz_sees_Spy";
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goal thy "!!evs. Says S B {|N, X, Crypt (shrK B) X'|} : set_of_list evs \
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\                ==> X : analz (sees lost Spy evs)";
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by (fast_tac (!claset addSDs [Says_imp_sees_Spy RS analz.Inj]) 1);
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qed "OR4_analz_sees_Spy";
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goal thy "!!evs. Says Server B {|NA, X, Crypt K' {|NB,K|}|} : set_of_list evs \
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\                 ==> K : parts (sees lost Spy evs)";
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by (fast_tac (!claset addSEs sees_Spy_partsEs) 1);
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qed "Oops_parts_sees_Spy";
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(*OR2_analz... and OR4_analz... let us treat those cases using the same 
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  argument as for the Fake case.  This is possible for most, but not all,
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  proofs: Fake does not invent new nonces (as in OR2), and of course Fake
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  messages originate from the Spy. *)
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bind_thm ("OR2_parts_sees_Spy",
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          OR2_analz_sees_Spy RS (impOfSubs analz_subset_parts));
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bind_thm ("OR4_parts_sees_Spy",
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          OR4_analz_sees_Spy RS (impOfSubs analz_subset_parts));
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(*We instantiate the variable to "lost".  Leaving it as a Var makes proofs
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  harder to complete, since simplification does less for us.*)
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val parts_Fake_tac = 
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    let val tac = forw_inst_tac [("lost","lost")] 
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    in  tac OR2_parts_sees_Spy     4 THEN 
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        tac OR4_parts_sees_Spy     6 THEN
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        tac Oops_parts_sees_Spy    7
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    end;
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(*For proving the easier theorems about X ~: parts (sees lost Spy evs) *)
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fun parts_induct_tac i = SELECT_GOAL
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    (DETERM (etac otway.induct 1 THEN parts_Fake_tac THEN
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             (*Fake message*)
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             TRY (best_tac (!claset addDs [impOfSubs analz_subset_parts,
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                                           impOfSubs Fake_parts_insert]
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                                    addss (!simpset)) 2)) THEN
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     (*Base case*)
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     fast_tac (!claset addss (!simpset)) 1 THEN
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     ALLGOALS Asm_simp_tac) i;
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(** Theorems of the form X ~: parts (sees lost Spy evs) imply that NOBODY
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    sends messages containing X! **)
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(*Spy never sees another agent's shared key! (unless it's lost at start)*)
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goal thy 
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 "!!evs. evs : otway lost \
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\        ==> (Key (shrK A) : parts (sees lost Spy evs)) = (A : lost)";
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by (parts_induct_tac 1);
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by (Auto_tac());
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qed "Spy_see_shrK";
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Addsimps [Spy_see_shrK];
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goal thy 
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 "!!evs. evs : otway lost \
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\        ==> (Key (shrK A) : analz (sees lost Spy evs)) = (A : lost)";
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by (auto_tac(!claset addDs [impOfSubs analz_subset_parts], !simpset));
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qed "Spy_analz_shrK";
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Addsimps [Spy_analz_shrK];
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goal thy  "!!A. [| Key (shrK A) : parts (sees lost Spy evs);       \
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\                  evs : otway lost |] ==> A:lost";
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by (fast_tac (!claset addDs [Spy_see_shrK]) 1);
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qed "Spy_see_shrK_D";
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bind_thm ("Spy_analz_shrK_D", analz_subset_parts RS subsetD RS Spy_see_shrK_D);
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AddSDs [Spy_see_shrK_D, Spy_analz_shrK_D];
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(*Nobody can have used non-existent keys!*)
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goal thy "!!evs. evs : otway lost ==>          \
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\         Key K ~: used evs --> K ~: keysFor (parts (sees lost Spy evs))";
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by (parts_induct_tac 1);
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(*Fake*)
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by (best_tac
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      (!claset addIs [impOfSubs analz_subset_parts]
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               addDs [impOfSubs (analz_subset_parts RS keysFor_mono),
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                      impOfSubs (parts_insert_subset_Un RS keysFor_mono)]
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               addss (!simpset)) 1);
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(*OR1-3*)
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by (REPEAT (fast_tac (!claset addss (!simpset)) 1));
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qed_spec_mp "new_keys_not_used";
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bind_thm ("new_keys_not_analzd",
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          [analz_subset_parts RS keysFor_mono,
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           new_keys_not_used] MRS contra_subsetD);
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Addsimps [new_keys_not_used, new_keys_not_analzd];
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(*** Proofs involving analz ***)
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(*Describes the form of K and NA when the Server sends this message.  Also
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  for Oops case.*)
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goal thy 
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 "!!evs. [| Says Server B                                                 \
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\            {|NA, X, Crypt (shrK B) {|NB, Key K|}|} : set_of_list evs;   \
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\           evs : otway lost |]                                           \
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\     ==> K ~: range shrK & (EX i. NA = Nonce i) & (EX j. NB = Nonce j)";
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by (etac rev_mp 1);
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by (etac otway.induct 1);
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by (ALLGOALS (fast_tac (!claset addss (!simpset))));
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qed "Says_Server_message_form";
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(*For proofs involving analz.  We again instantiate the variable to "lost".*)
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val analz_Fake_tac = 
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    dres_inst_tac [("lost","lost")] OR2_analz_sees_Spy 4 THEN 
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    dres_inst_tac [("lost","lost")] OR4_analz_sees_Spy 6 THEN
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    forw_inst_tac [("lost","lost")] Says_Server_message_form 7 THEN
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    assume_tac 7 THEN
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    REPEAT ((eresolve_tac [exE, conjE] ORELSE' hyp_subst_tac) 7);
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(****
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 The following is to prove theorems of the form
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  Key K : analz (insert (Key KAB) (sees lost Spy evs)) ==>
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  Key K : analz (sees lost Spy evs)
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 A more general formula must be proved inductively.
