src/HOL/Tools/SMT/z3_proof_parser.ML
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(*  Title:      HOL/Tools/SMT/z3_proof_parser.ML
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    Author:     Sascha Boehme, TU Muenchen
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Parser for Z3 proofs.
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*)
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signature Z3_PROOF_PARSER =
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sig
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  (* proof rules *)
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  datatype rule = TrueAxiom | Asserted | Goal | ModusPonens | Reflexivity |
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    Symmetry | Transitivity | TransitivityStar | Monotonicity | QuantIntro |
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    Distributivity | AndElim | NotOrElim | Rewrite | RewriteStar | PullQuant |
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    PullQuantStar | PushQuant | ElimUnusedVars | DestEqRes | QuantInst |
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    Hypothesis | Lemma | UnitResolution | IffTrue | IffFalse | Commutativity |
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    DefAxiom | IntroDef | ApplyDef | IffOeq | NnfPos | NnfNeg | NnfStar |
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    CnfStar | Skolemize | ModusPonensOeq | ThLemma of string list
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  val string_of_rule: rule -> string
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  (* proof parser *)
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  datatype proof_step = Proof_Step of {
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    rule: rule,
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    prems: int list,
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    prop: cterm }
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  val parse: Proof.context -> typ Symtab.table -> term Symtab.table ->
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    string list ->
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    int * (proof_step Inttab.table * string list * Proof.context)
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end
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structure Z3_Proof_Parser: Z3_PROOF_PARSER =
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struct
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structure I = Z3_Interface
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(** proof rules **)
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datatype rule = TrueAxiom | Asserted | Goal | ModusPonens | Reflexivity |
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  Symmetry | Transitivity | TransitivityStar | Monotonicity | QuantIntro |
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  Distributivity | AndElim | NotOrElim | Rewrite | RewriteStar | PullQuant |
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  PullQuantStar | PushQuant | ElimUnusedVars | DestEqRes | QuantInst |
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  Hypothesis | Lemma | UnitResolution | IffTrue | IffFalse | Commutativity |
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  DefAxiom | IntroDef | ApplyDef | IffOeq | NnfPos | NnfNeg | NnfStar |
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  CnfStar | Skolemize | ModusPonensOeq | ThLemma of string list
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val rule_names = Symtab.make [
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  ("true-axiom", TrueAxiom),
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  ("asserted", Asserted),
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  ("goal", Goal),
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  ("mp", ModusPonens),
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  ("refl", Reflexivity),
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  ("symm", Symmetry),
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  ("trans", Transitivity),
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  ("trans*", TransitivityStar),
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  ("monotonicity", Monotonicity),
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  ("quant-intro", QuantIntro),
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  ("distributivity", Distributivity),
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  ("and-elim", AndElim),
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  ("not-or-elim", NotOrElim),
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  ("rewrite", Rewrite),
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  ("rewrite*", RewriteStar),
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  ("pull-quant", PullQuant),
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  ("pull-quant*", PullQuantStar),
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  ("push-quant", PushQuant),
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  ("elim-unused", ElimUnusedVars),
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  ("der", DestEqRes),
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  ("quant-inst", QuantInst),
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  ("hypothesis", Hypothesis),
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  ("lemma", Lemma),
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  ("unit-resolution", UnitResolution),
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  ("iff-true", IffTrue),
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  ("iff-false", IffFalse),
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  ("commutativity", Commutativity),
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  ("def-axiom", DefAxiom),
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  ("intro-def", IntroDef),
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  ("apply-def", ApplyDef),
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  ("iff~", IffOeq),
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  ("nnf-pos", NnfPos),
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  ("nnf-neg", NnfNeg),
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  ("nnf*", NnfStar),
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  ("cnf*", CnfStar),
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  ("sk", Skolemize),
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  ("mp~", ModusPonensOeq),
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  ("th-lemma", ThLemma [])]
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fun string_of_rule (ThLemma args) = space_implode " " ("th-lemma" :: args)
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  | string_of_rule r =
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      let fun eq_rule (s, r') = if r = r' then SOME s else NONE 
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      in the (Symtab.get_first eq_rule rule_names) end
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(** certified terms and variables **)
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val (var_prefix, decl_prefix) = ("v", "sk")
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(* "decl_prefix" is for skolem constants (represented by free variables)
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   "var_prefix" is for pseudo-schematic variables (schematic with respect
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     to the Z3 proof, but represented by free variables)
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     Both prefixes must be distinct to avoid name interferences.
