NEWS
author haftmann
Tue Jul 14 15:54:19 2009 +0200 (2009-07-14)
changeset 32064 53ca12ff305d
parent 31971 8c1b845ed105
child 32066 091f1e304120
permissions -rw-r--r--
refinement of lattice classes
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Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
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==============================================
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New in this Isabelle version
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----------------------------
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*** General ***
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* Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
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one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
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*** Pure ***
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* On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
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are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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*** HOL ***
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* Refinements to lattices classes:
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  - added boolean_algebra type class
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  - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
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    intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
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  - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with le_inf_iff
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  - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and sup_aci)
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  - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
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* Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
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div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
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div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
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generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
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zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
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zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
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INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicate
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constant compow with infix syntax "^^".  Power operations on
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multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
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in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
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generated by the code generator; see Predicate.thy for an example.
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* New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
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procedure only.
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* Implementation of quickcheck using generic code generator; default
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generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records and
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datatypes.
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* Constants Set.Pow and Set.image now with authentic syntax;
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object-logic definitions Set.Pow_def and Set.image_def.
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INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Renamed theorems:
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Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
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Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
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Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
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* New sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
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Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
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ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
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that fail later.
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* Discontinued ancient tradition to suffix certain ML module names
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with "_package", e.g.:
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    DatatypePackage ~> Datatype
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    InductivePackage ~> Inductive
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    etc.
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INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* NewNumberTheory: Jeremy Avigad's new version of part of
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NumberTheory.  If possible, use NewNumberTheory, not NumberTheory.
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* Simplified interfaces of datatype module.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Abbreviation "arbitrary" of "undefined" has disappeared; use
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"undefined" directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
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the same method as the approximation method.
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* Method "approximate" supports now arithmetic expressions as
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boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
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series expansion.
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* Changed DERIV_intros to a dynamic fact (via Named_Thms).  Each of
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the theorems in DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional
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function and matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be
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solved by the simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes
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the derivative of most elementary terms.
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* Maclauren.DERIV_tac and Maclauren.deriv_tac was removed, they are
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replaced by: (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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*** ML ***
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* Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
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functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
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separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
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cominators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
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Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
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*** System ***
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* Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
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* Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
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this is always enabled.
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New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
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--------------------------------
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*** General ***
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* Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
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case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
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  - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
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    "isatool."
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  - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
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    removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
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  - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
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    removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
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Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
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ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
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respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
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The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
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the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
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interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
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Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
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via "isabelle emacs".
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INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
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purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
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install -p ...", or use symlinks.
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* The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
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old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
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surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
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INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
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~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
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care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
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ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
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Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
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* Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
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multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
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a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
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large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
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* The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
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"system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
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as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
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*** Pure ***
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* Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
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respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
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Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
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- In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
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must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
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parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
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'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
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with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
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- Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
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locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
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useful in locale declarations.
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- More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
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expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
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expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
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optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
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depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
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commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
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'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
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implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
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no longer generated.
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- Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
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instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
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brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
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- When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
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'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
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if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
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worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
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in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
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- Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
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In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
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respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
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that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
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assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
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involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
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notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
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locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
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If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
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parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
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consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
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the parameters (context element "constrains").
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- Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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- Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
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INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
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methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
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- Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
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attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
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list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
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in HOL, write
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    class foo = ...
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instead of
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    class foo = type + ...
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* Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
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parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
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INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
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* Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
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Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
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makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
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* Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
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isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
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meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
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INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
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directly in regular applications.
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* There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
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fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
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* Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
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interface with 'setup' command instead.
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* Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
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theory context.
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* The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
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context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
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hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
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covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
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type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
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hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
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vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
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  lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
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The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
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SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
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normalization.
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* Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
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addressing etc.
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* Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
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  unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
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  unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
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* Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
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  a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
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     constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
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     parts of the code generator framework).
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  b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
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     attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
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     from definition, primrec, fun etc.
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* Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
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func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
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patterns, e.g.
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    find_consts "_ => bool"
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By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
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the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
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conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
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hyphen:
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    find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
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* New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
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directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
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* Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
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is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
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solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
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Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
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enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
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higher-order unification.
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*** Document preparation ***
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* Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
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demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
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syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
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*** HOL ***
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* Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
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points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
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* Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
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tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
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experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
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(and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
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Main, as before.
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* Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
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experimentation due to shorter build times.
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* Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
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were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
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remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
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new entry point Hypercomplex.
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* Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
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Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
wenzelm@30845
   358
process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
wenzelm@30845
   359
platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
wenzelm@30845
   360
within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
wenzelm@30845
   361
commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
wenzelm@30845
   362
wenzelm@30845
   363
* Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
wenzelm@30845
   364
sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
wenzelm@30845
   365
provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
wenzelm@30845
   366
src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
wenzelm@30845
   367
wenzelm@30845
   368
* ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
wenzelm@30845
   369
menu.
wenzelm@30845
   370
wenzelm@30845
   371
* The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
wenzelm@30845
   372
(contains the empty clause).
wenzelm@30845
   373
wenzelm@30845
   374
* The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
wenzelm@30845
   375
an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
wenzelm@30845
   376
wenzelm@30845
   377
* Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
wenzelm@30845
   378
src/Tools/coherent.ML).
wenzelm@30845
   379
wenzelm@30845
   380
* Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
wenzelm@30845
   381
"undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
wenzelm@30845
   382
logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
   383
wenzelm@30845
   384
* Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
wenzelm@30845
   385
result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
wenzelm@30845
   386
square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
wenzelm@30845
   387
specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
wenzelm@30845
   388
src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
wenzelm@30845
   389
wenzelm@30845
   390
* Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
wenzelm@30845
   391
Declare with attribute [code nbe].
wenzelm@30845
   392
wenzelm@30845
   393
* Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
wenzelm@30845
   394
as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
wenzelm@30845
   395
corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
wenzelm@30845
   396
are now presented as a list of individual projections
wenzelm@30845
   397
(e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
wenzelm@30845
   398
explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
wenzelm@30845
   399
rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
wenzelm@30845
   400
elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
wenzelm@30845
   401
rule: prod.exhaust) here.
wenzelm@30845
   402
wenzelm@30845
   403
* Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
wenzelm@30845
   404
wenzelm@30845
   405
* Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
wenzelm@30845
   406
wenzelm@30845
   407
* The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
wenzelm@30845
   408
option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
   409
wenzelm@30845
   410
* New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
wenzelm@30845
   411
orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
wenzelm@30845
   412
(in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
wenzelm@30845
   413
"strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
wenzelm@30845
   414
wenzelm@30845
   415
* Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
wenzelm@30845
   416
authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
haftmann@30304
   417
haftmann@30304
   418
    op Int ~>   Set.Int
haftmann@30304
   419
    op Un ~>    Set.Un
haftmann@30304
   420
    INTER ~>    Set.INTER
haftmann@30304
   421
    UNION ~>    Set.UNION
haftmann@30304
   422
    Inter ~>    Set.Inter
haftmann@30304
   423
    Union ~>    Set.Union
haftmann@30304
   424
    {} ~>       Set.empty
haftmann@30304
   425
    UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
haftmann@30304
   426
wenzelm@30845
   427
* Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
wenzelm@30845
   428
theory Set.
wenzelm@30845
   429
wenzelm@30845
   430
* Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
wenzelm@30845
   431
parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
haftmann@29797
   432
haftmann@29823
   433
* Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
haftmann@29823
   434
wenzelm@30845
   435
* Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
wenzelm@30845
   436
Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
wenzelm@30845
   437
wenzelm@30845
   438
* Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
wenzelm@30845
   439
method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
wenzelm@30845
   440
interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
wenzelm@30845
   441
functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
wenzelm@30845
   442
allowed. For examples see
wenzelm@30845
   443
src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
haftmann@29823
   444
haftmann@29823
   445
* Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
haftmann@29650
   446
wenzelm@30845
   447
* Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
wenzelm@30845
   448
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@29628
   449
haftmann@29197
   450
* Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
haftmann@29197
   451
structure:
haftmann@28952
   452
haftmann@28952
   453
    src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
haftmann@28952
   454
    src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   455
    src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   456
    src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   457
    src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   458
    src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
huffman@30176
   459
    src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
haftmann@28952
   460
    src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   461
    src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   462
    src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   463
    src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   464
    src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   465
    src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   466
    src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   467
    src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   468
    src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
huffman@30176
   469
    src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
huffman@30176
   470
    src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
haftmann@28952
   471
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   472
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   473
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   474
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   475
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   476
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   477
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   478
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   479
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@29197
   480
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   481
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   482
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   483
    src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
haftmann@29197
   484
    src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
haftmann@29197
   485
    src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   486
haftmann@28952
   487
    src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
haftmann@28952
   488
    src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
haftmann@28952
   489
    src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
haftmann@28952
   490
    src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
haftmann@28952
   491
    src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
haftmann@28952
   492
    src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
haftmann@28952
   493
    src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
haftmann@28952
   494
    src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
haftmann@28952
   495
    src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
haftmann@28952
   496
    src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
haftmann@28952
   497
haftmann@29398
   498
    src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
haftmann@29398
   499
    src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
haftmann@29398
   500
    src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
haftmann@29398
   501
    src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
haftmann@29398
   502
    src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
haftmann@29398
   503
    src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
haftmann@29398
   504
wenzelm@30845
   505
* If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
wenzelm@30845
   506
state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
wenzelm@30845
   507
possible), avoiding strange error messages.
wenzelm@30845
   508
wenzelm@30845
   509
* Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
wenzelm@30845
   510
modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
wenzelm@30845
   511
src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
wenzelm@30845
   512
wenzelm@30845
   513
* Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
wenzelm@30845
   514
variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
   515
wenzelm@30845
   516
* Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
wenzelm@30845
   517
fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
wenzelm@30845
   518
wenzelm@30845
   519
* New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
wenzelm@30845
   520
automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
wenzelm@30845
   521
proofs, e.g.
wenzelm@30845
   522
wenzelm@30845
   523
  assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
wenzelm@30845
   524
nipkow@30706
   525
Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
nipkow@30706
   526
wenzelm@30845
   527
* New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
wenzelm@30845
   528
"bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
wenzelm@30845
   529
requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
   530
wenzelm@30845
   531
* Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
wenzelm@30845
   532
instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
wenzelm@30845
   533
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
   534
wenzelm@30845
   535
* Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
wenzelm@30845
   536
induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
wenzelm@30845
   537
"wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
wenzelm@30845
   538
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
   539
wenzelm@30845
   540
* Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
wenzelm@27793
   541
INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
wenzelm@27793
   542
etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
wenzelm@27793
   543
preorder_class.*.
wenzelm@27793
   544
wenzelm@30845
   545
* Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
wenzelm@30845
   546
"diag" to "Id_on".
wenzelm@30845
   547
wenzelm@30845
   548
* Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
wenzelm@30845
   549
nipkow@28855
   550
  ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
wenzelm@30845
   551
wenzelm@30845
   552
Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
wenzelm@30845
   553
which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
wenzelm@30845
   554
fold_image.
wenzelm@30845
   555
wenzelm@30845
   556
* Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
wenzelm@30845
   557
and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
wenzelm@30845
   558
extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
wenzelm@30845
   559
the former will disappear at some point.
