NEWS
author wenzelm
Sat Feb 06 14:39:33 2010 +0100 (2010-02-06)
changeset 35009 5408e5207131
parent 34974 18b41bba42b5
child 35021 c839a4c670c6
permissions -rw-r--r--
misc tuning;
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Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
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==============================================
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New in this Isabelle version
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----------------------------
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*** Pure ***
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* Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
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user space functionality any longer.
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*** HOL ***
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* New theory Algebras contains generic algebraic structures and
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generic algebraic operations.  INCOMPATIBILTY: constants zero, one,
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plus, minus, uminus, times, inverse, divide, abs, sgn, less_eq and
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less have been moved from HOL.thy to Algebras.thy.
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* HOLogic.strip_psplit: types are returned in syntactic order, similar
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to other strip and tuple operations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Various old-style primrec specifications in the HOL theories have been
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replaced by new-style primrec, especially in theory List.  The corresponding
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constants now have authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Reorganized theory Multiset: less duplication, less historical
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organization of sections, conversion from associations lists to
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multisets, rudimentary code generation.  Use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric]
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instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union, if needed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Reorganized theory Sum_Type; Inl and Inr now have authentic syntax.
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INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
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* Theory Complete_Lattice: lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
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replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
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Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
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by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
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former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
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subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
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sets to lattices:
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  fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
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  fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
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  inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
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  union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
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  Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
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  Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
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  inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
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  union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
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  INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
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  UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
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* Theory List: added transpose.
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*** ML ***
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* Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
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as infinity (as in chop).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
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usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
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needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
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Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
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Theory_Data version.
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*** System ***
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* Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
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ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
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proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
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* Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
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feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
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respectively.
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New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
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-------------------------------------
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*** General ***
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* Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
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one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
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*** Pure ***
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* Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
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The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
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local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
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* Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
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loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
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Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
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* Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
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interpretation.
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* On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
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are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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*** Document preparation ***
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* New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
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instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
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backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
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antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
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*** HOL ***
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* New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
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equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
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fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
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features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
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procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
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for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
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are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
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re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
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installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
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* New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
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the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
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Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
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* New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
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relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
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src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
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* New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
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compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
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* A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
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* New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
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default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
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and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
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Library/SML_Quickcheck.
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* New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
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several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
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every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
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"mirabelle" utility.
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* New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
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arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
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Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
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works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
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*, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
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inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
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semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
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certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
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to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
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src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
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* New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
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procedure only.
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* New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
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* New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
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Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
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ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
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that fail later.
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* New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
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information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
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* New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
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the same method as the approximation method.
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* Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
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boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
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series expansion.
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* ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
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generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
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* New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
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reals.
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* New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
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theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
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* Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
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fixpoint theorem.
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* Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
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  - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
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    and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
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  - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
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    accordingly
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  - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
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    theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
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  - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
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    src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
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* Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
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lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
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lattice.
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* Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
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div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
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div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
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generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
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zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
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zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
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INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
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  - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
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    intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
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  - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
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    le_inf_iff
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  - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
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    sup_aci)
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  - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
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  - new class "boolean_algebra"
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  - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
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    "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
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    renamed and with authentic syntax:
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    Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
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    Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
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    Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
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    Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
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    Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
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    Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
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    Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
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    Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
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  - authentic syntax for
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    Set.Pow
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    Set.image
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  - mere abbreviations:
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    Set.empty               (for bot)
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    Set.UNIV                (for top)
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    Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
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    Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
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    Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
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    Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
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    Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
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    Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
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  - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
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INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
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Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
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their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
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deleted to achieve the desired effect.
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* Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
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rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
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etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
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pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
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constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
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multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
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in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
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"R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
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rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
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break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
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O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
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* Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
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abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
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INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
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prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
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the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
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DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
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matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
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Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
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of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
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Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
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INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
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    code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
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    code_post       replaces    code post
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    etc.
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  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Renamed methods:
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    sizechange -> size_change
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    induct_scheme -> induction_schema
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  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
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INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
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* Renamed theorems:
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    Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
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    Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
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    Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
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    *anti_sym -> *antisym*
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    vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
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  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
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INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
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INCOMPATIBILITY.
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*** HOLCF ***
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* Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
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representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
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Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
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* The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
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domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
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old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
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recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
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src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
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* Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
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on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
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simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
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"fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
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replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
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huffman@33825
   341
* The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
huffman@33825
   342
with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
huffman@33825
   343
constructor are pre-configured.
huffman@33825
   344
huffman@33825
   345
* The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
huffman@33825
   346
for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
huffman@33825
   347
of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
huffman@33825
   348
huffman@33825
   349
* The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
huffman@33825
   350
been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
wenzelm@33842
   351
theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
wenzelm@33842
   352
as well.)
huffman@33825
   353
huffman@33825
   354
* The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
huffman@33825
   355
patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
huffman@33825
   356
functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
wenzelm@33873
   357
Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
wenzelm@33873
   358
examples.
huffman@33825
   359
huffman@33825
   360
wenzelm@31304
   361
*** ML ***
wenzelm@31304
   362
wenzelm@33843
   363
* Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
wenzelm@33843
   364
errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
wenzelm@33843
   365
wenzelm@33843
   366
* Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
wenzelm@33843
   367
identified entries, with some additional information such as source
wenzelm@33843
   368
position, logical grouping etc.
wenzelm@33843
   369
wenzelm@33524
   370
* Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
wenzelm@33524
   371
modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
wenzelm@33524
   372
to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
wenzelm@33524
   373
copy operation) is still available for some time.
wenzelm@33524
   374
wenzelm@32742
   375
* Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
wenzelm@32742
   376
provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
wenzelm@32742
   377
variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
wenzelm@32742
   378
application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
wenzelm@32742
   379
short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
wenzelm@32742
   380
either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
wenzelm@32742
   381
wenzelm@32742
   382
* Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
wenzelm@32742
   383
wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
wenzelm@32742
   384
behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
wenzelm@32742
   385
accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
wenzelm@32742
   386
experiments with references.
wenzelm@32742
   387
wenzelm@32365
   388
* PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
wenzelm@32365
   389
parallel tactical reasoning.
wenzelm@32365
   390
wenzelm@32427
   391
* Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
wenzelm@32427
   392
are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
wenzelm@32427
   393
specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
wenzelm@32427
   394
body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
wenzelm@32427
   395
wenzelm@32427
   396
* Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
wenzelm@32427
   397
been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
wenzelm@32427
   398
or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
wenzelm@32216
   399
wenzelm@31971
   400
* Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
wenzelm@31971
   401
functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
wenzelm@31971
   402
separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@31971
   403
wenzelm@31901
   404
* Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@31901
   405
wenzelm@33842
   406
* Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
wenzelm@33842
   407
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@33842
   408
wenzelm@33843
   409
* Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
wenzelm@33843
   410
mode, which avoids critical setmp.
wenzelm@33843
   411
wenzelm@31306
   412
* Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
wenzelm@33842
   413
combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
wenzelm@31306
   414
Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
wenzelm@31304
   415
wenzelm@32151
   416
* Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
wenzelm@32151
   417
back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
wenzelm@32151
   418
last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@32151
   419
wenzelm@32092
   420
* Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
wenzelm@32092
   421
ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
wenzelm@32092
   422
or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
wenzelm@32092
   423
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@32092
   424
wenzelm@32433
   425
* Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
wenzelm@32433
   426
Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
wenzelm@32433
   427
instead of global theory.
wenzelm@32433
   428
wenzelm@31304
   429
wenzelm@31308
   430
*** System ***
wenzelm@31308
   431
wenzelm@33842
   432
* Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
wenzelm@33842
   433
(max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
wenzelm@33842
   434
usedir option -q.
wenzelm@33842
   435
wenzelm@32326
   436
* Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
wenzelm@32326
   437
also the system manual.
wenzelm@32326
   438
wenzelm@32326
   439
* The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
wenzelm@32326
   440
IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
wenzelm@32326
   441
wenzelm@33842
   442
* Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
wenzelm@33842
   443
this is always enabled.
kleing@33818
   444
wenzelm@31308
   445
* Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
wenzelm@31308
   446
wenzelm@33842
   447
* Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
wenzelm@33842
   448
on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
wenzelm@33842
   449
currently supported on Linux only.
wenzelm@32061
   450
wenzelm@31308
   451
wenzelm@31304
   452
wenzelm@30845
   453
New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
wenzelm@30845
   454
--------------------------------
haftmann@27104
   455
wenzelm@27599
   456
*** General ***
wenzelm@27599
   457
wenzelm@28504
   458
* Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
wenzelm@28504
   459
case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
wenzelm@28504
   460
wenzelm@28504
   461
  - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
wenzelm@28504
   462
    "isatool."
wenzelm@28504
   463
wenzelm@28504
   464
  - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
wenzelm@28504
   465
    removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
wenzelm@28504
   466
wenzelm@28915
   467
  - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
wenzelm@28915
   468
    removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
wenzelm@28504
   469
wenzelm@28504
   470
Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
wenzelm@28504
   471
ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
wenzelm@28504
   472
respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
wenzelm@28504
   473
wenzelm@28915
   474
The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
wenzelm@28915
   475
the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
wenzelm@28915
   476
interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
wenzelm@28915
   477
Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
wenzelm@28915
   478
via "isabelle emacs".
wenzelm@28504
   479
wenzelm@28504
   480
INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
wenzelm@28504
   481
purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
wenzelm@28504
   482
install -p ...", or use symlinks.