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   More precisely, the naming of pseudo-schematic variables must be
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   context-independent modulo the current proof context to be able to
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   use fast inference kernel rules during proof reconstruction. *)
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fun certify ctxt = Thm.cterm_of (ProofContext.theory_of ctxt)
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val maxidx_of = #maxidx o Thm.rep_cterm
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fun mk_inst ctxt vars =
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  let
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    val max = fold (Integer.max o fst) vars 0
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    val ns = fst (Variable.variant_fixes (replicate (max + 1) var_prefix) ctxt)
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    fun mk (i, v) = (v, certify ctxt (Free (nth ns i, #T (Thm.rep_cterm v))))
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  in map mk vars end
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fun close ctxt (ct, vars) =
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  let
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    val inst = mk_inst ctxt vars
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    val mk_prop = Thm.capply @{cterm Trueprop}
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    val names = fold (Term.add_free_names o Thm.term_of o snd) inst []
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  in (mk_prop (Thm.instantiate_cterm ([], inst) ct), names) end
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fun mk_bound thy (i, T) =
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  let val ct = Thm.cterm_of thy (Var ((Name.uu, 0), T))
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  in (ct, [(i, ct)]) end
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local
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  fun mk_quant thy q T (ct, vars) =
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    let
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      val cv =
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        (case AList.lookup (op =) vars 0 of
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          SOME cv => cv
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        | _ => Thm.cterm_of thy (Var ((Name.uu, maxidx_of ct + 1), T)))
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      fun dec (i, v) = if i = 0 then NONE else SOME (i-1, v)
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    in (Thm.capply (I.instT' cv q) (Thm.cabs cv ct), map_filter dec vars) end
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  val forall = I.mk_inst_pair (I.destT1 o I.destT1) @{cpat All}
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  val exists = I.mk_inst_pair (I.destT1 o I.destT1) @{cpat Ex}
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in
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fun mk_forall thy = fold_rev (mk_quant thy forall)
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fun mk_exists thy = fold_rev (mk_quant thy exists)
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end
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local
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  fun equal_var cv (_, cu) = (cv aconvc cu)
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  fun prep (ct, vars) (maxidx, all_vars) =
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    let
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      val maxidx' = maxidx_of ct + maxidx + 1
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      fun part (v as (i, cv)) =
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        (case AList.lookup (op =) all_vars i of
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          SOME cu => apfst (if cu aconvc cv then I else cons (cv, cu))
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        | NONE =>
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            if not (exists (equal_var cv) all_vars) then apsnd (cons v)
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            else
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              let val cv' = Thm.incr_indexes_cterm maxidx' cv
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              in apfst (cons (cv, cv')) #> apsnd (cons (i, cv')) end)
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      val (inst, vars') =
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        if null vars then ([], vars)
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        else fold part vars ([], [])
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    in (Thm.instantiate_cterm ([], inst) ct, (maxidx', vars' @ all_vars)) end
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in
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fun mk_fun f ts =
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  let val (cts, (_, vars)) = fold_map prep ts (~1, [])
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  in f cts |> Option.map (rpair vars) end
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end
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(** proof parser **)
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datatype proof_step = Proof_Step of {
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  rule: rule,
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  prems: int list,
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  prop: cterm }
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(* parser context *)
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fun make_context ctxt typs terms =
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  let
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    val ctxt' = 
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      ctxt
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      |> Symtab.fold (Variable.declare_typ o snd) typs
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      |> Symtab.fold (Variable.declare_term o snd) terms
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    fun cert @{term True} = @{cterm "~False"}
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      | cert t = certify ctxt' t
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  in (typs, Symtab.map (K cert) terms, Inttab.empty, Inttab.empty, [], ctxt') end
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fun fresh_name n (typs, terms, exprs, steps, vars, ctxt) =
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  let val (n', ctxt') = yield_singleton Variable.variant_fixes n ctxt
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  in (n', (typs, terms, exprs, steps, vars, ctxt')) end
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fun theory_of (_, _, _, _, _, ctxt) = ProofContext.theory_of ctxt
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fun add_decl (n, T) (cx as (_, terms, _, _, _, _)) =
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  (case Symtab.lookup terms n of
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    SOME _ => cx
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  | NONE => cx |> fresh_name (decl_prefix ^ n)
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      |> (fn (m, (typs, terms, exprs, steps, vars, ctxt)) =>
