NEWS
author ballarin
Wed Jul 19 23:22:22 2006 +0200 (2006-07-19)
changeset 20169 52173f7687fd
parent 20136 8e92a8f9720b
child 20188 8b22026445af
permissions -rw-r--r--
Change to algebra method.
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Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
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==============================================
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New in this Isabelle release
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----------------------------
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*** General ***
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* Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
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discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
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fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
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discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
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with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
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function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. "class", "if") are now
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keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double quotes.
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* Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
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to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
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functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
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by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
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Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
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these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
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used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
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* Command 'find_theorems': support "*" wildcard in "name:" criterion.
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*** Document preparation ***
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* Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
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check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
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*** Pure ***
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* Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
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syntax.
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* Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
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dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
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that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
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correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
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INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
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exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
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Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
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instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
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declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
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c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
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as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
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recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
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impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
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LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
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Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
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equations, see section "definitions".
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* Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
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the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
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  assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
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  then guess x and y by clarify
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This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
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proof tools being involved here.
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* Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
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propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
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named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
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methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
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according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
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provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
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theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
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`A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
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There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
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for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
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certain special cases of literal facts:
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  have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
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  have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
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  have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
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  have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
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* Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
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outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
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additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
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* Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
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both named and unnamed ones.
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* Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
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  def x == "t" and y == "u"
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* Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
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'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
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rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
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'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
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* Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
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and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
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(potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
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analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
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Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
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* Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
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method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
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sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
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simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
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simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
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originally first one.
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* Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
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patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
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expected.
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* Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
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'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
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(essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
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assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
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adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
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  lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
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    assumes "EX x. P x"
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    obtains x where "P x"
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  lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
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    assumes "A & B"
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    obtains A and B
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  lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
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    assumes "A | B"
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    obtains
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      A
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    | B
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The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
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explicitly:
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  lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
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    obtains "~ thesis"
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  lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
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    obtains "thesis ==> something"
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The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
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Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
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Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
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available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
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resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
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case_names).
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* Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
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proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
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top-level lemma.
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* Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
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introduction rule (default "that").
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* Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
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explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
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to occur.
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* Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
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according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
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syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
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representations independently of name spaces.
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* Isar/locales: 'const_syntax' provides a robust interface to the
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'syntax' primitive that also works in a locale context.  Type
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declaration and internal syntactic representation of given constants
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retrieved from the context.
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* Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
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'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
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object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
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isar-ref manual.  Examples:
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  axiomatization
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    eq  (infix "===" 50)
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    where eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
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  definition
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    "f x y = x + y + 1"
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    "g x = f x x"
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  abbreviation
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    neq  (infix "=!=" 50)
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    "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
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These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
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constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
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constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
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abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
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parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
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HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
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entities from a monomorphic theory.
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Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
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not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
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'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
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'translations' in common applications.
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Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
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independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
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slightly different -- use 'const_syntax' instead of raw 'syntax', and
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'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
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* Isar/locales: improved parameter handling:
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- use of locales "var" and "struct" no longer necessary;
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- parameter renamings are no longer required to be injective.
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  This enables, for example, to define a locale for endomorphisms thus:
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  locale endom = homom mult mult h.
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* Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
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Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
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now an interpretation.
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INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of locale expressions.
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In particular, in interpretations of locales with predicates,
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goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not removed
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automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'; see below.
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* Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales' provide
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backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are aware of
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interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.  `intro_locales' is
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less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not unfold predicates to
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assumptions.
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* Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
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has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments
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due to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
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* Provers/induct: improved internal context management to support
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local fixes and defines on-the-fly.  Thus explicit meta-level
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connectives !! and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
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(using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
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obsolete anyway).  The subsequent proof patterns illustrate advanced
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techniques of natural induction; general datatypes and inductive sets
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work analogously (see also src/HOL/Lambda for realistic examples).
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(1) This is how to ``strengthen'' an inductive goal wrt. certain
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parameters:
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  lemma
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    fixes n :: nat and x :: 'a
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    assumes a: "A n x"
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    shows "P n x"
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    using a                     -- {* make induct insert fact a *}
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  proof (induct n fixing: x)    -- {* generalize goal to "!!x. A n x ==> P n x" *}
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    case 0
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    show ?case sorry
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  next
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    case (Suc n)
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    note `!!x. A n x ==> P n x` -- {* induction hypothesis, according to induction rule *}
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    note `A (Suc n) x`          -- {* induction premise, stemming from fact a *}
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    show ?case sorry
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  qed
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(2) This is how to perform induction over ``expressions of a certain
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form'', using a locally defined inductive parameter n == "a x"
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together with strengthening (the latter is usually required to get
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sufficiently flexible induction hypotheses):
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  lemma
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    fixes a :: "'a => nat"
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    assumes a: "A (a x)"
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    shows "P (a x)"
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    using a
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  proof (induct n == "a x" fixing: x)
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    ...
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See also HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy for an application of the this
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particular technique.
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(3) This is how to perform existential reasoning ('obtains' or
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'obtain') by induction, while avoiding explicit object-logic
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encodings:
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  lemma
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    fixes n :: nat
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    obtains x :: 'a where "P n x" and "Q n x"
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  proof (induct n fixing: thesis)
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    case 0
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    obtain x where "P 0 x" and "Q 0 x" sorry
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    then show thesis by (rule 0)
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  next
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    case (Suc n)
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    obtain x where "P n x" and "Q n x" by (rule Suc.hyps)
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    obtain x where "P (Suc n) x" and "Q (Suc n) x" sorry
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    then show thesis by (rule Suc.prems)
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  qed
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Here the 'fixing: thesis' specification essentially modifies the scope
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of the formal thesis parameter, in order to the get the whole
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existence statement through the induction as expected.
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* Provers/induct: mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
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of rule sharing the same induction cases.  HOL packages usually
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provide foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar
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(e.g. inductive sets or datatypes).  INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to
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specify mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
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  (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
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  (induct set: foo bar)
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  (induct type: foo bar)
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The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
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new format.
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* Provers/induct: improved handling of simultaneous goals.  Instead of
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introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
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several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are
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nested accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured
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explicitly.  For example:
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  lemma
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    fixes n :: nat
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    shows "P n" and "Q n"
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  proof (induct n)
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    case 0 case 1
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    show "P 0" sorry
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  next
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    case 0 case 2
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    show "Q 0" sorry
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  next
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    case (Suc n) case 1
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    note `P n` and `Q n`
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    show "P (Suc n)" sorry
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  next
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    case (Suc n) case 2
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    note `P n` and `Q n`
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    show "Q (Suc n)" sorry
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  qed
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The split into subcases may be deferred as follows -- this is
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particularly relevant for goal statements with local premises.
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  lemma
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    fixes n :: nat
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    shows "A n ==> P n" and "B n ==> Q n"
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   345
  proof (induct n)
wenzelm@18601
   346
    case 0
wenzelm@18601
   347
    {
wenzelm@18601
   348
      case 1
wenzelm@18601
   349
      note `A 0`
wenzelm@18601
   350
      show "P 0" sorry
wenzelm@18601
   351
    next
wenzelm@18601
   352
      case 2
wenzelm@18601
   353
      note `B 0`
wenzelm@18601
   354
      show "Q 0" sorry
wenzelm@18601
   355
    }
wenzelm@18601
   356
  next
wenzelm@18601
   357
    case (Suc n)
wenzelm@18601
   358
    note `A n ==> P n` and `B n ==> Q n`
wenzelm@18601
   359
    {
wenzelm@18601
   360
      case 1
wenzelm@18601
   361
      note `A (Suc n)`
wenzelm@18601
   362
      show "P (Suc n)" sorry
wenzelm@18601
   363
    next
wenzelm@18601
   364
      case 2
wenzelm@18601
   365
      note `B (Suc n)`
wenzelm@18601
   366
      show "Q (Suc n)" sorry
wenzelm@18601
   367
    }
wenzelm@18601
   368
  qed
wenzelm@18601
   369
wenzelm@18506
   370
If simultaneous goals are to be used with mutual rules, the statement
wenzelm@18506
   371
needs to be structured carefully as a two-level conjunction, using
wenzelm@18506
   372
lists of propositions separated by 'and':
wenzelm@18506
   373
wenzelm@18507
   374
  lemma
wenzelm@18507
   375
    shows "a : A ==> P1 a"
wenzelm@18507
   376
          "a : A ==> P2 a"
wenzelm@18507
   377
      and "b : B ==> Q1 b"
wenzelm@18507
   378
          "b : B ==> Q2 b"
wenzelm@18507
   379
          "b : B ==> Q3 b"
wenzelm@18507
   380
  proof (induct set: A B)
wenzelm@18480
   381
wenzelm@18399
   382
* Provers/induct: support coinduction as well.  See
wenzelm@18399
   383
src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
wenzelm@18399
   384
nipkow@18674
   385
* Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level rewrites
nipkow@18674
   386
now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by default. Thus there is
nipkow@18674
   387
less danger of being flooded by the trace. The trace indicates where parts
nipkow@18674
   388
have been suppressed.
nipkow@18674
   389
  
wenzelm@18536
   390
* Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
wenzelm@18536
   391
attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
wenzelm@18536
   392
manipulating the claset.
wenzelm@18536
   393
wenzelm@18694
   394
* Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
wenzelm@18694
   395
dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
wenzelm@18694
   396
least one premise.
wenzelm@18694
   397
wenzelm@18694
   398
* Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
wenzelm@18695
   399
weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
wenzelm@18696
   400
ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
wenzelm@18694
   401
rule steps.
paulson@18557
   402
wenzelm@18536
   403
* Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
wenzelm@18536
   404
where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
wenzelm@18536
   405
patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
wenzelm@18536
   406
"{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
wenzelm@18536
   407
INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
wenzelm@18536
   408
constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
wenzelm@18536
   409
wenzelm@18536
   410
* Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
wenzelm@18536
   411
parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
wenzelm@18536
   412
for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
wenzelm@17779
   413
wenzelm@17865
   414
nipkow@17806
   415
*** HOL ***
nipkow@17806
   416
nipkow@19895
   417
* New top level command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term
nipkow@19895
   418
that may contain free variables. For example 'normal_form "rev[a,b,c]"'
nipkow@19895
   419
prints '[b,c,a]'. This command is suitable for heavy-duty computations
nipkow@19895
   420
because the functions are compiled to ML first.
nipkow@19895
   421
INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'normal_form' must quoted when used as
nipkow@19895
   422
an identifier.
nipkow@19895
   423
wenzelm@17996
   424
* Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
wenzelm@17996
   425
25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
wenzelm@17996
   426
"A = B" (with priority 50).
wenzelm@17996
   427
ballarin@19279
   428
* Renamed constants in HOL.thy and Orderings.thy:
haftmann@19233
   429
    op +   ~> HOL.plus
haftmann@19233
   430
    op -   ~> HOL.minus
haftmann@19233
   431
    uminus ~> HOL.uminus
haftmann@19233
   432
    op *   ~> HOL.times
haftmann@19277
   433
    op <   ~> Orderings.less
haftmann@19277
   434
    op <=  ~> Orderings.less_eq
haftmann@19233
   435
haftmann@19233
   436
Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
haftmann@19233
   437
nipkow@19377
   438
a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus", "times",
nipkow@19377
   439
"less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for "+", "-" and "*"
nipkow@19377
   440
may go wrong.
haftmann@19233
   441
INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
haftmann@19233
   442
haftmann@19277
   443
b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
haftmann@19233
   444
INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
haftmann@19233
   445
nipkow@19377
   446
c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
nipkow@19377
   447
Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
nipkow@19377
   448
rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows that
nipkow@19377
   449
this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
nipkow@19377
   450
distribution).
nipkow@19377
   451
INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
haftmann@19233
   452
haftmann@19233
   453
d) ML code directly refering to constant names
haftmann@19233
   454
This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and so on.
haftmann@19233
   455
INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
haftmann@19233
   456
nipkow@18674
   457
* "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
nipkow@18674
   458
nipkow@19377
   459
* The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been removed.
nipkow@19377
   460
  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
nipkow@19377
   461
wenzelm@17865
   462
* In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
wenzelm@17865
   463
"t = s" to False (by simproc "neq_simproc").  For backward
wenzelm@17865
   464
compatibility this can be disabled by ML "reset use_neq_simproc".
wenzelm@17779
   465
nipkow@18979
   466
* "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to True/False by simp.
nipkow@18979
   467
nipkow@19211
   468
* Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer has attribute `simp'.
nipkow@19211
   469
ballarin@19279
   470
* Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
ballarin@19279
   471
nipkow@19211
   472
* Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
nipkow@19211
   473
'rule' method.
nipkow@19211
   474
webertj@17809
   475
* Tactics 'sat' and 'satx' reimplemented, several improvements: goals
webertj@17809
   476
no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences (i.e.
wenzelm@17865
   477
"=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form "lit_<n>"
wenzelm@17865
   478
are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
wenzelm@17865
   479
webertj@20136
   480
* Tactics 'sat' and 'satx' can now replay MiniSat proof traces.  zChaff is
webertj@20136
   481
still supported as well.
webertj@20136
   482
wenzelm@18480
   483
* inductive and datatype: provide projections of mutual rules, bundled
wenzelm@18480
   484
as foo_bar.inducts;
wenzelm@18480
   485
wenzelm@19572
   486
* Library: theory Accessible_Part has been move to main HOL.
wenzelm@19572
   487
wenzelm@18446
   488
* Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
wenzelm@18446
   489
as greatest fixed-point.
wenzelm@18399
   490
wenzelm@19254
   491
* Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
schirmer@19252
   492
association lists.
webertj@17809
   493
berghofe@19855
   494
* New proof method "evaluation" for efficiently solving a goal
berghofe@19855
   495
  (i.e. a boolean expression) by compiling it to ML. The goal is
berghofe@19855
   496
  "proved" (via the oracle "Evaluation") if it evaluates to True.
berghofe@19855
   497
kleing@20067
   498
* Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals. 
wenzelm@19254
   499
ballarin@20169
   500
*** HOL-Algebra ***
ballarin@20169
   501
ballarin@20169
   502
* Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see CRing.thy.
ballarin@20169
   503
  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations of algebraic structures.
ballarin@20169
   504
wenzelm@19653
   505
*** HOL-Complex ***
wenzelm@19653
   506
wenzelm@19653
   507
* Theory Real: new method ferrack implements quantifier elimination
wenzelm@19653
   508
for linear arithmetic over the reals. The quantifier elimination
wenzelm@19653
   509
feature is used only for decision, for compatibility with arith. This
wenzelm@19653
   510
means a goal is either solved or left unchanged, no simplification.
wenzelm@19653
   511
wenzelm@19653
   512
wenzelm@17878
   513
*** ML ***
wenzelm@17878
   514
haftmann@18450
   515
* Pure/library:
haftmann@18450
   516
haftmann@18450
   517
  val burrow: ('a list -> 'b list) -> 'a list list -> 'b list list
haftmann@18549
   518
  val fold_burrow: ('a list -> 'c -> 'b list * 'd) -> 'a list list -> 'c -> 'b list list * 'd
haftmann@18450
   519
wenzelm@18540
   520
The semantics of "burrow" is: "take a function with *simulatanously*
wenzelm@18540
   521
transforms a list of value, and apply it *simulatanously* to a list of
wenzelm@18540
   522
list of values of the appropriate type". Confer this with "map" which
wenzelm@18540
   523
would *not* apply its argument function simulatanously but in
haftmann@18549
   524
sequence. "fold_burrow" has an additional context.