wenzelm@30845
   560
wenzelm@30845
   561
* Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
wenzelm@30845
   562
class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
wenzelm@30845
   563
have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
huffman@30273
   564
huffman@30273
   565
rat_power_0    -> power_0
huffman@30273
   566
rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
huffman@30273
   567
realpow_0      -> power_0
huffman@30273
   568
realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
huffman@30273
   569
complexpow_0   -> power_0
huffman@30273
   570
complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
huffman@30273
   571
power_poly_0   -> power_0
huffman@30273
   572
power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
huffman@30273
   573
wenzelm@30845
   574
* Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
wenzelm@27793
   575
moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
wenzelm@27793
   576
dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
wenzelm@27793
   577
of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
wenzelm@27793
   578
semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
wenzelm@27793
   579
renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
haftmann@27651
   580
haftmann@27651
   581
    dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
haftmann@27651
   582
    zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
haftmann@28559
   583
    dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
haftmann@27651
   584
    DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
haftmann@27651
   585
    DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
haftmann@27651
   586
    mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
haftmann@27651
   587
    mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
haftmann@27651
   588
wenzelm@30845
   589
* Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
wenzelm@30845
   590
generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
wenzelm@30845
   591
rename old lemmas as follows:
nipkow@30044
   592
nipkow@30044
   593
dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
nipkow@30044
   594
dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
nipkow@30224
   595
mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
nipkow@30224
   596
mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
nipkow@30224
   597
mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
nipkow@30224
   598
mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
nipkow@30044
   599
nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
nipkow@30044
   600
nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
nipkow@30044
   601
nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
nipkow@30044
   602
nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
nipkow@30044
   603
zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
nipkow@30044
   604
zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
nipkow@30181
   605
zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
nipkow@30044
   606
zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
nipkow@30044
   607
zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
nipkow@30044
   608
zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
nipkow@30044
   609
zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
nipkow@30085
   610
zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
nipkow@30044
   611
zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
nipkow@30044
   612
zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
nipkow@30044
   613
zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
nipkow@30044
   614
zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
nipkow@30224
   615
zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
nipkow@30044
   616
zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
nipkow@30044
   617
zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
nipkow@30044
   618
zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
nipkow@30044
   619
zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
nipkow@30044
   620
zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
nipkow@30044
   621
zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
nipkow@30044
   622
zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
nipkow@30044
   623
zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
nipkow@30044
   624
zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
nipkow@30044
   625
zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
nipkow@30044
   626
zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
nipkow@30044
   627
zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
nipkow@30044
   628
zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
nipkow@30044
   629
zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
nipkow@30044
   630
zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
nipkow@30044
   631
zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
nipkow@30044
   632
zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
nipkow@30044
   633
zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
nipkow@30044
   634
zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
nipkow@30044
   635
zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
nipkow@30044
   636
zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
nipkow@30044
   637
zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
nipkow@30044
   638
wenzelm@30845
   639
* Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
   640
wenzelm@30845
   641
* The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
wenzelm@30845
   642
into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
wenzelm@30845
   643
wenzelm@30845
   644
* Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
wenzelm@30845
   645
univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
wenzelm@30845
   646
the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
wenzelm@30845
   647
generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
wenzelm@30845
   648
wenzelm@30845
   649
* Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
wenzelm@30845
   650
inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
wenzelm@30845
   651
=> real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
wenzelm@30845
   652
theory RealVector.
wenzelm@30845
   653
wenzelm@30845
   654
* Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
wenzelm@30845
   655
type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
wenzelm@30845
   656
Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
wenzelm@30845
   657
and inner products are included.
wenzelm@30845
   658
wenzelm@30845
   659
* Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
wenzelm@30845
   660
addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
wenzelm@30845
   661
supported.
wenzelm@30845
   662
wenzelm@30845
   663
* Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
wenzelm@30845
   664
first diagonalization argument.
wenzelm@30845
   665
wenzelm@30845
   666
* Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
wenzelm@27599
   667
zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
wenzelm@30845
   668
the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
wenzelm@30845
   669
ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
wenzelm@30845
   670
may recover tupled syntax as follows:
haftmann@27556
   671
haftmann@27556
   672
    hide (open) const gcd
haftmann@27556
   673
    abbreviation gcd where
haftmann@27556
   674
      "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
haftmann@27556
   675
    notation (output)
haftmann@27556
   676
      GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
haftmann@27556
   677
wenzelm@30845
   678
The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
wenzelm@30845
   679
wenzelm@30845
   680
* Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
wenzelm@30845
   681
instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
wenzelm@30845
   682
theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
   683
wenzelm@30845
   684
* ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
haftmann@27651
   685
corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
haftmann@27651
   686
resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
haftmann@27651
   687
All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
haftmann@27651
   688
simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
wenzelm@30845
   689
instrumentalizing code generation.  See
wenzelm@30845
   690
src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
wenzelm@30845
   691
In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
wenzelm@30845
   692
code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
wenzelm@30845
   693
cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
wenzelm@30845
   694
set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
wenzelm@30845
   695
cases.
wenzelm@27122
   696
wenzelm@27122
   697
* Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
wenzelm@27122
   698
takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
wenzelm@27122
   699
represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
wenzelm@27122
   700
proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
wenzelm@27122
   701
have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
wenzelm@27122
   702
haftmann@27104
   703
    unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
haftmann@27104
   704
    prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
haftmann@27104
   705
    sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
haftmann@27104
   706
    Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
haftmann@27104
   707
    Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
haftmann@27104
   708
haftmann@27104
   709
ballarin@27696
   710
*** HOL-Algebra ***
ballarin@27696
   711
ballarin@27713
   712
* New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
wenzelm@30106
   713
is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
wenzelm@30106
   714
locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
ballarin@27713
   715
ballarin@27713
   716
* New theory of factorial domains.
ballarin@27713
   717
wenzelm@30845
   718
* Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
ballarin@27696
   719
INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
ballarin@27696
   720
and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
ballarin@27696
   721
wenzelm@30845
   722
* Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
wenzelm@30845
   723
ballarin@27696
   724
UpperD ~> Upper_memD
ballarin@27696
   725
LowerD ~> Lower_memD
ballarin@27696
   726
least_carrier ~> least_closed
ballarin@27696
   727
greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
ballarin@27696
   728
greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
ballarin@27717
   729
one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
ballarin@27717
   730
one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
ballarin@27696
   731
wenzelm@27793
   732
wenzelm@30849
   733
*** HOL-Nominal ***
wenzelm@30849
   734
wenzelm@30855
   735
* Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
wenzelm@30855
   736
wenzelm@30855
   737
* Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
wenzelm@30855
   738
theory targets.
wenzelm@30855
   739
wenzelm@30855
   740
* Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
wenzelm@30855
   741
specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
wenzelm@30855
   742
'inductive' etc.
wenzelm@30855
   743
wenzelm@30855
   744
* Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
wenzelm@30855
   745
(no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
wenzelm@30855
   746
wenzelm@30855
   747
* The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
wenzelm@30855
   748
left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
wenzelm@30855
   749
wenzelm@30855
   750
* Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
wenzelm@30855
   751
principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
wenzelm@30855
   752
'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
wenzelm@30855
   753
binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
wenzelm@30855
   754
atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
wenzelm@30855
   755
moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
wenzelm@30855
   756
the algorithm W:
wenzelm@30855
   757
wenzelm@30855
   758
 Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
wenzelm@30855
   759
 -----------------------------------------------------------------
wenzelm@30855
   760
         Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
wenzelm@30855
   761
wenzelm@30855
   762
In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
wenzelm@30855
   763
"close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
wenzelm@30855
   764
feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
wenzelm@30849
   765
wenzelm@30849
   766
huffman@30176
   767
*** HOLCF ***
huffman@30176
   768
huffman@30176
   769
* Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
huffman@30176
   770
subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
huffman@30176
   771
continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
huffman@30176
   772
huffman@30176
   773
* The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
huffman@30176
   774
solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
huffman@30176
   775
some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
huffman@30176
   776
old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
huffman@30176
   777
Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
huffman@30176
   778
wenzelm@30847
   779
* Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
wenzelm@30855
   780
format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
wenzelm@30855
   781
examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
   782
wenzelm@30845
   783
wenzelm@30845
   784
*** ZF ***
wenzelm@30845
   785
wenzelm@30845
   786
* Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
huffman@30176
   787
huffman@30176
   788
wenzelm@27246
   789
*** ML ***
wenzelm@28088
   790
wenzelm@30845
   791
* Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
wenzelm@30845
   792
Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
wenzelm@30845
   793
depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
wenzelm@30845
   794
5.2.1!
wenzelm@30845
   795
wenzelm@29161
   796
* High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
wenzelm@29161
   797
src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
wenzelm@29161
   798
particularly convenient to organize independent functional
wenzelm@29161
   799
computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
wenzelm@29161
   800
higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
wenzelm@30845
   801
delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
wenzelm@30845
   802
Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
wenzelm@30845
   803
wenzelm@30845
   804
* ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
wenzelm@30845
   805
context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
wenzelm@30845
   806
become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
wenzelm@30845
   807
top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
wenzelm@30845
   808
INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
wenzelm@30845
   809
compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
wenzelm@30845
   810
theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
wenzelm@30845
   811
wenzelm@30845
   812
* Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
wenzelm@30845
   813
context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
wenzelm@30845
   814
a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
wenzelm@30845
   815
ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
wenzelm@30845
   816
proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
wenzelm@29161
   817
wenzelm@30530
   818
* Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
wenzelm@30845
   819
and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
wenzelm@30547
   820
'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
wenzelm@30547
   821
existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
wenzelm@30547
   822
Method.add_method.
wenzelm@30530
   823
wenzelm@28294
   824
* Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
wenzelm@28294
   825
to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
wenzelm@28294
   826
name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
wenzelm@28294
   827
is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
wenzelm@28294
   828
accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
wenzelm@28294
   829
the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
wenzelm@28294
   830
wenzelm@30845
   831
* Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
wenzelm@30845
   832
ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
wenzelm@30845
   833
ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
wenzelm@30845
   834
antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
wenzelm@30845
   835
examples.
wenzelm@28099
   836
wenzelm@30395
   837
* More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
wenzelm@30395
   838
name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
wenzelm@30399
   839
move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
wenzelm@30395
   840
Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
wenzelm@30395
   841
abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
wenzelm@30845
   842
qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
wenzelm@30845
   843
tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
wenzelm@30845
   844
bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
wenzelm@30399
   845
bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
wenzelm@30395
   846
src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
wenzelm@30395
   847
wenzelm@28089
   848
* Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
wenzelm@28089
   849
LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
wenzelm@28089
   850
bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
wenzelm@28089
   851
wenzelm@27287
   852
* Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
wenzelm@27287
   853
Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
wenzelm@27287
   854
Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
wenzelm@27287
   855
use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
wenzelm@27269
   856
Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
wenzelm@27269
   857
resort for legacy applications.
wenzelm@27269
   858
wenzelm@30609
   859
* Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
wenzelm@30609
   860
the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
wenzelm@30609
   861
Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
wenzelm@30609
   862
embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
wenzelm@30609
   863
explicit runtime argument.
wenzelm@30609
   864
wenzelm@30845
   865
* Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
wenzelm@30845
   866
res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
wenzelm@30845
   867
context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
wenzelm@30845
   868
the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
wenzelm@30845
   869
thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
   870
wenzelm@30845
   871
* Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
wenzelm@30845
   872
transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
wenzelm@30845
   873
for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
wenzelm@30845
   874
theory state.