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           let val upd = Symtab.update (n, certify ctxt (Free (m, T)))
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           in (typs, upd terms, exprs, steps, vars, ctxt) end))
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fun mk_typ (typs, _, _, _, _, ctxt) (s as I.Sym (n, _)) = 
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  (case I.mk_builtin_typ ctxt s of
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    SOME T => SOME T
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  | NONE => Symtab.lookup typs n)
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fun mk_num (_, _, _, _, _, ctxt) (i, T) =
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  mk_fun (K (I.mk_builtin_num ctxt i T)) []
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fun mk_app (_, terms, _, _, _, ctxt) (s as I.Sym (n, _), es) =
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  mk_fun (fn cts =>
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    (case I.mk_builtin_fun ctxt s cts of
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      SOME ct => SOME ct
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    | NONE =>
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        Symtab.lookup terms n |> Option.map (Drule.list_comb o rpair cts))) es
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fun add_expr k t (typs, terms, exprs, steps, vars, ctxt) =
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  (typs, terms, Inttab.update (k, t) exprs, steps, vars, ctxt)
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fun lookup_expr (_, _, exprs, _, _, _) = Inttab.lookup exprs
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fun add_proof_step k ((r, prems), prop) cx =
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  let
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    val (typs, terms, exprs, steps, vars, ctxt) = cx
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    val (ct, vs) = close ctxt prop
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    val step = Proof_Step {rule=r, prems=prems, prop=ct}
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    val vars' = union (op =) vs vars
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  in (typs, terms, exprs, Inttab.update (k, step) steps, vars', ctxt) end
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fun finish (_, _, _, steps, vars, ctxt) = (steps, vars, ctxt)
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(* core parser *)
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fun parse_exn line_no msg = raise SMT_Failure.SMT (SMT_Failure.Other_Failure
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  ("Z3 proof parser (line " ^ string_of_int line_no ^ "): " ^ msg))
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fun scan_exn msg ((line_no, _), _) = parse_exn line_no msg
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fun with_info f cx =
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  (case f ((NONE, 1), cx) of
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    ((SOME root, _), cx') => (root, cx')
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  | ((_, line_no), _) => parse_exn line_no "bad proof")
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fun parse_line _ _ (st as ((SOME _, _), _)) = st
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  | parse_line scan line ((_, line_no), cx) =
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      let val st = ((line_no, cx), explode line)
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      in
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        (case Scan.catch (Scan.finite' Symbol.stopper (Scan.option scan)) st of
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          (SOME r, ((_, cx'), _)) => ((r, line_no+1), cx')
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        | (NONE, _) => parse_exn line_no ("bad proof line: " ^ quote line))
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      end
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fun with_context f x ((line_no, cx), st) =
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  let val (y, cx') = f x cx
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  in (y, ((line_no, cx'), st)) end
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fun lookup_context f x (st as ((_, cx), _)) = (f cx x, st)
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(* parser combinators and parsers for basic entities *)
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fun $$ s = Scan.lift (Scan.$$ s)
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fun this s = Scan.lift (Scan.this_string s)
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val is_blank = Symbol.is_ascii_blank
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fun blank st = Scan.lift (Scan.many1 is_blank) st
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fun sep scan = blank |-- scan
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fun seps scan = Scan.repeat (sep scan)
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fun seps1 scan = Scan.repeat1 (sep scan)
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fun seps_by scan_sep scan = scan ::: Scan.repeat (scan_sep |-- scan)
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val lpar = "(" and rpar = ")"
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val lbra = "[" and rbra = "]"
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fun par scan = $$ lpar |-- scan --| $$ rpar
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fun bra scan = $$ lbra |-- scan --| $$ rbra
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val digit = (fn
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  "0" => SOME 0 | "1" => SOME 1 | "2" => SOME 2 | "3" => SOME 3 |
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  "4" => SOME 4 | "5" => SOME 5 | "6" => SOME 6 | "7" => SOME 7 |
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  "8" => SOME 8 | "9" => SOME 9 | _ => NONE)
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fun digits st = (Scan.lift (Scan.many1 Symbol.is_ascii_digit) >> implode) st
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fun nat_num st = (Scan.lift (Scan.repeat1 (Scan.some digit)) >> (fn ds =>
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  fold (fn d => fn i => i * 10 + d) ds 0)) st
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fun int_num st = (Scan.optional ($$ "-" >> K (fn i => ~i)) I :|--
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  (fn sign => nat_num >> sign)) st
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val is_char = Symbol.is_ascii_letter orf Symbol.is_ascii_digit orf
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  member (op =) (explode "_+*-/%~=<>$&|?!.@^#")
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fun name st = (Scan.lift (Scan.many1 is_char) >> implode) st
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fun sym st =
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  (name -- Scan.optional (bra (seps_by ($$ ":") sym)) [] >> I.Sym) st
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fun id st = ($$ "#" |-- nat_num) st
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(* parsers for various parts of Z3 proofs *)
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fun sort st = Scan.first [
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  this "array" |-- bra (sort --| $$ ":" -- sort) >> (op -->),
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  par (this "->" |-- seps1 sort) >> ((op --->) o split_last),
