src/Doc/System/Basics.thy
author wenzelm
Tue Aug 28 18:57:32 2012 +0200 (2012-08-28)
changeset 48985 5386df44a037
parent 48937 doc-src/System/Basics.thy@e7418f8d49fe
child 49173 fa01a202399c
permissions -rw-r--r--
renamed doc-src to src/Doc;
renamed TutorialI to Tutorial;
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theory Basics
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imports Base
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begin
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chapter {* The Isabelle system environment *}
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text {* This manual describes Isabelle together with related tools and
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  user interfaces as seen from a system oriented view.  See also the
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  \emph{Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual}~\cite{isabelle-isar-ref} for
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  the actual Isabelle input language and related concepts, and
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  \emph{The Isabelle/Isar Implementation
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  Manual}~\cite{isabelle-implementation} for the main concepts of the
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  underlying implementation in Isabelle/ML.
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  \medskip The Isabelle system environment provides the following
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  basic infrastructure to integrate tools smoothly.
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  \begin{enumerate}
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  \item The \emph{Isabelle settings} mechanism provides process
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  environment variables to all Isabelle executables (including tools
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  and user interfaces).
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  \item The raw \emph{Isabelle process} (@{executable_ref
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  "isabelle-process"}) runs logic sessions either interactively or in
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  batch mode.  In particular, this view abstracts over the invocation
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  of the actual ML system to be used.  Regular users rarely need to
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  care about the low-level process.
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  \item The main \emph{Isabelle tool wrapper} (@{executable_ref
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  isabelle}) provides a generic startup environment Isabelle related
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  utilities, user interfaces etc.  Such tools automatically benefit
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  from the settings mechanism.
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  \end{enumerate}
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*}
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section {* Isabelle settings \label{sec:settings} *}
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text {*
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  The Isabelle system heavily depends on the \emph{settings
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  mechanism}\indexbold{settings}.  Essentially, this is a statically
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  scoped collection of environment variables, such as @{setting
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  ISABELLE_HOME}, @{setting ML_SYSTEM}, @{setting ML_HOME}.  These
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  variables are \emph{not} intended to be set directly from the shell,
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  though.  Isabelle employs a somewhat more sophisticated scheme of
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  \emph{settings files} --- one for site-wide defaults, another for
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  additional user-specific modifications.  With all configuration
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  variables in clearly defined places, this scheme is more
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  maintainable and user-friendly than global shell environment
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  variables.
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  In particular, we avoid the typical situation where prospective
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  users of a software package are told to put several things into
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  their shell startup scripts, before being able to actually run the
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  program. Isabelle requires none such administrative chores of its
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  end-users --- the executables can be invoked straight away.
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  Occasionally, users would still want to put the @{file
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  "$ISABELLE_HOME/bin"} directory into their shell's search path, but
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  this is not required.
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*}
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subsection {* Bootstrapping the environment \label{sec:boot} *}
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text {* Isabelle executables need to be run within a proper settings
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  environment.  This is bootstrapped as described below, on the first
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  invocation of one of the outer wrapper scripts (such as
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  @{executable_ref isabelle}).  This happens only once for each
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  process tree, i.e.\ the environment is passed to subprocesses
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  according to regular Unix conventions.
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  \begin{enumerate}
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  \item The special variable @{setting_def ISABELLE_HOME} is
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  determined automatically from the location of the binary that has
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  been run.
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  You should not try to set @{setting ISABELLE_HOME} manually. Also
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  note that the Isabelle executables either have to be run from their
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  original location in the distribution directory, or via the
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  executable objects created by the @{tool install} tool.  Symbolic
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  links are admissible, but a plain copy of the @{file
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  "$ISABELLE_HOME/bin"} files will not work!
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  \item The file @{file "$ISABELLE_HOME/etc/settings"} is run as a
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  @{executable_ref bash} shell script with the auto-export option for
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  variables enabled.
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  This file holds a rather long list of shell variable assigments,
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  thus providing the site-wide default settings.  The Isabelle
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  distribution already contains a global settings file with sensible
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  defaults for most variables.  When installing the system, only a few
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  of these may have to be adapted (probably @{setting ML_SYSTEM}
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  etc.).