wenzelm@18540
   525
wenzelm@18540
   526
Both actually avoid the usage of "unflat" since they hide away
wenzelm@18540
   527
"unflat" from the user.
haftmann@18450
   528
wenzelm@18446
   529
* Pure/library: functions map2 and fold2 with curried syntax for
wenzelm@18446
   530
simultanous mapping and folding:
wenzelm@18446
   531
haftmann@18422
   532
    val map2: ('a -> 'b -> 'c) -> 'a list -> 'b list -> 'c list
haftmann@18422
   533
    val fold2: ('a -> 'b -> 'c -> 'c) -> 'a list -> 'b list -> 'c -> 'c
haftmann@18422
   534
wenzelm@18446
   535
* Pure/library: indexed lists - some functions in the Isabelle library
wenzelm@18446
   536
treating lists over 'a as finite mappings from [0...n] to 'a have been
wenzelm@18446
   537
given more convenient names and signatures reminiscent of similar
wenzelm@18446
   538
functions for alists, tables, etc:
haftmann@18051
   539
haftmann@18051
   540
  val nth: 'a list -> int -> 'a 
haftmann@18051
   541
  val nth_update: int * 'a -> 'a list -> 'a list
haftmann@18051
   542
  val nth_map: int -> ('a -> 'a) -> 'a list -> 'a list
haftmann@18051
   543
  val fold_index: (int * 'a -> 'b -> 'b) -> 'a list -> 'b -> 'b
haftmann@18051
   544
wenzelm@18446
   545
Note that fold_index starts counting at index 0, not 1 like foldln
wenzelm@18446
   546
used to.
wenzelm@18446
   547
wenzelm@19653
   548
* Pure/library: general ``divide_and_conquer'' combinator on lists.
wenzelm@19653
   549
wenzelm@19032
   550
* Pure/General/name_mangler.ML provides a functor for generic name
wenzelm@18446
   551
mangling (bijective mapping from any expression values to strings).
wenzelm@18446
   552
wenzelm@19032
   553
* Pure/General/rat.ML implements rational numbers.
wenzelm@19032
   554
wenzelm@19032
   555
* Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
wenzelm@19081
   556
DUP/SAME instead of type option.  This is simpler in simple cases, and
wenzelm@19081
   557
admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
wenzelm@18446
   558
wenzelm@18642
   559
* Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
wenzelm@18644
   560
provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
wenzelm@18642
   561
context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
wenzelm@18642
   562
wenzelm@18862
   563
* Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
wenzelm@18862
   564
use Context.generic instead of just theory.
wenzelm@18862
   565
wenzelm@18737
   566
* Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
wenzelm@18737
   567
Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm.  Global (theory)
wenzelm@18737
   568
vs. local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
wenzelm@18738
   569
minimizing code duplication.  Thm.rule_attribute and
wenzelm@18738
   570
Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also
wenzelm@19006
   571
structure Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
wenzelm@19006
   572
GenericDataFun.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
wenzelm@19006
   573
declarations and definitions.
wenzelm@19006
   574
wenzelm@19508
   575
* Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
wenzelm@19508
   576
signature declarations.  (This information is not relevant to the
wenzelm@19508
   577
logic, but only for type inference.)  IMPORTANT INTERNAL CHANGE.
wenzelm@19508
   578
wenzelm@19508
   579
* Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
wenzelm@19508
   580
explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
wenzelm@19508
   581
internally.  See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
wenzelm@19508
   582
notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
wenzelm@19508
   583
AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supercede
wenzelm@19508
   584
Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
wenzelm@19508
   585
wenzelm@19006
   586
* Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
wenzelm@19006
   587
global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
wenzelm@19006
   588
discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
wenzelm@19006
   589
accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
wenzelm@19006
   590
attributes, methods, etc.
wenzelm@18642
   591
wenzelm@18446
   592
* Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
wenzelm@18446
   593
have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
wenzelm@18446
   594
allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
wenzelm@18446
   595
fold_map combinators.
haftmann@18051
   596
wenzelm@18020
   597
* Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
wenzelm@18145
   598
actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
wenzelm@18020
   599
achieve the old behaviour.
wenzelm@18020
   600
wenzelm@18020
   601
* Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
wenzelm@18020
   602
slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
wenzelm@18020
   603
statements.
wenzelm@18020
   604
wenzelm@20040
   605
* Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
wenzelm@20040
   606
enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
wenzelm@20040
   607
Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
wenzelm@20040
   608
wenzelm@20090
   609
* Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
wenzelm@20090
   610
internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
wenzelm@20090
   611
some popular functions from term.ML:
wenzelm@20090
   612
wenzelm@20090
   613
  Term.variant		->  Name.variant
wenzelm@20090
   614
  Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list  (*canonical argument order*)
wenzelm@20090
   615
  Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
wenzelm@20090
   616
wenzelm@20090
   617
Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
wenzelm@20090
   618
from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
wenzelm@20090
   619
wenzelm@20040
   620
* Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
wenzelm@20040
   621
treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
wenzelm@20040
   622
Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
wenzelm@20040
   623
Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
wenzelm@20040
   624
various freeze_thaw operations.
wenzelm@20040
   625
wenzelm@18567
   626
* Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
wenzelm@17981
   627
init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
wenzelm@20040
   628
Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
wenzelm@20040
   629
within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
wenzelm@20040
   630
theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
wenzelm@20040
   631
OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
wenzelm@20040
   632
ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
wenzelm@20040
   633
in a locale context).
wenzelm@17981
   634
wenzelm@18815
   635
* Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
wenzelm@18687
   636
ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
wenzelm@18686
   637
without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
wenzelm@18686
   638
care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
wenzelm@18686
   639
handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
wenzelm@18686
   640
wenzelm@18686
   641
  ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
wenzelm@18686
   642
wenzelm@18686
   643
Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
wenzelm@18687
   644
embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
wenzelm@18687
   645
this:
wenzelm@18686
   646
wenzelm@18686
   647
  Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
wenzelm@18686
   648
wenzelm@18686
   649
INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
wenzelm@18686
   650
obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
wenzelm@18686
   651
Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
wenzelm@18686
   652
-- use plain ERROR instead.
wenzelm@18686
   653
wenzelm@18815
   654
* Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
wenzelm@18722
   655
list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
wenzelm@18722
   656
wenzelm@18815
   657
* Isar: installed ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context,
wenzelm@18815
   658
subject to ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
wenzelm@18815
   659
wenzelm@18815
   660
* Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
wenzelm@18815
   661
theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
wenzelm@18815
   662
quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
wenzelm@18590
   663
batch mode.
wenzelm@18567
   664
wenzelm@17878
   665
* Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
wenzelm@17878
   666
contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
wenzelm@17878
   667
very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
wenzelm@17890
   668
simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
wenzelm@17878
   669
(solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
wenzelm@17878
   670
wenzelm@17878
   671
* Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
wenzelm@17878
   672
local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
wenzelm@17878
   673
etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
wenzelm@17878
   674
former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
wenzelm@17890
   675
INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
wenzelm@17890
   676
specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
wenzelm@17878
   677
wenzelm@17878
   678
* Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
wenzelm@17878
   679
change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
wenzelm@17878
   680
theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
wenzelm@17878
   681
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@17878
   682
wenzelm@18540
   683
* Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
wenzelm@18540
   684
"Trueprop" etc.
wenzelm@18540
   685
wenzelm@17878
   686
wenzelm@17754
   687
wenzelm@17720
   688
New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
wenzelm@17720
   689
----------------------------------
wenzelm@14655
   690
wenzelm@14655
   691
*** General ***
wenzelm@14655
   692
nipkow@15130
   693
* Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
nipkow@15130
   694
nipkow@15130
   695
  theory <name>
wenzelm@16234
   696
  imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
wenzelm@16234
   697
  uses <file1> ... <fileM>
nipkow@15130
   698
  begin
nipkow@15130
   699
wenzelm@16234
   700
where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
wenzelm@16234
   701
wenzelm@16234
   702
  theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
wenzelm@16234
   703
wenzelm@16717
   704
will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
wenzelm@16717
   705
existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
wenzelm@17371
   706
non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
nipkow@15130
   707
berghofe@15475
   708
* Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
wenzelm@16234
   709
relative and absolute paths.
wenzelm@16234
   710
wenzelm@17408
   711
* Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
wenzelm@17408
   712
list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
wenzelm@17408
   713
simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
wenzelm@17408
   714
theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
wenzelm@17408
   715
match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
wenzelm@17408
   716
name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
wenzelm@17408
   717
lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
wenzelm@17408
   718
all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
wenzelm@17408
   719
'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
wenzelm@16234
   720
wenzelm@17275
   721
  C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
wenzelm@16234
   722
wenzelm@16234
   723
prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
wenzelm@16234
   724
matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
wenzelm@16234
   725
in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
wenzelm@16013
   726
wenzelm@17408
   727
* Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
wenzelm@17408
   728
'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@17408
   729
wenzelm@17385
   730
* Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
wenzelm@17385
   731
Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
wenzelm@17408
   732
formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
wenzelm@17538
   733
General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
wenzelm@17538
   734
wenzelm@17538
   735
  http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
wenzelm@17538
   736
  http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
wenzelm@17385
   737
wenzelm@17425
   738
* Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
wenzelm@17425
   739
Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
wenzelm@17425
   740
faster.
wenzelm@17425
   741
wenzelm@15703
   742
wenzelm@15703
   743
*** Document preparation ***
wenzelm@15703
   744
wenzelm@16234
   745
* Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
wenzelm@16234
   746
of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
wenzelm@16234
   747
LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
wenzelm@16234
   748
displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
wenzelm@16234
   749
and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
wenzelm@16234
   750
DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
wenzelm@16234
   751
wenzelm@17047
   752
* Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
wenzelm@17047
   753
notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
wenzelm@17047
   754
theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
wenzelm@17047
   755
commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
wenzelm@17047
   756
"invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
wenzelm@17047
   757
specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
wenzelm@17047
   758
interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
wenzelm@17047
   759
preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
wenzelm@17047
   760
isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
wenzelm@17047
   761
\isadroptag.
wenzelm@17047
   762
wenzelm@17047
   763
Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
wenzelm@17047
   764
usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
wenzelm@17047
   765
specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
wenzelm@17047
   766
theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
wenzelm@17047
   767
proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
wenzelm@17047
   768
these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
wenzelm@17047
   769
default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
wenzelm@17047
   770
specified above.
wenzelm@16234
   771
haftmann@17402
   772
* Several new antiquotations:
wenzelm@15979
   773
wenzelm@15979
   774
  @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
wenzelm@15979
   775
wenzelm@15979
   776
  @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
wenzelm@15979
   777
wenzelm@16234
   778
  @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
wenzelm@16234
   779
  argument is a known logical constant;
wenzelm@15979
   780
wenzelm@15979
   781
  @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
wenzelm@16234
   782
  theorem applying a "style" to it
wenzelm@16234
   783
wenzelm@17117
   784
  @{ML text}
wenzelm@17117
   785
wenzelm@16234
   786
Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
wenzelm@16234
   787
definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
schirmer@17393
   788
conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
wenzelm@16234
   789
to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
wenzelm@16234
   790
interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
wenzelm@17117
   791
document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
wenzelm@17117
   792
type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
wenzelm@16234
   793
wenzelm@17259
   794
* Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
wenzelm@17259
   795
and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
wenzelm@17269
   796
specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
wenzelm@17269
   797
example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
wenzelm@17259
   798
wenzelm@17259
   799
* Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
wenzelm@17259
   800
context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
wenzelm@17269
   801
[locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.
wenzelm@17259
   802
wenzelm@17097
   803
* Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within
wenzelm@17097
   804
a proof context.
wenzelm@17097
   805
wenzelm@17097
   806
* Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a
wenzelm@17097
   807
proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').
wenzelm@17097
   808
wenzelm@17193
   809
* Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX
wenzelm@17193
   810
macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).
wenzelm@17193
   811
wenzelm@17193
   812
* isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option
wenzelm@17193
   813
-D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false
wenzelm@17193
   814
prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.
wenzelm@17193
   815
wenzelm@16234
   816
wenzelm@16234
   817
*** Pure ***
wenzelm@16234
   818
wenzelm@16234
   819
* Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command.  Now performs
wenzelm@16234
   820
automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for
wenzelm@16234
   821
local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also
wenzelm@16234
   822
isar-ref manual.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly
wenzelm@16234
   823
sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'
wenzelm@16234
   824
section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier.  If
wenzelm@16234
   825
all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.
wenzelm@16234
   826
wenzelm@16234
   827
* Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures.  First of all,
wenzelm@16234
   828
indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted
wenzelm@16234
   829
application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary
wenzelm@16234
   830
expressions.  Secondly, in a local context with structure
wenzelm@16234
   831
declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default
wenzelm@16234
   832
number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option
wenzelm@16234
   833
show_structs controls printing of implicit structures.  Typical
wenzelm@16234
   834
applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.
wenzelm@16234
   835
wenzelm@16234
   836
* New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and
wenzelm@16234
   837
translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is
wenzelm@16234
   838
interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.
wenzelm@16234
   839
wenzelm@16234
   840
* 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend
wenzelm@16234
   841
on the signature of the theory context being presently used for
wenzelm@16234
   842
parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.
wenzelm@16234
   843
wenzelm@16856
   844
* Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an
wenzelm@16856
   845
ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of
wenzelm@16856
   846
type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle
wenzelm@16856
   847
is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;
wenzelm@16856
   848
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@16856
   849
wenzelm@17275
   850
* axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"
wenzelm@17275
   851
before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.
wenzelm@17275
   852
INCOMPATIBILITY.  This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for
wenzelm@17275
   853
axclasses vs. locales.
wenzelm@17275
   854
wenzelm@16234
   855
* Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes
wenzelm@16234
   856
instead of base 26 numbers.
wenzelm@16234
   857
wenzelm@16234
   858
* New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question
wenzelm@16234
   859
marks in schematic variable names.
wenzelm@16234
   860
wenzelm@16234
   861
* In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or
wenzelm@16234
   862
\<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name.  For example, the
wenzelm@16234
   863
following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:
wenzelm@16234
   864
wenzelm@16234
   865
  lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"
wenzelm@16234
   866
    by simp
wenzelm@16234
   867
wenzelm@16234
   868
* Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).
wenzelm@16234
   869
wenzelm@17548
   870
* Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix
wenzelm@16234
   871
annotations as "(00...)".
wenzelm@16234
   872
wenzelm@16234
   873
* Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter
wenzelm@16234
   874
may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.
wenzelm@16234
   875
Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class
wenzelm@16234
   876
"logic" vs. "{}".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper
wenzelm@16234
   877
use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'.  Some very
wenzelm@16234
   878
exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption
wenzelm@17691
   879
(e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).