wenzelm@28504
   483
wenzelm@28914
   484
* The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
wenzelm@30845
   485
old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
wenzelm@30845
   486
surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
wenzelm@28914
   487
wenzelm@28914
   488
INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
wenzelm@28914
   489
~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
wenzelm@28914
   490
care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
wenzelm@28914
   491
ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
wenzelm@30845
   492
Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
wenzelm@28914
   493
wenzelm@29161
   494
* Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
wenzelm@30845
   495
multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
wenzelm@30845
   496
a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
wenzelm@30845
   497
large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
wenzelm@30845
   498
wenzelm@30845
   499
* The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
wenzelm@30845
   500
"system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
wenzelm@30845
   501
as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
wenzelm@30845
   502
wenzelm@30163
   503
wenzelm@27599
   504
*** Pure ***
wenzelm@27599
   505
wenzelm@30845
   506
* Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
wenzelm@30845
   507
respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
wenzelm@30845
   508
Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
ballarin@29253
   509
ballarin@29253
   510
- In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
ballarin@29253
   511
must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
ballarin@29253
   512
parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
ballarin@29253
   513
'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
ballarin@29253
   514
with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
ballarin@29253
   515
ballarin@29253
   516
- Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
ballarin@29253
   517
locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
ballarin@29253
   518
useful in locale declarations.
ballarin@29253
   519
ballarin@29253
   520
- More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
ballarin@29253
   521
expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
wenzelm@30728
   522
expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
wenzelm@30728
   523
optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
wenzelm@30728
   524
depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
wenzelm@30728
   525
commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
wenzelm@30845
   526
'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
wenzelm@30728
   527
implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
wenzelm@30728
   528
no longer generated.
wenzelm@30106
   529
wenzelm@30845
   530
- Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
wenzelm@30106
   531
instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
wenzelm@30106
   532
brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
ballarin@29253
   533
wenzelm@30845
   534
- When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
wenzelm@30728
   535
'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
wenzelm@30845
   536
if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
wenzelm@30845
   537
worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
wenzelm@30845
   538
in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
wenzelm@30845
   539
wenzelm@30845
   540
- Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
   541
In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
wenzelm@30845
   542
respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
wenzelm@30845
   543
that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
wenzelm@30845
   544
assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
wenzelm@30845
   545
involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
wenzelm@30845
   546
notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
wenzelm@30845
   547
locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
wenzelm@30845
   548
wenzelm@30845
   549
If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
wenzelm@30845
   550
parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
wenzelm@30845
   551
consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
wenzelm@30845
   552
the parameters (context element "constrains").
wenzelm@30845
   553
wenzelm@30845
   554
- Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
   555
wenzelm@30845
   556
- Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
wenzelm@30845
   557
INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
wenzelm@30845
   558
methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
wenzelm@30845
   559
wenzelm@30845
   560
- Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
wenzelm@30845
   561
attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
   562
wenzelm@30845
   563
* Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
wenzelm@30845
   564
list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
wenzelm@30845
   565
in HOL, write
wenzelm@30845
   566
wenzelm@30845
   567
    class foo = ...
wenzelm@30845
   568
wenzelm@30845
   569
instead of
wenzelm@30845
   570
wenzelm@30845
   571
    class foo = type + ...
wenzelm@30845
   572
wenzelm@30845
   573
* Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
wenzelm@30845
   574
parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
   575
wenzelm@30845
   576
* Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
wenzelm@30845
   577
INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
wenzelm@30845
   578
wenzelm@30845
   579
* Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
wenzelm@30845
   580
Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
wenzelm@30845
   581
makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
wenzelm@30845
   582
wenzelm@30845
   583
* Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
wenzelm@30845
   584
isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
wenzelm@30845
   585
meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
wenzelm@30845
   586
INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
wenzelm@30845
   587
directly in regular applications.
wenzelm@30845
   588
wenzelm@30845
   589
* There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
wenzelm@30845
   590
fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
wenzelm@30845
   591
wenzelm@30845
   592
* Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
wenzelm@30845
   593
interface with 'setup' command instead.
wenzelm@30845
   594
wenzelm@30845
   595
* Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
wenzelm@30845
   596
theory context.
haftmann@27104
   597
wenzelm@28114
   598
* The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
wenzelm@28114
   599
context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@28114
   600
wenzelm@30845
   601
* Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
wenzelm@30845
   602
hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
wenzelm@30845
   603
covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
wenzelm@30845
   604
type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
wenzelm@30845
   605
hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
wenzelm@30845
   606
vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
wenzelm@30845
   607
wenzelm@30845
   608
  lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
wenzelm@30845
   609
wenzelm@30845
   610
The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
wenzelm@30845
   611
SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
wenzelm@30845
   612
normalization.
wenzelm@30845
   613
wenzelm@30845
   614
* Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
wenzelm@30845
   615
addressing etc.
wenzelm@30845
   616
wenzelm@30845
   617
* Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
wenzelm@30845
   618
wenzelm@30845
   619
  unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
wenzelm@30845
   620
  unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
wenzelm@30845
   621
wenzelm@30845
   622
* Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
wenzelm@30845
   623
wenzelm@30845
   624
  a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
wenzelm@30845
   625
     constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
wenzelm@30845
   626
     parts of the code generator framework).
wenzelm@30845
   627
wenzelm@30845
   628
  b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
wenzelm@30845
   629
     attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
wenzelm@30845
   630
     from definition, primrec, fun etc.
wenzelm@30845
   631
wenzelm@30845
   632
* Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
   633
haftmann@30965
   634
* Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
wenzelm@30845
   635
func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30577
   636
wenzelm@30577
   637
* Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
wenzelm@30577
   638
patterns, e.g.
kleing@29883
   639
kleing@29883
   640
    find_consts "_ => bool"
kleing@29883
   641
wenzelm@30106
   642
By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
wenzelm@30728
   643
the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
wenzelm@30106
   644
conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
wenzelm@30106
   645
hyphen:
kleing@29883
   646
kleing@29883
   647
    find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
kleing@29861
   648
wenzelm@30845
   649
* New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
wenzelm@30845
   650
directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
wenzelm@30845
   651
wenzelm@30845
   652
* Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
wenzelm@30845
   653
is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
wenzelm@30845
   654
solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
wenzelm@30845
   655
Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
wenzelm@30845
   656
enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
wenzelm@30845
   657
higher-order unification.
webertj@30415
   658
haftmann@27104
   659
wenzelm@27381
   660
*** Document preparation ***
wenzelm@27381
   661
wenzelm@27381
   662
* Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
wenzelm@27392
   663
demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
wenzelm@27519
   664
syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
wenzelm@27381
   665
wenzelm@27381
   666
haftmann@27104
   667
*** HOL ***
haftmann@27104
   668
wenzelm@30845
   669
* Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
wenzelm@30845
   670
points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
wenzelm@30845
   671
wenzelm@30845
   672
* Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
wenzelm@30845
   673
tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
wenzelm@30845
   674
experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
wenzelm@30845
   675
(and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
wenzelm@30845
   676
Main, as before.
wenzelm@30845
   677
wenzelm@30845
   678
* Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
wenzelm@30845
   679
experimentation due to shorter build times.
wenzelm@30845
   680
wenzelm@30845
   681
* Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
wenzelm@30845
   682
were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
wenzelm@30845
   683
remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
wenzelm@30845
   684
new entry point Hypercomplex.
wenzelm@30845
   685
wenzelm@30845
   686
* Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
wenzelm@30845
   687
Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
wenzelm@30845
   688
process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
wenzelm@30845
   689
platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
wenzelm@30845
   690
within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
wenzelm@30845
   691
commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
wenzelm@30845
   692
wenzelm@30845
   693
* Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
wenzelm@30845
   694
sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
wenzelm@30845
   695
provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
wenzelm@30845
   696
src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
wenzelm@30845
   697
wenzelm@30845
   698
* ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
wenzelm@30845
   699
menu.
wenzelm@30845
   700
wenzelm@30845
   701
* The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
wenzelm@30845
   702
(contains the empty clause).
wenzelm@30845
   703
wenzelm@30845
   704
* The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
wenzelm@30845
   705
an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
wenzelm@30845
   706
wenzelm@30845
   707
* Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
wenzelm@30845
   708
src/Tools/coherent.ML).
wenzelm@30845
   709
wenzelm@30845
   710
* Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
wenzelm@30845
   711
"undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
wenzelm@30845
   712
logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
   713
wenzelm@30845
   714
* Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
wenzelm@30845
   715
result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
wenzelm@30845
   716
square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
wenzelm@30845
   717
specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
wenzelm@30845
   718
src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
wenzelm@30845
   719
wenzelm@30845
   720
* Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
wenzelm@30845
   721
Declare with attribute [code nbe].
wenzelm@30845
   722
wenzelm@30845
   723
* Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
wenzelm@30845
   724
as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
wenzelm@30845
   725
corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
wenzelm@30845
   726
are now presented as a list of individual projections
wenzelm@30845
   727
(e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
wenzelm@30845
   728
explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
wenzelm@30845
   729
rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
wenzelm@30845
   730
elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
wenzelm@30845
   731
rule: prod.exhaust) here.
wenzelm@30845
   732
wenzelm@30845
   733
* Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
wenzelm@30845
   734
wenzelm@30845
   735
* Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
wenzelm@30845
   736
wenzelm@30845
   737
* The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
wenzelm@30845
   738
option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
   739
wenzelm@30845
   740
* New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
wenzelm@30845
   741
orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
wenzelm@30845
   742
(in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
wenzelm@30845
   743
"strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
wenzelm@30845
   744
wenzelm@30845
   745
* Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
wenzelm@30845
   746
authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
haftmann@30304
   747
haftmann@30304
   748
    op Int ~>   Set.Int
haftmann@30304
   749
    op Un ~>    Set.Un
haftmann@30304
   750
    INTER ~>    Set.INTER
haftmann@30304
   751
    UNION ~>    Set.UNION
haftmann@30304
   752
    Inter ~>    Set.Inter
haftmann@30304
   753
    Union ~>    Set.Union
haftmann@30304
   754
    {} ~>       Set.empty
haftmann@30304
   755
    UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
haftmann@30304
   756
wenzelm@30845
   757
* Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
wenzelm@30845
   758
theory Set.