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****)
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(** Session keys are not used to encrypt other session keys **)
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(*The equality makes the induction hypothesis easier to apply*)
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goal thy  
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 "!!evs. evs : otway lost ==>                                         \
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\  ALL K KK. KK <= Compl (range shrK) -->                      \
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\            (Key K : analz (Key``KK Un (sees lost Spy evs))) = \
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\            (K : KK | Key K : analz (sees lost Spy evs))";
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by (etac otway.induct 1);
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by analz_Fake_tac;
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by (REPEAT_FIRST (resolve_tac [allI, impI]));
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by (REPEAT_FIRST (rtac analz_image_freshK_lemma ));
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by (ALLGOALS (asm_simp_tac analz_image_freshK_ss));
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(*Base*)
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by (fast_tac (!claset addIs [image_eqI] addss (!simpset)) 1);
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(*Fake, OR2, OR4*) 
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by (REPEAT (spy_analz_tac 1));
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qed_spec_mp "analz_image_freshK";
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goal thy
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 "!!evs. [| evs : otway lost;  KAB ~: range shrK |] ==>             \
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\        Key K : analz (insert (Key KAB) (sees lost Spy evs)) = \
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\        (K = KAB | Key K : analz (sees lost Spy evs))";
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by (asm_simp_tac (analz_image_freshK_ss addsimps [analz_image_freshK]) 1);
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qed "analz_insert_freshK";
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(*** The Key K uniquely identifies the Server's  message. **)
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goal thy 
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 "!!evs. evs : otway lost ==>                                                 \
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\   EX B' NA' NB' X'. ALL B NA NB X.                                          \
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\     Says Server B {|NA, X, Crypt (shrK B) {|NB, K|}|} : set_of_list evs --> \
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\     B=B' & NA=NA' & NB=NB' & X=X'";
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by (etac otway.induct 1);
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by (ALLGOALS (asm_simp_tac (!simpset addsimps [all_conj_distrib])));
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by (Step_tac 1);
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(*Remaining cases: OR3 and OR4*)
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by (ex_strip_tac 2);
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by (Fast_tac 2);
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by (expand_case_tac "K = ?y" 1);
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by (REPEAT (ares_tac [refl,exI,impI,conjI] 2));
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(*...we assume X is a recent message, and handle this case by contradiction*)
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by (fast_tac (!claset addSEs sees_Spy_partsEs
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                      delrules [conjI]    (*prevent split-up into 4 subgoals*)
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                      addss (!simpset addsimps [parts_insertI])) 1);
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val lemma = result();
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goal thy 
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 "!!evs. [| Says Server B {|NA, X, Crypt (shrK B) {|NB, K|}|}      \
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\            : set_of_list evs;                                    \ 
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\           Says Server B' {|NA',X',Crypt (shrK B') {|NB',K|}|}    \
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\            : set_of_list evs;                                    \
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\           evs : otway lost |] ==> X=X' & B=B' & NA=NA' & NB=NB'";
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by (prove_unique_tac lemma 1);
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qed "unique_session_keys";
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(**** Authenticity properties relating to NA ****)
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(*Only OR1 can have caused such a part of a message to appear.*)
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goal thy 
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 "!!evs. [| A ~: lost;  evs : otway lost |]                        \
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\        ==> Crypt (shrK A) {|NA, Agent A, Agent B|}               \
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\             : parts (sees lost Spy evs) -->                      \
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\            Says A B {|NA, Agent A, Agent B,                      \
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\                       Crypt (shrK A) {|NA, Agent A, Agent B|}|}  \
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\             : set_of_list evs";
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by (parts_induct_tac 1);
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qed_spec_mp "Crypt_imp_OR1";