wenzelm@16234
   880
wenzelm@16234
   881
* Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.
wenzelm@16234
   882
Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'
wenzelm@16234
   883
rather than 'types'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic
wenzelm@16234
   884
specifications.
wenzelm@16234
   885
ballarin@17095
   886
* Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be
ballarin@17095
   887
locally fixed variables as well.
ballarin@17095
   888
wenzelm@16234
   889
* Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting
wenzelm@16234
   890
is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth
wenzelm@16234
   891
Limit.
wenzelm@16234
   892
wenzelm@16234
   893
* Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current
wenzelm@16234
   894
simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc
wenzelm@16234
   895
interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier
wenzelm@16234
   896
recursively.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs
wenzelm@16234
   897
is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead.  Moreover, the
wenzelm@16234
   898
low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to
wenzelm@16234
   899
allow for use in a context of fixed variables.
wenzelm@16234
   900
wenzelm@16234
   901
* thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!
wenzelm@16234
   902
or ==>.  More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of
wenzelm@16234
   903
the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.
wenzelm@16234
   904
wenzelm@17597
   905
* Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
nipkow@17590
   906
wenzelm@16234
   907
* Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived
wenzelm@16234
   908
from Pure, which contains all common declarations already.  Both
wenzelm@16234
   909
theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.
wenzelm@16234
   910
INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /
wenzelm@16234
   911
CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;
wenzelm@16234
   912
use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.
wenzelm@16234
   913
wenzelm@16234
   914
* New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific
wenzelm@16234
   915
selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.
wenzelm@16234
   916
wenzelm@17097
   917
* 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference
wenzelm@17097
   918
wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),
wenzelm@17097
   919
in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');
wenzelm@17097
   920
wenzelm@17397
   921
* 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.
wenzelm@17397
   922
wenzelm@17275
   923
* More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive
wenzelm@17275
   924
theory development.
wenzelm@17275
   925
berghofe@17663
   926
* Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code
wenzelm@17664
   927
generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures
wenzelm@17664
   928
for each theory).  INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'
wenzelm@17664
   929
must be quoted when used as identifiers.
wenzelm@17664
   930
wenzelm@17664
   931
* New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using
wenzelm@17664
   932
the code generator.  INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be
wenzelm@17664
   933
quoted when used as identifier.
berghofe@17663
   934
wenzelm@16234
   935
wenzelm@16234
   936
*** Locales ***
ballarin@17095
   937
wenzelm@17385
   938
* New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in
wenzelm@17385
   939
theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3).  These generate
wenzelm@17385
   940
proof obligations from the expression specification.  After the
wenzelm@17385
   941
obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added
wenzelm@17385
   942
to the theory, target locale or proof context.  The synopsis of the
wenzelm@17385
   943
commands is a follows:
wenzelm@17385
   944
ballarin@17095
   945
  (1) interpretation expr inst
ballarin@17095
   946
  (2) interpretation target < expr
ballarin@17095
   947
  (3) interpret expr inst
wenzelm@17385
   948
ballarin@17095
   949
Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter
ballarin@17095
   950
instantiation of terms from the current context.  This is applied to
wenzelm@17385
   951
specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.
wenzelm@17385
   952
Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the
wenzelm@17385
   953
locale expression.  Interpretation is smart in that interpretations
wenzelm@17385
   954
that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are
wenzelm@17385
   955
instantiated theorems stored in duplicate.  Use 'print_interps' to
wenzelm@17385
   956
inspect active interpretations of a particular locale.  For details,
ballarin@17436
   957
see the Isar Reference manual.  Examples can be found in
ballarin@17436
   958
HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.
wenzelm@16234
   959
wenzelm@16234
   960
INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use
wenzelm@16234
   961
'interpret' instead.
wenzelm@16234
   962
wenzelm@17385
   963
* New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to
wenzelm@17385
   964
parameters.
wenzelm@17385
   965
wenzelm@17385
   966
* Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax
wenzelm@17385
   967
redeclaration.
ballarin@17095
   968
ballarin@17095
   969
* Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.
ballarin@17095
   970
wenzelm@16234
   971
* Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /
wenzelm@16234
   972
facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition
wenzelm@16234
   973
context, independently of the context of later invocations.  Moreover,
wenzelm@16234
   974
locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied
wenzelm@16234
   975
to attribute arguments as expected.
wenzelm@16234
   976
wenzelm@16234
   977
INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of
wenzelm@16234
   978
actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to
wenzelm@16234
   979
embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.
wenzelm@16234
   980
Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static
wenzelm@16234
   981
binding mechanism.  Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and
wenzelm@16234
   982
Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further
wenzelm@16234
   983
intervention.  Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"
wenzelm@16234
   984
(cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both
wenzelm@16234
   985
on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed
wenzelm@16234
   986
values to argument tokens explicitly.
wenzelm@16234
   987
wenzelm@16234
   988
* Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal
wenzelm@16234
   989
statements with 'includes'.  INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different
wenzelm@16234
   990
theorem statement in rare situations.
wenzelm@16234
   991
ballarin@17228
   992
* Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements.  Use
ballarin@17228
   993
'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.
ballarin@17228
   994
wenzelm@16234
   995
wenzelm@16234
   996
*** Provers ***
wenzelm@16234
   997
wenzelm@16234
   998
* Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for
wenzelm@16234
   999
single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is
wenzelm@16234
  1000
'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may
wenzelm@16234
  1001
rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is
wenzelm@16234
  1002
still available as 'simplesubst'.
wenzelm@16234
  1003
wenzelm@16234
  1004
* Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only
wenzelm@16234
  1005
and quasi orders.
wenzelm@16234
  1006
wenzelm@16234
  1007
* Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and
wenzelm@16234
  1008
reflexive-transitive closure of relations.
wenzelm@16234
  1009
wenzelm@16234
  1010
* Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth
wenzelm@16234
  1011
limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.
wenzelm@16234
  1012
wenzelm@16234
  1013
* Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup
wenzelm@16234
  1014
is peformed already.  Object-logics merely need to finish their
wenzelm@16234
  1015
initial simpset configuration as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@15703
  1016
berghofe@15475
  1017
schirmer@14700
  1018
*** HOL ***
schirmer@14700
  1019
wenzelm@16234
  1020
* Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:
wenzelm@14878
  1021
wenzelm@14878
  1022
  syntax (epsilon)
wenzelm@14878
  1023
    "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a"    ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)
wenzelm@14878
  1024
wenzelm@16234
  1025
The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX
wenzelm@16234
  1026
and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.
wenzelm@16234
  1027
Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>
wenzelm@16234
  1028
becomes available as variable, constant etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
wenzelm@16234
  1029
wenzelm@16234
  1030
* "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".
wenzelm@16234
  1031
Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc.  The x-symbol for >=
wenzelm@17371
  1032
is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to
avigad@17016
  1033
support corresponding Isar calculations.
wenzelm@16234
  1034
wenzelm@16234
  1035
* "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"
wenzelm@16234
  1036
instead of ":".
wenzelm@16234
  1037
wenzelm@16234
  1038
* theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:
wenzelm@16234
  1039
wenzelm@16234
  1040
  Old       New
wenzelm@16234
  1041
  {..n(}    {..<n}
wenzelm@16234
  1042
  {)n..}    {n<..}
wenzelm@16234
  1043
  {m..n(}   {m..<n}
wenzelm@16234
  1044
  {)m..n}   {m<..n}
wenzelm@16234
  1045
  {)m..n(}  {m<..<n}
wenzelm@16234
  1046
wenzelm@16234
  1047
The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next
wenzelm@16234
  1048
release.  For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace
wenzelm@16234
  1049
patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):
nipkow@15046
  1050
nipkow@15046
  1051
  {)\([^\.]*\)\.\.  ->  {\1<\.\.}
nipkow@15046
  1052
  \.\.\([^(}]*\)(}  ->  \.\.<\1}
nipkow@15046
  1053
wenzelm@17533
  1054
* Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving
wenzelm@17533
  1055
equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic
wenzelm@17533
  1056
interface.
wenzelm@17389
  1057
wenzelm@17389
  1058
* Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over
wenzelm@16234
  1059
finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is
wenzelm@17371
  1060
now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can
paulson@17189
  1061
be a tuple pattern.
wenzelm@16234
  1062
wenzelm@16234
  1063
Some new syntax forms are available:
wenzelm@16234
  1064
wenzelm@16234
  1065
  "\<Sum>x | P. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"
wenzelm@16234
  1066
  "\<Sum>x = a..b. e"   for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"
wenzelm@16234
  1067
  "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e"  for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"
wenzelm@16234
  1068
  "\<Sum>x < k. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"
wenzelm@16234
  1069
wenzelm@16234
  1070
The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate
wenzelm@16234
  1071
function "Summation", which has been discontinued.
wenzelm@16234
  1072
wenzelm@16234
  1073
* theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case
wenzelm@16234
  1074
is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case
wenzelm@16234
  1075
(insert F x)'.
wenzelm@16234
  1076
wenzelm@16234
  1077
* The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger
wenzelm@16234
  1078
fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and
wenzelm@16234
  1079
typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.
wenzelm@16234
  1080
webertj@17700
  1081
* New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.
webertj@17700
  1082
Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed.  See
webertj@17700
  1083
HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.
webertj@17619
  1084
wenzelm@16234
  1085
* Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the
wenzelm@16234
  1086
induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by
wenzelm@16234
  1087
induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather
wenzelm@16234
  1088
than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
wenzelm@16234
  1089
in unstructured proof scripts.
wenzelm@16234
  1090
wenzelm@16234
  1091
* Reworked implementation of records.  Improved scalability for
wenzelm@16234
  1092
records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type
wenzelm@16234
  1093
inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but
wenzelm@16234
  1094
of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear
wenzelm@16234
  1095
in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields.  The
wenzelm@16234
  1096
top-level (users) view on records is preserved.  Potential
wenzelm@16234
  1097
INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the
wenzelm@16234
  1098
old record representation. The type generated for a record is called
wenzelm@16234
  1099
<record_name>_ext_type.
wenzelm@16234
  1100
wenzelm@16234
  1101
Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the
wenzelm@16234
  1102
proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if
wenzelm@16234
  1103
quick_and_dirty is enabled).  Definitions of large records can take
wenzelm@16234
  1104
quite long.
wenzelm@16234
  1105
wenzelm@16234
  1106
New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record
wenzelm@16234
  1107
updates enabled by default.  Moreover, trivial updates are also
wenzelm@16234
  1108
removed: r(|x := x r|) = r.  INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break
wenzelm@16234
  1109
occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.
wenzelm@16234
  1110
wenzelm@17275
  1111
* typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra
wenzelm@17275
  1112
type-variables in the term.
wenzelm@17275
  1113
wenzelm@16234
  1114
* Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains
wenzelm@16234
  1115
involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics
wenzelm@16234
  1116
provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
wenzelm@16234
  1117
old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more
wenzelm@16234
  1118
goals than previously.
wenzelm@16234
  1119
wenzelm@16234
  1120
* Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is
wenzelm@16234
  1121
present.  Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular
wenzelm@16234
  1122
numbers and sets.  For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y
wenzelm@16234
  1123
just like y <= x.
wenzelm@16234
  1124
wenzelm@16234
  1125
* Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x".  If a is a free or
wenzelm@16234
  1126
bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded.  Otherwise
wenzelm@16234
  1127
first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If
wenzelm@16234
  1128
possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",
wenzelm@16234
  1129
otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g.  The simproc can be
wenzelm@16234
  1130
enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc.  Potential
wenzelm@16234
  1131
INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.
webertj@15776
  1132
paulson@16563
  1133
* Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.
paulson@16563
  1134
paulson@17595
  1135
* Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background
paulson@17595
  1136
jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.
paulson@17595
  1137
wenzelm@16891
  1138
* Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and
wenzelm@16891
  1139
improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and
wenzelm@16891
  1140
inequalities.
wenzelm@16891
  1141
wenzelm@16891
  1142
The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
wenzelm@16891
  1143
(INCOMPATIBILITY):
avigad@16888
  1144
avigad@16888
  1145
  abs_eq             now named abs_of_nonneg
wenzelm@17371
  1146
  abs_of_ge_0        now named abs_of_nonneg
wenzelm@17371
  1147
  abs_minus_eq       now named abs_of_nonpos
avigad@16888
  1148
  imp_abs_id         now named abs_of_nonneg
avigad@16888
  1149
  imp_abs_neg_id     now named abs_of_nonpos
avigad@16888
  1150
  mult_pos           now named mult_pos_pos
avigad@16888
  1151
  mult_pos_le        now named mult_nonneg_nonneg
avigad@16888
  1152
  mult_pos_neg_le    now named mult_nonneg_nonpos
avigad@16888
  1153
  mult_pos_neg2_le   now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2
avigad@16888
  1154
  mult_neg           now named mult_neg_neg
avigad@16888
  1155
  mult_neg_le        now named mult_nonpos_nonpos
avigad@16888
  1156
wenzelm@16891
  1157
* Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.
wenzelm@16891
  1158
nipkow@17092
  1159
* Theory List:
nipkow@17092
  1160
nipkow@17092
  1161
The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
nipkow@17092
  1162
(INCOMPATIBILITY):
nipkow@17092
  1163
nipkow@17092
  1164
  list_all_Nil       now named list_all.simps(1)
nipkow@17092
  1165
  list_all_Cons      now named list_all.simps(2)
nipkow@17092
  1166
  list_all_conv      now named list_all_iff
nipkow@17092
  1167
  set_mem_eq         now named mem_iff
nipkow@17092
  1168
wenzelm@16929
  1169
* Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support
wenzelm@16929
  1170
asymptotic "big O" calculations.  See the notes in BigO.thy.
wenzelm@16929
  1171
avigad@16888
  1172
avigad@16888
  1173
*** HOL-Complex ***
avigad@16888
  1174
wenzelm@16891
  1175
* Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and
wenzelm@16891
  1176
integers in the reals.
wenzelm@16891
  1177
wenzelm@16891
  1178
The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
wenzelm@16891
  1179
(INCOMPATIBILITY):
wenzelm@16891
  1180
avigad@17016
  1181
  exp_ge_add_one_self  now requires no hypotheses
avigad@17016
  1182
  real_of_int_add      reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
avigad@17016
  1183
  real_of_int_minus    reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
avigad@17016
  1184
  real_of_int_diff     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
avigad@17016
  1185
  real_of_int_mult     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
wenzelm@16891
  1186
wenzelm@16891
  1187
* Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.