wenzelm@30845
   759
wenzelm@30845
   760
* Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
wenzelm@30845
   761
parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
haftmann@29797
   762
haftmann@29823
   763
* Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
haftmann@29823
   764
wenzelm@30845
   765
* Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
wenzelm@30845
   766
Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
wenzelm@30845
   767
wenzelm@30845
   768
* Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
wenzelm@30845
   769
method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
wenzelm@30845
   770
interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
wenzelm@30845
   771
functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
wenzelm@30845
   772
allowed. For examples see
wenzelm@30845
   773
src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
haftmann@29823
   774
haftmann@29823
   775
* Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
haftmann@29650
   776
wenzelm@30845
   777
* Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
wenzelm@30845
   778
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@29628
   779
haftmann@29197
   780
* Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
haftmann@29197
   781
structure:
haftmann@28952
   782
haftmann@28952
   783
    src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
haftmann@28952
   784
    src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   785
    src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   786
    src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   787
    src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   788
    src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
huffman@30176
   789
    src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
haftmann@28952
   790
    src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   791
    src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   792
    src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   793
    src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   794
    src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   795
    src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   796
    src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   797
    src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   798
    src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
huffman@30176
   799
    src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
huffman@30176
   800
    src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
haftmann@28952
   801
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   802
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   803
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   804
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   805
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   806
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   807
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   808
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   809
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@29197
   810
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   811
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   812
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   813
    src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
haftmann@29197
   814
    src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
haftmann@29197
   815
    src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
   816
haftmann@28952
   817
    src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
haftmann@28952
   818
    src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
haftmann@28952
   819
    src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
haftmann@28952
   820
    src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
haftmann@28952
   821
    src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
haftmann@28952
   822
    src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
haftmann@28952
   823
    src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
haftmann@28952
   824
    src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
haftmann@28952
   825
    src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
haftmann@28952
   826
    src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
haftmann@28952
   827
haftmann@29398
   828
    src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
haftmann@29398
   829
    src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
haftmann@29398
   830
    src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
haftmann@29398
   831
    src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
haftmann@29398
   832
    src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
haftmann@29398
   833
    src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
haftmann@29398
   834
wenzelm@30845
   835
* If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
wenzelm@30845
   836
state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
wenzelm@30845
   837
possible), avoiding strange error messages.
wenzelm@30845
   838
wenzelm@30845
   839
* Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
wenzelm@30845
   840
modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
wenzelm@30845
   841
src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
wenzelm@30845
   842
wenzelm@30845
   843
* Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
wenzelm@30845
   844
variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
   845
wenzelm@30845
   846
* Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
wenzelm@30845
   847
fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
wenzelm@30845
   848
wenzelm@30845
   849
* New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
wenzelm@30845
   850
automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
wenzelm@30845
   851
proofs, e.g.
wenzelm@30845
   852
wenzelm@30845
   853
  assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
wenzelm@30845
   854
nipkow@30706
   855
Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
nipkow@30706
   856
wenzelm@30845
   857
* New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
wenzelm@30845
   858
"bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
wenzelm@30845
   859
requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
   860
wenzelm@30845
   861
* Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
wenzelm@30845
   862
instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
wenzelm@30845
   863
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
   864
wenzelm@30845
   865
* Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
wenzelm@30845
   866
induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
wenzelm@30845
   867
"wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
wenzelm@30845
   868
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
   869
wenzelm@30845
   870
* Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
wenzelm@27793
   871
INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
wenzelm@27793
   872
etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
wenzelm@27793
   873
preorder_class.*.
wenzelm@27793
   874
wenzelm@30845
   875
* Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
wenzelm@30845
   876
"diag" to "Id_on".
wenzelm@30845
   877
wenzelm@30845
   878
* Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
wenzelm@30845
   879
nipkow@28855
   880
  ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
wenzelm@30845
   881
wenzelm@30845
   882
Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
wenzelm@30845
   883
which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
wenzelm@30845
   884
fold_image.
wenzelm@30845
   885
wenzelm@30845
   886
* Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
wenzelm@30845
   887
and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
wenzelm@30845
   888
extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
wenzelm@30845
   889
the former will disappear at some point.
wenzelm@30845
   890
wenzelm@30845
   891
* Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
wenzelm@30845
   892
class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
wenzelm@30845
   893
have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
huffman@30273
   894
huffman@30273
   895
rat_power_0    -> power_0
huffman@30273
   896
rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
huffman@30273
   897
realpow_0      -> power_0
huffman@30273
   898
realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
huffman@30273
   899
complexpow_0   -> power_0
huffman@30273
   900
complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
huffman@30273
   901
power_poly_0   -> power_0
huffman@30273
   902
power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
huffman@30273
   903
wenzelm@30845
   904
* Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
wenzelm@27793
   905
moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
wenzelm@27793
   906
dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
wenzelm@27793
   907
of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
wenzelm@27793
   908
semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
wenzelm@27793
   909
renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
haftmann@27651
   910
haftmann@27651
   911
    dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
haftmann@27651
   912
    zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
haftmann@28559
   913
    dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
haftmann@27651
   914
    DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
haftmann@27651
   915
    DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
haftmann@27651
   916
    mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
haftmann@27651
   917
    mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
haftmann@27651
   918
wenzelm@30845
   919
* Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
wenzelm@30845
   920
generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
wenzelm@30845
   921
rename old lemmas as follows:
nipkow@30044
   922
nipkow@30044
   923
dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
nipkow@30044
   924
dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
nipkow@30224
   925
mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
nipkow@30224
   926
mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
nipkow@30224
   927
mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
nipkow@30224
   928
mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
nipkow@30044
   929
nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
nipkow@30044
   930
nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
nipkow@30044
   931
nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
nipkow@30044
   932
nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
nipkow@30044
   933
zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
nipkow@30044
   934
zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
nipkow@30181
   935
zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
nipkow@30044
   936
zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
nipkow@30044
   937
zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
nipkow@30044
   938
zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
nipkow@30044
   939
zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
nipkow@30085
   940
zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
nipkow@30044
   941
zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
nipkow@30044
   942
zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
nipkow@30044
   943
zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
nipkow@30044
   944
zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
nipkow@30224
   945
zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
nipkow@30044
   946
zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
nipkow@30044
   947
zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
nipkow@30044
   948
zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
nipkow@30044
   949
zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
nipkow@30044
   950
zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
nipkow@30044
   951
zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
nipkow@30044
   952
zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
nipkow@30044
   953
zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
nipkow@30044
   954
zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
nipkow@30044
   955
zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
nipkow@30044
   956
zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
nipkow@30044
   957
zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
nipkow@30044
   958
zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
nipkow@30044
   959
zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
nipkow@30044
   960
zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
nipkow@30044
   961
zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
nipkow@30044
   962
zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
nipkow@30044
   963
zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
nipkow@30044
   964
zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
nipkow@30044
   965
zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
nipkow@30044
   966
zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
nipkow@30044
   967
zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
nipkow@30044
   968
wenzelm@30845
   969
* Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
   970
wenzelm@30845
   971
* The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
wenzelm@30845
   972
into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
wenzelm@30845
   973
wenzelm@30845
   974
* Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
wenzelm@30845
   975
univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
wenzelm@30845
   976
the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
wenzelm@30845
   977
generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
wenzelm@30845
   978
wenzelm@30845
   979
* Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
wenzelm@30845
   980
inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
wenzelm@30845
   981
=> real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
wenzelm@30845
   982
theory RealVector.
wenzelm@30845
   983
wenzelm@30845
   984
* Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
wenzelm@30845
   985
type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
wenzelm@30845
   986
Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
wenzelm@30845
   987
and inner products are included.
wenzelm@30845
   988
wenzelm@30845
   989
* Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
wenzelm@30845
   990
addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
wenzelm@30845
   991
supported.
wenzelm@30845
   992
wenzelm@30845
   993
* Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
wenzelm@30845
   994
first diagonalization argument.
wenzelm@30845
   995
wenzelm@30845
   996
* Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
wenzelm@27599
   997
zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
wenzelm@30845
   998
the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
wenzelm@30845
   999
ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
wenzelm@30845
  1000
may recover tupled syntax as follows:
haftmann@27556
  1001
haftmann@27556
  1002
    hide (open) const gcd
haftmann@27556
  1003
    abbreviation gcd where
haftmann@27556
  1004
      "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
haftmann@27556
  1005
    notation (output)
haftmann@27556
  1006
      GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
haftmann@27556
  1007
wenzelm@30845
  1008
The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
wenzelm@30845
  1009
wenzelm@30845
  1010
* Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
wenzelm@30845
  1011
instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
wenzelm@30845
  1012
theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
  1013
wenzelm@30845
  1014
* ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
haftmann@27651
  1015
corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
haftmann@27651
  1016
resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
haftmann@27651
  1017
All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
haftmann@27651
  1018
simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
wenzelm@30845
  1019
instrumentalizing code generation.  See
wenzelm@30845
  1020
src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
wenzelm@30845
  1021
In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
wenzelm@30845
  1022
code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
wenzelm@30845
  1023
cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
wenzelm@30845
  1024
set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
wenzelm@30845
  1025
cases.
wenzelm@27122
  1026
wenzelm@27122
  1027
* Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
wenzelm@27122
  1028
takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
wenzelm@27122
  1029
represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
wenzelm@27122
  1030
proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
wenzelm@27122
  1031
have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
wenzelm@27122
  1032
haftmann@27104
  1033
    unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
haftmann@27104
  1034
    prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
haftmann@27104
  1035
    sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
haftmann@27104
  1036
    Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
haftmann@27104
  1037
    Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
haftmann@27104
  1038
haftmann@27104
  1039
ballarin@27696
  1040
*** HOL-Algebra ***
ballarin@27696
  1041
ballarin@27713
  1042
* New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
wenzelm@30106
  1043
is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
wenzelm@30106
  1044
locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
ballarin@27713
  1045
ballarin@27713
  1046
* New theory of factorial domains.