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  \item The file @{verbatim "$ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings"} (if it
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  exists) is run in the same way as the site default settings. Note
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  that the variable @{setting ISABELLE_HOME_USER} has already been set
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  before --- usually to something like @{verbatim
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  "$USER_HOME/.isabelle/IsabelleXXXX"}.
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  Thus individual users may override the site-wide defaults.  See also
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  file @{file "$ISABELLE_HOME/etc/user-settings.sample"} in the
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  distribution.  Typically, a user settings file would contain only a
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  few lines, just the assigments that are really changed.  One should
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  definitely \emph{not} start with a full copy the basic @{file
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  "$ISABELLE_HOME/etc/settings"}. This could cause very annoying
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  maintainance problems later, when the Isabelle installation is
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  updated or changed otherwise.
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  \end{enumerate}
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  Since settings files are regular GNU @{executable_def bash} scripts,
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  one may use complex shell commands, such as @{verbatim "if"} or
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  @{verbatim "case"} statements to set variables depending on the
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  system architecture or other environment variables.  Such advanced
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  features should be added only with great care, though. In
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  particular, external environment references should be kept at a
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  minimum.
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  \medskip A few variables are somewhat special:
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  \begin{itemize}
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  \item @{setting_def ISABELLE_PROCESS} and @{setting_def ISABELLE_TOOL} are set
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  automatically to the absolute path names of the @{executable
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  "isabelle-process"} and @{executable isabelle} executables,
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  respectively.
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  \item @{setting_ref ISABELLE_OUTPUT} will have the identifiers of
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  the Isabelle distribution (cf.\ @{setting ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER}) and
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  the ML system (cf.\ @{setting ML_IDENTIFIER}) appended automatically
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  to its value.
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  \end{itemize}
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  \medskip Note that the settings environment may be inspected with
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  the @{tool getenv} tool.  This might help to figure out the effect
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  of complex settings scripts.  *}
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subsection {* Common variables *}
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text {*
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  This is a reference of common Isabelle settings variables. Note that
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  the list is somewhat open-ended. Third-party utilities or interfaces
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  may add their own selection. Variables that are special in some
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  sense are marked with @{text "\<^sup>*"}.
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  \begin{description}
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  \item[@{setting_def USER_HOME}@{text "\<^sup>*"}] Is the cross-platform
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  user home directory.  On Unix systems this is usually the same as
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  @{setting HOME}, but on Windows it is the regular home directory of
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  the user, not the one of within the Cygwin root
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  file-system.\footnote{Cygwin itself offers another choice whether
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  its HOME should point to the \texttt{/home} directory tree or the
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  Windows user home.}
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 \item[@{setting_def ISABELLE_HOME}@{text "\<^sup>*"}] is the location of the
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  top-level Isabelle distribution directory. This is automatically
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  determined from the Isabelle executable that has been invoked.  Do
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  not attempt to set @{setting ISABELLE_HOME} yourself from the shell!
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  \item[@{setting_def ISABELLE_HOME_USER}] is the user-specific
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  counterpart of @{setting ISABELLE_HOME}. The default value is
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  relative to @{verbatim "$USER_HOME/.isabelle"}, under rare
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  circumstances this may be changed in the global setting file.
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  Typically, the @{setting ISABELLE_HOME_USER} directory mimics
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  @{setting ISABELLE_HOME} to some extend. In particular, site-wide
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  defaults may be overridden by a private @{verbatim
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  "$ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings"}.
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  \item[@{setting_def ISABELLE_PLATFORM}@{text "\<^sup>*"}] is automatically
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  set to a symbolic identifier for the underlying hardware and
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  operating system.  The Isabelle platform identification always
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  refers to the 32 bit variant, even this is a 64 bit machine.  Note
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  that the ML or Java runtime may have a different idea, depending on
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  which binaries are actually run.
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  \item[@{setting_def ISABELLE_PLATFORM64}@{text "\<^sup>*"}] is similar to
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  @{setting ISABELLE_PLATFORM} but refers to the proper 64 bit variant
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  on a platform that supports this; the value is empty for 32 bit.