avigad@16888
  1188
avigad@16962
  1189
* Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm
avigad@16962
  1190
wenzelm@17423
  1191
* Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making
wenzelm@17423
  1192
nonstandard types.  The old type names are now type synonyms:
wenzelm@17423
  1193
wenzelm@17423
  1194
  hypreal = real star
wenzelm@17423
  1195
  hypnat = nat star
wenzelm@17423
  1196
  hcomplex = complex star
wenzelm@17423
  1197
wenzelm@17423
  1198
* Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been
huffman@17442
  1199
replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
wenzelm@17423
  1200
wenzelm@17423
  1201
  star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex
wenzelm@17423
  1202
wenzelm@17423
  1203
  starset      <-- starsetNat, starsetC
wenzelm@17423
  1204
  *s*          <-- *sNat*, *sc*
wenzelm@17423
  1205
  starset_n    <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n
wenzelm@17423
  1206
  *sn*         <-- *sNatn*, *scn*
wenzelm@17423
  1207
  InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets
wenzelm@17423
  1208
huffman@17442
  1209
  starfun      <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
wenzelm@17423
  1210
  *f*          <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*
huffman@17442
  1211
  starfun_n    <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n
wenzelm@17423
  1212
  *fn*         <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*
huffman@17442
  1213
  InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs
wenzelm@17423
  1214
wenzelm@17423
  1215
* Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of
huffman@17442
  1216
theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):
huffman@17442
  1217
huffman@17442
  1218
  add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute
huffman@17442
  1219
  add_assoc   <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs
huffman@17442
  1220
  OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left
huffman@17442
  1221
  OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right
wenzelm@17423
  1222
  right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus
huffman@17442
  1223
  left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left
huffman@17442
  1224
  mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute
huffman@17442
  1225
  mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc
huffman@17442
  1226
  mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left
wenzelm@17423
  1227
  mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right
wenzelm@17423
  1228
  mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left
huffman@17442
  1229
  left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib
wenzelm@17423
  1230
  right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2
huffman@17442
  1231
  zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one
wenzelm@17423
  1232
  right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse
wenzelm@17423
  1233
  left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left
huffman@17442
  1234
  order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl
huffman@17442
  1235
  order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans
huffman@17442
  1236
  order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym
huffman@17442
  1237
  order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le
huffman@17442
  1238
  linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear
huffman@17442
  1239
  add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono
huffman@17442
  1240
  mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2
wenzelm@17423
  1241
  add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order
wenzelm@17423
  1242
wenzelm@17423
  1243
* Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific
wenzelm@17423
  1244
versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the
huffman@17442
  1245
new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):
huffman@17442
  1246
huffman@17442
  1247
  STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set
huffman@17442
  1248
  STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set
huffman@17442
  1249
  STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un
huffman@17442
  1250
  STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int
huffman@17442
  1251
  STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl
huffman@17442
  1252
  STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset
huffman@17442
  1253
  STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem
huffman@17442
  1254
  STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl
huffman@17442
  1255
  STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff
huffman@17442
  1256
  STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,
huffman@17442
  1257
    STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset
huffman@17442
  1258
  starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un
huffman@17442
  1259
  starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int
huffman@17442
  1260
  starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl
huffman@17442
  1261
  starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff
huffman@17442
  1262
  InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un
huffman@17442
  1263
  InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int
huffman@17442
  1264
  InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl
huffman@17442
  1265
  InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff
huffman@17442
  1266
  InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff
huffman@17442
  1267
  InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n
huffman@17442
  1268
  starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq
huffman@17442
  1269
  starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}
huffman@17442
  1270
  starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
huffman@17442
  1271
  starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
huffman@17442
  1272
  starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult
huffman@17442
  1273
  starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add
huffman@17442
  1274
  starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus
huffman@17442
  1275
  starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff
huffman@17442
  1276
  starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o
huffman@17442
  1277
  starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2
huffman@17442
  1278
  starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun
huffman@17442
  1279
  starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse
huffman@17442
  1280
  starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq
huffman@17442
  1281
  starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff
wenzelm@17423
  1282
  starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id
huffman@17442
  1283
  starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx
huffman@17442
  1284
  starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox
wenzelm@17423
  1285
  starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs
huffman@17442
  1286
  starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel
huffman@17442
  1287
  starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2
wenzelm@17423
  1288
  starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox
huffman@17442
  1289
  starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox
huffman@17442
  1290
  starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox
wenzelm@17423
  1291
  starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx
wenzelm@17423
  1292
  starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse
huffman@17442
  1293
  starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide
huffman@17442
  1294
  starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n
huffman@17442
  1295
  starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult
huffman@17442
  1296
  starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add
wenzelm@17423
  1297
  starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus
huffman@17442
  1298
  starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun
huffman@17442
  1299
  starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus
huffman@17442
  1300
  starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq
huffman@17442
  1301
huffman@17442
  1302
  star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add
huffman@17442
  1303
  star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus
huffman@17442
  1304
  star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff
huffman@17442
  1305
  star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult
huffman@17442
  1306
  star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse
huffman@17442
  1307
  star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le
huffman@17442
  1308
  star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less
huffman@17442
  1309
  star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num
huffman@17442
  1310
  star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num
wenzelm@17423
  1311
  star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs
wenzelm@17423
  1312
  star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide
wenzelm@17423
  1313
huffman@17442
  1314
  star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add
huffman@17442
  1315
  star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus
wenzelm@17423
  1316
  star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff
huffman@17442
  1317
  star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult
huffman@17442
  1318
  star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one
huffman@17442
  1319
  star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero
huffman@17442
  1320
  star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff
huffman@17442
  1321
  star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff
huffman@17442
  1322
  star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff
huffman@17442
  1323
  star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse
huffman@17442
  1324
  star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide
huffman@17442
  1325
  star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat
huffman@17442
  1326
  star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int
huffman@17442
  1327
  star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of
wenzelm@17423
  1328
  star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff
wenzelm@17423
  1329
  star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff
wenzelm@17423
  1330
  star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff
wenzelm@17423
  1331
  star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff
wenzelm@17423
  1332
  star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff
wenzelm@17423
  1333
  star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power
wenzelm@17423
  1334
  star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff
wenzelm@17423
  1335
huffman@17442
  1336
* Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer
huffman@17442
  1337
principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions
huffman@17442
  1338
nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"
huffman@17442
  1339
replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.
huffman@17442
  1340
To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-
huffman@17442
  1341
standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.
huffman@17442
  1342
wenzelm@17641
  1343
* Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.
wenzelm@17641
  1344
wenzelm@14655
  1345
wenzelm@14682
  1346
*** HOLCF ***
wenzelm@14682
  1347
wenzelm@17533
  1348
* Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support
wenzelm@17533
  1349
continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full
wenzelm@17533
  1350
type-inference.
wenzelm@17533
  1351
wenzelm@17533
  1352
* New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it
wenzelm@17533
  1353
is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic
huffman@17442
  1354
instead of exponential time).
huffman@17442
  1355
wenzelm@17533
  1356
* New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.
huffman@17442
  1357
Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:
huffman@17442
  1358
huffman@17442
  1359
  domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")
huffman@17442
  1360
wenzelm@17533
  1361
* New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern
wenzelm@17533
  1362
matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also
wenzelm@17533
  1363
supported.  Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,
wenzelm@17533
  1364
sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given
wenzelm@17533
  1365
equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
wenzelm@17533
  1366
syntax and examples.
wenzelm@17533
  1367
wenzelm@17533
  1368
* New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes
wenzelm@17533
  1369
of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,
wenzelm@17533
  1370
but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility
wenzelm@17533
  1371
requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,
wenzelm@17533
  1372
with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.
huffman@17442
  1373
huffman@17584
  1374
* HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming
huffman@17584
  1375
scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):
huffman@17584
  1376
huffman@17584
  1377
  foo_inject:  "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"
huffman@17584
  1378
  foo_eq:      "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"
huffman@17584
  1379
  foo_less:    "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"
huffman@17584
  1380
  foo_strict:  "foo$UU = UU"
huffman@17584
  1381
  foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"
huffman@17584
  1382
  foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"
huffman@17584
  1383
wenzelm@14682
  1384
paulson@14885
  1385
*** ZF ***
paulson@14885
  1386
wenzelm@16234
  1387
* ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,
wenzelm@16234
  1388
including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel
wenzelm@16234
  1389
of a homomorphism).
wenzelm@15089
  1390
wenzelm@15089
  1391
* ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually
wenzelm@16234
  1392
makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);
wenzelm@16234
  1393
the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.
wenzelm@15703
  1394
wenzelm@15703
  1395
wenzelm@17445
  1396
*** Cube ***
wenzelm@17445
  1397
wenzelm@17445
  1398
* Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic
wenzelm@17445
  1399
theories.
wenzelm@17445
  1400
wenzelm@17445
  1401
wenzelm@15703
  1402
*** ML ***
wenzelm@15703
  1403
wenzelm@15973
  1404
* Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses
wenzelm@16234
  1405
that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of
wenzelm@16234
  1406
None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.
wenzelm@16234
  1407
The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted
wenzelm@16234
  1408
accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.
wenzelm@15973
  1409
wenzelm@16860
  1410
* Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of
wenzelm@16860
  1411
the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as
wenzelm@16860
  1412
Library.UnequalLengths.  Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are
wenzelm@16860
  1413
superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.
wenzelm@16860
  1414
wenzelm@16860
  1415
A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML
wenzelm@16860
  1416
toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions.  The following
wenzelm@16234
  1417
suggests how one can translate existing code:
wenzelm@15973
  1418
wenzelm@15973
  1419
    rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)
wenzelm@15973
  1420
    nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)
wenzelm@15973
  1421
    last_elem xs = List.last xs
wenzelm@15973
  1422
    flat xss = List.concat xss
wenzelm@16234
  1423
    seq fs = List.app fs
wenzelm@15973
  1424
    partition P xs = List.partition P xs
wenzelm@15973
  1425
    mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs
wenzelm@15973
  1426
wenzelm@16860
  1427
* Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional
wenzelm@16860
  1428
transformations, notably reverse application and composition:
wenzelm@16860
  1429
wenzelm@17371
  1430
  x |> f                f #> g
wenzelm@17371
  1431
  (x, y) |-> f          f #-> g
wenzelm@16860
  1432
haftmann@17495
  1433
* Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:
haftmann@17495
  1434
haftmann@17495
  1435
  infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;
haftmann@17495
  1436
  infix 2 ?;
haftmann@17495
  1437
  infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;
haftmann@17495
  1438
  infix 4 ~~ upto downto;
haftmann@17495
  1439
haftmann@17495
  1440
Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other
haftmann@17495
  1441
infix operators.
haftmann@17495
  1442
wenzelm@17408
  1443
* Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and
haftmann@16869
  1444
fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting.  For
wenzelm@16860
  1445
example:
wenzelm@16860
  1446
wenzelm@16860
  1447
  fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =
wenzelm@16860
  1448
    y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN
wenzelm@16860
  1449
wenzelm@16860
  1450
  (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =
wenzelm@16860
  1451
    y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN
wenzelm@16860
  1452
wenzelm@16860
  1453
  fold f [x1, ..., xN] =
wenzelm@16860
  1454
    f x1 #> ... #> f xN
wenzelm@16860
  1455
wenzelm@16860
  1456
  (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =
wenzelm@16860
  1457
    fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN
wenzelm@16860
  1458
wenzelm@17408
  1459
* Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are
wenzelm@17408
  1460
available:
wenzelm@17408
  1461
wenzelm@17408
  1462
  the:               'a option -> 'a  (*partial*)
wenzelm@17408
  1463
  these:             'a option -> 'a  where 'a = 'b list
haftmann@17402
  1464
  the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a
haftmann@17402
  1465
  the_list:          'a option -> 'a list
haftmann@17402
  1466
wenzelm@17408
  1467
* Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
wenzelm@17408
  1468
basic operations for association lists, following natural argument
haftmann@17564
  1469
order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids
haftmann@17495
  1470
potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.
haftmann@17495
  1471
The old functions may be expressed as follows:
wenzelm@17408
  1472
wenzelm@17408
  1473
  assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))
wenzelm@17408
  1474
  assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)
wenzelm@17408
  1475
  overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap
wenzelm@17408
  1476
haftmann@17564
  1477
* Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
haftmann@17564
  1478
haftmann@17564
  1479
  val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list
haftmann@17564
  1480
  val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list
haftmann@17564
  1481
haftmann@17564
  1482
replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)
haftmann@17564
  1483
Naive rewrites:
haftmann@17564
  1484
haftmann@17564
  1485
  make_keylist = AList.make
haftmann@17564
  1486
  keyfilter = AList.find (op =)
haftmann@17564
  1487
haftmann@17564
  1488
* eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus
haftmann@17564
  1489
  avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:
haftmann@17564
  1490
haftmann@17564
  1491
    eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)
haftmann@17564
  1492
    eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)
haftmann@17564
  1493
haftmann@17564
  1494
* Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).
haftmann@17564
  1495
  Naive rewrites:
haftmann@17564
  1496
haftmann@17564
  1497
    apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n
haftmann@17564
  1498
    apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)
haftmann@17564
  1499
wenzelm@17408
  1500
* Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)
wenzelm@17408
  1501
provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as
wenzelm@17408
  1502
lists.
wenzelm@17408
  1503
wenzelm@17408
  1504
* Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a
wenzelm@17408
  1505
few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to
wenzelm@17408
  1506
follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);
wenzelm@17408
  1507
INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.
wenzelm@17408
  1508
wenzelm@17408
  1509
* Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of
wenzelm@17408
  1510
writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a
wenzelm@17408
  1511
hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode
wenzelm@17408
  1512
(cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output
wenzelm@17408
  1513
function wins).  Already formatted output may be embedded into further
wenzelm@17408
  1514
text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived
wenzelm@17408
  1515
functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to
wenzelm@17408
  1516
accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc.  Programmers
wenzelm@17408
  1517
rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with
wenzelm@17408
  1518
some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the
wenzelm@17408
  1519
standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce
wenzelm@17408
  1520
properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing
wenzelm@17408
  1521
already output material that will eventually be presented to the user
wenzelm@17408
  1522
a second time.  For the default print mode, both Output.output and
wenzelm@17408
  1523
Output.raw have no effect.
wenzelm@17408
  1524
wenzelm@17408
  1525
* Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a
wenzelm@17408
  1526
-> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the
wenzelm@17408
  1527
cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.
wenzelm@17408
  1528
wenzelm@17408
  1529
* Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been
wenzelm@17408
  1530
replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate
wenzelm@17408
  1531
hooks).  This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the
wenzelm@17408
  1532
internal and external process view of file names are different.
wenzelm@17408
  1533
wenzelm@16689
  1534
* Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added
wenzelm@16689
  1535
fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord
wenzelm@16689
  1536
and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is
wenzelm@16689
  1537
NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast
wenzelm@16689
  1538
orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a
wenzelm@16689
  1539
particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using
wenzelm@16689
  1540
Library.sort_strings on result).