wenzelm@30845
   875
wenzelm@30845
   876
* ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
wenzelm@27391
   877
\<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
wenzelm@27391
   878
wenzelm@30845
   879
  @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
wenzelm@27519
   880
  @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
wenzelm@27519
   881
  @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
wenzelm@27519
   882
  @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
wenzelm@27519
   883
  @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
wenzelm@27519
   884
  @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
wenzelm@27519
   885
  @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
wenzelm@27519
   886
  @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
wenzelm@27519
   887
  @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
wenzelm@27519
   888
  @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
wenzelm@27380
   889
wenzelm@27246
   890
wenzelm@27979
   891
*** System ***
wenzelm@27979
   892
wenzelm@28248
   893
* The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
wenzelm@28248
   894
Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
wenzelm@28248
   895
installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
wenzelm@28248
   896
isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
wenzelm@28248
   897
installation location of the Proof General distribution.
wenzelm@28248
   898
wenzelm@27979
   899
* Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
wenzelm@27979
   900
the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
wenzelm@27979
   901
Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
wenzelm@27979
   902
process wrapper has been discontinued.)
wenzelm@27979
   903
wenzelm@30845
   904
* Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
wenzelm@30845
   905
wenzelm@30845
   906
* Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
wenzelm@27979
   907
emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
wenzelm@27979
   908
user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
wenzelm@27979
   909
prover operations.
wenzelm@27979
   910
wenzelm@27979
   911
wenzelm@27143
   912
wenzelm@27008
   913
New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
wenzelm@27008
   914
-------------------------------
wenzelm@25464
   915
wenzelm@25522
   916
*** General ***
wenzelm@25522
   917
wenzelm@27061
   918
* The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
wenzelm@27061
   919
and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
wenzelm@27061
   920
wenzelm@25994
   921
* Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
wenzelm@25994
   922
implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
wenzelm@25994
   923
conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
wenzelm@25994
   924
provides a proper context already.
wenzelm@25994
   925
wenzelm@26323
   926
* Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
wenzelm@26323
   927
file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
wenzelm@26323
   928
'use' within a theory file will do the job.
wenzelm@26323
   929
wenzelm@26650
   930
* Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
wenzelm@26650
   931
is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
wenzelm@26659
   932
space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
wenzelm@26650
   933
swap theory imports.
wenzelm@26650
   934
wenzelm@27067
   935
* Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
wenzelm@27067
   936
INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
wenzelm@27067
   937
wenzelm@27067
   938
* Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
wenzelm@27067
   939
which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
wenzelm@27067
   940
white space without escapes.
wenzelm@27067
   941
wenzelm@27067
   942
* Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
wenzelm@27067
   943
specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
wenzelm@27067
   944
"foo_bar".
wenzelm@27067
   945
wenzelm@25522
   946
haftmann@25502
   947
*** Pure ***
haftmann@25502
   948
wenzelm@26718
   949
* Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
wenzelm@26718
   950
fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
wenzelm@26718
   951
berghofe@26681
   952
* Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
berghofe@26681
   953
There are three ways of invoking it:
berghofe@26681
   954
berghofe@26681
   955
(1) unused_thms
berghofe@26681
   956
     Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
berghofe@26681
   957
berghofe@26681
   958
(2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
berghofe@26681
   959
     Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
berghofe@26681
   960
     excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
berghofe@26681
   961
berghofe@26681
   962
(3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
berghofe@26681
   963
     Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
berghofe@26681
   964
     their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
berghofe@26681
   965
     their ancestors.
berghofe@26681
   966
wenzelm@26718
   967
In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
wenzelm@26718
   968
unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
wenzelm@26874
   969
of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
wenzelm@26874
   970
to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
wenzelm@26718
   971
this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
wenzelm@26718
   972
reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
wenzelm@26718
   973
unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
wenzelm@26718
   974
wenzelm@26718
   975
Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
wenzelm@26718
   976
unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
wenzelm@26874
   977
usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
berghofe@26681
   978
wenzelm@26650
   979
* Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
wenzelm@26650
   980
theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
wenzelm@26650
   981
duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
wenzelm@26650
   982
that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
wenzelm@26650
   983
PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
wenzelm@26650
   984
wenzelm@26660
   985
* Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
wenzelm@26660
   986
wenzelm@26496
   987
* Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
wenzelm@26496
   988
clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
wenzelm@26496
   989
update of theories within ML code.
wenzelm@26479
   990
wenzelm@26955
   991
* Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
wenzelm@26955
   992
INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
wenzelm@26955
   993
additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
wenzelm@26955
   994
depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
wenzelm@26650
   995
wenzelm@26495
   996
* Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
wenzelm@26479
   997
theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
wenzelm@26479
   998
instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
wenzelm@26479
   999
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@26479
  1000
wenzelm@26874
  1001
* Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
wenzelm@26434
  1002
wenzelm@25970
  1003
* Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
wenzelm@25970
  1004
instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
wenzelm@25970
  1005
Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
wenzelm@27067
  1006
See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
wenzelm@27067
  1007
src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
haftmann@25502
  1008
wenzelm@26201
  1009
* Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
wenzelm@26201
  1010
facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
wenzelm@26201
  1011
background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
wenzelm@26201
  1012
"fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
wenzelm@26201
  1013
situations.
wenzelm@26201
  1014
wenzelm@26925
  1015
* Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
wenzelm@26925
  1016
"(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
wenzelm@26925
  1017
proof text.
wenzelm@26925
  1018
wenzelm@26925
  1019
* Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
wenzelm@26925
  1020
INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
wenzelm@26925
  1021
wenzelm@26874
  1022
* Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
wenzelm@26874
  1023
hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
wenzelm@26874
  1024
predicates.
ballarin@26765
  1025
ballarin@26765
  1026
haftmann@26762
  1027
*** Document preparation ***
haftmann@26762
  1028
wenzelm@26914
  1029
* Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
wenzelm@26914
  1030
both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
wenzelm@26914
  1031
obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
wenzelm@26914
  1032
spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
wenzelm@26920
  1033
value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
wenzelm@26920
  1034
"a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
wenzelm@26914
  1035
wenzelm@27008
  1036
* Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
wenzelm@27008
  1037
method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
wenzelm@27008
  1038
arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
haftmann@26762
  1039
haftmann@26762
  1040
wenzelm@25464
  1041
*** HOL ***
wenzelm@25464
  1042
wenzelm@27067
  1043
* New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
wenzelm@27067
  1044
definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
wenzelm@27067
  1045
"primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
wenzelm@27067
  1046
by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
wenzelm@27067
  1047
When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
wenzelm@27067
  1048
primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
wenzelm@27067
  1049
wenzelm@27067
  1050
* Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
wenzelm@27067
  1051
with multithreading.
wenzelm@27067
  1052
wenzelm@27067
  1053
* Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
wenzelm@27067
  1054
theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
wenzelm@27067
  1055
exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
wenzelm@27067
  1056
wenzelm@27067
  1057
* Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
wenzelm@27067
  1058
enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
wenzelm@27067
  1059
reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
wenzelm@27067
  1060
sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@27067
  1061
haftmann@27104
  1062
* Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
wenzelm@27067
  1063
from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
wenzelm@27067
  1064
out some operations that are done internally by the function package
wenzelm@27067
  1065
and makes them available separately.  See
wenzelm@27067
  1066
src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
wenzelm@27067
  1067
wenzelm@27067
  1068
* More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
wenzelm@27067
  1069
proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
wenzelm@27067
  1070
form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
wenzelm@27067
  1071
The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
wenzelm@27067
  1072
just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
wenzelm@27067
  1073
termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
wenzelm@27067
  1074
type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
wenzelm@27067
  1075
the declared rules.
wenzelm@27067
  1076
wenzelm@27067
  1077
This setup also deals with rules like 
wenzelm@27067
  1078
wenzelm@27067
  1079
  "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
wenzelm@27067
  1080
wenzelm@27067
  1081
which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
wenzelm@27067
  1082
Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
wenzelm@27067
  1083
berghofe@26964
  1084
* Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
berghofe@26964
  1085
berghofe@26964
  1086
  INCOMPATIBILITIES:
berghofe@26964
  1087
wenzelm@27008
  1088
  - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
wenzelm@27008
  1089
    definitions on => and bool.
berghofe@26964
  1090
berghofe@26964
  1091
  - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
wenzelm@27008
  1092
    using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
wenzelm@27008
  1093
    the following theorems have been renamed:
berghofe@26964
  1094
berghofe@26964
  1095
      subset_def   -> subset_eq
berghofe@26964
  1096
      psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
berghofe@26964
  1097
      set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
berghofe@26964
  1098
      Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
berghofe@26964
  1099
      Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
berghofe@26964
  1100
      Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
berghofe@26964
  1101
      sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
berghofe@26964
  1102
      inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
berghofe@26964
  1103
berghofe@26964
  1104
  - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
berghofe@26964
  1105
    rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
berghofe@26964
  1106
    the unknowns in the rule is a set.
berghofe@26964
  1107
berghofe@26964
  1108
  - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
berghofe@26964
  1109
    The proof pattern
berghofe@26964
  1110
berghofe@26964
  1111
      have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
berghofe@26964
  1112
      then have "EX S. P S" ..
berghofe@26964
  1113
wenzelm@27008
  1114
    no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
wenzelm@27008
  1115
    algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
berghofe@26964
  1116
berghofe@26964
  1117
      have "EX S. P S"
berghofe@26964
  1118
      proof
berghofe@26964
  1119
        show "P S" <...>
berghofe@26964
  1120
      qed
berghofe@26964
  1121
berghofe@26964
  1122
  - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
berghofe@26964
  1123
    The proof pattern
berghofe@26964
  1124
berghofe@26964
  1125
      have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
berghofe@26964
  1126
      also have "S = T" <...>
berghofe@26964
  1127
      finally have "P T" .
berghofe@26964
  1128
wenzelm@27008
  1129
    no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
wenzelm@27008
  1130
    must be replaced by something like
berghofe@26964
  1131
berghofe@26964
  1132
      have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
berghofe@26964
  1133
      moreover have "S = T" <...>
berghofe@26964
  1134
      ultimately have "P T" by simp
berghofe@26964
  1135
berghofe@26964
  1136
  - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
berghofe@26964
  1137
    Code performing pattern matching on types via
berghofe@26964
  1138
berghofe@26964
  1139
      Type ("set", [T]) => ...
berghofe@26964
  1140
wenzelm@27008
  1141
    must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
wenzelm@27008
  1142
    binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
wenzelm@27008
  1143
    type of the form
berghofe@26964
  1144
berghofe@26964
  1145
      T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
berghofe@26964
  1146
berghofe@26964
  1147
    rather than
berghofe@26964
  1148
berghofe@26964
  1149
      T1 => ... => Tn => U set
berghofe@26964
  1150
wenzelm@26874
  1151
* Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
wenzelm@27067
  1152
Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
krauss@26748
  1153
haftmann@26513
  1154
* Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@26513
  1155
wenzelm@26874
  1156
* Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
wenzelm@26874
  1157
enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
haftmann@26445
  1158
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@26445
  1159
wenzelm@26874
  1160
* Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
wenzelm@26874
  1161
and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@26874
  1162
wenzelm@26422
  1163
* HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
wenzelm@26422
  1164
Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@26422
  1165
wenzelm@26874
  1166
* Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
wenzelm@26874
  1167
injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
wenzelm@26874
  1168
Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@26355
  1169
wenzelm@26335
  1170
* Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
wenzelm@26335
  1171
the same name in theory Orderings:
wenzelm@26335
  1172
wenzelm@26335
  1173
  less_trans
wenzelm@26335
  1174
  less_linear
wenzelm@26335
  1175
  le_imp_less_or_eq
wenzelm@26335
  1176
  le_less_trans
wenzelm@26335
  1177
  less_le_trans
wenzelm@26335
  1178
  less_not_sym
wenzelm@26335
  1179
  less_asym
wenzelm@26335
  1180
wenzelm@26335
  1181
Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
wenzelm@26335
  1182
less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
wenzelm@26335
  1183
and different variable names.