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(** The Nonce NA uniquely identifies A's message. **)
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goal thy 
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 "!!evs. [| evs : otway lost; A ~: lost |]               \
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\ ==> EX B'. ALL B.    \
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\        Crypt (shrK A) {|NA, Agent A, Agent B|} : parts (sees lost Spy evs) \
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\        --> B = B'";
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by (parts_induct_tac 1);
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by (simp_tac (!simpset addsimps [all_conj_distrib]) 1); 
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(*OR1: creation of new Nonce.  Move assertion into global context*)
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by (expand_case_tac "NA = ?y" 1);
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by (best_tac (!claset addSEs sees_Spy_partsEs) 1);
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val lemma = result();
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goal thy 
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 "!!evs.[| Crypt (shrK A) {|NA, Agent A, Agent B|}: parts(sees lost Spy evs); \
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\          Crypt (shrK A) {|NA, Agent A, Agent C|}: parts(sees lost Spy evs); \
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\          evs : otway lost;  A ~: lost |]                                    \
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\        ==> B = C";
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by (prove_unique_tac lemma 1);
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qed "unique_NA";
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(*It is impossible to re-use a nonce in both OR1 and OR2.  This holds because
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  OR2 encrypts Nonce NB.  It prevents the attack that can occur in the
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  over-simplified version of this protocol: see OtwayRees_Bad.*)
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goal thy 
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 "!!evs. [| A ~: lost;  evs : otway lost |]                      \
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\        ==> Crypt (shrK A) {|NA, Agent A, Agent B|}             \
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\             : parts (sees lost Spy evs) -->                    \
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\            Crypt (shrK A) {|NA', NA, Agent A', Agent A|}       \
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\             ~: parts (sees lost Spy evs)";
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by (parts_induct_tac 1);
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by (REPEAT (fast_tac (!claset addSEs sees_Spy_partsEs
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                              addSDs  [impOfSubs parts_insert_subset_Un]
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                              addss (!simpset)) 1));
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qed_spec_mp"no_nonce_OR1_OR2";
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   295
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   296
2053
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   297
(*Crucial property: If the encrypted message appears, and A has used NA
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   298
  to start a run, then it originated with the Server!*)
2014
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diff changeset
   299
goal thy 
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 "!!evs. [| A ~: lost;  A ~= Spy;  evs : otway lost |]                 \
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\    ==> Crypt (shrK A) {|NA, Key K|} : parts (sees lost Spy evs)      \
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   302
\        --> Says A B {|NA, Agent A, Agent B,                          \
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\                       Crypt (shrK A) {|NA, Agent A, Agent B|}|}      \
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   304
\             : set_of_list evs -->                                    \
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   305
\            (EX NB. Says Server B                                     \
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   306
\                 {|NA,                                                \
2284
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   307
\                   Crypt (shrK A) {|NA, Key K|},                      \
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   308
\                   Crypt (shrK B) {|NB, Key K|}|}                     \
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   309
\                   : set_of_list evs)";
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   310
by (parts_induct_tac 1);
2014
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   311
(*OR1: it cannot be a new Nonce, contradiction.*)
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   312
by (fast_tac (!claset addSIs [parts_insertI]
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                      addSEs sees_Spy_partsEs
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   314
                      addss (!simpset)) 1);
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   315
(*OR3 and OR4*) 
2014
5be4c8ca7b25 Correction of protocol; addition of Reveal message; proofs of
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   316
(*OR4*)
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   317
by (REPEAT (Safe_step_tac 2));
5be4c8ca7b25 Correction of protocol; addition of Reveal message; proofs of
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diff changeset
   318
by (REPEAT (best_tac (!claset addSDs [parts_cut]) 3));
5be4c8ca7b25 Correction of protocol; addition of Reveal message; proofs of