wenzelm@16689
  1541
wenzelm@17408
  1542
* Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,
wenzelm@17408
  1543
fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural
wenzelm@17408
  1544
argument order.  Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,
wenzelm@17408
  1545
add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@17408
  1546
wenzelm@16151
  1547
* Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the
wenzelm@16234
  1548
internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY.  Renamed cond_extern(_table)
wenzelm@16234
  1549
to extern(_table).  The plain name entry path is superceded by a
wenzelm@16234
  1550
general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce
wenzelm@16234
  1551
a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified
wenzelm@16234
  1552
name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent
wenzelm@16234
  1553
Sign.declare_name.  Several theory and proof context operations modify
wenzelm@16234
  1554
the naming context.  Especially note Theory.restore_naming and
wenzelm@16234
  1555
ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that
wenzelm@16234
  1556
Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from
wenzelm@16234
  1557
Theory.absolute_path in particular.
wenzelm@16234
  1558
wenzelm@16234
  1559
* Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names
wenzelm@16234
  1560
(default true) for controlling output of qualified names.  If
wenzelm@16234
  1561
short_names is set, names are printed unqualified.  If unique_names is
wenzelm@16234
  1562
reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve
wenzelm@16234
  1563
the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap
wenzelm@16234
  1564
with earlier declarations.
wenzelm@16151
  1565
wenzelm@16456
  1566
* Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is
wenzelm@16456
  1567
now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument
wenzelm@16456
  1568
(useful for printing error messages).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@16456
  1569
wenzelm@16456
  1570
* Pure: major reorganization of the theory context.  Type Sign.sg and
wenzelm@16456
  1571
Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal
wenzelm@16456
  1572
Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML).  Actual signature and theory
wenzelm@16456
  1573
content is managed as theory data.  The old code and interfaces were
wenzelm@16456
  1574
spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces
wenzelm@16456
  1575
considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:
wenzelm@16456
  1576
wenzelm@16456
  1577
  Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,
wenzelm@16456
  1578
    parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;
wenzelm@16456
  1579
wenzelm@16456
  1580
  Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,
wenzelm@16456
  1581
    types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;
wenzelm@16456
  1582
wenzelm@16456
  1583
  Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,
wenzelm@16456
  1584
    oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,
wenzelm@16456
  1585
    types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,
wenzelm@16456
  1586
    Theory.merge, etc.)
wenzelm@16456
  1587
wenzelm@16456
  1588
The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm
wenzelm@16456
  1589
etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained
wenzelm@16456
  1590
for convenience -- they merely return the theory.
wenzelm@16456
  1591
wenzelm@17193
  1592
* Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.
wenzelm@17193
  1593
wenzelm@16547
  1594
* Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure
wenzelm@16547
  1595
as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are
wenzelm@16547
  1596
aliases, where the latter is the preferred name).  This enables other
wenzelm@16547
  1597
Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.
wenzelm@16547
  1598
wenzelm@16373
  1599
* Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,
wenzelm@16373
  1600
typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for
wenzelm@16373
  1601
any of these kinds.  For example, Sign.intern typeK is now
wenzelm@16373
  1602
Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now
wenzelm@16373
  1603
Theory.hide_types.  Also note that former
wenzelm@16373
  1604
Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now
wenzelm@16373
  1605
Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions
wenzelm@16373
  1606
internalize their arguments!  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@16373
  1607
wenzelm@16506
  1608
* Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects
wenzelm@16506
  1609
datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of
wenzelm@16506
  1610
plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;
wenzelm@16506
  1611
wenzelm@16151
  1612
* Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE
wenzelm@16234
  1613
means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in
wenzelm@16234
  1614
(RAW_)METHOD_CASES.
wenzelm@16151
  1615
wenzelm@16373
  1616
* Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a
wenzelm@16373
  1617
theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:
wenzelm@16373
  1618
wenzelm@16373
  1619
  Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
wenzelm@16373
  1620
  Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
wenzelm@16373
  1621
  PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
wenzelm@16373
  1622
  PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
wenzelm@16373
  1623
wenzelm@16718
  1624
* Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.
wenzelm@16718
  1625
wenzelm@17408
  1626
* Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.
wenzelm@17408
  1627
Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing
wenzelm@17408
  1628
and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)
wenzelm@17408
  1629
controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space
wenzelm@17408
  1630
(both increase the runtime).
wenzelm@17408
  1631
wenzelm@17408
  1632
* Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,
wenzelm@17408
  1633
i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the
wenzelm@17408
  1634
elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.
wenzelm@17408
  1635
wenzelm@17408
  1636
* Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless
wenzelm@16997
  1637
representation, avoid allocating new strings).  Simprocs that invoke
wenzelm@16997
  1638
the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to
wenzelm@17720
  1639
avoid local name clashes.  Failure to do so produces warnings
wenzelm@17720
  1640
"Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds
wenzelm@17720
  1641
for further details.
wenzelm@16234
  1642
wenzelm@17166
  1643
* ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact
wenzelm@17166
  1644
bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help
wenzelm@17166
  1645
in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof
wenzelm@17166
  1646
scripts for the time being.
wenzelm@17166
  1647
wenzelm@17457
  1648
* ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for
wenzelm@17457
  1649
generated HTML files.  For example:
wenzelm@17457
  1650
wenzelm@17457
  1651
  HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";
wenzelm@17538
  1652
  HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";
wenzelm@17457
  1653
wenzelm@16234
  1654
wenzelm@16234
  1655
*** System ***
wenzelm@16234
  1656
wenzelm@16234
  1657
* Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,
wenzelm@16234
  1658
isabelle, isatool etc.).
wenzelm@16234
  1659
wenzelm@16234
  1660
* ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for
wenzelm@16234
  1661
isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).
wenzelm@16234
  1662
wenzelm@16234
  1663
* isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be
wenzelm@16234
  1664
used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.
wenzelm@16234
  1665
wenzelm@16251
  1666
* New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle
wenzelm@16251
  1667
distribution being used.
wenzelm@16251
  1668
wenzelm@16251
  1669
* HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format
wenzelm@16234
  1670
(containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL
wenzelm@16234
  1671
theories.
wenzelm@15703
  1672
wenzelm@15703
  1673
wenzelm@14655
  1674
wenzelm@14606
  1675
New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)
wenzelm@14606
  1676
--------------------------------
wenzelm@13280
  1677
skalberg@14171
  1678
*** General ***
skalberg@14171
  1679
ballarin@14398
  1680
* Provers/order.ML:  new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.
ballarin@14398
  1681
  Replaces linorder.ML.
ballarin@14398
  1682
wenzelm@14606
  1683
* Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic
wenzelm@14606
  1684
  (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler
skalberg@14173
  1685
  (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore
skalberg@14173
  1686
  be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until
skalberg@14173
  1687
  now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some
skalberg@14173
  1688
  terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say
skalberg@14173
  1689
  '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed
skalberg@14173
  1690
  as an identifier.  Fix it by inserting a space around former
skalberg@14173
  1691
  symbols.  Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in
skalberg@14173
  1692
  existing theory and ML files.
skalberg@14171
  1693
paulson@14237
  1694
* Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.
paulson@14237
  1695
wenzelm@14731
  1696
* Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now
wenzelm@14731
  1697
  allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered
wenzelm@14731
  1698
  a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat
wenzelm@14731
  1699
  \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.
kleing@14233
  1700
kleing@14333
  1701
* Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one
kleing@14333
  1702
  character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in
wenzelm@14606
  1703
  ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in
wenzelm@14606
  1704
  superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.
kleing@14333
  1705
schirmer@14561
  1706
* Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the
wenzelm@14606
  1707
  content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."
wenzelm@14606
  1708
  may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.
schirmer@14361
  1709
paulson@14237
  1710
* Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions
paulson@14237
  1711
  Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to
paulson@14237
  1712
  declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition
paulson@14237
  1713
  later.  It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically
skalberg@14224
  1714
  rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.
skalberg@14224
  1715
wenzelm@14606
  1716
* Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts
wenzelm@14606
  1717
  (i.e. intersections of classes),
skalberg@14503
  1718
kleing@14547
  1719
* Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout
wenzelm@14731
  1720
  (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.
kleing@14547
  1721
  It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.
kleing@14547
  1722
wenzelm@14556
  1723
ballarin@14175
  1724
*** Isar ***
ballarin@14175
  1725
ballarin@14508
  1726
* Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,
ballarin@14508
  1727
  cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:
ballarin@14175
  1728
  - Now understand static (Isar) contexts.  As a consequence, users of Isar
ballarin@14175
  1729
    locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.
ballarin@14175
  1730
    For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic
ballarin@14175
  1731
    emulations.
ballarin@14175
  1732
  - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no
ballarin@14211
  1733
    longer be enclosed in quotes.  Instead, precede variable name with `?'.
ballarin@14211
  1734
    This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".
ballarin@14211
  1735
ballarin@14257
  1736
* Attributes "where" and "of":
ballarin@14285
  1737
  - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading
ballarin@14285
  1738
    the instantiation string.  This fixes a bug that caused instantiated
ballarin@14285
  1739
    theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.
ballarin@14285
  1740
  - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.
ballarin@14257
  1741
wenzelm@14556
  1742
* Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with
wenzelm@14556
  1743
  current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"
wenzelm@14556
  1744
  and derived forms.
kleing@14283
  1745
ballarin@14211
  1746
* Locales:
ballarin@14211
  1747
  - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer
ballarin@14211
  1748
    generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on
ballarin@14211
  1749
    "_axioms") in the premise.
ballarin@14211
  1750
    Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.
ballarin@14211
  1751
  - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target
ballarin@14211
  1752
    specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.
ballarin@14254
  1753
  - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as
ballarin@14254
  1754
    [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.
ballarin@14508
  1755
  - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:
ballarin@14551
  1756
        instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>
ballarin@14508
  1757
    Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context
ballarin@14551
  1758
    taking into account their attributes.  Label and attrs are optional
ballarin@14551
  1759
    modifiers, like in theorem declarations.  If present, names of
ballarin@14551
  1760
    instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes
ballarin@14551
  1761
    <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.
ballarin@14551
  1762
      If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form
ballarin@14508
  1763
    "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters
ballarin@14551
  1764
    are derived.  The command does not support old-style locales declared
ballarin@14551
  1765
    with "locale (open)".
ballarin@14551
  1766
      A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.
ballarin@14175
  1767
ballarin@14175
  1768
* HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static
ballarin@14175
  1769
  (Isar) contexts.
ballarin@14175
  1770
wenzelm@14556
  1771
kleing@14136
  1772
*** HOL ***
kleing@14136
  1773
kleing@14624
  1774
* Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from
kleing@14624
  1775
  the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by
kleing@14624
  1776
  replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image
kleing@14624
  1777
  can be used like any other Isabelle image.  See
kleing@14624
  1778
  HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.
kleing@14624
  1779
ballarin@14398
  1780
* Simplifier:
ballarin@14398
  1781
  - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.
ballarin@14398
  1782
    Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes
ballarin@14398
  1783
    "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset
ballarin@14398
  1784
    as solvers.  This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains
ballarin@14398
  1785
    to solve goals from the assumptions.
ballarin@14398
  1786
  - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally.  Typically, applications
ballarin@14398
  1787
    of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal
ballarin@14398
  1788
    is solved by simplification already.
ballarin@14398
  1789
wenzelm@14731
  1790
* Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,
paulson@14389
  1791
    all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.
paulson@14389
  1792
paulson@14389
  1793
* Numerics:
paulson@14389
  1794
  - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are
wenzelm@14731
  1795
    now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.
paulson@14389
  1796
  - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently
paulson@14389
  1797
    than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.
wenzelm@14731
  1798
  - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.
paulson@14480
  1799
    Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern
paulson@14480
  1800
    exponentiation).
paulson@14389
  1801
paulson@14401
  1802
* Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.
paulson@14389
  1803
schirmer@14255
  1804
* Records:
schirmer@14255
  1805
  - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation
schirmer@14255
  1806
    instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via
schirmer@14255
  1807
    the reference "print_record_type_abbr".
wenzelm@14731
  1808
  - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added
schirmer@14255
  1809
    (not enabled by default).
schirmer@14427
  1810
  - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.
schirmer@14427
  1811
    EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).
schirmer@14255
  1812
  - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.
wenzelm@14731
  1813
kleing@14136
  1814
* 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by
skalberg@14224
  1815
  specification.  There is also an 'ax_specification' command that
skalberg@14224
  1816
  introduces the new constants axiomatically.
kleing@14136
  1817
nipkow@14375
  1818
* arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.
nipkow@14375
  1819
ballarin@14399
  1820
* HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.
ballarin@14399
  1821
paulson@14243
  1822
* HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function
kleing@14610
  1823
  definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.
kleing@14610
  1824
wenzelm@14731
  1825
* HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of
kleing@14610
  1826
  matrix theory to linear programming.
kleing@14136
  1827
nipkow@14380
  1828
* Unions and Intersections:
nipkow@15119
  1829
  The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed
nipkow@15119
  1830
  from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"
nipkow@15119
  1831
  i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.
nipkow@15119
  1832
  Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.
nipkow@14380
  1833
kleing@14418
  1834
* Unions and Intersections over Intervals:
wenzelm@14731
  1835
  There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is
wenzelm@14731
  1836
  also an x-symbol version with subscripts "\<Union>\<^bsub>i <= n\<^esub>. A"
kleing@14418
  1837
  like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.
kleing@14418
  1838
nipkow@15677
  1839
* HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard
nipkow@15677
  1840
  lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".
nipkow@15677
  1841
paulson@14401
  1842
* ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had
paulson@14401
  1843
  conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.
nipkow@14380
  1844
webertj@14464
  1845
* 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels.  Only works
webertj@14464
  1846
  for a fragment of HOL.  The installation of an external SAT solver is
webertj@14464
  1847
  highly recommended.  See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.
webertj@14464
  1848
berghofe@14602
  1849
* 'quickcheck' command: Allows to find counterexamples by evaluating
berghofe@14602
  1850
  formulae under an assignment of free variables to random values.
berghofe@14602
  1851
  In contrast to 'refute', it can deal with inductive datatypes,
berghofe@14602
  1852
  but cannot handle quantifiers. See "HOL/ex/Quickcheck_Examples.thy"
berghofe@14602
  1853
  for examples.
webertj@14464
  1854
wenzelm@14606
  1855
oheimb@14536
  1856
*** HOLCF ***
oheimb@14536
  1857
oheimb@14536
  1858
* Streams now come with concatenation and are part of the HOLCF image
oheimb@14536
  1859
wenzelm@14572
  1860
wenzelm@14572
  1861
kleing@14136
  1862
New in Isabelle2003 (May 2003)
wenzelm@14606
  1863
------------------------------
kleing@14136
  1864
wenzelm@13280
  1865
*** General ***
wenzelm@13280
  1866
berghofe@13618
  1867
* Provers/simplifier:
berghofe@13618
  1868
nipkow@13781
  1869
  - Completely reimplemented method simp (ML: Asm_full_simp_tac):
berghofe@13618
  1870
    Assumptions are now subject to complete mutual simplification,
berghofe@13618
  1871
    not just from left to right. The simplifier now preserves
berghofe@13618
  1872
    the order of assumptions.