wenzelm@26315
  1184
haftmann@26231
  1185
* Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
haftmann@26231
  1186
wenzelm@27008
  1187
* Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
wenzelm@27008
  1188
finite maps.
krauss@26197
  1189
haftmann@26231
  1190
* Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
haftmann@26231
  1191
wenzelm@26180
  1192
* Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
wenzelm@26180
  1193
operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
wenzelm@26180
  1194
disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
wenzelm@26180
  1195
place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
wenzelm@26180
  1196
involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
wenzelm@26180
  1197
accordingly.
wenzelm@26180
  1198
wenzelm@26180
  1199
* Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
wenzelm@26180
  1200
depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
wenzelm@26180
  1201
le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
wenzelm@26180
  1202
[symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
wenzelm@26180
  1203
wenzelm@26180
  1204
* Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
wenzelm@26180
  1205
(whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
wenzelm@26874
  1206
abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
wenzelm@26180
  1207
ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
wenzelm@26180
  1208
lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
haftmann@26139
  1209
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@26041
  1210
wenzelm@26180
  1211
* Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
wenzelm@26180
  1212
case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@26180
  1213
wenzelm@26180
  1214
* Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
wenzelm@26180
  1215
lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
wenzelm@26180
  1216
Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
haftmann@26013
  1217
wenzelm@26874
  1218
* Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
wenzelm@27067
  1219
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@25961
  1220
wenzelm@26180
  1221
* Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
haftmann@25942
  1222
with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
haftmann@25942
  1223
wenzelm@26180
  1224
* Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
wenzelm@26180
  1225
Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@26180
  1226
wenzelm@26180
  1227
* Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
wenzelm@26180
  1228
numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@26180
  1229
wenzelm@26180
  1230
* New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
wenzelm@26180
  1231
"minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
haftmann@25919
  1232
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@25919
  1233
wenzelm@25522
  1234
* Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
haftmann@25919
  1235
syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@25522
  1236
wenzelm@25522
  1237
* Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
wenzelm@25522
  1238
le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
wenzelm@25522
  1239
sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
wenzelm@25522
  1240
Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
wenzelm@25522
  1241
Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
haftmann@25919
  1242
equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@25464
  1243
schirmer@25705
  1244
* Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
wenzelm@25726
  1245
%x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
schirmer@25705
  1246
INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
wenzelm@25464
  1247
wenzelm@27067
  1248
* Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
wenzelm@27067
  1249
wenzelm@27067
  1250
* Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
wenzelm@27067
  1251
wenzelm@27067
  1252
* Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
wenzelm@27067
  1253
pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
wenzelm@27067
  1254
well-orders on sets and on types.
krauss@26877
  1255
wenzelm@25726
  1256
krauss@26197
  1257
*** ZF ***
krauss@26197
  1258
wenzelm@26874
  1259
* Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
wenzelm@26874
  1260
same session:
wenzelm@26874
  1261
wenzelm@26874
  1262
  Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
wenzelm@26874
  1263
  Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
wenzelm@26874
  1264
  Int       -> Int_ZF
wenzelm@26874
  1265
  IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
wenzelm@26874
  1266
  Nat       -> Nat_ZF
wenzelm@26874
  1267
  List      -> List_ZF
wenzelm@26874
  1268
  Main      -> Main_ZF
wenzelm@26874
  1269
wenzelm@26874
  1270
INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
wenzelm@26874
  1271
Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
wenzelm@26874
  1272
available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
krauss@26197
  1273
krauss@26197
  1274
wenzelm@25737
  1275
*** ML ***
wenzelm@25737
  1276
wenzelm@27067
  1277
* ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
wenzelm@27067
  1278
name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
wenzelm@27067
  1279
wenzelm@26401
  1280
* Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
wenzelm@26724
  1281
(of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
wenzelm@26401
  1282
wenzelm@27067
  1283
* Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
wenzelm@26188
  1284
wenzelm@25737
  1285
* The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
wenzelm@25737
  1286
template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
wenzelm@25737
  1287
non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
wenzelm@25737
  1288
management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
wenzelm@25737
  1289
print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@25737
  1290
wenzelm@26874
  1291
* Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
wenzelm@29161
  1292
shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
wenzelm@29161
  1293
5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
wenzelm@26222
  1294
wenzelm@25737
  1295
wenzelm@25626
  1296
*** System ***
wenzelm@25626
  1297
wenzelm@25971
  1298
* Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
wenzelm@25971
  1299
in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
wenzelm@25970
  1300
wenzelm@25626
  1301
* isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
wenzelm@25626
  1302
optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
wenzelm@25626
  1303
setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
wenzelm@25626
  1304
wenzelm@25651
  1305
* isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
wenzelm@25651
  1306
"javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
wenzelm@25651
  1307
wenzelm@27067
  1308
* YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
wenzelm@27067
  1309
standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
wenzelm@27067
  1310
isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
wenzelm@25651
  1311
wenzelm@25652
  1312
* JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
wenzelm@25651
  1313
provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
wenzelm@25651
  1314
fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
wenzelm@25651
  1315
wenzelm@25855
  1316
* Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
wenzelm@25855
  1317
based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
wenzelm@25855
  1318
wenzelm@27067
  1319
* Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
wenzelm@27067
  1320
way of changing the user's settings is via
wenzelm@27067
  1321
ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
wenzelm@27067
  1322
script.
wenzelm@27067
  1323
wenzelm@27067
  1324
* Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
wenzelm@27067
  1325
cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
wenzelm@27067
  1326
optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
wenzelm@27067
  1327
"max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
wenzelm@27067
  1328
of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
wenzelm@27067
  1329
wenzelm@27067
  1330
* isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
wenzelm@27067
  1331
adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
wenzelm@27067
  1332
ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
wenzelm@27067
  1333
wenzelm@25626
  1334
wenzelm@25464
  1335
wenzelm@25429
  1336
New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
wenzelm@25429
  1337
-----------------------------------
wenzelm@17754
  1338
wenzelm@17754
  1339
*** General ***
wenzelm@17754
  1340
wenzelm@22826
  1341
* More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
wenzelm@22826
  1342
warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
wenzelm@23367
  1343
tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
wenzelm@23367
  1344
legacy features will disappear eventually.
wenzelm@22826
  1345
wenzelm@17918
  1346
* Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
wenzelm@17918
  1347
discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
wenzelm@17918
  1348
fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@17918
  1349
wenzelm@17918
  1350
* Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
wenzelm@17918
  1351
discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
wenzelm@17918
  1352
with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
wenzelm@17918
  1353
function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@17918
  1354
wenzelm@22871
  1355
* Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
wenzelm@22871
  1356
'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
wenzelm@22871
  1357
quotes.
wenzelm@19814
  1358
wenzelm@23888
  1359
* Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
wenzelm@23888
  1360
header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
wenzelm@24172
  1361
accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
wenzelm@24172
  1362
update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
wenzelm@24172
  1363
use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
wenzelm@24172
  1364
theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
wenzelm@24172
  1365
specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
wenzelm@24172
  1366
INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
wenzelm@24172
  1367
ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
wenzelm@23888
  1368
wenzelm@23888
  1369
* Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
wenzelm@23888
  1370
identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
wenzelm@23889
  1371
path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
wenzelm@23888
  1372
(cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
wenzelm@23888
  1373
non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
wenzelm@23888
  1374
files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
wenzelm@23888
  1375
wenzelm@24187
  1376
* Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
wenzelm@24187
  1377
file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
wenzelm@24800
  1378
feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
wenzelm@24800
  1379
no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
wenzelm@24800
  1380
wenzelm@24800
  1381
* Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
wenzelm@24800
  1382
now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
wenzelm@24234
  1383
specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
wenzelm@24234
  1384
syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
wenzelm@24234
  1385
type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
wenzelm@24234
  1386
'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
wenzelm@24234
  1387
wenzelm@25034
  1388
* Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
wenzelm@25034
  1389
'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
wenzelm@25034
  1390
``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
wenzelm@25034
  1391
really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
wenzelm@25034
  1392
ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
wenzelm@25034
  1393
trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
wenzelm@25034
  1394
translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
wenzelm@25034
  1395
@{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
wenzelm@25034
  1396
wenzelm@17981
  1397
* Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
wenzelm@17981
  1398
to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
wenzelm@17981
  1399
functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
wenzelm@17981
  1400
by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
wenzelm@17981
  1401
Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
wenzelm@17981
  1402
these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
wenzelm@17981
  1403
used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
wenzelm@17918
  1404
wenzelm@23379
  1405
* Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
wenzelm@23379
  1406
criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
wenzelm@23379
  1407
support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
webertj@22965
  1408
wenzelm@20370
  1409
* The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
wenzelm@20370
  1410
by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
wenzelm@20370
  1411
suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
wenzelm@20370
  1412
settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
wenzelm@20370
  1413
older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
wenzelm@20370
  1414
limit is imposed.
wenzelm@20370
  1415
wenzelm@21308
  1416
* Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
wenzelm@21308
  1417
``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
wenzelm@21308
  1418
contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
wenzelm@21308
  1419
that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
wenzelm@21308
  1420
generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
wenzelm@21308
  1421
and scalability.
wenzelm@21308
  1422
wenzelm@21960
  1423
* Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
wenzelm@21960
  1424
discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
wenzelm@21960
  1425
wenzelm@17754
  1426
wenzelm@17865
  1427
*** Document preparation ***
wenzelm@17865
  1428
wenzelm@21717
  1429
* Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
wenzelm@21717
  1430
after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
wenzelm@21717
  1431
current context.
haftmann@21339
  1432
wenzelm@17869
  1433
* Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
wenzelm@17869
  1434
check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
wenzelm@17865
  1435
wenzelm@21717
  1436
* Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
wenzelm@21717
  1437
"c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
wenzelm@21735
  1438
arguments may be given on the LHS.)
wenzelm@21717
  1439
wenzelm@21717
  1440
wenzelm@17779
  1441
*** Pure ***
wenzelm@17779
  1442
wenzelm@24800
  1443
* The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
wenzelm@25129
  1444
achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
wenzelm@25129
  1445
theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
wenzelm@25129
  1446
implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
wenzelm@25129
  1447
constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
wenzelm@25129
  1448
context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
wenzelm@25129
  1449
syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
wenzelm@25129
  1450
between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
wenzelm@25177
  1451
See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
haftmann@25184
  1452
"isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
wenzelm@20807
  1453
haftmann@25199
  1454
* Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
wenzelm@24800
  1455
code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
wenzelm@24800
  1456
sketch:
haftmann@20188
  1457
haftmann@20188
  1458
    internal compilation:
haftmann@25199
  1459
        export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
haftmann@20453
  1460
    writing SML code to a file:
haftmann@25199
  1461
        export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
haftmann@22735
  1462
    writing OCaml code to a file:
haftmann@25199
  1463
        export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
haftmann@20188
  1464
    writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
haftmann@25199
  1465
        export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
haftmann@25199
  1466
haftmann@25199
  1467
    evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
haftmann@25184
  1468
        method ``eval''
haftmann@25184
  1469
haftmann@25184
  1470
Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
haftmann@20453
  1471
haftmann@20453
  1472
Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
haftmann@20453
  1473
haftmann@22845
  1474
    [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
haftmann@22845
  1475
    [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
haftmann@22845
  1476
    [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
haftmann@22845
  1477
    [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
haftmann@20453
  1478
haftmann@22735
  1479
User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
haftmann@20453
  1480
haftmann@20453
  1481
    code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
haftmann@20453
  1482
      {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
haftmann@20453
  1483
haftmann@20453
  1484
    code_type <and-list of type constructors>
haftmann@20453
  1485
      {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
haftmann@20453
  1486
haftmann@20453
  1487
    code_instance <and-list of instances>
haftmann@20453
  1488
      {(target)}+
haftmann@20453
  1489
        where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
haftmann@20453
  1490
haftmann@20453
  1491
    code_class <and_list of classes>
haftmann@20453
  1492
      {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
haftmann@20453
  1493
        where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
haftmann@20453
  1494
haftmann@25199
  1495
code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
haftmann@22735
  1496
wenzelm@25177
  1497
For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
wenzelm@25177
  1498
src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
wenzelm@24800
  1499
generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
wenzelm@24800
  1500
codegen".