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   319
by (fast_tac (!claset addSIs [Crypt_imp_OR1]
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   320
                      addEs  sees_Spy_partsEs) 2);
2064
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   321
(*OR3*)  (** LEVEL 5 **)
5a5e508e2a2b Simple tidying
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   322
by (asm_simp_tac (!simpset addsimps [ex_disj_distrib]) 1);
2014
5be4c8ca7b25 Correction of protocol; addition of Reveal message; proofs of
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diff changeset
   323
by (step_tac (!claset delrules [disjCI, impCE]) 1);
5be4c8ca7b25 Correction of protocol; addition of Reveal message; proofs of
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diff changeset
   324
by (fast_tac (!claset addSEs [MPair_parts]
2032
1bbf1bdcaf56 Introduction of "lost" argument
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diff changeset
   325
                      addSDs [Says_imp_sees_Spy RS parts.Inj]
2014
5be4c8ca7b25 Correction of protocol; addition of Reveal message; proofs of
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diff changeset
   326
                      addEs  [no_nonce_OR1_OR2 RSN (2, rev_notE)]
2048
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   327
                      delrules [conjI] (*stop split-up into 4 subgoals*)) 2);
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
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parents: 2045
diff changeset
   328
by (fast_tac (!claset addSDs [Says_imp_sees_Spy RS parts.Inj]
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
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   329
                      addSEs [MPair_parts]
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
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   330
                      addEs  [unique_NA]) 1);
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
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   331
qed_spec_mp "NA_Crypt_imp_Server_msg";
2014
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diff changeset
   332
5be4c8ca7b25 Correction of protocol; addition of Reveal message; proofs of
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diff changeset
   333
2053
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   334
(*Corollary: if A receives B's OR4 message and the nonce NA agrees
2014
5be4c8ca7b25 Correction of protocol; addition of Reveal message; proofs of
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diff changeset
   335
  then the key really did come from the Server!  CANNOT prove this of the
2048
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
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   336
  bad form of this protocol, even though we can prove
2032
1bbf1bdcaf56 Introduction of "lost" argument
paulson
parents: 2026
diff changeset
   337
  Spy_not_see_encrypted_key*)
2014
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diff changeset
   338
goal thy 
2284
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parents: 2264
diff changeset
   339
 "!!evs. [| Says B' A {|NA, Crypt (shrK A) {|NA, Key K|}|}         \
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   340
\            : set_of_list evs;                                    \
6c0594bfa726 Greatly simplified the proof of A_can_trust
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   341
\           Says A B {|NA, Agent A, Agent B,                       \
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   342
\                      Crypt (shrK A) {|NA, Agent A, Agent B|}|}   \
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   343
\            : set_of_list evs;                                    \
6c0594bfa726 Greatly simplified the proof of A_can_trust
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   344
\           A ~: lost;  A ~= Spy;  evs : otway lost |]             \
6c0594bfa726 Greatly simplified the proof of A_can_trust
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   345
\        ==> EX NB. Says Server B                                  \
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   346
\                     {|NA,                                        \
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   347
\                       Crypt (shrK A) {|NA, Key K|},              \
80ebd1a213fd Swapped arguments of Crypt (for clarity and because it is conventional)
paulson
parents: 2264
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   348
\                       Crypt (shrK B) {|NB, Key K|}|}             \
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   349
\                       : set_of_list evs";
2048
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   350
by (fast_tac (!claset addSIs [NA_Crypt_imp_Server_msg]
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paulson
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   351
                      addEs  sees_Spy_partsEs) 1);
2328
e984c12ce5b4 Minor renamings
paulson
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   352
qed "A_trusts_OR4";
2014
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diff changeset
   353
5be4c8ca7b25 Correction of protocol; addition of Reveal message; proofs of
paulson
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diff changeset
   354
2048
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   355
(** Crucial secrecy property: Spy does not see the keys sent in msg OR3
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
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   356
    Does not in itself guarantee security: an attack could violate 
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
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   357
    the premises, e.g. by having A=Spy **)
2014
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parents: 1999
diff changeset
   358
1941
f97a6e5b6375 Initial working proof of Otway-Rees protocol
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   359
goal thy 
2166
d276a806cc10 Tidying up: removing redundant assumptions, etc.
paulson
parents: 2160