berghofe@13618
  1873
berghofe@13618
  1874
    Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
berghofe@13618
  1875
nipkow@13781
  1876
    -- simp sometimes diverges where the old version did
nipkow@13781
  1877
       not, e.g. invoking simp on the goal
berghofe@13618
  1878
berghofe@13618
  1879
        [| P (f x); y = x; f x = f y |] ==> Q
berghofe@13618
  1880
nipkow@13781
  1881
       now gives rise to the infinite reduction sequence
nipkow@13781
  1882
nipkow@13781
  1883
        P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> P(f y) --(y = x)--> P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> ...
nipkow@13781
  1884
nipkow@13781
  1885
       Using "simp (asm_lr)" (ML: Asm_lr_simp_tac) instead often solves this
nipkow@13781
  1886
       kind of problem.
nipkow@13781
  1887
nipkow@13781
  1888
    -- Tactics combining classical reasoner and simplification (such as auto)
nipkow@13781
  1889
       are also affected by this change, because many of them rely on
nipkow@13781
  1890
       simp. They may sometimes diverge as well or yield a different numbers
nipkow@13781
  1891
       of subgoals. Try to use e.g. force, fastsimp, or safe instead of auto
nipkow@13781
  1892
       in case of problems. Sometimes subsequent calls to the classical
nipkow@13781
  1893
       reasoner will fail because a preceeding call to the simplifier too
nipkow@13781
  1894
       eagerly simplified the goal, e.g. deleted redundant premises.
berghofe@13618
  1895
berghofe@13618
  1896
  - The simplifier trace now shows the names of the applied rewrite rules
berghofe@13618
  1897
nipkow@13829
  1898
  - You can limit the number of recursive invocations of the simplifier
nipkow@13829
  1899
    during conditional rewriting (where the simplifie tries to solve the
nipkow@13829
  1900
    conditions before applying the rewrite rule):
nipkow@13829
  1901
    ML "simp_depth_limit := n"
nipkow@13829
  1902
    where n is an integer. Thus you can force termination where previously
nipkow@13829
  1903
    the simplifier would diverge.
nipkow@13829
  1904
ballarin@13835
  1905
  - Accepts free variables as head terms in congruence rules.  Useful in Isar.
nipkow@13829
  1906
ballarin@13938
  1907
  - No longer aborts on failed congruence proof.  Instead, the
ballarin@13938
  1908
    congruence is ignored.
ballarin@13938
  1909
berghofe@14008
  1910
* Pure: New generic framework for extracting programs from constructive
berghofe@14008
  1911
  proofs. See HOL/Extraction.thy for an example instantiation, as well
berghofe@14008
  1912
  as HOL/Extraction for some case studies.
berghofe@14008
  1913
nipkow@13868
  1914
* Pure: The main goal of the proof state is no longer shown by default, only
nipkow@13868
  1915
the subgoals. This behaviour is controlled by a new flag.
ballarin@13835
  1916
   PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Settings -> Show Main Goal
nipkow@13815
  1917
(ML: Proof.show_main_goal).
nipkow@13815
  1918
nipkow@13815
  1919
* Pure: You can find all matching introduction rules for subgoal 1, i.e. all
nipkow@13815
  1920
rules whose conclusion matches subgoal 1:
nipkow@13815
  1921
      PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Show me -> matching rules
nipkow@13815
  1922
The rules are ordered by how closely they match the subgoal.
nipkow@13815
  1923
In particular, rules that solve a subgoal outright are displayed first
nipkow@13815
  1924
(or rather last, the way they are printed).
nipkow@13815
  1925
(ML: ProofGeneral.print_intros())
nipkow@13815
  1926
nipkow@13815
  1927
* Pure: New flag trace_unify_fail causes unification to print
nipkow@13781
  1928
diagnostic information (PG: in trace buffer) when it fails. This is
nipkow@13781
  1929
useful for figuring out why single step proofs like rule, erule or
nipkow@13781
  1930
assumption failed.
nipkow@13781
  1931
nipkow@13815
  1932
* Pure: Locale specifications now produce predicate definitions
wenzelm@13410
  1933
according to the body of text (covering assumptions modulo local
wenzelm@13410
  1934
definitions); predicate "loc_axioms" covers newly introduced text,
wenzelm@13410
  1935
while "loc" is cumulative wrt. all included locale expressions; the
wenzelm@13410
  1936
latter view is presented only on export into the global theory
wenzelm@13410
  1937
context; potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use "(open)" option to fall back
wenzelm@13410
  1938
on the old view without predicates;
wenzelm@13410
  1939
wenzelm@13459
  1940
* Pure: predefined locales "var" and "struct" are useful for sharing
wenzelm@13459
  1941
parameters (as in CASL, for example); just specify something like
wenzelm@13459
  1942
``var x + var y + struct M'' as import;
wenzelm@13459
  1943
wenzelm@13463
  1944
* Pure: improved thms_containing: proper indexing of facts instead of
wenzelm@13463
  1945
raw theorems; check validity of results wrt. current name space;
wenzelm@13463
  1946
include local facts of proof configuration (also covers active
wenzelm@13541
  1947
locales), cover fixed variables in index; may use "_" in term
wenzelm@13541
  1948
specification; an optional limit for the number of printed facts may
wenzelm@13541
  1949
be given (the default is 40);
wenzelm@13541
  1950
wenzelm@13541
  1951
* Pure: disallow duplicate fact bindings within new-style theory files
wenzelm@13541
  1952
(batch-mode only);
wenzelm@13540
  1953
wenzelm@13463
  1954
* Provers: improved induct method: assumptions introduced by case
wenzelm@13463
  1955
"foo" are split into "foo.hyps" (from the rule) and "foo.prems" (from
wenzelm@13463
  1956
the goal statement); "foo" still refers to all facts collectively;
wenzelm@13463
  1957
paulson@13550
  1958
* Provers: the function blast.overloaded has been removed: all constants
paulson@13550
  1959
are regarded as potentially overloaded, which improves robustness in exchange
paulson@13550
  1960
for slight decrease in efficiency;
paulson@13550
  1961
nipkow@13781
  1962
* Provers/linorder: New generic prover for transitivity reasoning over
nipkow@13781
  1963
linear orders.  Note: this prover is not efficient!
nipkow@13781
  1964
wenzelm@13522
  1965
* Isar: preview of problems to finish 'show' now produce an error
wenzelm@13522
  1966
rather than just a warning (in interactive mode);
wenzelm@13522
  1967
wenzelm@13280
  1968
nipkow@13158
  1969
*** HOL ***
nipkow@13158
  1970
nipkow@13899
  1971
* arith(_tac)
nipkow@13899
  1972
nipkow@13899
  1973
 - Produces a counter example if it cannot prove a goal.
nipkow@13899
  1974
   Note that the counter example may be spurious if the goal is not a formula
nipkow@13899
  1975
   of quantifier-free linear arithmetic.
nipkow@13899
  1976
   In ProofGeneral the counter example appears in the trace buffer.
nipkow@13899
  1977
nipkow@13899
  1978
 - Knows about div k and mod k where k is a numeral of type nat or int.
nipkow@13899
  1979
nipkow@13899
  1980
 - Calls full Presburger arithmetic (by Amine Chaieb) if quantifier-free
nipkow@13899
  1981
   linear arithmetic fails. This takes account of quantifiers and divisibility.
wenzelm@14731
  1982
   Presburger arithmetic can also be called explicitly via presburger(_tac).
nipkow@13899
  1983
nipkow@13899
  1984
* simp's arithmetic capabilities have been enhanced a bit: it now
nipkow@13899
  1985
takes ~= in premises into account (by performing a case split);
nipkow@13899
  1986
nipkow@13899
  1987
* simp reduces "m*(n div m) + n mod m" to n, even if the two summands
nipkow@13899
  1988
are distributed over a sum of terms;
nipkow@13899
  1989
ballarin@13735
  1990
* New tactic "trans_tac" and method "trans" instantiate
ballarin@13735
  1991
Provers/linorder.ML for axclasses "order" and "linorder" (predicates
wenzelm@14731
  1992
"<=", "<" and "=").
wenzelm@14731
  1993
wenzelm@14731
  1994
* function INCOMPATIBILITIES: Pi-sets have been redefined and moved from main
paulson@13587
  1995
HOL to Library/FuncSet; constant "Fun.op o" is now called "Fun.comp";
paulson@13587
  1996
wenzelm@13443
  1997
* 'typedef' command has new option "open" to suppress the set
wenzelm@13443
  1998
definition;
wenzelm@13443
  1999
wenzelm@13522
  2000
* functions Min and Max on finite sets have been introduced (theory
wenzelm@13522
  2001
Finite_Set);
nipkow@13492
  2002
wenzelm@13443
  2003
* attribute [symmetric] now works for relations as well; it turns
wenzelm@13443
  2004
(x,y) : R^-1 into (y,x) : R, and vice versa;
wenzelm@13443
  2005
nipkow@13613
  2006
* induct over a !!-quantified statement (say !!x1..xn):
nipkow@13613
  2007
  each "case" automatically performs "fix x1 .. xn" with exactly those names.
nipkow@13613
  2008
nipkow@13899
  2009
* Map: `empty' is no longer a constant but a syntactic abbreviation for
nipkow@13899
  2010
%x. None. Warning: empty_def now refers to the previously hidden definition
nipkow@13899
  2011
of the empty set.
nipkow@13899
  2012
ballarin@14018
  2013
* Algebra: formalization of classical algebra.  Intended as base for
ballarin@14018
  2014
any algebraic development in Isabelle.  Currently covers group theory
ballarin@14018
  2015
(up to Sylow's theorem) and ring theory (Universal Property of
ballarin@14018
  2016
Univariate Polynomials).  Contributions welcome;
paulson@13960
  2017
paulson@13960
  2018
* GroupTheory: deleted, since its material has been moved to Algebra;
paulson@13960
  2019
wenzelm@14731
  2020
* Complex: new directory of the complex numbers with numeric constants,
wenzelm@14731
  2021
nonstandard complex numbers, and some complex analysis, standard and
paulson@13966
  2022
nonstandard (Jacques Fleuriot);
paulson@13966
  2023
paulson@13966
  2024
* HOL-Complex: new image for analysis, replacing HOL-Real and HOL-Hyperreal;
paulson@13966
  2025
wenzelm@14731
  2026
* Hyperreal: introduced Gauge integration and hyperreal logarithms (Jacques
paulson@13966
  2027
Fleuriot);
paulson@13960
  2028
wenzelm@13549
  2029
* Real/HahnBanach: updated and adapted to locales;
wenzelm@13549
  2030
ballarin@13995
  2031
* NumberTheory: added Gauss's law of quadratic reciprocity (by Avigad,
ballarin@13995
  2032
Gray and Kramer);
paulson@13872
  2033
paulson@13872
  2034
* UNITY: added the Meier-Sanders theory of progress sets;
paulson@13872
  2035
kleing@14011
  2036
* MicroJava: bytecode verifier and lightweight bytecode verifier
kleing@14011
  2037
as abstract algorithms, instantiated to the JVM;
kleing@14011
  2038
schirmer@14010
  2039
* Bali: Java source language formalization. Type system, operational
schirmer@14010
  2040
semantics, axiomatic semantics. Supported language features:
schirmer@14010
  2041
classes, interfaces, objects,virtual methods, static methods,
schirmer@14010
  2042
static/instance fields, arrays, access modifiers, definite
schirmer@14010
  2043
assignment, exceptions.
wenzelm@13549
  2044
kleing@14011
  2045
wenzelm@13549
  2046
*** ZF ***
wenzelm@13549
  2047
webertj@15154
  2048
* ZF/Constructible: consistency proof for AC (Gdel's constructible
wenzelm@13549
  2049
universe, etc.);
wenzelm@13549
  2050
paulson@13872
  2051
* Main ZF: virtually all theories converted to new-style format;
nipkow@13518
  2052
wenzelm@13280
  2053
wenzelm@13478
  2054
*** ML ***
wenzelm@13478
  2055
wenzelm@13478
  2056
* Pure: Tactic.prove provides sane interface for internal proofs;
wenzelm@13478
  2057
omits the infamous "standard" operation, so this is more appropriate
wenzelm@13478
  2058
than prove_goalw_cterm in many situations (e.g. in simprocs);
wenzelm@13478
  2059
wenzelm@13478
  2060
* Pure: improved error reporting of simprocs;
wenzelm@13478
  2061
wenzelm@13478
  2062
* Provers: Simplifier.simproc(_i) provides sane interface for setting
wenzelm@13478
  2063
up simprocs;
wenzelm@13478
  2064
wenzelm@13478
  2065
kleing@13953
  2066
*** Document preparation ***
kleing@13953
  2067
kleing@13953
  2068
* uses \par instead of \\ for line breaks in theory text. This may
kleing@13953
  2069
shift some page breaks in large documents. To get the old behaviour
kleing@13953
  2070
use \renewcommand{\isanewline}{\mbox{}\\\mbox{}} in root.tex.