ballarin@27713
  1047
wenzelm@30845
  1048
* Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
ballarin@27696
  1049
INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
ballarin@27696
  1050
and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
ballarin@27696
  1051
wenzelm@30845
  1052
* Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
wenzelm@30845
  1053
ballarin@27696
  1054
UpperD ~> Upper_memD
ballarin@27696
  1055
LowerD ~> Lower_memD
ballarin@27696
  1056
least_carrier ~> least_closed
ballarin@27696
  1057
greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
ballarin@27696
  1058
greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
ballarin@27717
  1059
one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
ballarin@27717
  1060
one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
ballarin@27696
  1061
wenzelm@27793
  1062
wenzelm@30849
  1063
*** HOL-Nominal ***
wenzelm@30849
  1064
wenzelm@30855
  1065
* Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
wenzelm@30855
  1066
wenzelm@30855
  1067
* Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
wenzelm@30855
  1068
theory targets.
wenzelm@30855
  1069
wenzelm@30855
  1070
* Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
wenzelm@30855
  1071
specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
wenzelm@30855
  1072
'inductive' etc.
wenzelm@30855
  1073
wenzelm@30855
  1074
* Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
wenzelm@30855
  1075
(no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
wenzelm@30855
  1076
wenzelm@30855
  1077
* The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
wenzelm@30855
  1078
left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
wenzelm@30855
  1079
wenzelm@30855
  1080
* Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
wenzelm@30855
  1081
principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
wenzelm@30855
  1082
'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
wenzelm@30855
  1083
binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
wenzelm@30855
  1084
atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
wenzelm@30855
  1085
moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
wenzelm@30855
  1086
the algorithm W:
wenzelm@30855
  1087
wenzelm@30855
  1088
 Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
wenzelm@30855
  1089
 -----------------------------------------------------------------
wenzelm@30855
  1090
         Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
wenzelm@30855
  1091
wenzelm@30855
  1092
In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
wenzelm@30855
  1093
"close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
wenzelm@30855
  1094
feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
wenzelm@30849
  1095
wenzelm@30849
  1096
huffman@30176
  1097
*** HOLCF ***
huffman@30176
  1098
huffman@30176
  1099
* Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
huffman@30176
  1100
subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
huffman@30176
  1101
continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
huffman@30176
  1102
huffman@30176
  1103
* The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
huffman@30176
  1104
solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
huffman@30176
  1105
some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
huffman@30176
  1106
old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
huffman@30176
  1107
Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
huffman@30176
  1108
wenzelm@30847
  1109
* Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
wenzelm@30855
  1110
format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
wenzelm@30855
  1111
examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
  1112
wenzelm@30845
  1113
wenzelm@30845
  1114
*** ZF ***
wenzelm@30845
  1115
wenzelm@30845
  1116
* Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
huffman@30176
  1117
huffman@30176
  1118
wenzelm@27246
  1119
*** ML ***
wenzelm@28088
  1120
wenzelm@30845
  1121
* Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
wenzelm@30845
  1122
Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
wenzelm@30845
  1123
depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
wenzelm@30845
  1124
5.2.1!
wenzelm@30845
  1125
wenzelm@29161
  1126
* High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
wenzelm@29161
  1127
src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
wenzelm@29161
  1128
particularly convenient to organize independent functional
wenzelm@29161
  1129
computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
wenzelm@29161
  1130
higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
wenzelm@30845
  1131
delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
wenzelm@30845
  1132
Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
wenzelm@30845
  1133
wenzelm@30845
  1134
* ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
wenzelm@30845
  1135
context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
wenzelm@30845
  1136
become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
wenzelm@30845
  1137
top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
wenzelm@30845
  1138
INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
wenzelm@30845
  1139
compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
wenzelm@30845
  1140
theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
wenzelm@30845
  1141
wenzelm@30845
  1142
* Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
wenzelm@30845
  1143
context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
wenzelm@30845
  1144
a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
wenzelm@30845
  1145
ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
wenzelm@30845
  1146
proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
wenzelm@29161
  1147
wenzelm@30530
  1148
* Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
wenzelm@30845
  1149
and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
wenzelm@30547
  1150
'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
wenzelm@30547
  1151
existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
wenzelm@30547
  1152
Method.add_method.
wenzelm@30530
  1153
wenzelm@28294
  1154
* Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
wenzelm@28294
  1155
to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
wenzelm@28294
  1156
name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
wenzelm@28294
  1157
is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
wenzelm@28294
  1158
accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
wenzelm@28294
  1159
the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
wenzelm@28294
  1160
wenzelm@30845
  1161
* Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
wenzelm@30845
  1162
ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
wenzelm@30845
  1163
ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
wenzelm@30845
  1164
antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
wenzelm@30845
  1165
examples.
wenzelm@28099
  1166
wenzelm@30395
  1167
* More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
wenzelm@30395
  1168
name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
wenzelm@30399
  1169
move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
wenzelm@30395
  1170
Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
wenzelm@30395
  1171
abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
wenzelm@30845
  1172
qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
wenzelm@30845
  1173
tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
wenzelm@30845
  1174
bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
wenzelm@30399
  1175
bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
wenzelm@30395
  1176
src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
wenzelm@30395
  1177
wenzelm@28089
  1178
* Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
wenzelm@28089
  1179
LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
wenzelm@28089
  1180
bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
wenzelm@28089
  1181
wenzelm@27287
  1182
* Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
wenzelm@27287
  1183
Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
wenzelm@27287
  1184
Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
wenzelm@27287
  1185
use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
wenzelm@27269
  1186
Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
wenzelm@27269
  1187
resort for legacy applications.
wenzelm@27269
  1188
wenzelm@30609
  1189
* Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
wenzelm@30609
  1190
the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
wenzelm@30609
  1191
Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
wenzelm@30609
  1192
embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
wenzelm@30609
  1193
explicit runtime argument.
wenzelm@30609
  1194
wenzelm@30845
  1195
* Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
wenzelm@30845
  1196
res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
wenzelm@30845
  1197
context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
wenzelm@30845
  1198
the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
wenzelm@30845
  1199
thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
  1200
wenzelm@30845
  1201
* Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
wenzelm@30845
  1202
transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
wenzelm@30845
  1203
for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
wenzelm@30845
  1204
theory state.
wenzelm@30845
  1205
wenzelm@30845
  1206
* ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
wenzelm@27391
  1207
\<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
wenzelm@27391
  1208
wenzelm@30845
  1209
  @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
wenzelm@27519
  1210
  @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
wenzelm@27519
  1211
  @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
wenzelm@27519
  1212
  @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
wenzelm@27519
  1213
  @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
wenzelm@27519
  1214
  @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
wenzelm@27519
  1215
  @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
wenzelm@27519
  1216
  @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
wenzelm@27519
  1217
  @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
wenzelm@27519
  1218
  @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
wenzelm@27380
  1219
wenzelm@27246
  1220
wenzelm@27979
  1221
*** System ***
wenzelm@27979
  1222
wenzelm@28248
  1223
* The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
wenzelm@28248
  1224
Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
wenzelm@28248
  1225
installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
wenzelm@28248
  1226
isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
wenzelm@28248
  1227
installation location of the Proof General distribution.
wenzelm@28248
  1228
wenzelm@27979
  1229
* Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
wenzelm@27979
  1230
the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
wenzelm@27979
  1231
Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
wenzelm@27979
  1232
process wrapper has been discontinued.)
wenzelm@27979
  1233
wenzelm@30845
  1234
* Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
wenzelm@30845
  1235
wenzelm@30845
  1236
* Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
wenzelm@27979
  1237
emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
wenzelm@27979
  1238
user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
wenzelm@27979
  1239
prover operations.
wenzelm@27979
  1240
wenzelm@27979
  1241
wenzelm@27143
  1242
wenzelm@27008
  1243
New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
wenzelm@27008
  1244
-------------------------------
wenzelm@25464
  1245
wenzelm@25522
  1246
*** General ***
wenzelm@25522
  1247
wenzelm@27061
  1248
* The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
wenzelm@27061
  1249
and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
wenzelm@27061
  1250
wenzelm@25994
  1251
* Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
wenzelm@25994
  1252
implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
wenzelm@25994
  1253
conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
wenzelm@25994
  1254
provides a proper context already.
wenzelm@25994
  1255
wenzelm@26323
  1256
* Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
wenzelm@26323
  1257
file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
wenzelm@26323
  1258
'use' within a theory file will do the job.
wenzelm@26323
  1259
wenzelm@26650
  1260
* Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
wenzelm@26650
  1261
is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
wenzelm@26659
  1262
space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
wenzelm@26650
  1263
swap theory imports.
wenzelm@26650
  1264
wenzelm@27067
  1265
* Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
wenzelm@27067
  1266
INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
wenzelm@27067
  1267
wenzelm@27067
  1268
* Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
wenzelm@27067
  1269
which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
wenzelm@27067
  1270
white space without escapes.
wenzelm@27067
  1271
wenzelm@27067
  1272
* Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
wenzelm@27067
  1273
specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
wenzelm@27067
  1274
"foo_bar".
wenzelm@27067
  1275
wenzelm@25522
  1276
haftmann@25502
  1277
*** Pure ***
haftmann@25502
  1278
wenzelm@26718
  1279
* Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
wenzelm@26718
  1280
fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
wenzelm@26718
  1281
berghofe@26681
  1282
* Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
berghofe@26681
  1283
There are three ways of invoking it:
berghofe@26681
  1284
berghofe@26681
  1285
(1) unused_thms
berghofe@26681
  1286
     Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
berghofe@26681
  1287
berghofe@26681
  1288
(2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
berghofe@26681
  1289
     Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
berghofe@26681
  1290
     excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
berghofe@26681
  1291
berghofe@26681
  1292
(3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
berghofe@26681
  1293
     Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
berghofe@26681
  1294
     their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
berghofe@26681
  1295
     their ancestors.