diff changeset
   360
 "!!evs. [| A ~: lost;  B ~: lost;  evs : otway lost |]                    \
2048
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
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parents: 2045
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   361
\        ==> Says Server B                                                 \
2284
80ebd1a213fd Swapped arguments of Crypt (for clarity and because it is conventional)
paulson
parents: 2264
diff changeset
   362
\              {|NA, Crypt (shrK A) {|NA, Key K|},                         \
80ebd1a213fd Swapped arguments of Crypt (for clarity and because it is conventional)
paulson
parents: 2264
diff changeset
   363
\                Crypt (shrK B) {|NB, Key K|}|} : set_of_list evs -->      \
2135
80477862ab33 Minor corrections
paulson
parents: 2134
diff changeset
   364
\            Says B Spy {|NA, NB, Key K|} ~: set_of_list evs -->           \
2048
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paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   365
\            Key K ~: analz (sees lost Spy evs)";
2032
1bbf1bdcaf56 Introduction of "lost" argument
paulson
parents: 2026
diff changeset
   366
by (etac otway.induct 1);
2064
5a5e508e2a2b Simple tidying
paulson
parents: 2053
diff changeset
   367
by analz_Fake_tac;
1964
d551e68b7a36 Stronger proofs; work for Otway-Rees
paulson
parents: 1945
diff changeset
   368
by (ALLGOALS
2516
4d68fbe6378b Now with Andy Gordon's treatment of freshness to replace newN/K
paulson
parents: 2451
diff changeset
   369
    (asm_simp_tac (!simpset addcongs [conj_cong] 
4d68fbe6378b Now with Andy Gordon's treatment of freshness to replace newN/K
paulson
parents: 2451
diff changeset
   370
                            addsimps [not_parts_not_analz, analz_insert_freshK]
4d68fbe6378b Now with Andy Gordon's treatment of freshness to replace newN/K
paulson
parents: 2451
diff changeset
   371
                            setloop split_tac [expand_if])));
1941
f97a6e5b6375 Initial working proof of Otway-Rees protocol
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   372
(*OR3*)
2516
4d68fbe6378b Now with Andy Gordon's treatment of freshness to replace newN/K
paulson
parents: 2451
diff changeset
   373
by (fast_tac (!claset delrules [impCE]
4d68fbe6378b Now with Andy Gordon's treatment of freshness to replace newN/K
paulson
parents: 2451
diff changeset
   374
                      addSEs sees_Spy_partsEs
4d68fbe6378b Now with Andy Gordon's treatment of freshness to replace newN/K
paulson
parents: 2451
diff changeset
   375
                      addIs [impOfSubs analz_subset_parts]
2048
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   376
                      addss (!simpset addsimps [parts_insert2])) 3);
2135
80477862ab33 Minor corrections
paulson
parents: 2134
diff changeset
   377
(*OR4, OR2, Fake*) 
2375
14539397fc04 Streamlined some proofs
paulson
parents: 2328
diff changeset
   378
by (REPEAT_FIRST spy_analz_tac);
2135
80477862ab33 Minor corrections
paulson
parents: 2134
diff changeset
   379
(*Oops*) (** LEVEL 5 **)
80477862ab33 Minor corrections
paulson
parents: 2134
diff changeset
   380
by (fast_tac (!claset delrules [disjE]
2171
91b4161a28e5 A bit of tidying up
paulson
parents: 2166
diff changeset
   381
                      addDs [unique_session_keys] addss (!simpset)) 1);
2014
5be4c8ca7b25 Correction of protocol; addition of Reveal message; proofs of
paulson
parents: 1999
diff changeset
   382
val lemma = result() RS mp RS mp RSN(2,rev_notE);
5be4c8ca7b25 Correction of protocol; addition of Reveal message; proofs of
paulson
parents: 1999
diff changeset
   383
5be4c8ca7b25 Correction of protocol; addition of Reveal message; proofs of
paulson
parents: 1999
diff changeset
   384
goal thy 
2516
4d68fbe6378b Now with Andy Gordon's treatment of freshness to replace newN/K
paulson
parents: 2451
diff changeset
   385
 "!!evs. [| Says Server B                                                \
4d68fbe6378b Now with Andy Gordon's treatment of freshness to replace newN/K
paulson
parents: 2451
diff changeset
   386
\            {|NA, Crypt (shrK A) {|NA, Key K|},                         \
4d68fbe6378b Now with Andy Gordon's treatment of freshness to replace newN/K
paulson
parents: 2451
diff changeset
   387
\                  Crypt (shrK B) {|NB, Key K|}|} : set_of_list evs;     \
4d68fbe6378b Now with Andy Gordon's treatment of freshness to replace newN/K
paulson
parents: 2451
diff changeset
   388
\           Says B Spy {|NA, NB, Key K|} ~: set_of_list evs;             \
2032
1bbf1bdcaf56 Introduction of "lost" argument
paulson
parents: 2026
diff changeset
   389
\           A ~: lost;  B ~: lost;  evs : otway lost |]                  \
2516
4d68fbe6378b Now with Andy Gordon's treatment of freshness to replace newN/K
paulson
parents: 2451
diff changeset
   390
\        ==> Key K ~: analz (sees lost Spy evs)";
2014
5be4c8ca7b25 Correction of protocol; addition of Reveal message; proofs of
paulson
parents: 1999
diff changeset
   391
by (forward_tac [Says_Server_message_form] 1 THEN assume_tac 1);
5be4c8ca7b25 Correction of protocol; addition of Reveal message; proofs of
paulson
parents: 1999
diff changeset
   392
by (fast_tac (!claset addSEs [lemma]) 1);
2032
1bbf1bdcaf56 Introduction of "lost" argument
paulson
parents: 2026
diff changeset
   393
qed "Spy_not_see_encrypted_key";
1bbf1bdcaf56 Introduction of "lost" argument
paulson
parents: 2026
diff changeset
   394
1945
20ca9cf90e69 A further tidying
paulson
parents: 1941
diff changeset
   395
2032
1bbf1bdcaf56 Introduction of "lost" argument
paulson
parents: 2026
diff changeset
   396
goal thy 
2048
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   397
 "!!evs. [| C ~: {A,B,Server};                                           \
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   398
\           Says Server B                                                \
2516
4d68fbe6378b Now with Andy Gordon's treatment of freshness to replace newN/K
paulson
parents: 2451
diff changeset
   399
\            {|NA, Crypt (shrK A) {|NA, Key K|},                         \
4d68fbe6378b Now with Andy Gordon's treatment of freshness to replace newN/K