haftmann@20188
  1501
wenzelm@25129
  1502
* Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
wenzelm@25129
  1503
referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
wenzelm@25129
  1504
annotations).
wenzelm@25129
  1505
wenzelm@19254
  1506
* Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
wenzelm@19254
  1507
syntax.
wenzelm@19254
  1508
wenzelm@19625
  1509
* Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
wenzelm@19714
  1510
dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
wenzelm@19714
  1511
that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
wenzelm@19714
  1512
correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
wenzelm@19714
  1513
INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
wenzelm@19714
  1514
exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
wenzelm@19711
  1515
wenzelm@19711
  1516
Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
wenzelm@19711
  1517
instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
wenzelm@19711
  1518
declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
wenzelm@19711
  1519
c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
wenzelm@19711
  1520
as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
wenzelm@19711
  1521
recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
wenzelm@19714
  1522
impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
wenzelm@19715
  1523
LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
wenzelm@19714
  1524
Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
wenzelm@19714
  1525
equations, see section "definitions".
wenzelm@19625
  1526
wenzelm@24086
  1527
* Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
wenzelm@24086
  1528
context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
wenzelm@24086
  1529
interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
wenzelm@24110
  1530
declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
wenzelm@24110
  1531
these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
wenzelm@24110
  1532
associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
wenzelm@24110
  1533
declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
wenzelm@24110
  1534
'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
wenzelm@24110
  1535
very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
wenzelm@24110
  1536
toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
wenzelm@24086
  1537
wenzelm@24172
  1538
Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
wenzelm@24172
  1539
configuration options:
wenzelm@24172
  1540
wenzelm@24172
  1541
  Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
wenzelm@24172
  1542
  Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
wenzelm@24172
  1543
  Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
wenzelm@24172
  1544
  Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
wenzelm@24172
  1545
  Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
wenzelm@24172
  1546
  Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
wenzelm@24172
  1547
  DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
wenzelm@24172
  1548
  fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
wenzelm@24172
  1549
  fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
wenzelm@24172
  1550
wenzelm@24086
  1551
* Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
wenzelm@24800
  1552
data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
wenzelm@24086
  1553
src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
wenzelm@24110
  1554
attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
wenzelm@24110
  1555
just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
wenzelm@24110
  1556
for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
wenzelm@24110
  1557
order.
wenzelm@24086
  1558
wenzelm@24032
  1559
* Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
wenzelm@24032
  1560
declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
wenzelm@24032
  1561
being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
wenzelm@24032
  1562
difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
wenzelm@24032
  1563
context encountered later on.
wenzelm@24032
  1564
wenzelm@24032
  1565
* Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
wenzelm@24032
  1566
'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
wenzelm@24032
  1567
text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
wenzelm@24032
  1568
context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
wenzelm@24032
  1569
wenzelm@24032
  1570
* Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
wenzelm@24032
  1571
abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
wenzelm@24032
  1572
which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
wenzelm@24032
  1573
the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
wenzelm@24032
  1574
declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
wenzelm@24032
  1575
'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
wenzelm@24032
  1576
wenzelm@23369
  1577
* Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
wenzelm@23369
  1578
takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
wenzelm@23369
  1579
an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
wenzelm@23369
  1580
assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
wenzelm@23369
  1581
goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
wenzelm@23369
  1582
without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
wenzelm@23369
  1583
Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
wenzelm@23369
  1584
more permissive.
wenzelm@23369
  1585
wenzelm@23369
  1586
* Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
wenzelm@23369
  1587
considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
wenzelm@23369
  1588
may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
wenzelm@23369
  1589
referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
wenzelm@23369
  1590
maintainability of proof texts.
wenzelm@23369
  1591
wenzelm@17865
  1592
* Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
wenzelm@17865
  1593
the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
wenzelm@17865
  1594
wenzelm@17865
  1595
  assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
wenzelm@17865
  1596
  then guess x and y by clarify
wenzelm@17865
  1597
wenzelm@17865
  1598
This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
wenzelm@17865
  1599
proof tools being involved here.
wenzelm@17865
  1600
wenzelm@18020
  1601
* Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
wenzelm@18020
  1602
propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
wenzelm@18020
  1603
named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
wenzelm@18020
  1604
methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
wenzelm@18020
  1605
according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
wenzelm@18020
  1606
provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
wenzelm@18020
  1607
theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
wenzelm@18020
  1608
`A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
wenzelm@18020
  1609
wenzelm@18020
  1610
There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
wenzelm@18044
  1611
for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
wenzelm@18044
  1612
certain special cases of literal facts:
wenzelm@18020
  1613
wenzelm@18020
  1614
  have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
wenzelm@18020
  1615
  have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
wenzelm@18020
  1616
  have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
wenzelm@18020
  1617
  have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
wenzelm@18020
  1618
wenzelm@20118
  1619
* Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
wenzelm@20118
  1620
outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
wenzelm@20118
  1621
additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
wenzelm@20118
  1622
wenzelm@20013
  1623
* Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
wenzelm@20013
  1624
both named and unnamed ones.
wenzelm@20013
  1625
wenzelm@18308
  1626
* Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
wenzelm@18308
  1627
wenzelm@18308
  1628
  def x == "t" and y == "u"
wenzelm@18308
  1629
wenzelm@18540
  1630
* Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
wenzelm@18540
  1631
'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
wenzelm@18815
  1632
rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
wenzelm@18540
  1633
'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
wenzelm@18540
  1634
wenzelm@18815
  1635
* Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
wenzelm@18815
  1636
and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
wenzelm@18815
  1637
(potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
wenzelm@18815
  1638
analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
wenzelm@18815
  1639
Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
wenzelm@18815
  1640
kleing@24238
  1641
* Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
kleing@24238
  1642
premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
kleing@24238
  1643
wenzelm@19220
  1644
* Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
wenzelm@19220
  1645
method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
wenzelm@19240
  1646
sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
wenzelm@19240
  1647
simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
wenzelm@19240
  1648
simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
wenzelm@19240
  1649
originally first one.
wenzelm@19220
  1650
wenzelm@19814
  1651
* Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
wenzelm@19814
  1652
patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
wenzelm@19814
  1653
expected.
wenzelm@19814
  1654
wenzelm@18901
  1655
* Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
wenzelm@18901
  1656
'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
wenzelm@18901
  1657
(essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
wenzelm@18901
  1658
assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
wenzelm@18910
  1659
adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
wenzelm@18901
  1660
wenzelm@18901
  1661
  lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
wenzelm@18901
  1662
    assumes "EX x. P x"
wenzelm@18901
  1663
    obtains x where "P x"
wenzelm@18901
  1664
wenzelm@18901
  1665
  lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
wenzelm@18901
  1666
    assumes "A & B"
wenzelm@18901
  1667
    obtains A and B
wenzelm@18901
  1668
wenzelm@18901
  1669
  lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
wenzelm@18901
  1670
    assumes "A | B"
wenzelm@18901
  1671
    obtains
wenzelm@18901
  1672
      A
wenzelm@18901
  1673
    | B
wenzelm@18901
  1674
wenzelm@18910
  1675
The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
wenzelm@18901
  1676
explicitly:
wenzelm@18901
  1677
wenzelm@18901
  1678
  lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
wenzelm@18901
  1679
    obtains "~ thesis"
wenzelm@18901
  1680
wenzelm@18910
  1681
  lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
wenzelm@18910
  1682
    obtains "thesis ==> something"
wenzelm@18901
  1683
wenzelm@18901
  1684
The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
wenzelm@18910
  1685
Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
wenzelm@18910
  1686
Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
wenzelm@18910
  1687
available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
wenzelm@18910
  1688
resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
wenzelm@18910
  1689
case_names).
wenzelm@18901
  1690
wenzelm@21447
  1691
* Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
wenzelm@21447
  1692
"assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
wenzelm@21447
  1693
(historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
wenzelm@21447
  1694
context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
wenzelm@21447
  1695
wenzelm@19263
  1696
* Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
wenzelm@19263
  1697
proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
wenzelm@19263
  1698
top-level lemma.
wenzelm@19263
  1699
wenzelm@18901
  1700
* Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
wenzelm@18901
  1701
introduction rule (default "that").
wenzelm@18901
  1702
wenzelm@19587
  1703
* Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
wenzelm@19587
  1704
explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
wenzelm@19587
  1705
to occur.
wenzelm@19587
  1706
wenzelm@19682
  1707
* Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
wenzelm@19682
  1708
according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
wenzelm@19682
  1709
syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
wenzelm@19682
  1710
representations independently of name spaces.
wenzelm@19682
  1711
wenzelm@21537
  1712
* Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
wenzelm@21537
  1713
instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
wenzelm@21537
  1714
in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@21537
  1715
wenzelm@21209
  1716
* Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
wenzelm@21209
  1717
primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
wenzelm@24950
  1718
fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
wenzelm@24950
  1719
of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
wenzelm@24950
  1720
'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
wenzelm@24950
  1721
current context.
wenzelm@19682
  1722
wenzelm@19665
  1723
* Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
wenzelm@19665
  1724
'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
wenzelm@19083
  1725
object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
wenzelm@19083
  1726
isar-ref manual.  Examples:
wenzelm@19081
  1727
wenzelm@19665
  1728
  axiomatization
wenzelm@21595
  1729
    eq  (infix "===" 50) where
wenzelm@21595
  1730
    eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
wenzelm@21595
  1731
wenzelm@21595
  1732
  definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
wenzelm@21595
  1733
  definition g where "g x = f x x"
wenzelm@19081
  1734
wenzelm@19363
  1735
  abbreviation
wenzelm@21595
  1736
    neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
wenzelm@19363
  1737
    "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
wenzelm@19081
  1738
wenzelm@19083
  1739
These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
wenzelm@19083
  1740
constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
wenzelm@19083
  1741
constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
wenzelm@19083
  1742
abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
wenzelm@19088
  1743
parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
wenzelm@25177
  1744
src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
wenzelm@19083
  1745
entities from a monomorphic theory.
wenzelm@19083
  1746
wenzelm@19083
  1747
Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
wenzelm@19363
  1748
not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
wenzelm@19363
  1749
'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
wenzelm@24735
  1750
'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
wenzelm@24735
  1751
prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
wenzelm@19084
  1752
wenzelm@19682
  1753
Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
wenzelm@19682
  1754
independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
wenzelm@21209
  1755
slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
wenzelm@19682
  1756
'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
wenzelm@19665
  1757
wenzelm@24800
  1758
* Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
wenzelm@24800
  1759
(e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
wenzelm@24800
  1760
full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
wenzelm@24735
  1761
wenzelm@24735
  1762
  definition "K x _ = x"
wenzelm@24735
  1763
wenzelm@24738
  1764
  inductive conj for A B
wenzelm@24738
  1765
  where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
wenzelm@24738
  1766
wenzelm@21735
  1767
* Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
wenzelm@21735
  1768
the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
wenzelm@21735
  1769
abbreviations on output.