berghofe@26681
  1296
wenzelm@26718
  1297
In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
wenzelm@26718
  1298
unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
wenzelm@26874
  1299
of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
wenzelm@26874
  1300
to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
wenzelm@26718
  1301
this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
wenzelm@26718
  1302
reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
wenzelm@26718
  1303
unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
wenzelm@26718
  1304
wenzelm@26718
  1305
Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
wenzelm@26718
  1306
unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
wenzelm@26874
  1307
usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
berghofe@26681
  1308
wenzelm@26650
  1309
* Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
wenzelm@26650
  1310
theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
wenzelm@26650
  1311
duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
wenzelm@26650
  1312
that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
wenzelm@26650
  1313
PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
wenzelm@26650
  1314
wenzelm@26660
  1315
* Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
wenzelm@26660
  1316
wenzelm@26496
  1317
* Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
wenzelm@26496
  1318
clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
wenzelm@26496
  1319
update of theories within ML code.
wenzelm@26479
  1320
wenzelm@26955
  1321
* Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
wenzelm@26955
  1322
INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
wenzelm@26955
  1323
additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
wenzelm@26955
  1324
depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
wenzelm@26650
  1325
wenzelm@26495
  1326
* Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
wenzelm@26479
  1327
theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
wenzelm@26479
  1328
instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
wenzelm@26479
  1329
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@26479
  1330
wenzelm@26874
  1331
* Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
wenzelm@26434
  1332
wenzelm@25970
  1333
* Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
wenzelm@25970
  1334
instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
wenzelm@25970
  1335
Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
wenzelm@27067
  1336
See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
wenzelm@27067
  1337
src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
haftmann@25502
  1338
wenzelm@26201
  1339
* Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
wenzelm@26201
  1340
facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
wenzelm@26201
  1341
background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
wenzelm@26201
  1342
"fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
wenzelm@26201
  1343
situations.
wenzelm@26201
  1344
wenzelm@26925
  1345
* Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
wenzelm@26925
  1346
"(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
wenzelm@26925
  1347
proof text.
wenzelm@26925
  1348
wenzelm@26925
  1349
* Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
wenzelm@26925
  1350
INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
wenzelm@26925
  1351
wenzelm@26874
  1352
* Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
wenzelm@26874
  1353
hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
wenzelm@26874
  1354
predicates.
ballarin@26765
  1355
ballarin@26765
  1356
haftmann@26762
  1357
*** Document preparation ***
haftmann@26762
  1358
wenzelm@26914
  1359
* Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
wenzelm@26914
  1360
both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
wenzelm@26914
  1361
obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
wenzelm@26914
  1362
spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
wenzelm@26920
  1363
value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
wenzelm@26920
  1364
"a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
wenzelm@26914
  1365
wenzelm@27008
  1366
* Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
wenzelm@27008
  1367
method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
wenzelm@27008
  1368
arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
haftmann@26762
  1369
haftmann@26762
  1370
wenzelm@25464
  1371
*** HOL ***
wenzelm@25464
  1372
wenzelm@27067
  1373
* New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
wenzelm@27067
  1374
definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
wenzelm@27067
  1375
"primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
wenzelm@27067
  1376
by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
wenzelm@27067
  1377
When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
wenzelm@27067
  1378
primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
wenzelm@27067
  1379
wenzelm@27067
  1380
* Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
wenzelm@27067
  1381
with multithreading.
wenzelm@27067
  1382
wenzelm@27067
  1383
* Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
wenzelm@27067
  1384
theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
wenzelm@27067
  1385
exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
wenzelm@27067
  1386
wenzelm@27067
  1387
* Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
wenzelm@27067
  1388
enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
wenzelm@27067
  1389
reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
wenzelm@27067
  1390
sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@27067
  1391
haftmann@27104
  1392
* Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
wenzelm@27067
  1393
from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
wenzelm@27067
  1394
out some operations that are done internally by the function package
wenzelm@27067
  1395
and makes them available separately.  See
wenzelm@27067
  1396
src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
wenzelm@27067
  1397
wenzelm@27067
  1398
* More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
wenzelm@27067
  1399
proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
wenzelm@27067
  1400
form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
wenzelm@27067
  1401
The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
wenzelm@27067
  1402
just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
wenzelm@27067
  1403
termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
wenzelm@27067
  1404
type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
wenzelm@27067
  1405
the declared rules.
wenzelm@27067
  1406
wenzelm@27067
  1407
This setup also deals with rules like 
wenzelm@27067
  1408
wenzelm@27067
  1409
  "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
wenzelm@27067
  1410
wenzelm@27067
  1411
which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
wenzelm@27067
  1412
Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
wenzelm@27067
  1413
berghofe@26964
  1414
* Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
berghofe@26964
  1415
berghofe@26964
  1416
  INCOMPATIBILITIES:
berghofe@26964
  1417
wenzelm@27008
  1418
  - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
wenzelm@27008
  1419
    definitions on => and bool.
berghofe@26964
  1420
berghofe@26964
  1421
  - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
wenzelm@27008
  1422
    using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
wenzelm@27008
  1423
    the following theorems have been renamed:
berghofe@26964
  1424
berghofe@26964
  1425
      subset_def   -> subset_eq
berghofe@26964
  1426
      psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
berghofe@26964
  1427
      set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
berghofe@26964
  1428
      Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
berghofe@26964
  1429
      Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
berghofe@26964
  1430
      Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
berghofe@26964
  1431
      sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
berghofe@26964
  1432
      inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
berghofe@26964
  1433
berghofe@26964
  1434
  - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
berghofe@26964
  1435
    rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
berghofe@26964
  1436
    the unknowns in the rule is a set.
berghofe@26964
  1437
berghofe@26964
  1438
  - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
berghofe@26964
  1439
    The proof pattern
berghofe@26964
  1440
berghofe@26964
  1441
      have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
berghofe@26964
  1442
      then have "EX S. P S" ..
berghofe@26964
  1443
wenzelm@27008
  1444
    no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
wenzelm@27008
  1445
    algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
berghofe@26964
  1446
berghofe@26964
  1447
      have "EX S. P S"
berghofe@26964
  1448
      proof
berghofe@26964
  1449
        show "P S" <...>
berghofe@26964
  1450
      qed
berghofe@26964
  1451
berghofe@26964
  1452
  - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
berghofe@26964
  1453
    The proof pattern
berghofe@26964
  1454
berghofe@26964
  1455
      have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
berghofe@26964
  1456
      also have "S = T" <...>
berghofe@26964
  1457
      finally have "P T" .
berghofe@26964
  1458
wenzelm@27008
  1459
    no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
wenzelm@27008
  1460
    must be replaced by something like
berghofe@26964
  1461
berghofe@26964
  1462
      have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
berghofe@26964
  1463
      moreover have "S = T" <...>
berghofe@26964
  1464
      ultimately have "P T" by simp
berghofe@26964
  1465
berghofe@26964
  1466
  - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
berghofe@26964
  1467
    Code performing pattern matching on types via
berghofe@26964
  1468
berghofe@26964
  1469
      Type ("set", [T]) => ...
berghofe@26964
  1470
wenzelm@27008
  1471
    must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
wenzelm@27008
  1472
    binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
wenzelm@27008
  1473
    type of the form
berghofe@26964
  1474
berghofe@26964
  1475
      T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
berghofe@26964
  1476
berghofe@26964
  1477
    rather than
berghofe@26964
  1478
berghofe@26964
  1479
      T1 => ... => Tn => U set
berghofe@26964
  1480
wenzelm@26874
  1481
* Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
wenzelm@27067
  1482
Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
krauss@26748
  1483
haftmann@26513
  1484
* Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@26513
  1485
wenzelm@26874
  1486
* Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
wenzelm@26874
  1487
enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
haftmann@26445
  1488
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@26445
  1489
wenzelm@26874
  1490
* Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
wenzelm@26874
  1491
and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@26874
  1492
wenzelm@26422
  1493
* HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
wenzelm@26422
  1494
Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@26422
  1495
wenzelm@26874
  1496
* Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
wenzelm@26874
  1497
injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
wenzelm@26874
  1498
Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@26355
  1499
wenzelm@26335
  1500
* Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
wenzelm@26335
  1501
the same name in theory Orderings:
wenzelm@26335
  1502
wenzelm@26335
  1503
  less_trans
wenzelm@26335
  1504
  less_linear
wenzelm@26335
  1505
  le_imp_less_or_eq
wenzelm@26335
  1506
  le_less_trans
wenzelm@26335
  1507
  less_le_trans
wenzelm@26335
  1508
  less_not_sym
wenzelm@26335
  1509
  less_asym
wenzelm@26335
  1510
wenzelm@26335
  1511
Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
wenzelm@26335
  1512
less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
wenzelm@26335
  1513
and different variable names.
wenzelm@26315
  1514
haftmann@26231
  1515
* Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
haftmann@26231
  1516
wenzelm@27008
  1517
* Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
wenzelm@27008
  1518
finite maps.
krauss@26197
  1519
haftmann@26231
  1520
* Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
haftmann@26231
  1521
wenzelm@26180
  1522
* Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
wenzelm@26180
  1523
operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
wenzelm@26180
  1524
disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
wenzelm@26180
  1525
place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
wenzelm@26180
  1526
involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
wenzelm@26180
  1527
accordingly.