kleing@13953
  2071
wenzelm@14731
  2072
* minimized dependencies of isabelle.sty and isabellesym.sty on
kleing@13953
  2073
other packages
kleing@13953
  2074
kleing@13953
  2075
* \<euro> now needs package babel/greek instead of marvosym (which
kleing@13953
  2076
broke \Rightarrow)
kleing@13953
  2077
wenzelm@14731
  2078
* normal size for \<zero>...\<nine> (uses \mathbf instead of
kleing@13954
  2079
textcomp package)
kleing@13953
  2080
wenzelm@13280
  2081
wenzelm@14572
  2082
wenzelm@12984
  2083
New in Isabelle2002 (March 2002)
wenzelm@12984
  2084
--------------------------------
wenzelm@11474
  2085
wenzelm@11572
  2086
*** Document preparation ***
wenzelm@11572
  2087
wenzelm@11842
  2088
* greatly simplified document preparation setup, including more
wenzelm@11842
  2089
graceful interpretation of isatool usedir -i/-d/-D options, and more
wenzelm@11842
  2090
instructive isatool mkdir; users should basically be able to get
wenzelm@12899
  2091
started with "isatool mkdir HOL Test && isatool make"; alternatively,
wenzelm@12899
  2092
users may run a separate document processing stage manually like this:
wenzelm@12899
  2093
"isatool usedir -D output HOL Test && isatool document Test/output";
wenzelm@11842
  2094
wenzelm@11842
  2095
* theory dependency graph may now be incorporated into documents;
wenzelm@11842
  2096
isatool usedir -g true will produce session_graph.eps/.pdf for use
wenzelm@11842
  2097
with \includegraphics of LaTeX;
wenzelm@11842
  2098
wenzelm@11864
  2099
* proper spacing of consecutive markup elements, especially text
wenzelm@11864
  2100
blocks after section headings;
wenzelm@11864
  2101
wenzelm@11572
  2102
* support bold style (for single symbols only), input syntax is like
wenzelm@11572
  2103
this: "\<^bold>\<alpha>" or "\<^bold>A";
wenzelm@11572
  2104
wenzelm@11814
  2105
* \<bullet> is now output as bold \cdot by default, which looks much
wenzelm@11572
  2106
better in printed text;
wenzelm@11572
  2107
wenzelm@11712
  2108
* added default LaTeX bindings for \<tturnstile> and \<TTurnstile>;
wenzelm@11712
  2109
note that these symbols are currently unavailable in Proof General /
wenzelm@12769
  2110
X-Symbol; new symbols \<zero>, \<one>, ..., \<nine>, and \<euro>;
wenzelm@12690
  2111
wenzelm@12690
  2112
* isatool latex no longer depends on changed TEXINPUTS, instead
wenzelm@12690
  2113
isatool document copies the Isabelle style files to the target
wenzelm@12690
  2114
location;
wenzelm@11712
  2115
wenzelm@11572
  2116
wenzelm@11633
  2117
*** Isar ***
wenzelm@11633
  2118
wenzelm@12312
  2119
* Pure/Provers: improved proof by cases and induction;
wenzelm@12280
  2120
  - 'case' command admits impromptu naming of parameters (such as
wenzelm@12280
  2121
    "case (Suc n)");
wenzelm@12280
  2122
  - 'induct' method divinates rule instantiation from the inductive
wenzelm@12280
  2123
    claim; no longer requires excessive ?P bindings for proper
wenzelm@12280
  2124
    instantiation of cases;
wenzelm@12280
  2125
  - 'induct' method properly enumerates all possibilities of set/type
wenzelm@12280
  2126
    rules; as a consequence facts may be also passed through *type*
wenzelm@12280
  2127
    rules without further ado;
wenzelm@12280
  2128
  - 'induct' method now derives symbolic cases from the *rulified*
wenzelm@12280
  2129
    rule (before it used to rulify cases stemming from the internal
wenzelm@12280
  2130
    atomized version); this means that the context of a non-atomic
wenzelm@12280
  2131
    statement becomes is included in the hypothesis, avoiding the
wenzelm@12280
  2132
    slightly cumbersome show "PROP ?case" form;
wenzelm@12280
  2133
  - 'induct' may now use elim-style induction rules without chaining
wenzelm@12280
  2134
    facts, using ``missing'' premises from the goal state; this allows
wenzelm@12280
  2135
    rules stemming from inductive sets to be applied in unstructured
wenzelm@12280
  2136
    scripts, while still benefitting from proper handling of non-atomic
wenzelm@12280
  2137
    statements; NB: major inductive premises need to be put first, all
wenzelm@12280
  2138
    the rest of the goal is passed through the induction;
wenzelm@12280
  2139
  - 'induct' proper support for mutual induction involving non-atomic
wenzelm@12280
  2140
    rule statements (uses the new concept of simultaneous goals, see
wenzelm@12280
  2141
    below);
wenzelm@12853
  2142
  - append all possible rule selections, but only use the first
wenzelm@12853
  2143
    success (no backtracking);
wenzelm@11995
  2144
  - removed obsolete "(simplified)" and "(stripped)" options of methods;
wenzelm@12754
  2145
  - undeclared rule case names default to numbers 1, 2, 3, ...;
wenzelm@12754
  2146
  - added 'print_induct_rules' (covered by help item in recent Proof
wenzelm@12754
  2147
    General versions);
wenzelm@11995
  2148
  - moved induct/cases attributes to Pure, methods to Provers;
wenzelm@11995
  2149
  - generic method setup instantiated for FOL and HOL;
wenzelm@11986
  2150
wenzelm@12163
  2151
* Pure: support multiple simultaneous goal statements, for example
wenzelm@12163
  2152
"have a: A and b: B" (same for 'theorem' etc.); being a pure
wenzelm@12163
  2153
meta-level mechanism, this acts as if several individual goals had
wenzelm@12163
  2154
been stated separately; in particular common proof methods need to be
wenzelm@12163
  2155
repeated in order to cover all claims; note that a single elimination
wenzelm@12163
  2156
step is *not* sufficient to establish the two conjunctions, so this
wenzelm@12163
  2157
fails:
wenzelm@12163
  2158
wenzelm@12163
  2159
  assume "A & B" then have A and B ..   (*".." fails*)
wenzelm@12163
  2160
wenzelm@12163
  2161
better use "obtain" in situations as above; alternative refer to
wenzelm@12163
  2162
multi-step methods like 'auto', 'simp_all', 'blast+' etc.;
wenzelm@12163
  2163
wenzelm@12078
  2164
* Pure: proper integration with ``locales''; unlike the original
webertj@15154
  2165
version by Florian Kammller, Isar locales package high-level proof
wenzelm@12078
  2166
contexts rather than raw logical ones (e.g. we admit to include
wenzelm@12280
  2167
attributes everywhere); operations on locales include merge and
wenzelm@12964
  2168
rename; support for implicit arguments (``structures''); simultaneous
wenzelm@12964
  2169
type-inference over imports and text; see also HOL/ex/Locales.thy for
wenzelm@12964
  2170
some examples;
wenzelm@12078
  2171
wenzelm@12707
  2172
* Pure: the following commands have been ``localized'', supporting a
wenzelm@12707
  2173
target locale specification "(in name)": 'lemma', 'theorem',
wenzelm@12707
  2174
'corollary', 'lemmas', 'theorems', 'declare'; the results will be
wenzelm@12707
  2175
stored both within the locale and at the theory level (exported and
wenzelm@12707
  2176
qualified by the locale name);
wenzelm@12707
  2177
wenzelm@12964
  2178
* Pure: theory goals may now be specified in ``long'' form, with
wenzelm@12964
  2179
ad-hoc contexts consisting of arbitrary locale elements. for example
wenzelm@12964
  2180
``lemma foo: fixes x assumes "A x" shows "B x"'' (local syntax and
wenzelm@12964
  2181
definitions may be given, too); the result is a meta-level rule with
wenzelm@12964
  2182
the context elements being discharged in the obvious way;
wenzelm@12964
  2183
wenzelm@12964
  2184
* Pure: new proof command 'using' allows to augment currently used
wenzelm@12964
  2185
facts after a goal statement ('using' is syntactically analogous to
wenzelm@12964
  2186
'apply', but acts on the goal's facts only); this allows chained facts
wenzelm@12964
  2187
to be separated into parts given before and after a claim, as in
wenzelm@12964
  2188
``from a and b have C using d and e <proof>'';
wenzelm@12078
  2189
wenzelm@11722
  2190
* Pure: renamed "antecedent" case to "rule_context";
wenzelm@11722
  2191
wenzelm@12964
  2192
* Pure: new 'judgment' command records explicit information about the
wenzelm@12964
  2193
object-logic embedding (used by several tools internally); no longer
wenzelm@12964
  2194
use hard-wired "Trueprop";
wenzelm@12964
  2195
wenzelm@11738
  2196
* Pure: added 'corollary' command;
wenzelm@11738
  2197
wenzelm@11722
  2198
* Pure: fixed 'token_translation' command;
wenzelm@11722
  2199
wenzelm@11899
  2200
* Pure: removed obsolete 'exported' attribute;
wenzelm@11899
  2201
wenzelm@11933
  2202
* Pure: dummy pattern "_" in is/let is now automatically lifted over
wenzelm@11933
  2203
bound variables: "ALL x. P x --> Q x" (is "ALL x. _ --> ?C x")
wenzelm@11899
  2204
supersedes more cumbersome ... (is "ALL x. _ x --> ?C x");
wenzelm@11899
  2205
wenzelm@11952
  2206
* Pure: method 'atomize' presents local goal premises as object-level
wenzelm@11952
  2207
statements (atomic meta-level propositions); setup controlled via
wenzelm@11952
  2208
rewrite rules declarations of 'atomize' attribute; example
wenzelm@11952
  2209
application: 'induct' method with proper rule statements in improper
wenzelm@11952
  2210
proof *scripts*;
wenzelm@11952
  2211
wenzelm@12106
  2212
* Pure: emulation of instantiation tactics (rule_tac, cut_tac, etc.)
wenzelm@12106
  2213
now consider the syntactic context of assumptions, giving a better
wenzelm@12106
  2214
chance to get type-inference of the arguments right (this is
wenzelm@12106
  2215
especially important for locales);
wenzelm@12106
  2216
wenzelm@12312
  2217
* Pure: "sorry" no longer requires quick_and_dirty in interactive
wenzelm@12312
  2218
mode;
wenzelm@12312
  2219
wenzelm@12405
  2220
* Pure/obtain: the formal conclusion "thesis", being marked as
wenzelm@12405
  2221
``internal'', may no longer be reference directly in the text;
wenzelm@12405
  2222
potential INCOMPATIBILITY, may need to use "?thesis" in rare
wenzelm@12405
  2223
situations;
wenzelm@12405
  2224
wenzelm@12405
  2225
* Pure: generic 'sym' attribute which declares a rule both as pure
wenzelm@12405
  2226
'elim?' and for the 'symmetric' operation;
wenzelm@12405
  2227
wenzelm@12877
  2228
* Pure: marginal comments ``--'' may now occur just anywhere in the
wenzelm@12877
  2229
text; the fixed correlation with particular command syntax has been
wenzelm@12877
  2230
discontinued;
wenzelm@12877
  2231
berghofe@13023
  2232
* Pure: new method 'rules' is particularly well-suited for proof
berghofe@13023
  2233
search in intuitionistic logic; a bit slower than 'blast' or 'fast',
berghofe@13023
  2234
but often produces more compact proof terms with less detours;
berghofe@13023
  2235
wenzelm@12364
  2236
* Pure/Provers/classical: simplified integration with pure rule
wenzelm@12364
  2237
attributes and methods; the classical "intro?/elim?/dest?"
wenzelm@12364
  2238
declarations coincide with the pure ones; the "rule" method no longer
wenzelm@12364
  2239
includes classically swapped intros; "intro" and "elim" methods no
wenzelm@12364
  2240
longer pick rules from the context; also got rid of ML declarations
wenzelm@12364
  2241
AddXIs/AddXEs/AddXDs; all of this has some potential for
wenzelm@12364
  2242
INCOMPATIBILITY;
wenzelm@12364
  2243
wenzelm@12405
  2244
* Provers/classical: attribute 'swapped' produces classical inversions
wenzelm@12405
  2245
of introduction rules;
wenzelm@12405
  2246
wenzelm@12364
  2247
* Provers/simplifier: 'simplified' attribute may refer to explicit
wenzelm@12364
  2248
rules instead of full simplifier context; 'iff' attribute handles
wenzelm@12364
  2249
conditional rules;
wenzelm@11936
  2250
wenzelm@11745
  2251
* HOL: 'typedef' now allows alternative names for Rep/Abs morphisms;
wenzelm@11745
  2252
wenzelm@11690
  2253
* HOL: 'recdef' now fails on unfinished automated proofs, use
wenzelm@11633
  2254
"(permissive)" option to recover old behavior;
wenzelm@11633
  2255
wenzelm@11933
  2256
* HOL: 'inductive' no longer features separate (collective) attributes
wenzelm@11933
  2257
for 'intros' (was found too confusing);
wenzelm@11933
  2258
wenzelm@12405
  2259
* HOL: properly declared induction rules less_induct and
wenzelm@12405
  2260
wf_induct_rule;
wenzelm@12405
  2261
kleing@11788
  2262
wenzelm@11474
  2263
*** HOL ***
wenzelm@11474
  2264
wenzelm@11702
  2265
* HOL: moved over to sane numeral syntax; the new policy is as
wenzelm@11702
  2266
follows:
wenzelm@11702
  2267
wenzelm@11702
  2268
  - 0 and 1 are polymorphic constants, which are defined on any
wenzelm@11702
  2269
  numeric type (nat, int, real etc.);
wenzelm@11702
  2270
wenzelm@11702
  2271
  - 2, 3, 4, ... and -1, -2, -3, ... are polymorphic numerals, based
wenzelm@11702
  2272
  binary representation internally;
wenzelm@11702
  2273
wenzelm@11702
  2274
  - type nat has special constructor Suc, and generally prefers Suc 0
wenzelm@11702
  2275
  over 1::nat and Suc (Suc 0) over 2::nat;
wenzelm@11702
  2276
wenzelm@12364
  2277
This change may cause significant problems of INCOMPATIBILITY; here
wenzelm@12364
  2278
are some hints on converting existing sources:
wenzelm@11702
  2279
wenzelm@11702
  2280
  - due to the new "num" token, "-0" and "-1" etc. are now atomic
wenzelm@11702
  2281
  entities, so expressions involving "-" (unary or binary minus) need
wenzelm@11702
  2282
  to be spaced properly;
wenzelm@11702
  2283
wenzelm@11702
  2284
  - existing occurrences of "1" may need to be constraint "1::nat" or
wenzelm@11702
  2285
  even replaced by Suc 0; similar for old "2";
wenzelm@11702
  2286
wenzelm@11702
  2287
  - replace "#nnn" by "nnn", and "#-nnn" by "-nnn";
wenzelm@11702
  2288
wenzelm@11702
  2289
  - remove all special provisions on numerals in proofs;
wenzelm@11702
  2290
wenzelm@13042
  2291
* HOL: simp rules nat_number expand numerals on nat to Suc/0
wenzelm@12837
  2292
representation (depends on bin_arith_simps in the default context);
wenzelm@12837
  2293
wenzelm@12736
  2294
* HOL: symbolic syntax for x^2 (numeral 2);
wenzelm@12736
  2295
wenzelm@12335
  2296
* HOL: the class of all HOL types is now called "type" rather than
wenzelm@12335
  2297
"term"; INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt references to this type class
wenzelm@12335
  2298
in axclass/classes, instance/arities, and (usually rare) occurrences
wenzelm@12335
  2299
in typings (of consts etc.); internally the class is called
wenzelm@12335
  2300
"HOL.type", ML programs should refer to HOLogic.typeS;
wenzelm@12335
  2301
wenzelm@12280
  2302
* HOL/record package improvements:
wenzelm@12280
  2303
  - new derived operations "fields" to build a partial record section,
wenzelm@12280
  2304
    "extend" to promote a fixed record to a record scheme, and
wenzelm@12280
  2305
    "truncate" for the reverse; cf. theorems "xxx.defs", which are *not*
wenzelm@12280
  2306
    declared as simp by default;
wenzelm@12587
  2307
  - shared operations ("more", "fields", etc.) now need to be always
wenzelm@12587
  2308
    qualified) --- potential INCOMPATIBILITY;
wenzelm@12280
  2309
  - removed "make_scheme" operations (use "make" with "extend") --
wenzelm@12280
  2310
    INCOMPATIBILITY;
wenzelm@11937
  2311
  - removed "more" class (simply use "term") -- INCOMPATIBILITY;
wenzelm@12253
  2312
  - provides cases/induct rules for use with corresponding Isar
wenzelm@12253
  2313
    methods (for concrete records, record schemes, concrete more
wenzelm@12280
  2314
    parts, and schematic more parts -- in that order);
wenzelm@11930
  2315
  - internal definitions directly based on a light-weight abstract
wenzelm@11930
  2316
    theory of product types over typedef rather than datatype;
wenzelm@11930
  2317
berghofe@13023
  2318
* HOL: generic code generator for generating executable ML code from
berghofe@13023
  2319
specifications; specific support for HOL constructs such as inductive
berghofe@13023
  2320
datatypes and sets, as well as recursive functions; can be invoked
berghofe@13023
  2321
via 'generate_code' theory section;
berghofe@13023
  2322
wenzelm@11933
  2323
* HOL: canonical cases/induct rules for n-tuples (n = 3..7);
wenzelm@11933
  2324
paulson@13824
  2325
* HOL: consolidated and renamed several theories.  In particular:
wenzelm@14731
  2326
        Ord.thy has been absorbed into HOL.thy
wenzelm@14731
  2327
        String.thy has been absorbed into List.thy
wenzelm@14731
  2328
wenzelm@11802
  2329
* HOL: concrete setsum syntax "\<Sum>i:A. b" == "setsum (%i. b) A"
wenzelm@11802
  2330
(beware of argument permutation!);
wenzelm@11802
  2331
wenzelm@11657
  2332
* HOL: linorder_less_split superseded by linorder_cases;
wenzelm@11657
  2333
wenzelm@12917
  2334
* HOL/List: "nodups" renamed to "distinct";
nipkow@12889
  2335
wenzelm@11633
  2336
* HOL: added "The" definite description operator; move Hilbert's "Eps"
paulson@13824
  2337
to peripheral theory "Hilbert_Choice"; some INCOMPATIBILITIES:
paulson@13824
  2338
  - Ex_def has changed, now need to use some_eq_ex
wenzelm@11437
  2339
wenzelm@11572
  2340
* HOL: made split_all_tac safe; EXISTING PROOFS MAY FAIL OR LOOP, so
wenzelm@11572
  2341
in this (rare) case use:
wenzelm@11572
  2342
wenzelm@11572
  2343
  delSWrapper "split_all_tac"
wenzelm@11572
  2344
  addSbefore ("unsafe_split_all_tac", unsafe_split_all_tac)
wenzelm@11572
  2345
wenzelm@11572
  2346
* HOL: added safe wrapper "split_conv_tac" to claset; EXISTING PROOFS
wenzelm@11474
  2347
MAY FAIL;
nipkow@11361
  2348
wenzelm@11572
  2349
* HOL: introduced f^n = f o ... o f; warning: due to the limits of
wenzelm@11572
  2350
Isabelle's type classes, ^ on functions and relations has too general
wenzelm@11572
  2351
a domain, namely ('a * 'b) set and 'a => 'b; this means that it may be
wenzelm@11572
  2352
necessary to attach explicit type constraints;
nipkow@11307
  2353
wenzelm@12917
  2354
* HOL/Relation: the prefix name of the infix "O" has been changed from
wenzelm@12917
  2355
"comp" to "rel_comp"; INCOMPATIBILITY: a few theorems have been
wenzelm@12917
  2356
renamed accordingly (eg "compI" -> "rel_compI").