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  sym :|-- (fn s as I.Sym (n, _) => lookup_context mk_typ s :|-- (fn
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    SOME T => Scan.succeed T
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  | NONE => scan_exn ("unknown sort: " ^ quote n)))] st
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fun bound st = (par (this ":var" |-- sep nat_num -- sep sort) :|--
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  lookup_context (mk_bound o theory_of)) st
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fun numb (n as (i, _)) = lookup_context mk_num n :|-- (fn
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    SOME n' => Scan.succeed n'
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  | NONE => scan_exn ("unknown number: " ^ quote (string_of_int i)))
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fun appl (app as (I.Sym (n, _), _)) = lookup_context mk_app app :|-- (fn 
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    SOME app' => Scan.succeed app'
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  | NONE => scan_exn ("unknown function symbol: " ^ quote n))
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fun bv_size st = (digits >> (fn sz => I.Sym ("bv", [I.Sym (sz, [])]))) st
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fun bv_number_sort st = (bv_size :|-- lookup_context mk_typ :|-- (fn
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    SOME cT => Scan.succeed cT
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  | NONE => scan_exn ("unknown sort: " ^ quote "bv"))) st
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fun bv_number st =
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  (this "bv" |-- bra (nat_num --| $$ ":" -- bv_number_sort) :|-- numb) st
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fun frac_number st = (
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  int_num --| $$ "/" -- int_num --| this "::" -- sort :|-- (fn ((i, j), T) =>
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    numb (i, T) -- numb (j, T) :|-- (fn (n, m) =>
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      appl (I.Sym ("/", []), [n, m])))) st
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fun plain_number st = (int_num --| this "::" -- sort :|-- numb) st
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fun number st = Scan.first [bv_number, frac_number, plain_number] st
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fun constant st = ((sym >> rpair []) :|-- appl) st
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fun expr_id st = (id :|-- (fn i => lookup_context lookup_expr i :|-- (fn
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    SOME e => Scan.succeed e
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  | NONE => scan_exn ("unknown term id: " ^ quote (string_of_int i))))) st
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fun arg st = Scan.first [expr_id, number, constant] st
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fun application st = par ((sym -- Scan.repeat1 (sep arg)) :|-- appl) st
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fun variables st = par (this "vars" |-- seps1 (par (name |-- sep sort))) st
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fun pats st = seps (par ((this ":pat" || this ":nopat") |-- seps1 id)) st
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fun pattern st = par (this "pattern" |-- Scan.repeat1 (sep arg) >>
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  (the o mk_fun (K (SOME @{cterm True})))) st
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fun quant_kind st = st |> (
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  this "forall" >> K (mk_forall o theory_of) ||
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  this "exists" >> K (mk_exists o theory_of))
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fun quantifier st =
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  (par (quant_kind -- sep variables --| pats -- sep arg) :|--
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     lookup_context (fn cx => fn ((mk_q, Ts), body) => mk_q cx Ts body)) st
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fun expr k =
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  Scan.first [bound, quantifier, pattern, application, number, constant] :|--
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  with_context (pair NONE oo add_expr k)
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fun th_lemma_arg st =
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  Scan.lift (Scan.many1 (not o (is_blank orf equal rbra)) >> implode) st
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fun rule_name st = ((name >> `(Symtab.lookup rule_names)) :|-- (fn 
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    (SOME (ThLemma _), _) =>
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      let fun stop st = (sep id >> K "" || $$ rbra) st
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      in Scan.repeat (Scan.unless stop (sep th_lemma_arg)) >> ThLemma end
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  | (SOME r, _) => Scan.succeed r
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  | (NONE, n) => scan_exn ("unknown proof rule: " ^ quote n))) st
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fun rule f k =
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  bra (rule_name -- seps id) --| $$ ":" -- sep arg #->
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  with_context (pair (f k) oo add_proof_step k)
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fun decl st = (this "decl" |-- sep name --| sep (this "::") -- sep sort :|--
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  with_context (pair NONE oo add_decl)) st
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fun def st = (id --| sep (this ":=")) st
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fun node st = st |> (
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  decl ||
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  def :|-- (fn k => sep (expr k) || sep (rule (K NONE) k)) ||
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  rule SOME ~1)
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(* overall parser *)
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(* Currently, terms are parsed bottom-up (i.e., along with parsing the proof
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   text line by line), but proofs are reconstructed top-down (i.e. by an
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   in-order top-down traversal of the proof tree/graph).  The latter approach
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   was taken because some proof texts comprise irrelevant proof steps which
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   will thus not be reconstructed.  This approach might also be beneficial
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   for constructing terms, but it would also increase the complexity of the
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   (otherwise rather modular) code. *)
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fun parse ctxt typs terms proof_text =
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  make_context ctxt typs terms
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  |> with_info (fold (parse_line node) proof_text)
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  ||> finish
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end