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  Note that the following bash expression (including the quotes)
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  prefers the 64 bit platform, if that is available:
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  @{verbatim [display] "\"${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}\""}
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  \item[@{setting_def ISABELLE_PROCESS}@{text "\<^sup>*"}, @{setting
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  ISABELLE_TOOL}@{text "\<^sup>*"}] are automatically set to the full path
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  names of the @{executable "isabelle-process"} and @{executable
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  isabelle} executables, respectively.  Thus other tools and scripts
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  need not assume that the @{file "$ISABELLE_HOME/bin"} directory is
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  on the current search path of the shell.
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  \item[@{setting_def ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER}@{text "\<^sup>*"}] refers
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  to the name of this Isabelle distribution, e.g.\ ``@{verbatim
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  Isabelle2012}''.
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  \item[@{setting_def ML_SYSTEM}, @{setting_def ML_HOME},
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  @{setting_def ML_OPTIONS}, @{setting_def ML_PLATFORM}, @{setting_def
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  ML_IDENTIFIER}@{text "\<^sup>*"}] specify the underlying ML system
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  to be used for Isabelle.  There is only a fixed set of admissable
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  @{setting ML_SYSTEM} names (see the @{file
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  "$ISABELLE_HOME/etc/settings"} file of the distribution).
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  The actual compiler binary will be run from the directory @{setting
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  ML_HOME}, with @{setting ML_OPTIONS} as first arguments on the
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  command line.  The optional @{setting ML_PLATFORM} may specify the
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  binary format of ML heap images, which is useful for cross-platform
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  installations.  The value of @{setting ML_IDENTIFIER} is
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  automatically obtained by composing the values of @{setting
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  ML_SYSTEM}, @{setting ML_PLATFORM} and the Isabelle version values.
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  \item[@{setting_def ISABELLE_JDK_HOME}] needs to point to a full JDK
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  (Java Development Kit) installation with @{verbatim javac} and
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  @{verbatim jar} executables.  This is essential for Isabelle/Scala
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  and other JVM-based tools to work properly.  Note that conventional
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  @{verbatim JAVA_HOME} usually points to the JRE (Java Runtime
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  Environment), not JDK.
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  \item[@{setting_def ISABELLE_PATH}] is a list of directories
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  (separated by colons) where Isabelle logic images may reside.  When
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  looking up heaps files, the value of @{setting ML_IDENTIFIER} is
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  appended to each component internally.
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  \item[@{setting_def ISABELLE_OUTPUT}@{text "\<^sup>*"}] is a
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  directory where output heap files should be stored by default. The
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  ML system and Isabelle version identifier is appended here, too.
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  \item[@{setting_def ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO}] is the directory where
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  theory browser information (HTML text, graph data, and printable
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  documents) is stored (see also \secref{sec:info}).  The default
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  value is @{verbatim "$ISABELLE_HOME_USER/browser_info"}.
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  \item[@{setting_def ISABELLE_LOGIC}] specifies the default logic to
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  load if none is given explicitely by the user.  The default value is
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  @{verbatim HOL}.
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  \item[@{setting_def ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR}] specifies the default
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  line editor for the @{tool_ref tty} interface.
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  \item[@{setting_def ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS}] is implicitly prefixed
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  to the command line of any @{tool_ref usedir} invocation. This
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  typically contains compilation options for object-logics --- @{tool
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  usedir} is the basic tool for managing logic sessions (cf.\ the
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  @{verbatim IsaMakefile}s in the distribution).
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  \item[@{setting_def ISABELLE_LATEX}, @{setting_def
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  ISABELLE_PDFLATEX}, @{setting_def ISABELLE_BIBTEX}, @{setting_def
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  ISABELLE_DVIPS}] refer to {\LaTeX} related tools for Isabelle
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  document preparation (see also \secref{sec:tool-latex}).
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  \item[@{setting_def ISABELLE_TOOLS}] is a colon separated list of
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  directories that are scanned by @{executable isabelle} for external
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  utility programs (see also \secref{sec:isabelle-tool}).
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  \item[@{setting_def ISABELLE_DOCS}] is a colon separated list of
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  directories with documentation files.
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  \item[@{setting_def ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT}] specifies the preferred
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  document format, typically @{verbatim dvi} or @{verbatim pdf}.
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  \item[@{setting_def DVI_VIEWER}] specifies the command to be used
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  for displaying @{verbatim dvi} files.