paulson
parents: 2451
diff changeset
   400
\                  Crypt (shrK B) {|NB, Key K|}|} : set_of_list evs;     \
4d68fbe6378b Now with Andy Gordon's treatment of freshness to replace newN/K
paulson
parents: 2451
diff changeset
   401
\           Says B Spy {|NA, NB, Key K|} ~: set_of_list evs;             \
2032
1bbf1bdcaf56 Introduction of "lost" argument
paulson
parents: 2026
diff changeset
   402
\           A ~: lost;  B ~: lost;  evs : otway lost |]                  \
2516
4d68fbe6378b Now with Andy Gordon's treatment of freshness to replace newN/K
paulson
parents: 2451
diff changeset
   403
\        ==> Key K ~: analz (sees lost C evs)";
2032
1bbf1bdcaf56 Introduction of "lost" argument
paulson
parents: 2026
diff changeset
   404
by (rtac (subset_insertI RS sees_mono RS analz_mono RS contra_subsetD) 1);
1bbf1bdcaf56 Introduction of "lost" argument
paulson
parents: 2026
diff changeset
   405
by (rtac (sees_lost_agent_subset_sees_Spy RS analz_mono RS contra_subsetD) 1);
1bbf1bdcaf56 Introduction of "lost" argument
paulson
parents: 2026
diff changeset
   406
by (FIRSTGOAL (rtac Spy_not_see_encrypted_key));
1bbf1bdcaf56 Introduction of "lost" argument
paulson
parents: 2026
diff changeset
   407
by (REPEAT_FIRST (fast_tac (!claset addIs [otway_mono RS subsetD])));
1bbf1bdcaf56 Introduction of "lost" argument
paulson
parents: 2026
diff changeset
   408
qed "Agent_not_see_encrypted_key";
1945
20ca9cf90e69 A further tidying
paulson
parents: 1941
diff changeset
   409
20ca9cf90e69 A further tidying
paulson
parents: 1941
diff changeset
   410
2048
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   411
(**** Authenticity properties relating to NB ****)
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   412
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   413
(*Only OR2 can have caused such a part of a message to appear.  We do not
2194
63a68a3a8a76 Removal of an obsolete result, and authentication of
paulson
parents: 2171
diff changeset
   414
  know anything about X: it does NOT have to have the right form.*)
2048
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   415
goal thy 
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   416
 "!!evs. [| B ~: lost;  evs : otway lost |]                    \
2284
80ebd1a213fd Swapped arguments of Crypt (for clarity and because it is conventional)
paulson
parents: 2264
diff changeset
   417
\        ==> Crypt (shrK B) {|NA, NB, Agent A, Agent B|}       \
2048
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   418
\             : parts (sees lost Spy evs) -->                  \
2194
63a68a3a8a76 Removal of an obsolete result, and authentication of
paulson
parents: 2171
diff changeset
   419
\            (EX X. Says B Server                              \
63a68a3a8a76 Removal of an obsolete result, and authentication of
paulson
parents: 2171
diff changeset
   420
\             {|NA, Agent A, Agent B, X,                       \
2284
80ebd1a213fd Swapped arguments of Crypt (for clarity and because it is conventional)
paulson
parents: 2264
diff changeset
   421
\               Crypt (shrK B) {|NA, NB, Agent A, Agent B|}|}  \
2048
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   422
\             : set_of_list evs)";
2064
5a5e508e2a2b Simple tidying
paulson
parents: 2053
diff changeset
   423
by (parts_induct_tac 1);
5a5e508e2a2b Simple tidying
paulson
parents: 2053
diff changeset
   424
by (auto_tac (!claset, !simpset addcongs [conj_cong]));
2194
63a68a3a8a76 Removal of an obsolete result, and authentication of
paulson
parents: 2171
diff changeset
   425
bind_thm ("Crypt_imp_OR2", result() RSN (2,rev_mp) RS exE);
2048
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   426
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   427
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   428
(** The Nonce NB uniquely identifies B's  message. **)
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   429
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   430
goal thy 
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   431
 "!!evs. [| evs : otway lost; B ~: lost |]               \
2064
5a5e508e2a2b Simple tidying
paulson
parents: 2053
diff changeset
   432
\ ==> EX NA' A'. ALL NA A.                               \
2284
80ebd1a213fd Swapped arguments of Crypt (for clarity and because it is conventional)
paulson
parents: 2264
diff changeset
   433
\      Crypt (shrK B) {|NA, NB, Agent A, Agent B|} : parts(sees lost Spy evs) \
2048
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   434
\      --> NA = NA' & A = A'";
2064
5a5e508e2a2b Simple tidying
paulson
parents: 2053
diff changeset
   435
by (parts_induct_tac 1);
5a5e508e2a2b Simple tidying
paulson
parents: 2053
diff changeset
   436
by (simp_tac (!simpset addsimps [all_conj_distrib]) 1); 
2048
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   437
(*OR2: creation of new Nonce.  Move assertion into global context*)
2064
5a5e508e2a2b Simple tidying
paulson
parents: 2053
diff changeset
   438
by (expand_case_tac "NB = ?y" 1);
2516
4d68fbe6378b Now with Andy Gordon's treatment of freshness to replace newN/K
paulson
parents: 2451
diff changeset
   439
by (deepen_tac (!claset addSEs sees_Spy_partsEs) 3 1);
2048
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   440
val lemma = result();
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   441
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   442
goal thy 
2284
80ebd1a213fd Swapped arguments of Crypt (for clarity and because it is conventional)
paulson
parents: 2264
diff changeset
   443
 "!!evs.[| Crypt (shrK B) {|NA, NB, Agent A, Agent B|} \
2048
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   444
\                  : parts(sees lost Spy evs);         \
2284
80ebd1a213fd Swapped arguments of Crypt (for clarity and because it is conventional)
paulson
parents: 2264
diff changeset
   445
\          Crypt (shrK B) {|NC, NB, Agent C, Agent B|} \
2048
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   446
\                  : parts(sees lost Spy evs);         \
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   447
\          evs : otway lost;  B ~: lost |]             \