wenzelm@26180
  1528
wenzelm@26180
  1529
* Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
wenzelm@26180
  1530
depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
wenzelm@26180
  1531
le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
wenzelm@26180
  1532
[symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
wenzelm@26180
  1533
wenzelm@26180
  1534
* Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
wenzelm@26180
  1535
(whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
wenzelm@26874
  1536
abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
wenzelm@26180
  1537
ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
wenzelm@26180
  1538
lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
haftmann@26139
  1539
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@26041
  1540
wenzelm@26180
  1541
* Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
wenzelm@26180
  1542
case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@26180
  1543
wenzelm@26180
  1544
* Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
wenzelm@26180
  1545
lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
wenzelm@26180
  1546
Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
haftmann@26013
  1547
wenzelm@26874
  1548
* Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
wenzelm@27067
  1549
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@25961
  1550
wenzelm@26180
  1551
* Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
haftmann@25942
  1552
with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
haftmann@25942
  1553
wenzelm@26180
  1554
* Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
wenzelm@26180
  1555
Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@26180
  1556
wenzelm@26180
  1557
* Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
wenzelm@26180
  1558
numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@26180
  1559
wenzelm@26180
  1560
* New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
wenzelm@26180
  1561
"minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
haftmann@25919
  1562
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@25919
  1563
wenzelm@25522
  1564
* Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
haftmann@25919
  1565
syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@25522
  1566
wenzelm@25522
  1567
* Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
wenzelm@25522
  1568
le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
wenzelm@25522
  1569
sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
wenzelm@25522
  1570
Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
wenzelm@25522
  1571
Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
haftmann@25919
  1572
equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@25464
  1573
schirmer@25705
  1574
* Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
wenzelm@25726
  1575
%x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
schirmer@25705
  1576
INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
wenzelm@25464
  1577
wenzelm@27067
  1578
* Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
wenzelm@27067
  1579
wenzelm@27067
  1580
* Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
wenzelm@27067
  1581
wenzelm@27067
  1582
* Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
wenzelm@27067
  1583
pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
wenzelm@27067
  1584
well-orders on sets and on types.
krauss@26877
  1585
wenzelm@25726
  1586
krauss@26197
  1587
*** ZF ***
krauss@26197
  1588
wenzelm@26874
  1589
* Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
wenzelm@26874
  1590
same session:
wenzelm@26874
  1591
wenzelm@26874
  1592
  Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
wenzelm@26874
  1593
  Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
wenzelm@26874
  1594
  Int       -> Int_ZF
wenzelm@26874
  1595
  IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
wenzelm@26874
  1596
  Nat       -> Nat_ZF
wenzelm@26874
  1597
  List      -> List_ZF
wenzelm@26874
  1598
  Main      -> Main_ZF
wenzelm@26874
  1599
wenzelm@26874
  1600
INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
wenzelm@26874
  1601
Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
wenzelm@26874
  1602
available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
krauss@26197
  1603
krauss@26197
  1604
wenzelm@25737
  1605
*** ML ***
wenzelm@25737
  1606
wenzelm@27067
  1607
* ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
wenzelm@27067
  1608
name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
wenzelm@27067
  1609
wenzelm@26401
  1610
* Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
wenzelm@26724
  1611
(of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
wenzelm@26401
  1612
wenzelm@27067
  1613
* Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
wenzelm@26188
  1614
wenzelm@25737
  1615
* The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
wenzelm@25737
  1616
template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
wenzelm@25737
  1617
non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
wenzelm@25737
  1618
management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
wenzelm@25737
  1619
print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@25737
  1620
wenzelm@26874
  1621
* Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
wenzelm@29161
  1622
shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
wenzelm@29161
  1623
5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
wenzelm@26222
  1624
wenzelm@25737
  1625
wenzelm@25626
  1626
*** System ***
wenzelm@25626
  1627
wenzelm@25971
  1628
* Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
wenzelm@25971
  1629
in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
wenzelm@25970
  1630
wenzelm@25626
  1631
* isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
wenzelm@25626
  1632
optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
wenzelm@25626
  1633
setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
wenzelm@25626
  1634
wenzelm@25651
  1635
* isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
wenzelm@25651
  1636
"javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
wenzelm@25651
  1637
wenzelm@27067
  1638
* YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
wenzelm@27067
  1639
standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
wenzelm@27067
  1640
isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
wenzelm@25651
  1641
wenzelm@25652
  1642
* JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
wenzelm@25651
  1643
provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
wenzelm@25651
  1644
fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
wenzelm@25651
  1645
wenzelm@25855
  1646
* Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
wenzelm@25855
  1647
based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
wenzelm@25855
  1648
wenzelm@27067
  1649
* Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
wenzelm@27067
  1650
way of changing the user's settings is via
wenzelm@27067
  1651
ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
wenzelm@27067
  1652
script.
wenzelm@27067
  1653
wenzelm@27067
  1654
* Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
wenzelm@27067
  1655
cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
wenzelm@27067
  1656
optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
wenzelm@27067
  1657
"max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
wenzelm@27067
  1658
of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
wenzelm@27067
  1659
wenzelm@27067
  1660
* isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
wenzelm@27067
  1661
adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
wenzelm@27067
  1662
ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
wenzelm@27067
  1663
wenzelm@25626
  1664
wenzelm@25464
  1665
wenzelm@25429
  1666
New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
wenzelm@25429
  1667
-----------------------------------
wenzelm@17754
  1668
wenzelm@17754
  1669
*** General ***
wenzelm@17754
  1670
wenzelm@22826
  1671
* More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
wenzelm@22826
  1672
warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
wenzelm@23367
  1673
tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
wenzelm@23367
  1674
legacy features will disappear eventually.
wenzelm@22826
  1675
wenzelm@17918
  1676
* Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
wenzelm@17918
  1677
discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
wenzelm@17918
  1678
fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@17918
  1679
wenzelm@17918
  1680
* Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
wenzelm@17918
  1681
discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
wenzelm@17918
  1682
with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
wenzelm@17918
  1683
function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@17918
  1684
wenzelm@22871
  1685
* Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
wenzelm@22871
  1686
'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
wenzelm@22871
  1687
quotes.
wenzelm@19814
  1688
wenzelm@23888
  1689
* Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
wenzelm@23888
  1690
header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
wenzelm@24172
  1691
accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
wenzelm@24172
  1692
update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
wenzelm@24172
  1693
use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
wenzelm@24172
  1694
theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
wenzelm@24172
  1695
specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
wenzelm@24172
  1696
INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
wenzelm@24172
  1697
ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
wenzelm@23888
  1698
wenzelm@23888
  1699
* Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
wenzelm@23888
  1700
identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
wenzelm@23889
  1701
path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
wenzelm@23888
  1702
(cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
wenzelm@23888
  1703
non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
wenzelm@23888
  1704
files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
wenzelm@23888
  1705
wenzelm@24187
  1706
* Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
wenzelm@24187
  1707
file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
wenzelm@24800
  1708
feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
wenzelm@24800
  1709
no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
wenzelm@24800
  1710
wenzelm@24800
  1711
* Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
wenzelm@24800
  1712
now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
wenzelm@24234
  1713
specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
wenzelm@24234
  1714
syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
wenzelm@24234
  1715
type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
wenzelm@24234
  1716
'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
wenzelm@24234
  1717
wenzelm@25034
  1718
* Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
wenzelm@25034
  1719
'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
wenzelm@25034
  1720
``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
wenzelm@25034
  1721
really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
wenzelm@25034
  1722
ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
wenzelm@25034
  1723
trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
wenzelm@25034
  1724
translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
wenzelm@25034
  1725
@{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
wenzelm@25034
  1726
wenzelm@17981
  1727
* Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
wenzelm@17981
  1728
to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
wenzelm@17981
  1729
functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
wenzelm@17981
  1730
by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
wenzelm@17981
  1731
Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
wenzelm@17981
  1732
these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
wenzelm@17981
  1733
used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
wenzelm@17918
  1734
wenzelm@23379
  1735
* Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
wenzelm@23379
  1736
criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
wenzelm@23379
  1737
support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
webertj@22965
  1738
wenzelm@20370
  1739
* The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
wenzelm@20370
  1740
by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
wenzelm@20370
  1741
suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
wenzelm@20370
  1742
settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
wenzelm@20370
  1743
older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
wenzelm@20370
  1744
limit is imposed.
wenzelm@20370
  1745
wenzelm@21308
  1746
* Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
wenzelm@21308
  1747
``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
wenzelm@21308
  1748
contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
wenzelm@21308
  1749
that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
wenzelm@21308
  1750
generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
wenzelm@21308
  1751
and scalability.
wenzelm@21308
  1752
wenzelm@21960
  1753
* Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
wenzelm@21960
  1754
discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
wenzelm@21960
  1755
wenzelm@17754
  1756
wenzelm@17865
  1757
*** Document preparation ***
wenzelm@17865
  1758
wenzelm@21717
  1759
* Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
wenzelm@21717
  1760
after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
wenzelm@21717
  1761
current context.
haftmann@21339
  1762
wenzelm@17869
  1763
* Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
wenzelm@17869
  1764
check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
wenzelm@17865
  1765
wenzelm@21717
  1766
* Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
wenzelm@21717
  1767
"c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
wenzelm@21735
  1768
arguments may be given on the LHS.)