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  \item[@{setting_def PDF_VIEWER}] specifies the command to be used
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  for displaying @{verbatim pdf} files.
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  \item[@{setting_def PRINT_COMMAND}] specifies the standard printer
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  spool command, which is expected to accept @{verbatim ps} files.
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  \item[@{setting_def ISABELLE_TMP_PREFIX}@{text "\<^sup>*"}] is the
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  prefix from which any running @{executable "isabelle-process"}
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  derives an individual directory for temporary files.  The default is
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  somewhere in @{verbatim "/tmp"}.
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  \end{description}
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*}
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subsection {* Additional components \label{sec:components} *}
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text {* Any directory may be registered as an explicit \emph{Isabelle
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  component}.  The general layout conventions are that of the main
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  Isabelle distribution itself, and the following two files (both
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  optional) have a special meaning:
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  \begin{itemize}
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  \item @{verbatim "etc/settings"} holds additional settings that are
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  initialized when bootstrapping the overall Isabelle environment,
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  cf.\ \secref{sec:boot}.  As usual, the content is interpreted as a
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  @{verbatim bash} script.  It may refer to the component's enclosing
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  directory via the @{verbatim "COMPONENT"} shell variable.
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  For example, the following setting allows to refer to files within
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  the component later on, without having to hardwire absolute paths:
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\begin{ttbox}
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MY_COMPONENT_HOME="$COMPONENT"
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\end{ttbox}
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  Components can also add to existing Isabelle settings such as
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  @{setting_def ISABELLE_TOOLS}, in order to provide
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  component-specific tools that can be invoked by end-users.  For
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  example:
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\begin{ttbox}
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ISABELLE_TOOLS="$ISABELLE_TOOLS:$COMPONENT/lib/Tools"
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\end{ttbox}
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  \item @{verbatim "etc/components"} holds a list of further
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  sub-components of the same structure.  The directory specifications
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  given here can be either absolute (with leading @{verbatim "/"}) or
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  relative to the component's main directory.
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  \end{itemize}
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  The root of component initialization is @{setting ISABELLE_HOME}
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  itself.  After initializing all of its sub-components recursively,
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  @{setting ISABELLE_HOME_USER} is included in the same manner (if
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  that directory exists).  This allows to install private components
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  via @{verbatim "$ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/components"}, although it is
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  often more convenient to do that programmatically via the
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  \verb,init_component, shell function in the \verb,etc/settings,
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  script of \verb,$ISABELLE_HOME_USER, (or any other component
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  directory).  For example:
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\begin{ttbox}
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init_component "$HOME/screwdriver-2.0"
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\end{ttbox}
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  This is tolerant wrt.\ missing component directories, but might
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  produce a warning.
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  \medskip More complex situations may be addressed by initializing
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  components listed in a given catalog file, relatively to some base
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  directory:
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\begin{ttbox}
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init_components "$HOME/my_component_store" "some_catalog_file"
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\end{ttbox}
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  The component directories listed in the catalog file are treated as
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  relative to the given base directory.
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  See also \secref{sec:tool-components} for some tool-support for
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  resolving components that are formally initialized but not installed
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  yet.
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*}
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wenzelm@32323
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section {* The raw Isabelle process *}
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text {*
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  The @{executable_def "isabelle-process"} executable runs bare-bones
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  Isabelle logic sessions --- either interactively or in batch mode.
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  It provides an abstraction over the underlying ML system, and over
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  the actual heap file locations.  Its usage is:
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\begin{ttbox}
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Usage: isabelle-process [OPTIONS] [INPUT] [OUTPUT]
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  Options are:
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    -I           startup Isar interaction mode
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    -P           startup Proof General interaction mode
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    -S           secure mode -- disallow critical operations
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    -T ADDR      startup process wrapper, with socket address
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    -W IN:OUT    startup process wrapper, with input/output fifos
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    -X           startup PGIP interaction mode
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    -e MLTEXT    pass MLTEXT to the ML session
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    -f           pass 'Session.finish();' to the ML session
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    -m MODE      add print mode for output
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    -q           non-interactive session
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    -r           open heap file read-only
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    -u           pass 'use"ROOT.ML";' to the ML session
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    -w           reset write permissions on OUTPUT
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  INPUT (default "\$ISABELLE_LOGIC") and OUTPUT specify in/out heaps.