wenzelm@21735
  1770
wenzelm@24800
  1771
* Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
wenzelm@24800
  1772
"struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
wenzelm@24800
  1773
required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
wenzelm@24800
  1774
endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
ballarin@19783
  1775
ballarin@19931
  1776
* Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
ballarin@19931
  1777
Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
wenzelm@22126
  1778
now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
wenzelm@22126
  1779
locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
wenzelm@22126
  1780
predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
wenzelm@22126
  1781
removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
wenzelm@22126
  1782
`unfold_locales'; see below.
wenzelm@22126
  1783
wenzelm@22126
  1784
* Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
wenzelm@22126
  1785
provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
wenzelm@22126
  1786
aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
wenzelm@22126
  1787
`intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
wenzelm@22126
  1788
unfold predicates to assumptions.
ballarin@19931
  1789
ballarin@19931
  1790
* Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
wenzelm@22126
  1791
has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
wenzelm@22126
  1792
to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
ballarin@19931
  1793
ballarin@23920
  1794
* Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
ballarin@23920
  1795
extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
ballarin@23920
  1796
unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
ballarin@23920
  1797
defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
ballarin@23920
  1798
concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
ballarin@23920
  1799
ballarin@23920
  1800
  interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
ballarin@23920
  1801
    where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
ballarin@23920
  1802
wenzelm@24800
  1803
Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
wenzelm@24800
  1804
definition specification element in the context of locale
wenzelm@24800
  1805
partial_order.
wenzelm@24800
  1806
wenzelm@24859
  1807
* Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
wenzelm@24800
  1808
local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
wenzelm@24800
  1809
connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
wenzelm@24800
  1810
(using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
wenzelm@24800
  1811
obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
wenzelm@25177
  1812
src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
wenzelm@25177
  1813
src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
wenzelm@25177
  1814
examples.
wenzelm@24606
  1815
wenzelm@24859
  1816
* Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
wenzelm@24606
  1817
introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
wenzelm@24606
  1818
several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
wenzelm@24606
  1819
accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
wenzelm@25177
  1820
see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
wenzelm@24606
  1821
wenzelm@24859
  1822
* Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
wenzelm@24800
  1823
of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
wenzelm@24606
  1824
foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
wenzelm@24859
  1825
predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
wenzelm@24859
  1826
mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
wenzelm@18506
  1827
wenzelm@18506
  1828
  (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
wenzelm@18506
  1829
  (induct set: foo bar)
wenzelm@24859
  1830
  (induct pred: foo bar)
wenzelm@18506
  1831
  (induct type: foo bar)
wenzelm@18506
  1832
wenzelm@18506
  1833
The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
wenzelm@18506
  1834
new format.
wenzelm@18506
  1835
wenzelm@24859
  1836
* Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
wenzelm@18399
  1837
src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
wenzelm@18399
  1838
wenzelm@24859
  1839
* Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
wenzelm@24859
  1840
considered a legacy feature.
wenzelm@24859
  1841
wenzelm@20919
  1842
* Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
wenzelm@20919
  1843
variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@20919
  1844
wenzelm@22126
  1845
* Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
wenzelm@22126
  1846
rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
wenzelm@22126
  1847
default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
wenzelm@22126
  1848
trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
nipkow@18674
  1849
  
wenzelm@18536
  1850
* Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
wenzelm@18536
  1851
attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
wenzelm@18536
  1852
manipulating the claset.
wenzelm@18536
  1853
wenzelm@18694
  1854
* Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
wenzelm@18694
  1855
dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
wenzelm@18694
  1856
least one premise.
wenzelm@18694
  1857
wenzelm@18694
  1858
* Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
wenzelm@18695
  1859
weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
wenzelm@18696
  1860
ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
wenzelm@18694
  1861
rule steps.
paulson@18557
  1862
wenzelm@18536
  1863
* Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
wenzelm@18536
  1864
where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
wenzelm@18536
  1865
patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
wenzelm@18536
  1866
"{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
wenzelm@18536
  1867
INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
wenzelm@18536
  1868
constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
wenzelm@18536
  1869
wenzelm@18536
  1870
* Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
wenzelm@18536
  1871
parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
wenzelm@18536
  1872
for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
wenzelm@17779
  1873
wenzelm@20582
  1874
* Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
wenzelm@20582
  1875
the graph browser tool.
wenzelm@20582
  1876
wenzelm@24800
  1877
* Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
wenzelm@24800
  1878
default; use '!' option for full details.
wenzelm@20620
  1879
wenzelm@17865
  1880
nipkow@17806
  1881
*** HOL ***
nipkow@17806
  1882
wenzelm@25129
  1883
* Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
wenzelm@25129
  1884
resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
wenzelm@25129
  1885
Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
wenzelm@25129
  1886
Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
wenzelm@25129
  1887
multi-threading.
wenzelm@25129
  1888
  
wenzelm@25129
  1889
* Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
wenzelm@25129
  1890
background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
wenzelm@25129
  1891
successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
wenzelm@25129
  1892
wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
wenzelm@25129
  1893
work with multi-threading.
wenzelm@25129
  1894
wenzelm@24804
  1895
* New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
wenzelm@24804
  1896
potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
wenzelm@24804
  1897
auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
wenzelm@25129
  1898
5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
wenzelm@25129
  1899
executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
wenzelm@24804
  1900
haftmann@25184
  1901
* New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
haftmann@25184
  1902
haftmann@25184
  1903
* Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
haftmann@25184
  1904
equality.
haftmann@25184
  1905
haftmann@25184
  1906
* Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
haftmann@25184
  1907
the new 'class' package:
haftmann@25184
  1908
haftmann@25184
  1909
    HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
haftmann@25184
  1910
    HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
haftmann@25184
  1911
    0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
haftmann@25184
  1912
    1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
haftmann@25184
  1913
    op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
haftmann@25184
  1914
    op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
haftmann@25184
  1915
    uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
haftmann@25184
  1916
    op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
haftmann@25184
  1917
    op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
haftmann@25184
  1918
    op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
haftmann@25184
  1919
    Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
haftmann@25184
  1920
    Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
haftmann@25184
  1921
    Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
haftmann@25184
  1922
    FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
haftmann@25184
  1923
    FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
haftmann@25184
  1924
    Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
haftmann@25184
  1925
    Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
haftmann@25184
  1926
    Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
haftmann@25184
  1927
    Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
haftmann@25184
  1928
    Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
haftmann@25184
  1929
haftmann@25184
  1930
INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
haftmann@25184
  1931
haftmann@25184
  1932
a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
haftmann@25184
  1933
"times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
haftmann@25184
  1934
"+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
haftmann@25184
  1935
names.
haftmann@25184
  1936
haftmann@25184
  1937
b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
haftmann@25184
  1938
INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
haftmann@25184
  1939
haftmann@25184
  1940
c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
haftmann@25184
  1941
Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
haftmann@25184
  1942
rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
haftmann@25184
  1943
that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
haftmann@25184
  1944
distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
haftmann@25184
  1945
haftmann@25184
  1946
d) ML code directly refering to constant names
haftmann@25184
  1947
This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
haftmann@25184
  1948
so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
haftmann@25184
  1949
Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
haftmann@25184
  1950
haftmann@25184
  1951
* New class "default" with associated constant "default".
haftmann@25184
  1952
haftmann@25184
  1953
* Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
haftmann@25184
  1954
(and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
haftmann@25184
  1955
sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
haftmann@25184
  1956
sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
haftmann@25184
  1957
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@25184
  1958
haftmann@25184
  1959
* Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
haftmann@25184
  1960
Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@25184
  1961
haftmann@25184
  1962
* Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
haftmann@25184
  1963
"cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
haftmann@25184
  1964
clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@25184
  1965
haftmann@25184
  1966
* Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
haftmann@25184
  1967
changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
haftmann@25184
  1968
haftmann@25184
  1969
* The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
haftmann@25184
  1970
for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
haftmann@25184
  1971
in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
haftmann@25184
  1972
Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
haftmann@25184
  1973
is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
haftmann@25184
  1974
command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
haftmann@25184
  1975
in the current context.
haftmann@25184
  1976
haftmann@25184
  1977
* Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
haftmann@25184
  1978
lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
haftmann@25184
  1979
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@25184
  1980
haftmann@25184
  1981
* Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
haftmann@25184
  1982
with new class dense_linear_order.
haftmann@25184
  1983
haftmann@25184
  1984
* Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
haftmann@25184
  1985
haftmann@25184
  1986
    constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
haftmann@25184
  1987
    constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
haftmann@25184
  1988
haftmann@25184
  1989
    classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
haftmann@25184
  1990
      "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
haftmann@25184
  1991
    class "lorder" now named "lattice"
haftmann@25184
  1992
    class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
haftmann@25184
  1993
haftmann@25184
  1994
    Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
haftmann@25184
  1995
    for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
haftmann@25184
  1996
haftmann@25184
  1997
  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
haftmann@25184
  1998
haftmann@25184
  1999
    meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
haftmann@25184
  2000
    meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
haftmann@25184
  2001
    join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
haftmann@25184
  2002
    join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
haftmann@25184
  2003
    meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
haftmann@25184
  2004
    le_meetI                ~> le_infI
haftmann@25184
  2005
    join_leI                ~> le_supI
haftmann@25184
  2006
    le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
haftmann@25184
  2007
    le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
haftmann@25184
  2008
    meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
haftmann@25184
  2009
    join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
haftmann@25184
  2010
    meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
haftmann@25184
  2011
    join_comm               ~> sup_commute
haftmann@25184
  2012
    meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
haftmann@25184
  2013
    meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
haftmann@25184
  2014
    le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
haftmann@25184
  2015
    le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
haftmann@25184
  2016
    meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
haftmann@25184
  2017
    join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
haftmann@25184
  2018
    meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
haftmann@25184
  2019
    meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
haftmann@25184
  2020
    join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
haftmann@25184
  2021
    join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
haftmann@25184
  2022
    meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
haftmann@25184
  2023
    join_aci                ~> sup_aci
haftmann@25184
  2024
    le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
haftmann@25184
  2025
    le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
haftmann@25184
  2026
    join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
haftmann@25184
  2027
    join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
haftmann@25184
  2028
    meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
haftmann@25184
  2029
    meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
haftmann@25184
  2030
    meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
haftmann@25184
  2031
    join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
haftmann@25184
  2032
    distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
haftmann@25184
  2033
    distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
haftmann@25184
  2034
haftmann@25184
  2035
    add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
haftmann@25184
  2036
    add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
haftmann@25184
  2037
    is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
haftmann@25184
  2038
    is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
haftmann@25184
  2039
    add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
haftmann@25184
  2040
    add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
haftmann@25184
  2041
    add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
haftmann@25184
  2042
    join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
haftmann@25184
  2043
    meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
haftmann@25184
  2044
    add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
haftmann@25184
  2045
    meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
haftmann@25184
  2046
    join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
haftmann@25184
  2047
    meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
haftmann@25184
  2048
    join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
haftmann@25184
  2049
    neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
haftmann@25184
  2050
    neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
haftmann@25184
  2051
    join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
haftmann@25184
  2052
haftmann@25184
  2053
    mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
haftmann@25184
  2054
    mono_join               ~> mono_sup
haftmann@25184
  2055
    meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
haftmann@25184
  2056
    join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
haftmann@25184
  2057
    meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
haftmann@25184
  2058
    join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
haftmann@25184
  2059
    meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
haftmann@25184
  2060
    join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
haftmann@25184
  2061
    meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
haftmann@25184
  2062
    meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
haftmann@25184
  2063
    meet1I                  ~> inf1I
haftmann@25184
  2064
    meet2I                  ~> inf2I
haftmann@25184
  2065
    meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
haftmann@25184
  2066
    meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
haftmann@25184
  2067
    meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
haftmann@25184
  2068
    meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
haftmann@25184
  2069
    meet1E                  ~> inf1E
haftmann@25184
  2070
    meet2E                  ~> inf2E
haftmann@25184
  2071
    join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
haftmann@25184
  2072
    join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
haftmann@25184
  2073
    join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
haftmann@25184
  2074
    join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
haftmann@25184
  2075
    join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
haftmann@25184
  2076
    join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
haftmann@25184
  2077
    join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
haftmann@25184
  2078
    join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
haftmann@25184
  2079
    join1E                  ~> sup1E
haftmann@25184
  2080
    join2E                  ~> sup2E
haftmann@25184
  2081
haftmann@25184
  2082
    is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
haftmann@25184
  2083
    Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
haftmann@25184
  2084
    Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
haftmann@25184
  2085
    Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
haftmann@25184
  2086
    Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
haftmann@25184
  2087
    Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
haftmann@25184
  2088
haftmann@25184
  2089
    Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
haftmann@25184
  2090
    Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
haftmann@25184
  2091
    Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
haftmann@25184
  2092
    Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
haftmann@25184
  2093
haftmann@25184
  2094
    listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
haftmann@25184
  2095
    listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
haftmann@25184
  2096
haftmann@25184
  2097
    meet_min                ~> inf_min
haftmann@25184
  2098
    join_max                ~> sup_max
haftmann@25184
  2099
haftmann@25184
  2100
* Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
haftmann@25184
  2101
type "'a::size ==> bool"
haftmann@25184
  2102
wenzelm@24800
  2103
* Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
wenzelm@24800
  2104
"foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
wenzelm@24800
  2105
simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
haftmann@25184
  2106
"*.size".