wenzelm@21717
  1769
wenzelm@21717
  1770
wenzelm@17779
  1771
*** Pure ***
wenzelm@17779
  1772
wenzelm@24800
  1773
* The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
wenzelm@25129
  1774
achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
wenzelm@25129
  1775
theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
wenzelm@25129
  1776
implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
wenzelm@25129
  1777
constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
wenzelm@25129
  1778
context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
wenzelm@25129
  1779
syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
wenzelm@25129
  1780
between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
wenzelm@25177
  1781
See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
haftmann@25184
  1782
"isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
wenzelm@20807
  1783
haftmann@25199
  1784
* Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
wenzelm@24800
  1785
code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
wenzelm@24800
  1786
sketch:
haftmann@20188
  1787
haftmann@20188
  1788
    internal compilation:
haftmann@25199
  1789
        export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
haftmann@20453
  1790
    writing SML code to a file:
haftmann@25199
  1791
        export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
haftmann@22735
  1792
    writing OCaml code to a file:
haftmann@25199
  1793
        export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
haftmann@20188
  1794
    writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
haftmann@25199
  1795
        export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
haftmann@25199
  1796
haftmann@25199
  1797
    evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
haftmann@25184
  1798
        method ``eval''
haftmann@25184
  1799
haftmann@25184
  1800
Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
haftmann@20453
  1801
haftmann@20453
  1802
Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
haftmann@20453
  1803
haftmann@22845
  1804
    [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
haftmann@22845
  1805
    [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
haftmann@22845
  1806
    [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
haftmann@22845
  1807
    [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
haftmann@20453
  1808
haftmann@22735
  1809
User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
haftmann@20453
  1810
haftmann@20453
  1811
    code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
haftmann@20453
  1812
      {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
haftmann@20453
  1813
haftmann@20453
  1814
    code_type <and-list of type constructors>
haftmann@20453
  1815
      {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
haftmann@20453
  1816
haftmann@20453
  1817
    code_instance <and-list of instances>
haftmann@20453
  1818
      {(target)}+
haftmann@20453
  1819
        where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
haftmann@20453
  1820
haftmann@20453
  1821
    code_class <and_list of classes>
haftmann@20453
  1822
      {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
haftmann@20453
  1823
        where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
haftmann@20453
  1824
haftmann@25199
  1825
code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
haftmann@22735
  1826
wenzelm@25177
  1827
For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
wenzelm@25177
  1828
src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
wenzelm@24800
  1829
generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
wenzelm@24800
  1830
codegen".
haftmann@20188
  1831
wenzelm@25129
  1832
* Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
wenzelm@25129
  1833
referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
wenzelm@25129
  1834
annotations).
wenzelm@25129
  1835
wenzelm@19254
  1836
* Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
wenzelm@19254
  1837
syntax.
wenzelm@19254
  1838
wenzelm@19625
  1839
* Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
wenzelm@19714
  1840
dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
wenzelm@19714
  1841
that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
wenzelm@19714
  1842
correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
wenzelm@19714
  1843
INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
wenzelm@19714
  1844
exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
wenzelm@19711
  1845
wenzelm@19711
  1846
Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
wenzelm@19711
  1847
instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
wenzelm@19711
  1848
declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
wenzelm@19711
  1849
c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
wenzelm@19711
  1850
as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
wenzelm@19711
  1851
recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
wenzelm@19714
  1852
impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
wenzelm@19715
  1853
LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
wenzelm@19714
  1854
Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
wenzelm@19714
  1855
equations, see section "definitions".
wenzelm@19625
  1856
wenzelm@24086
  1857
* Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
wenzelm@24086
  1858
context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
wenzelm@24086
  1859
interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
wenzelm@24110
  1860
declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
wenzelm@24110
  1861
these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
wenzelm@24110
  1862
associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
wenzelm@24110
  1863
declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
wenzelm@24110
  1864
'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
wenzelm@24110
  1865
very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
wenzelm@24110
  1866
toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
wenzelm@24086
  1867
wenzelm@24172
  1868
Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
wenzelm@24172
  1869
configuration options:
wenzelm@24172
  1870
wenzelm@24172
  1871
  Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
wenzelm@24172
  1872
  Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
wenzelm@24172
  1873
  Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
wenzelm@24172
  1874
  Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
wenzelm@24172
  1875
  Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
wenzelm@24172
  1876
  Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
wenzelm@24172
  1877
  DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
wenzelm@24172
  1878
  fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
wenzelm@24172
  1879
  fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
wenzelm@24172
  1880
wenzelm@24086
  1881
* Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
wenzelm@24800
  1882
data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
wenzelm@24086
  1883
src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
wenzelm@24110
  1884
attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
wenzelm@24110
  1885
just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
wenzelm@24110
  1886
for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
wenzelm@24110
  1887
order.
wenzelm@24086
  1888
wenzelm@24032
  1889
* Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
wenzelm@24032
  1890
declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
wenzelm@24032
  1891
being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
wenzelm@24032
  1892
difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
wenzelm@24032
  1893
context encountered later on.
wenzelm@24032
  1894
wenzelm@24032
  1895
* Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
wenzelm@24032
  1896
'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
wenzelm@24032
  1897
text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
wenzelm@24032
  1898
context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
wenzelm@24032
  1899
wenzelm@24032
  1900
* Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
wenzelm@24032
  1901
abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
wenzelm@24032
  1902
which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
wenzelm@24032
  1903
the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
wenzelm@24032
  1904
declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
wenzelm@24032
  1905
'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
wenzelm@24032
  1906
wenzelm@23369
  1907
* Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
wenzelm@23369
  1908
takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
wenzelm@23369
  1909
an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
wenzelm@23369
  1910
assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
wenzelm@23369
  1911
goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
wenzelm@23369
  1912
without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
wenzelm@23369
  1913
Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
wenzelm@23369
  1914
more permissive.
wenzelm@23369
  1915
wenzelm@23369
  1916
* Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
wenzelm@23369
  1917
considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
wenzelm@23369
  1918
may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
wenzelm@23369
  1919
referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
wenzelm@23369
  1920
maintainability of proof texts.
wenzelm@23369
  1921
wenzelm@17865
  1922
* Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
wenzelm@17865
  1923
the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
wenzelm@17865
  1924
wenzelm@17865
  1925
  assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
wenzelm@17865
  1926
  then guess x and y by clarify
wenzelm@17865
  1927
wenzelm@17865
  1928
This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
wenzelm@17865
  1929
proof tools being involved here.
wenzelm@17865
  1930
wenzelm@18020
  1931
* Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
wenzelm@18020
  1932
propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
wenzelm@18020
  1933
named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
wenzelm@18020
  1934
methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
wenzelm@18020
  1935
according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
wenzelm@18020
  1936
provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
wenzelm@18020
  1937
theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
wenzelm@18020
  1938
`A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
wenzelm@18020
  1939
wenzelm@18020
  1940
There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
wenzelm@18044
  1941
for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
wenzelm@18044
  1942
certain special cases of literal facts:
wenzelm@18020
  1943
wenzelm@18020
  1944
  have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
wenzelm@18020
  1945
  have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
wenzelm@18020
  1946
  have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
wenzelm@18020
  1947
  have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
wenzelm@18020
  1948
wenzelm@20118
  1949
* Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
wenzelm@20118
  1950
outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
wenzelm@20118
  1951
additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
wenzelm@20118
  1952
wenzelm@20013
  1953
* Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
wenzelm@20013
  1954
both named and unnamed ones.
wenzelm@20013
  1955
wenzelm@18308
  1956
* Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
wenzelm@18308
  1957
wenzelm@18308
  1958
  def x == "t" and y == "u"
wenzelm@18308
  1959
wenzelm@18540
  1960
* Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
wenzelm@18540
  1961
'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
wenzelm@18815
  1962
rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
wenzelm@18540
  1963
'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
wenzelm@18540
  1964
wenzelm@18815
  1965
* Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
wenzelm@18815
  1966
and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
wenzelm@18815
  1967
(potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
wenzelm@18815
  1968
analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
wenzelm@18815
  1969
Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
wenzelm@18815
  1970
kleing@24238
  1971
* Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
kleing@24238
  1972
premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
kleing@24238
  1973
wenzelm@19220
  1974
* Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
wenzelm@19220
  1975
method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
wenzelm@19240
  1976
sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
wenzelm@19240
  1977
simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
wenzelm@19240
  1978
simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
wenzelm@19240
  1979
originally first one.
wenzelm@19220
  1980
wenzelm@19814
  1981
* Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
wenzelm@19814
  1982
patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
wenzelm@19814
  1983
expected.
wenzelm@19814
  1984
wenzelm@18901
  1985
* Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
wenzelm@18901
  1986
'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
wenzelm@18901
  1987
(essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
wenzelm@18901
  1988
assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
wenzelm@18910
  1989
adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
wenzelm@18901
  1990
wenzelm@18901
  1991
  lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
wenzelm@18901
  1992
    assumes "EX x. P x"
wenzelm@18901
  1993
    obtains x where "P x"
wenzelm@18901
  1994
wenzelm@18901
  1995
  lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
wenzelm@18901
  1996
    assumes "A & B"
wenzelm@18901
  1997
    obtains A and B
wenzelm@18901
  1998
wenzelm@18901
  1999
  lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
wenzelm@18901
  2000
    assumes "A | B"
wenzelm@18901
  2001
    obtains
wenzelm@18901
  2002
      A
wenzelm@18901
  2003
    | B
wenzelm@18901
  2004
wenzelm@18910
  2005
The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
wenzelm@18901
  2006
explicitly:
wenzelm@18901
  2007
wenzelm@18901
  2008
  lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
wenzelm@18901
  2009
    obtains "~ thesis"
wenzelm@18901
  2010
wenzelm@18910
  2011
  lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
wenzelm@18910
  2012
    obtains "thesis ==> something"
wenzelm@18901
  2013
wenzelm@18901
  2014
The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
wenzelm@18910
  2015
Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
wenzelm@18910
  2016
Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
wenzelm@18910
  2017
available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
wenzelm@18910
  2018
resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
wenzelm@18910
  2019
case_names).
wenzelm@18901
  2020
wenzelm@21447
  2021
* Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
wenzelm@21447
  2022
"assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
wenzelm@21447
  2023
(historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
wenzelm@21447
  2024
context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
wenzelm@21447
  2025
wenzelm@19263
  2026
* Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
wenzelm@19263
  2027
proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
wenzelm@19263
  2028
top-level lemma.
wenzelm@19263
  2029
wenzelm@18901
  2030
* Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
wenzelm@18901
  2031
introduction rule (default "that").
wenzelm@18901
  2032
wenzelm@19587
  2033
* Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
wenzelm@19587
  2034
explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
wenzelm@19587
  2035
to occur.
wenzelm@19587
  2036
wenzelm@19682
  2037
* Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
wenzelm@19682
  2038
according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
wenzelm@19682
  2039
syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
wenzelm@19682
  2040
representations independently of name spaces.