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  These are either names to be searched in the Isabelle path, or
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  actual file names (containing at least one /).
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  If INPUT is "RAW_ML_SYSTEM", just start the bare bones ML system.
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\end{ttbox}
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  Input files without path specifications are looked up in the
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  @{setting ISABELLE_PATH} setting, which may consist of multiple
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  components separated by colons --- these are tried in the given
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  order with the value of @{setting ML_IDENTIFIER} appended
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  internally.  In a similar way, base names are relative to the
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  directory specified by @{setting ISABELLE_OUTPUT}.  In any case,
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  actual file locations may also be given by including at least one
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  slash (@{verbatim "/"}) in the name (hint: use @{verbatim "./"} to
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  refer to the current directory).
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*}
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subsubsection {* Options *}
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text {*
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  If the input heap file does not have write permission bits set, or
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  the @{verbatim "-r"} option is given explicitely, then the session
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  started will be read-only.  That is, the ML world cannot be
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  committed back into the image file.  Otherwise, a writable session
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  enables commits into either the input file, or into another output
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  heap file (if that is given as the second argument on the command
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  line).
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  The read-write state of sessions is determined at startup only, it
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  cannot be changed intermediately. Also note that heap images may
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  require considerable amounts of disk space (approximately
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  50--200~MB). Users are responsible for themselves to dispose their
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  heap files when they are no longer needed.
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  \medskip The @{verbatim "-w"} option makes the output heap file
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  read-only after terminating.  Thus subsequent invocations cause the
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  logic image to be read-only automatically.
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  \medskip Using the @{verbatim "-e"} option, arbitrary ML code may be
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  passed to the Isabelle session from the command line. Multiple
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  @{verbatim "-e"}'s are evaluated in the given order. Strange things
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  may happen when errorneous ML code is provided. Also make sure that
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  the ML commands are terminated properly by semicolon.
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   425
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  \medskip The @{verbatim "-u"} option is a shortcut for @{verbatim
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  "-e"} passing ``@{verbatim "use \"ROOT.ML\";"}'' to the ML session.
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  The @{verbatim "-f"} option passes ``@{verbatim
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  "Session.finish();"}'', which is intended mainly for administrative
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  purposes.
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   431
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  \medskip The @{verbatim "-m"} option adds identifiers of print modes
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  to be made active for this session. Typically, this is used by some
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  user interface, e.g.\ to enable output of proper mathematical
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  symbols.
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   436
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  \medskip Isabelle normally enters an interactive top-level loop
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  (after processing the @{verbatim "-e"} texts). The @{verbatim "-q"}
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  option inhibits interaction, thus providing a pure batch mode
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  facility.
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   441
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  \medskip The @{verbatim "-I"} option makes Isabelle enter Isar
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  interaction mode on startup, instead of the primitive ML top-level.
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  The @{verbatim "-P"} option configures the top-level loop for
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  interaction with the Proof General user interface, and the
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  @{verbatim "-X"} option enables XML-based PGIP communication.
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   447
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  \medskip The @{verbatim "-T"} or @{verbatim "-W"} option makes
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  Isabelle enter a special process wrapper for interaction via the
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  Isabelle/Scala layer, see also @{file
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  "~~/src/Pure/System/isabelle_process.scala"}.  The protocol between
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  the ML and JVM process is private to the implementation.
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   453
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   454
  \medskip The @{verbatim "-S"} option makes the Isabelle process more
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  secure by disabling some critical operations, notably runtime
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  compilation and evaluation of ML source code.