haftmann@25184
  2107
haftmann@25184
  2108
* Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
haftmann@25184
  2109
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
  2110
wenzelm@24800
  2111
* HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
wenzelm@24800
  2112
Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
wenzelm@24800
  2113
fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
  2114
wenzelm@25129
  2115
* HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@25129
  2116
wenzelm@24800
  2117
* HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
wenzelm@24800
  2118
machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
wenzelm@24800
  2119
operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
wenzelm@24800
  2120
linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
wenzelm@24800
  2121
lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
wenzelm@24800
  2122
arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
wenzelm@24800
  2123
numerals on all operations.
kleing@24333
  2124
kleing@24333
  2125
* Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
kleing@24333
  2126
kleing@24333
  2127
* Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
kleing@24333
  2128
haftmann@23850
  2129
* Code generator library theories:
haftmann@24993
  2130
  - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
haftmann@23850
  2131
    languages.
haftmann@24993
  2132
  - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
haftmann@23850
  2133
    languages.
haftmann@24993
  2134
  - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
haftmann@24993
  2135
    codes; includes Code_Integer.
wenzelm@24800
  2136
  - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
wenzelm@24800
  2137
  - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
haftmann@23850
  2138
    denominator).
wenzelm@24800
  2139
  - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
haftmann@23850
  2140
    representable by rational numbers.
wenzelm@24800
  2141
  - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
haftmann@23850
  2142
    result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
haftmann@24993
  2143
    includes Code_Integer.
haftmann@24993
  2144
  - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
haftmann@24993
  2145
    target-language built-in integers.
haftmann@26355
  2146
  - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
haftmann@24993
  2147
    strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
haftmann@23850
  2148
berghofe@23783
  2149
* New package for inductive predicates
berghofe@23783
  2150
berghofe@23783
  2151
  An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
berghofe@23783
  2152
berghofe@23783
  2153
    inductive
berghofe@23783
  2154
      p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
berghofe@23783
  2155
      for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
berghofe@23783
  2156
    where
berghofe@23783
  2157
      rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
berghofe@23783
  2158
    | ...
berghofe@23783
  2159
wenzelm@24800
  2160
  with full support for type-inference, rather than
berghofe@23783
  2161
berghofe@23783
  2162
    consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
berghofe@23783
  2163
berghofe@23783
  2164
    abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
berghofe@23783
  2165
    where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
berghofe@23783
  2166
berghofe@23783
  2167
    inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
berghofe@23783
  2168
    intros
berghofe@23783
  2169
      rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
berghofe@23783
  2170
      ...
berghofe@23783
  2171
berghofe@23783
  2172
  For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
berghofe@23783
  2173
  sets to be defined with the new package via
berghofe@23783
  2174
berghofe@23783
  2175
    inductive_set
berghofe@23783
  2176
      s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
berghofe@23783
  2177
      for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
berghofe@23783
  2178
    where
berghofe@23783
  2179
      rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
berghofe@23783
  2180
    | ...
berghofe@23783
  2181
berghofe@23783
  2182
  or
berghofe@23783
  2183
berghofe@23783
  2184
    inductive_set
berghofe@23783
  2185
      s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
berghofe@23783
  2186
      and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
berghofe@23783
  2187
      for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
berghofe@23783
  2188
    where
berghofe@23783
  2189
      "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
berghofe@23783
  2190
    | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
berghofe@23783
  2191
    | ...
berghofe@23783
  2192
berghofe@23783
  2193
  if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
berghofe@23783
  2194
wenzelm@25177
  2195
  Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
wenzelm@25177
  2196
  src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
berghofe@23783
  2197
berghofe@23783
  2198
  INCOMPATIBILITIES:
berghofe@23783
  2199
berghofe@23783
  2200
  - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
wenzelm@24800
  2201
    is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
wenzelm@24800
  2202
    introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
wenzelm@24800
  2203
    introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
wenzelm@24800
  2204
    than before the actual inductive definition.
wenzelm@24800
  2205
wenzelm@24800
  2206
  - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
wenzelm@24800
  2207
    quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
wenzelm@24800
  2208
    rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
wenzelm@24800
  2209
    some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
wenzelm@24800
  2210
    reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
wenzelm@24800
  2211
    statements of the form
berghofe@23783
  2212
berghofe@23783
  2213
      case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
berghofe@23783
  2214
berghofe@23783
  2215
    or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
berghofe@23783
  2216
    meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
berghofe@23783
  2217
berghofe@23783
  2218
      | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
berghofe@23783
  2219
berghofe@23783
  2220
  - The format of the elimination rules is now
berghofe@23783
  2221
berghofe@23783
  2222
      p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
berghofe@23783
  2223
        (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
berghofe@23783
  2224
        ==> ... ==> P
berghofe@23783
  2225
berghofe@23783
  2226
    for predicates and
berghofe@23783
  2227
berghofe@23783
  2228
      (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
berghofe@23783
  2229
        (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
berghofe@23783
  2230
        ==> ... ==> P
berghofe@23783
  2231
berghofe@23783
  2232
    for sets rather than
berghofe@23783
  2233
berghofe@23783
  2234
      x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
berghofe@23783
  2235
        (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
berghofe@23783
  2236
        ==> ... ==> P
berghofe@23783
  2237
wenzelm@24800
  2238
    This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
wenzelm@24800
  2239
    (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
wenzelm@24800
  2240
    rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
wenzelm@24800
  2241
wenzelm@24800
  2242
  - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
wenzelm@24800
  2243
    sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
wenzelm@24800
  2244
    list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
berghofe@23783
  2245
krauss@25198
  2246
* New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
krauss@25198
  2247
supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
krauss@25198
  2248
more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
krauss@25198
  2249
for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
krauss@25198
  2250
package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
krauss@25198
  2251
users are encouraged to use the new package.
krauss@25198
  2252
krauss@25198
  2253
* Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
krauss@25198
  2254
relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
krauss@25198
  2255
wenzelm@24800
  2256
* Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
wenzelm@24800
  2257
"_") and take their order into account, like in functional
wenzelm@24800
  2258
programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
wenzelm@24800
  2259
case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
wenzelm@24800
  2260
constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
wenzelm@24800
  2261
the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
wenzelm@24800
  2262
the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
wenzelm@24800
  2263
abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
wenzelm@24800
  2264
variable.
nipkow@23564
  2265
huffman@23468
  2266
* IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
wenzelm@24800
  2267
is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
wenzelm@24800
  2268
rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
wenzelm@24800
  2269
previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
huffman@23468
  2270
  - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
huffman@23468
  2271
  - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
huffman@23377
  2272
chaieb@23295
  2273
* Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
wenzelm@24800
  2274
Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
wenzelm@24800
  2275
tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
wenzelm@24800
  2276
a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
wenzelm@24800
  2277
declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
wenzelm@24800
  2278
already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
wenzelm@24800
  2279
of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
wenzelm@24800
  2280
CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
wenzelm@24800
  2281
architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
wenzelm@24800
  2282
wenzelm@25033
  2283
* Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
wenzelm@25033
  2284
special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
wenzelm@25033
  2285
"algebra"). The method is already installed for class
wenzelm@25033
  2286
{ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
wenzelm@25033
  2287
rat, etc.
wenzelm@25033
  2288
wenzelm@24800
  2289
* Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
wenzelm@24800
  2290
antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
wenzelm@24800
  2291
circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
wenzelm@24800
  2292
haftmann@24996
  2293
* primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
haftmann@22845
  2294
wenzelm@24800
  2295
* New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
wenzelm@24800
  2296
Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
wenzelm@24800
  2297
wenzelm@24800
  2298
* New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
wenzelm@25177
  2299
[(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
wenzelm@24800
  2300
wenzelm@24800
  2301
* The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
wenzelm@24800
  2302
xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
wenzelm@24800
  2303
comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
  2304
wenzelm@24800
  2305
* [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
wenzelm@24800
  2306
defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
wenzelm@24800
  2307
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
  2308
wenzelm@24800
  2309
* Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
wenzelm@24800
  2310
wenzelm@25177
  2311
* New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
wenzelm@24800
  2312
wenzelm@24800
  2313
* New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
wenzelm@24800
  2314
manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
wenzelm@24800
  2315
denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
wenzelm@24800
  2316
positive/negative (in inequations).
nipkow@23480
  2317
nipkow@23480
  2318
* Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
wenzelm@24800
  2319
have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
wenzelm@24800
  2320
ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
wenzelm@24800
  2321
because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
  2322
wenzelm@25177
  2323
* Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
wenzelm@24800
  2324
package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
wenzelm@24800
  2325
algebraic operations.
haftmann@22735
  2326
wenzelm@24800
  2327
* Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
haftmann@22218
  2328
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@22218
  2329
wenzelm@24800
  2330
* Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
haftmann@22218
  2331
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@22218
  2332
wenzelm@22126
  2333
* HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
wenzelm@22126
  2334
field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
wenzelm@22126
  2335
(K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
schirmer@21226
  2336
INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
schirmer@21226
  2337
adapted.
schirmer@21226
  2338
 
wenzelm@24800
  2339
* Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
wenzelm@24800
  2340
* x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
wenzelm@24800
  2341
inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
wenzelm@24800
  2342
there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
wenzelm@24800
  2343
there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
wenzelm@24800
  2344
wenzelm@24800
  2345
* Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
wenzelm@24800
  2346
commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
haftmann@25163
  2347
commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
haftmann@21215
  2348
haftmann@21099
  2349
* Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
wenzelm@24800
  2350
INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
wenzelm@24800
  2351
better use 'abbreviation'.