nipkow@12489
  2357
wenzelm@11487
  2358
* HOL: syntax translations now work properly with numerals and records
wenzelm@11487
  2359
expressions;
wenzelm@11474
  2360
wenzelm@12457
  2361
* HOL: bounded abstraction now uses syntax "%" / "\<lambda>" instead
wenzelm@12457
  2362
of "lam" -- INCOMPATIBILITY;
wenzelm@11474
  2363
wenzelm@11933
  2364
* HOL: got rid of some global declarations (potential INCOMPATIBILITY
wenzelm@11933
  2365
for ML tools): const "()" renamed "Product_Type.Unity", type "unit"
wenzelm@11933
  2366
renamed "Product_Type.unit";
wenzelm@11611
  2367
nipkow@12564
  2368
* HOL: renamed rtrancl_into_rtrancl2 to converse_rtrancl_into_rtrancl
nipkow@12564
  2369
wenzelm@12924
  2370
* HOL: removed obsolete theorem "optionE" (use "option.exhaust", or
wenzelm@12924
  2371
the "cases" method);
wenzelm@12924
  2372
wenzelm@12597
  2373
* HOL/GroupTheory: group theory examples including Sylow's theorem (by
webertj@15154
  2374
Florian Kammller);
wenzelm@12597
  2375
wenzelm@12608
  2376
* HOL/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory format; several
wenzelm@12608
  2377
parts turned into readable document, with proper Isar proof texts and
wenzelm@12608
  2378
some explanations (by Gerwin Klein);
wenzelm@12597
  2379
wenzelm@12734
  2380
* HOL-Real: added Complex_Numbers (by Gertrud Bauer);
wenzelm@12734
  2381
wenzelm@12690
  2382
* HOL-Hyperreal is now a logic image;
wenzelm@12690
  2383
wenzelm@11611
  2384
wenzelm@12022
  2385
*** HOLCF ***
wenzelm@12022
  2386
wenzelm@12622
  2387
* Isar: consts/constdefs supports mixfix syntax for continuous
wenzelm@12622
  2388
operations;
wenzelm@12622
  2389
wenzelm@12622
  2390
* Isar: domain package adapted to new-style theory format, e.g. see
wenzelm@12622
  2391
HOLCF/ex/Dnat.thy;
wenzelm@12622
  2392
wenzelm@12622
  2393
* theory Lift: proper use of rep_datatype lift instead of ML hacks --
wenzelm@12280
  2394
potential INCOMPATIBILITY; now use plain induct_tac instead of former
wenzelm@12280
  2395
lift.induct_tac, always use UU instead of Undef;
wenzelm@12022
  2396
wenzelm@12597
  2397
* HOLCF/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory;
wenzelm@12597
  2398
wenzelm@12022
  2399
wenzelm@11474
  2400
*** ZF ***
wenzelm@11474
  2401
wenzelm@12622
  2402
* Isar: proper integration of logic-specific tools and packages,
wenzelm@12622
  2403
including theory commands '(co)inductive', '(co)datatype',
wenzelm@12622
  2404
'rep_datatype', 'inductive_cases', as well as methods 'ind_cases',
wenzelm@12622
  2405
'induct_tac', 'case_tac', and 'typecheck' (with attribute 'TC');
wenzelm@12622
  2406
wenzelm@12622
  2407
* theory Main no longer includes AC; for the Axiom of Choice, base
wenzelm@12622
  2408
your theory on Main_ZFC;
wenzelm@12622
  2409
wenzelm@12622
  2410
* the integer library now covers quotients and remainders, with many
wenzelm@12622
  2411
laws relating division to addition, multiplication, etc.;
paulson@12563
  2412
wenzelm@12280
  2413
* ZF/UNITY: Chandy and Misra's UNITY is now available in ZF, giving a
wenzelm@12280
  2414
typeless version of the formalism;
wenzelm@12280
  2415
wenzelm@13025
  2416
* ZF/AC, Coind, IMP, Resid: updated and converted to new-style theory
wenzelm@13025
  2417
format;
wenzelm@12608
  2418
wenzelm@12280
  2419
* ZF/Induct: new directory for examples of inductive definitions,
wenzelm@12608
  2420
including theory Multiset for multiset orderings; converted to
wenzelm@12608
  2421
new-style theory format;
wenzelm@12177
  2422
wenzelm@13025
  2423
* ZF: many new theorems about lists, ordinals, etc.;
paulson@12850
  2424
wenzelm@11474
  2425
wenzelm@11474
  2426
*** General ***
wenzelm@11474
  2427
wenzelm@12280
  2428
* Pure/kernel: meta-level proof terms (by Stefan Berghofer); reference
wenzelm@12280
  2429
variable proof controls level of detail: 0 = no proofs (only oracle
wenzelm@12280
  2430
dependencies), 1 = lemma dependencies, 2 = compact proof terms; see
wenzelm@12280
  2431
also ref manual for further ML interfaces;
wenzelm@12280
  2432
wenzelm@12280
  2433
* Pure/axclass: removed obsolete ML interface
wenzelm@12280
  2434
goal_subclass/goal_arity;
wenzelm@12280
  2435
wenzelm@12280
  2436
* Pure/syntax: new token syntax "num" for plain numerals (without "#"
wenzelm@12280
  2437
of "xnum"); potential INCOMPATIBILITY, since -0, -1 etc. are now
wenzelm@12280
  2438
separate tokens, so expressions involving minus need to be spaced
wenzelm@12280
  2439
properly;
wenzelm@12280
  2440
wenzelm@12312
  2441
* Pure/syntax: support non-oriented infixes, using keyword "infix"
wenzelm@12312
  2442
rather than "infixl" or "infixr";
wenzelm@12312
  2443
wenzelm@12312
  2444
* Pure/syntax: concrete syntax for dummy type variables admits genuine
wenzelm@12312
  2445
sort constraint specifications in type inference; e.g. "x::_::foo"
wenzelm@12312
  2446
ensures that the type of "x" is of sort "foo" (but not necessarily a
wenzelm@12312
  2447
type variable);
wenzelm@12280
  2448
wenzelm@12280
  2449
* Pure/syntax: print modes "type_brackets" and "no_type_brackets"
wenzelm@12280
  2450
control output of nested => (types); the default behavior is
wenzelm@12280
  2451
"type_brackets";
wenzelm@12280
  2452
wenzelm@12280
  2453
* Pure/syntax: builtin parse translation for "_constify" turns valued
wenzelm@11817
  2454
tokens into AST constants;
wenzelm@11474
  2455
wenzelm@12280
  2456
* Pure/syntax: prefer later declarations of translations and print
wenzelm@12280
  2457
translation functions; potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to reverse
wenzelm@12280
  2458
multiple declarations for same syntax element constant;
wenzelm@12280
  2459
wenzelm@12832
  2460
* Pure/show_hyps reset by default (in accordance to existing Isar
wenzelm@12832
  2461
practice);
wenzelm@12832
  2462
wenzelm@12280
  2463
* Provers/classical: renamed addaltern to addafter, addSaltern to
wenzelm@12280
  2464
addSafter;
wenzelm@12280
  2465
wenzelm@12280
  2466
* Provers/clasimp: ``iff'' declarations now handle conditional rules
wenzelm@12280
  2467
as well;
wenzelm@12253
  2468
wenzelm@12538
  2469
* system: tested support for MacOS X; should be able to get Isabelle +
wenzelm@12538
  2470
Proof General to work in a plain Terminal after installing Poly/ML
wenzelm@12538
  2471
(e.g. from the Isabelle distribution area) and GNU bash alone
wenzelm@12538
  2472
(e.g. from http://www.apple.com); full X11, XEmacs and X-Symbol
wenzelm@12538
  2473
support requires further installations, e.g. from
wenzelm@12538
  2474
http://fink.sourceforge.net/);
wenzelm@12538
  2475
wenzelm@12280
  2476
* system: support Poly/ML 4.1.1 (able to manage larger heaps);
wenzelm@11551
  2477
wenzelm@12753
  2478
* system: reduced base memory usage by Poly/ML (approx. 20 MB instead
wenzelm@12753
  2479
of 40 MB), cf. ML_OPTIONS;
wenzelm@12753
  2480
wenzelm@11633
  2481
* system: Proof General keywords specification is now part of the
wenzelm@11633
  2482
Isabelle distribution (see etc/isar-keywords.el);
wenzelm@11633
  2483
wenzelm@12728
  2484
* system: support for persistent Proof General sessions (refrain from
wenzelm@12728
  2485
outdating all loaded theories on startup); user may create writable
wenzelm@12728
  2486
logic images like this: ``isabelle -q HOL Test'';
wenzelm@12597
  2487
wenzelm@11551
  2488
* system: smart selection of Isabelle process versus Isabelle
wenzelm@11572
  2489
interface, accommodates case-insensitive file systems (e.g. HFS+); may
wenzelm@11572
  2490
run both "isabelle" and "Isabelle" even if file names are badly
wenzelm@11572
  2491
damaged (executable inspects the case of the first letter of its own
wenzelm@11572
  2492
name); added separate "isabelle-process" and "isabelle-interface";
wenzelm@11551
  2493
wenzelm@12472
  2494
* system: refrain from any attempt at filtering input streams; no
wenzelm@12472
  2495
longer support ``8bit'' encoding of old isabelle font, instead proper
wenzelm@12472
  2496
iso-latin characters may now be used; the related isatools
wenzelm@12472
  2497
"symbolinput" and "nonascii" have disappeared as well;
wenzelm@12472
  2498
wenzelm@12472
  2499
* system: removed old "xterm" interface (the print modes "xterm" and
wenzelm@12472
  2500
"xterm_color" are still available for direct use in a suitable
wenzelm@12472
  2501
terminal);
wenzelm@12472
  2502
paulson@11314
  2503
oheimb@11169
  2504
wenzelm@11062
  2505
New in Isabelle99-2 (February 2001)
wenzelm@11062
  2506
-----------------------------------
wenzelm@11062
  2507
nipkow@10224
  2508
*** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***
nipkow@10224
  2509
paulson@11241
  2510
* HOL: please note that theories in the Library and elsewhere often use the
paulson@11241
  2511
new-style (Isar) format; to refer to their theorems in an ML script you must
wenzelm@12622
  2512
bind them to ML identifers by e.g.      val thm_name = thm "thm_name";
paulson@11241
  2513
wenzelm@11043
  2514
* HOL: inductive package no longer splits induction rule aggressively,
wenzelm@11043
  2515
but only as far as specified by the introductions given; the old
oheimb@11130
  2516
format may be recovered via ML function complete_split_rule or attribute
wenzelm@11043
  2517
'split_rule (complete)';
wenzelm@11043
  2518
wenzelm@10998
  2519
* HOL: induct renamed to lfp_induct, lfp_Tarski to lfp_unfold,
wenzelm@10998
  2520
gfp_Tarski to gfp_unfold;
nipkow@10224
  2521
paulson@10288
  2522
* HOL: contrapos, contrapos2 renamed to contrapos_nn, contrapos_pp;
paulson@10288
  2523
wenzelm@10858
  2524
* HOL: infix "dvd" now has priority 50 rather than 70 (because it is a
wenzelm@10858
  2525
relation); infix "^^" has been renamed "``"; infix "``" has been
wenzelm@10858
  2526
renamed "`"; "univalent" has been renamed "single_valued";
nipkow@10793
  2527
wenzelm@10998
  2528
* HOL/Real: "rinv" and "hrinv" replaced by overloaded "inverse"
wenzelm@10998
  2529
operation;
wenzelm@10998
  2530
nipkow@10868
  2531
* HOLCF: infix "`" has been renamed "$"; the symbol syntax is \<cdot>;
nipkow@10856
  2532
wenzelm@10391
  2533
* Isar: 'obtain' no longer declares "that" fact as simp/intro;
wenzelm@10391
  2534
wenzelm@10401
  2535
* Isar/HOL: method 'induct' now handles non-atomic goals; as a
wenzelm@10401
  2536
consequence, it is no longer monotonic wrt. the local goal context
wenzelm@10401
  2537
(which is now passed through the inductive cases);
wenzelm@10401
  2538
wenzelm@10976
  2539
* Document preparation: renamed standard symbols \<ll> to \<lless> and
wenzelm@10976
  2540
\<gg> to \<ggreater>;
wenzelm@10976
  2541
nipkow@10224
  2542
wenzelm@10245
  2543
*** Document preparation ***
wenzelm@10245
  2544
wenzelm@10858
  2545
* \isabellestyle{NAME} selects version of Isabelle output (currently