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   457
*}
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   459
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   460
subsubsection {* Examples *}
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   461
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   462
text {*
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   463
  Run an interactive session of the default object-logic (as specified
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   464
  by the @{setting ISABELLE_LOGIC} setting) like this:
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   465
\begin{ttbox}
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   466
isabelle-process
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\end{ttbox}
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   468
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   469
  Usually @{setting ISABELLE_LOGIC} refers to one of the standard
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  logic images, which are read-only by default.  A writable session
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  --- based on @{verbatim HOL}, but output to @{verbatim Test} (in the
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  directory specified by the @{setting ISABELLE_OUTPUT} setting) ---
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  may be invoked as follows:
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\begin{ttbox}
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   475
isabelle-process HOL Test
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   476
\end{ttbox}
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   477
  Ending this session normally (e.g.\ by typing control-D) dumps the
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   478
  whole ML system state into @{verbatim Test} (be prepared for more
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  than 100\,MB):
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   480
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   481
  The @{verbatim Test} session may be continued later (still in
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   482
  writable state) by:
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   483
\begin{ttbox}
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   484
isabelle-process Test
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   485
\end{ttbox}
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   486
  A read-only @{verbatim Test} session may be started by:
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   487
\begin{ttbox}
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   488
isabelle-process -r Test
wenzelm@28215
   489
\end{ttbox}
wenzelm@28215
   490
wenzelm@28215
   491
  \medskip Note that manual session management like this does
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   492
  \emph{not} provide proper setup for theory presentation.  This would
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   493
  require @{tool usedir}.
wenzelm@28215
   494
wenzelm@28238
   495
  \bigskip The next example demonstrates batch execution of Isabelle.
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   496
  We retrieve the @{verbatim Main} theory value from the theory loader
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   497
  within ML (observe the delicate quoting rules for the Bash shell
wenzelm@47823
   498
  vs.\ ML):
wenzelm@28215
   499
\begin{ttbox}
wenzelm@47823
   500
isabelle-process -e 'Thy_Info.get_theory "Main";' -q -r HOL
wenzelm@28215
   501
\end{ttbox}
wenzelm@28215
   502
  Note that the output text will be interspersed with additional junk
wenzelm@28238
   503
  messages by the ML runtime environment.  The @{verbatim "-W"} option
wenzelm@28238
   504
  allows to communicate with the Isabelle process via an external
wenzelm@28238
   505
  program in a more robust fashion.
wenzelm@28238
   506
*}
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   507
wenzelm@28238
   508
wenzelm@48813
   509
section {* The Isabelle tool wrapper \label{sec:isabelle-tool} *}
wenzelm@28238
   510
wenzelm@28238
   511
text {*
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   512
  All Isabelle related tools and interfaces are called via a common
wenzelm@28504
   513
  wrapper --- @{executable isabelle}:
wenzelm@28238
   514
wenzelm@28238
   515
\begin{ttbox}
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   516
Usage: isabelle TOOL [ARGS ...]
wenzelm@28238
   517
wenzelm@28506
   518
  Start Isabelle tool NAME with ARGS; pass "-?" for tool specific help.
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   519
wenzelm@48858
   520
Available tools:
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   521
  \dots
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   522
\end{ttbox}
wenzelm@28238
   523
wenzelm@28238
   524
  In principle, Isabelle tools are ordinary executable scripts that
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   525
  are run within the Isabelle settings environment, see
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   526
  \secref{sec:settings}.  The set of available tools is collected by
wenzelm@28504
   527
  @{executable isabelle} from the directories listed in the @{setting
wenzelm@28238
   528
  ISABELLE_TOOLS} setting.  Do not try to call the scripts directly
wenzelm@28238
   529
  from the shell.  Neither should you add the tool directories to your
wenzelm@28238
   530
  shell's search path!
wenzelm@28238
   531
*}
wenzelm@28238
   532
wenzelm@28238
   533
wenzelm@28238
   534
subsubsection {* Examples *}
wenzelm@28238
   535
wenzelm@48813
   536
text {* Show the list of available documentation of the Isabelle
wenzelm@48813
   537
  distribution:
wenzelm@28238
   538
wenzelm@28238
   539
\begin{ttbox}
wenzelm@28504
   540
  isabelle doc
wenzelm@28238
   541
\end{ttbox}
wenzelm@28238
   542
wenzelm@28238
   543
  View a certain document as follows:
wenzelm@28238
   544
\begin{ttbox}
wenzelm@47823
   545
  isabelle doc system
wenzelm@28238
   546
\end{ttbox}
wenzelm@28238
   547
wenzelm@48813
   548
  Query the Isabelle settings environment:
wenzelm@28238
   549
\begin{ttbox}
wenzelm@48813
   550
  isabelle getenv ISABELLE_HOME_USER
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   551
\end{ttbox}
wenzelm@28215
   552
*}
wenzelm@28215
   553
wenzelm@28223
   554
end