wenzelm@24800
  2352
wenzelm@24800
  2353
* Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
  2354
wenzelm@22126
  2355
* Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
wenzelm@24800
  2356
been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
wenzelm@22126
  2357
significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
wenzelm@24800
  2358
  - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
haftmann@20485
  2359
      of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
haftmann@20485
  2360
  - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
haftmann@20485
  2361
  - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
haftmann@20485
  2362
  - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
haftmann@20485
  2363
wenzelm@25177
  2364
See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
wenzelm@25177
  2365
wenzelm@25177
  2366
* Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
wenzelm@25177
  2367
contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
wenzelm@25177
  2368
produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
wenzelm@25177
  2369
heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
wenzelm@25177
  2370
first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
wenzelm@25177
  2371
further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
nipkow@19895
  2372
wenzelm@17996
  2373
* Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
wenzelm@17996
  2374
25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
wenzelm@17996
  2375
"A = B" (with priority 50).
wenzelm@17996
  2376
wenzelm@21265
  2377
* Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
wenzelm@21265
  2378
Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
wenzelm@24800
  2379
e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
wenzelm@24800
  2380
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@21265
  2381
nipkow@18674
  2382
* "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
nipkow@18674
  2383
krauss@20716
  2384
* Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
krauss@20716
  2385
stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
krauss@20716
  2386
wenzelm@22126
  2387
* The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
wenzelm@22126
  2388
removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
nipkow@19377
  2389
wenzelm@17865
  2390
* In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
wenzelm@24800
  2391
"t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
wenzelm@24800
  2392
``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
wenzelm@24800
  2393
wenzelm@24800
  2394
* Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
wenzelm@24800
  2395
True/False.
wenzelm@24800
  2396
wenzelm@24800
  2397
* Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
nipkow@19211
  2398
ballarin@19279
  2399
* Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
ballarin@19279
  2400
nipkow@19211
  2401
* Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
wenzelm@22126
  2402
``rule'' method.
wenzelm@22126
  2403
wenzelm@24800
  2404
* Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
wenzelm@24800
  2405
goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
wenzelm@24800
  2406
(i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
wenzelm@24800
  2407
"lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
wenzelm@24800
  2408
wenzelm@24800
  2409
* Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
wenzelm@22126
  2410
zChaff is still supported as well.
wenzelm@22126
  2411
wenzelm@22126
  2412
* 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
wenzelm@22126
  2413
bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
wenzelm@22126
  2414
wenzelm@22126
  2415
* Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
wenzelm@22126
  2416
Library.
wenzelm@21256
  2417
wenzelm@21256
  2418
* Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
wenzelm@19572
  2419
wenzelm@18446
  2420
* Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
wenzelm@18446
  2421
as greatest fixed-point.
wenzelm@18399
  2422
wenzelm@19254
  2423
* Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
schirmer@19252
  2424
association lists.
webertj@17809
  2425
wenzelm@24800
  2426
* Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
wenzelm@24800
  2427
efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
wenzelm@24800
  2428
oracle) if it evaluates to True.
wenzelm@20807
  2429
wenzelm@20807
  2430
* Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
wenzelm@24800
  2431
also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
wenzelm@24800
  2432
being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
  2433
Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
wenzelm@24800
  2434
behavior.
webertj@20217
  2435
wenzelm@22126
  2436
* Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
wenzelm@19254
  2437
wenzelm@20807
  2438
* New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
wenzelm@20807
  2439
interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
wenzelm@20807
  2440
parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
wenzelm@20807
  2441
theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
wenzelm@20807
  2442
resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
wenzelm@20807
  2443
s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
wenzelm@20807
  2444
wenzelm@20807
  2445
* New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
wenzelm@20807
  2446
are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
wenzelm@20807
  2447
where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
wenzelm@20807
  2448
generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
wenzelm@20807
  2449
applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
wenzelm@20807
  2450
r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
wenzelm@25177
  2451
subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
wenzelm@25177
  2452
wenzelm@25177
  2453
* Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
wenzelm@25177
  2454
available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
wenzelm@20807
  2455
wenzelm@25397
  2456
* HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
schirmer@25409
  2457
command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
wenzelm@25397
  2458
abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
wenzelm@25397
  2459
HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
wenzelm@25397
  2460
in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
wenzelm@25397
  2461
wenzelm@25397
  2462
wenzelm@19653
  2463
*** HOL-Complex ***
wenzelm@19653
  2464
huffman@22971
  2465
* Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
huffman@22971
  2466
inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
huffman@22971
  2467
Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
huffman@22971
  2468
that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
huffman@22971
  2469
INCOMPATIBILITY.
huffman@22971
  2470
wenzelm@24800
  2471
* Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
huffman@21791
  2472
algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
huffman@21791
  2473
and norm :: 'a => real.
huffman@21791
  2474
wenzelm@24800
  2475
* Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
wenzelm@24800
  2476
reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
wenzelm@24800
  2477
defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
  2478
wenzelm@24800
  2479
* Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
nipkow@23013
  2480
Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
nipkow@23013
  2481
wenzelm@22126
  2482
* Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
wenzelm@22126
  2483
reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
wenzelm@22126
  2484
spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
wenzelm@22126
  2485
INCOMPATIBILITY.
huffman@21791
  2486
huffman@22972
  2487
  Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
huffman@22972
  2488
  HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
huffman@22972
  2489
  HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
huffman@21791
  2490
  approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
huffman@21791
  2491
  monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
huffman@21791
  2492
  galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
huffman@22972
  2493
  (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
huffman@21791
  2494
  (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
huffman@21791
  2495
  (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
huffman@21791
  2496
  (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
huffman@21791
  2497
  (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
huffman@21791
  2498
  is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
huffman@21791
  2499
  deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
huffman@22972
  2500
  sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
huffman@23116
  2501
  exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
huffman@21791
  2502
huffman@21791
  2503
* Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
wenzelm@22126
  2504
overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
wenzelm@22126
  2505
hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
wenzelm@22126
  2506
polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
huffman@21791
  2507
huffman@21791
  2508
  approx        <-- capprox
huffman@21791
  2509
  HFinite       <-- CFinite
huffman@21791
  2510
  HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
huffman@21791
  2511
  Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
huffman@21791
  2512
  monad         <-- cmonad
huffman@21791
  2513
  galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
huffman@21791
  2514
  (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
huffman@21791
  2515
  is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
huffman@21791
  2516
  (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
huffman@21791
  2517
wenzelm@19653
  2518
wenzelm@24801
  2519
*** HOL-Algebra ***
wenzelm@24801
  2520
wenzelm@24801
  2521
* Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
wenzelm@24801
  2522
wenzelm@24801
  2523
* Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
wenzelm@24801
  2524
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24801
  2525
wenzelm@24801
  2526
* Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
wenzelm@24801
  2527
greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24801
  2528
wenzelm@24801
  2529
* Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
wenzelm@24801
  2530
Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
wenzelm@24801
  2531
of algebraic structures.
wenzelm@24801
  2532
wenzelm@24801
  2533
* Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
wenzelm@24801
  2534
wenzelm@24801
  2535
wenzelm@24801
  2536
*** HOL-Nominal ***
wenzelm@24801
  2537
wenzelm@25148
  2538
* Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
wenzelm@25177
  2539
structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
wenzelm@25177
  2540
src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
wenzelm@25148
  2541
http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
wenzelm@25148
  2542
wenzelm@24801
  2543
wenzelm@17878
  2544
*** ML ***
wenzelm@17878
  2545
wenzelm@24643
  2546
* ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
wenzelm@24643
  2547
(even on SML/NJ).
wenzelm@24643
  2548
wenzelm@22138
  2549
* ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
wenzelm@22138
  2550
formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
wenzelm@22138
  2551
compile-time.  For example:
wenzelm@22138
  2552
wenzelm@25142
  2553
ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
wenzelm@22138
  2554
ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
wenzelm@22138
  2555
ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
wenzelm@22138
  2556
ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
wenzelm@22138
  2557
ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
wenzelm@22138
  2558
ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
wenzelm@22138
  2559
ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
wenzelm@22138
  2560
ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
wenzelm@22138
  2561
ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
wenzelm@24692
  2562
ML {* @{type_name c} *}
wenzelm@25142
  2563
ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
wenzelm@22376
  2564
ML {* @{const_name c} *}
wenzelm@22376
  2565
ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
wenzelm@22138
  2566
ML {* @{context} *}
wenzelm@22138
  2567
ML {* @{theory} *}
wenzelm@22138
  2568
ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
wenzelm@24692
  2569
ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
wenzelm@24692
  2570
ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
wenzelm@22138
  2571
ML {* @{simpset} *}
wenzelm@22138
  2572
ML {* @{claset} *}
wenzelm@22138
  2573
ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
wenzelm@22138
  2574
wenzelm@22151
  2575
The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
wenzelm@22151
  2576
wenzelm@22152
  2577
* ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
wenzelm@24706
  2578
ML_Context.trace enabled.
wenzelm@22152
  2579
wenzelm@19032
  2580
* Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
wenzelm@24706
  2581
DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
wenzelm@19081
  2582
admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
wenzelm@18446
  2583
wenzelm@24800
  2584
* Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
wenzelm@24800
  2585
use Context.generic instead of just theory.
wenzelm@24800
  2586
wenzelm@18642
  2587
* Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
wenzelm@18644
  2588
provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
wenzelm@18642
  2589
context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
wenzelm@18642
  2590
wenzelm@18737
  2591
* Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
wenzelm@24706
  2592
Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
wenzelm@24706
  2593
local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
wenzelm@24706
  2594
minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
wenzelm@24706
  2595
Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
wenzelm@24706
  2596
Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
wenzelm@24706
  2597
GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
wenzelm@19006
  2598
declarations and definitions.
wenzelm@19006
  2599
wenzelm@24800
  2600
* Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
wenzelm@24800
  2601
name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
wenzelm@24800
  2602
init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
wenzelm@24800
  2603
to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
wenzelm@24800
  2604
wenzelm@19508
  2605
* Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
wenzelm@24800
  2606
signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
wenzelm@24800
  2607
logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
wenzelm@24800
  2608
potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@19508
  2609
wenzelm@19508
  2610
* Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
wenzelm@19508
  2611
explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
wenzelm@24706
  2612
internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
wenzelm@19508
  2613
notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
wenzelm@24706
  2614
AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
wenzelm@19508
  2615
Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
wenzelm@19508
  2616
wenzelm@19006
  2617
* Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
wenzelm@19006
  2618
global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
wenzelm@19006
  2619
discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
wenzelm@19006
  2620
accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
wenzelm@19006
  2621
attributes, methods, etc.
wenzelm@18642
  2622
wenzelm@18446
  2623
* Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
wenzelm@18446
  2624
have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
wenzelm@18446
  2625
allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
wenzelm@18446
  2626
fold_map combinators.
haftmann@18051
  2627
wenzelm@21647
  2628
* Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
wenzelm@21647
  2629
comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
wenzelm@21647
  2630
maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
wenzelm@21647
  2631
derivation.
wenzelm@21647
  2632
wenzelm@18020
  2633
* Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
wenzelm@18145
  2634
actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
wenzelm@18020
  2635
achieve the old behaviour.
wenzelm@18020
  2636
wenzelm@18020
  2637
* Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
wenzelm@18020
  2638
slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
wenzelm@18020
  2639
statements.
wenzelm@18020
  2640