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   448
\        ==> NC = NA & C = A";
2417
95f275c8476e New tactic: prove_unique_tac
paulson
parents: 2375
diff changeset
   449
by (prove_unique_tac lemma 1);
2048
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   450
qed "unique_NB";
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   451
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   452
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   453
(*If the encrypted message appears, and B has used Nonce NB,
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   454
  then it originated with the Server!*)
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   455
goal thy 
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   456
 "!!evs. [| B ~: lost;  B ~= Spy;  evs : otway lost |]                   \
2284
80ebd1a213fd Swapped arguments of Crypt (for clarity and because it is conventional)
paulson
parents: 2264
diff changeset
   457
\    ==> Crypt (shrK B) {|NB, Key K|} : parts (sees lost Spy evs)        \
2048
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   458
\        --> (ALL X'. Says B Server                                      \
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   459
\                       {|NA, Agent A, Agent B, X',                      \
2284
80ebd1a213fd Swapped arguments of Crypt (for clarity and because it is conventional)
paulson
parents: 2264
diff changeset
   460
\                         Crypt (shrK B) {|NA, NB, Agent A, Agent B|}|}  \
2048
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   461
\             : set_of_list evs                                          \
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   462
\             --> Says Server B                                          \
2284
80ebd1a213fd Swapped arguments of Crypt (for clarity and because it is conventional)
paulson
parents: 2264
diff changeset
   463
\                  {|NA, Crypt (shrK A) {|NA, Key K|},                   \
80ebd1a213fd Swapped arguments of Crypt (for clarity and because it is conventional)
paulson
parents: 2264
diff changeset
   464
\                        Crypt (shrK B) {|NB, Key K|}|}                  \
2048
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   465
\                   : set_of_list evs)";
2064
5a5e508e2a2b Simple tidying
paulson
parents: 2053
diff changeset
   466
by (parts_induct_tac 1);
2048
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   467
(*OR1: it cannot be a new Nonce, contradiction.*)
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   468
by (fast_tac (!claset addSIs [parts_insertI]
2516
4d68fbe6378b Now with Andy Gordon's treatment of freshness to replace newN/K
paulson
parents: 2451
diff changeset
   469
                      addSEs sees_Spy_partsEs
2048
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   470
                      addss (!simpset)) 1);
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   471
(*OR4*)
2194
63a68a3a8a76 Removal of an obsolete result, and authentication of
paulson
parents: 2171
diff changeset
   472
by (fast_tac (!claset addSEs [MPair_parts, Crypt_imp_OR2]) 2);
63a68a3a8a76 Removal of an obsolete result, and authentication of
paulson
parents: 2171
diff changeset
   473
(*OR3*)
2048
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   474
by (step_tac (!claset delrules [disjCI, impCE]) 1);
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   475
by (fast_tac (!claset delrules [conjI] (*stop split-up*)) 3); 
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   476
by (fast_tac (!claset addSDs [Says_imp_sees_Spy RS parts.Inj]
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   477
                      addSEs [MPair_parts]
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   478
                      addDs  [unique_NB]) 2);
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   479
by (fast_tac (!claset addSEs [MPair_parts]
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   480
                      addSDs [Says_imp_sees_Spy RS parts.Inj]
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   481
                      addSEs  [no_nonce_OR1_OR2 RSN (2, rev_notE)]
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   482
                      delrules [conjI, impCE] (*stop split-up*)) 1);
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   483
qed_spec_mp "NB_Crypt_imp_Server_msg";
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   484
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   485
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   486
(*Guarantee for B: if it gets a message with matching NB then the Server
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   487
  has sent the correct message.*)
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   488
goal thy 
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   489
 "!!evs. [| B ~: lost;  B ~= Spy;  evs : otway lost;               \
2284
80ebd1a213fd Swapped arguments of Crypt (for clarity and because it is conventional)
paulson
parents: 2264
diff changeset
   490
\           Says S B {|NA, X, Crypt (shrK B) {|NB, Key K|}|}       \
2048
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   491
\            : set_of_list evs;                                    \
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   492
\           Says B Server {|NA, Agent A, Agent B, X',              \
2284
80ebd1a213fd Swapped arguments of Crypt (for clarity and because it is conventional)
paulson
parents: 2264
diff changeset
   493
\                           Crypt (shrK B) {|NA, NB, Agent A, Agent B|} |} \
2048
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   494
\            : set_of_list evs |]                                  \
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   495
\        ==> Says Server B                                         \
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   496
\                 {|NA,                                            \
2284
80ebd1a213fd Swapped arguments of Crypt (for clarity and because it is conventional)
paulson
parents: 2264
diff changeset
   497
\                   Crypt (shrK A) {|NA, Key K|},                  \
80ebd1a213fd Swapped arguments of Crypt (for clarity and because it is conventional)
paulson
parents: 2264
diff changeset
   498
\                   Crypt (shrK B) {|NB, Key K|}|}                 \
2048
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   499
\                   : set_of_list evs";
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   500
by (fast_tac (!claset addSIs [NB_Crypt_imp_Server_msg]
2516
4d68fbe6378b Now with Andy Gordon's treatment of freshness to replace newN/K
paulson
parents: 2451
diff changeset
   501
                      addEs  sees_Spy_partsEs) 1);
2328
e984c12ce5b4 Minor renamings
paulson
parents: 2284
diff changeset
   502
qed "B_trusts_OR3";
2048
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   503
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   504
2328
e984c12ce5b4 Minor renamings
paulson
parents: 2284
diff changeset
   505
B_trusts_OR3 RS Spy_not_see_encrypted_key;
2048
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   506
bb54fbba0071 Added new guarantees for A and B
paulson
parents: 2045
diff changeset
   507
1945
20ca9cf90e69 A further tidying
paulson
parents: 1941
diff changeset
   508
goal thy 
2214
f869dc885841 Minor reformatting
paulson
parents: 2194
diff changeset
   509
 "!!evs. [| B ~: lost;  evs : otway lost |]                           \
f869dc885841 Minor reformatting
paulson
parents: 2194
diff changeset
   510
\        ==> Says Server B                                            \
2284
80ebd1a213fd Swapped arguments of Crypt (for clarity and because it is conventional)
paulson
parents: 2264
diff changeset
   511
\              {|NA, Crypt (shrK A) {|NA, Key K|},                    \
80ebd1a213fd Swapped arguments of Crypt (for clarity and because it is conventional)
paulson
parents: 2264
diff changeset
   512
\                Crypt (shrK B) {|NB, Key K|}|} : set_of_list evs --> \
2214
f869dc885841 Minor reformatting
paulson
parents: 2194
diff changeset
   513
\            (EX X. Says B Server {|NA, Agent A, Agent B, X,          \
2284
80ebd1a213fd Swapped arguments of Crypt (for clarity and because it is conventional)
paulson
parents: 2264
diff changeset
   514
\                            Crypt (shrK B) {|NA, NB, Agent A, Agent B|} |} \
2194
63a68a3a8a76 Removal of an obsolete result, and authentication of
paulson
parents: 2171
diff changeset
   515
\            : set_of_list evs)";
2032
1bbf1bdcaf56 Introduction of "lost" argument
paulson
parents: 2026
diff changeset
   516
by (etac otway.induct 1);
2194
63a68a3a8a76 Removal of an obsolete result, and authentication of
paulson
parents: 2171
diff changeset
   517
by (Auto_tac());
2284
80ebd1a213fd Swapped arguments of Crypt (for clarity and because it is conventional)
paulson
parents: 2264
diff changeset
   518
by (dtac (Says_imp_sees_Spy RS parts.Inj) 1);
2194
63a68a3a8a76 Removal of an obsolete result, and authentication of
paulson
parents: 2171
diff changeset
   519
by (fast_tac (!claset addSEs [MPair_parts, Crypt_imp_OR2]) 1);
63a68a3a8a76 Removal of an obsolete result, and authentication of
paulson
parents: 2171
diff changeset
   520
bind_thm ("OR3_imp_OR2", result() RSN (2,rev_mp) RS exE);
63a68a3a8a76 Removal of an obsolete result, and authentication of
paulson
parents: 2171
diff changeset
   521
63a68a3a8a76 Removal of an obsolete result, and authentication of
paulson
parents: 2171
diff changeset
   522
63a68a3a8a76 Removal of an obsolete result, and authentication of
paulson
parents: 2171
diff changeset
   523
(*After getting and checking OR4, agent A can trust that B has been active.
63a68a3a8a76 Removal of an obsolete result, and authentication of
paulson
parents: 2171
diff changeset
   524
  We could probably prove that X has the expected form, but that is not
63a68a3a8a76 Removal of an obsolete result, and authentication of
paulson
parents: 2171
diff changeset
   525
  strictly necessary for authentication.*)
63a68a3a8a76 Removal of an obsolete result, and authentication of
paulson
parents: 2171
diff changeset
   526
goal thy 
2284
80ebd1a213fd Swapped arguments of Crypt (for clarity and because it is conventional)
paulson
parents: 2264
diff changeset
   527
 "!!evs. [| Says B' A {|NA, Crypt (shrK A) {|NA, Key K|}|}         \
2194
63a68a3a8a76 Removal of an obsolete result, and authentication of
paulson
parents: 2171
diff changeset
   528
\            : set_of_list evs;                                    \
63a68a3a8a76 Removal of an obsolete result, and authentication of
paulson
parents: 2171
diff changeset
   529
\           Says A B {|NA, Agent A, Agent B,                       \
2284
80ebd1a213fd Swapped arguments of Crypt (for clarity and because it is conventional)
paulson
parents: 2264
diff changeset
   530
\                      Crypt (shrK A) {|NA, Agent A, Agent B|}|}   \
2194
63a68a3a8a76 Removal of an obsolete result, and authentication of
paulson
parents: 2171
diff changeset
   531
\            : set_of_list evs;                                    \
63a68a3a8a76 Removal of an obsolete result, and authentication of
paulson
parents: 2171
diff changeset
   532
\           A ~: lost;  A ~= Spy;  B ~: lost;  evs : otway lost |] \
63a68a3a8a76 Removal of an obsolete result, and authentication of
paulson
parents: 2171
diff changeset
   533
\        ==> EX NB X. Says B Server {|NA, Agent A, Agent B, X,     \
2284
80ebd1a213fd Swapped arguments of Crypt (for clarity and because it is conventional)
paulson
parents: 2264
diff changeset
   534
\                              Crypt (shrK B)  {|NA, NB, Agent A, Agent B|} |}\
2194
63a68a3a8a76 Removal of an obsolete result, and authentication of
paulson
parents: 2171
diff changeset
   535
\            : set_of_list evs";
2328
e984c12ce5b4 Minor renamings
paulson
parents: 2284
diff changeset
   536
by (fast_tac (!claset addSDs  [A_trusts_OR4]
2284
80ebd1a213fd Swapped arguments of Crypt (for clarity and because it is conventional)
paulson
parents: 2264
diff changeset
   537
                      addSEs [OR3_imp_OR2]) 1);
2194
63a68a3a8a76 Removal of an obsolete result, and authentication of
paulson
parents: 2171
diff changeset
   538
qed "A_auths_B";