wenzelm@19682
  2041
wenzelm@21537
  2042
* Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
wenzelm@21537
  2043
instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
wenzelm@21537
  2044
in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@21537
  2045
wenzelm@21209
  2046
* Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
wenzelm@21209
  2047
primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
wenzelm@24950
  2048
fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
wenzelm@24950
  2049
of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
wenzelm@24950
  2050
'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
wenzelm@24950
  2051
current context.
wenzelm@19682
  2052
wenzelm@19665
  2053
* Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
wenzelm@19665
  2054
'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
wenzelm@19083
  2055
object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
wenzelm@19083
  2056
isar-ref manual.  Examples:
wenzelm@19081
  2057
wenzelm@19665
  2058
  axiomatization
wenzelm@21595
  2059
    eq  (infix "===" 50) where
wenzelm@21595
  2060
    eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
wenzelm@21595
  2061
wenzelm@21595
  2062
  definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
wenzelm@21595
  2063
  definition g where "g x = f x x"
wenzelm@19081
  2064
wenzelm@19363
  2065
  abbreviation
wenzelm@21595
  2066
    neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
wenzelm@19363
  2067
    "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
wenzelm@19081
  2068
wenzelm@19083
  2069
These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
wenzelm@19083
  2070
constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
wenzelm@19083
  2071
constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
wenzelm@19083
  2072
abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
wenzelm@19088
  2073
parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
wenzelm@25177
  2074
src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
wenzelm@19083
  2075
entities from a monomorphic theory.
wenzelm@19083
  2076
wenzelm@19083
  2077
Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
wenzelm@19363
  2078
not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
wenzelm@19363
  2079
'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
wenzelm@24735
  2080
'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
wenzelm@24735
  2081
prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
wenzelm@19084
  2082
wenzelm@19682
  2083
Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
wenzelm@19682
  2084
independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
wenzelm@21209
  2085
slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
wenzelm@19682
  2086
'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
wenzelm@19665
  2087
wenzelm@24800
  2088
* Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
wenzelm@24800
  2089
(e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
wenzelm@24800
  2090
full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
wenzelm@24735
  2091
wenzelm@24735
  2092
  definition "K x _ = x"
wenzelm@24735
  2093
wenzelm@24738
  2094
  inductive conj for A B
wenzelm@24738
  2095
  where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
wenzelm@24738
  2096
wenzelm@21735
  2097
* Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
wenzelm@21735
  2098
the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
wenzelm@21735
  2099
abbreviations on output.
wenzelm@21735
  2100
wenzelm@24800
  2101
* Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
wenzelm@24800
  2102
"struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
wenzelm@24800
  2103
required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
wenzelm@24800
  2104
endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
ballarin@19783
  2105
ballarin@19931
  2106
* Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
ballarin@19931
  2107
Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
wenzelm@22126
  2108
now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
wenzelm@22126
  2109
locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
wenzelm@22126
  2110
predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
wenzelm@22126
  2111
removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
wenzelm@22126
  2112
`unfold_locales'; see below.
wenzelm@22126
  2113
wenzelm@22126
  2114
* Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
wenzelm@22126
  2115
provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
wenzelm@22126
  2116
aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
wenzelm@22126
  2117
`intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
wenzelm@22126
  2118
unfold predicates to assumptions.
ballarin@19931
  2119
ballarin@19931
  2120
* Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
wenzelm@22126
  2121
has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
wenzelm@22126
  2122
to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
ballarin@19931
  2123
ballarin@23920
  2124
* Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
ballarin@23920
  2125
extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
ballarin@23920
  2126
unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
ballarin@23920
  2127
defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
ballarin@23920
  2128
concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
ballarin@23920
  2129
ballarin@23920
  2130
  interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
ballarin@23920
  2131
    where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
ballarin@23920
  2132
wenzelm@24800
  2133
Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
wenzelm@24800
  2134
definition specification element in the context of locale
wenzelm@24800
  2135
partial_order.
wenzelm@24800
  2136
wenzelm@24859
  2137
* Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
wenzelm@24800
  2138
local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
wenzelm@24800
  2139
connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
wenzelm@24800
  2140
(using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
wenzelm@24800
  2141
obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
wenzelm@25177
  2142
src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
wenzelm@25177
  2143
src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
wenzelm@25177
  2144
examples.
wenzelm@24606
  2145
wenzelm@24859
  2146
* Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
wenzelm@24606
  2147
introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
wenzelm@24606
  2148
several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
wenzelm@24606
  2149
accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
wenzelm@25177
  2150
see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
wenzelm@24606
  2151
wenzelm@24859
  2152
* Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
wenzelm@24800
  2153
of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
wenzelm@24606
  2154
foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
wenzelm@24859
  2155
predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
wenzelm@24859
  2156
mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
wenzelm@18506
  2157
wenzelm@18506
  2158
  (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
wenzelm@18506
  2159
  (induct set: foo bar)
wenzelm@24859
  2160
  (induct pred: foo bar)
wenzelm@18506
  2161
  (induct type: foo bar)
wenzelm@18506
  2162
wenzelm@18506
  2163
The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
wenzelm@18506
  2164
new format.
wenzelm@18506
  2165
wenzelm@24859
  2166
* Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
wenzelm@18399
  2167
src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
wenzelm@18399
  2168
wenzelm@24859
  2169
* Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
wenzelm@24859
  2170
considered a legacy feature.
wenzelm@24859
  2171
wenzelm@20919
  2172
* Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
wenzelm@20919
  2173
variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@20919
  2174
wenzelm@22126
  2175
* Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
wenzelm@22126
  2176
rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
wenzelm@22126
  2177
default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
wenzelm@22126
  2178
trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
nipkow@18674
  2179
  
wenzelm@18536
  2180
* Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
wenzelm@18536
  2181
attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
wenzelm@18536
  2182
manipulating the claset.
wenzelm@18536
  2183
wenzelm@18694
  2184
* Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
wenzelm@18694
  2185
dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
wenzelm@18694
  2186
least one premise.
wenzelm@18694
  2187
wenzelm@18694
  2188
* Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
wenzelm@18695
  2189
weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
wenzelm@18696
  2190
ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
wenzelm@18694
  2191
rule steps.
paulson@18557
  2192
wenzelm@18536
  2193
* Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
wenzelm@18536
  2194
where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
wenzelm@18536
  2195
patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
wenzelm@18536
  2196
"{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
wenzelm@18536
  2197
INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
wenzelm@18536
  2198
constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
wenzelm@18536
  2199
wenzelm@18536
  2200
* Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
wenzelm@18536
  2201
parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
wenzelm@18536
  2202
for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
wenzelm@17779
  2203
wenzelm@20582
  2204
* Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
wenzelm@20582
  2205
the graph browser tool.
wenzelm@20582
  2206
wenzelm@24800
  2207
* Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
wenzelm@24800
  2208
default; use '!' option for full details.
wenzelm@20620
  2209
wenzelm@17865
  2210
nipkow@17806
  2211
*** HOL ***
nipkow@17806
  2212
wenzelm@25129
  2213
* Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
wenzelm@25129
  2214
resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
wenzelm@25129
  2215
Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
wenzelm@25129
  2216
Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
wenzelm@25129
  2217
multi-threading.
wenzelm@25129
  2218
  
wenzelm@25129
  2219
* Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
wenzelm@25129
  2220
background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
wenzelm@25129
  2221
successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
wenzelm@25129
  2222
wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
wenzelm@25129
  2223
work with multi-threading.
wenzelm@25129
  2224
wenzelm@24804
  2225
* New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
wenzelm@24804
  2226
potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
wenzelm@24804
  2227
auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
wenzelm@25129
  2228
5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
wenzelm@25129
  2229
executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
wenzelm@24804
  2230
haftmann@25184
  2231
* New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
haftmann@25184
  2232
haftmann@25184
  2233
* Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
haftmann@25184
  2234
equality.
haftmann@25184
  2235
haftmann@25184
  2236
* Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
haftmann@25184
  2237
the new 'class' package:
haftmann@25184
  2238
haftmann@25184
  2239
    HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
haftmann@25184
  2240
    HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
haftmann@25184
  2241
    0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
haftmann@25184
  2242
    1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
haftmann@25184
  2243
    op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
haftmann@25184
  2244
    op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
haftmann@25184
  2245
    uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
haftmann@25184
  2246
    op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
haftmann@25184
  2247
    op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
haftmann@25184
  2248
    op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
haftmann@25184
  2249
    Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
haftmann@25184
  2250
    Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
haftmann@25184
  2251
    Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
haftmann@25184
  2252
    FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
haftmann@25184
  2253
    FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
haftmann@25184
  2254
    Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
haftmann@25184
  2255
    Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
haftmann@25184
  2256
    Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
haftmann@25184
  2257
    Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
haftmann@25184
  2258
    Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
haftmann@25184
  2259
haftmann@25184
  2260
INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
haftmann@25184
  2261
haftmann@25184
  2262
a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
haftmann@25184
  2263
"times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
haftmann@25184
  2264
"+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
haftmann@25184
  2265
names.
haftmann@25184
  2266
haftmann@25184
  2267
b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
haftmann@25184
  2268
INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
haftmann@25184
  2269
haftmann@25184
  2270
c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
haftmann@25184
  2271
Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
haftmann@25184
  2272
rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
haftmann@25184
  2273
that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
haftmann@25184
  2274
distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
haftmann@25184
  2275
haftmann@25184
  2276
d) ML code directly refering to constant names
haftmann@25184
  2277
This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
haftmann@25184
  2278
so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
haftmann@25184
  2279
Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
haftmann@25184
  2280
haftmann@25184
  2281
* New class "default" with associated constant "default".
haftmann@25184
  2282
haftmann@25184
  2283
* Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
haftmann@25184
  2284
(and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
haftmann@25184
  2285
sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
haftmann@25184
  2286
sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
haftmann@25184
  2287
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@25184
  2288
haftmann@25184
  2289
* Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
haftmann@25184
  2290
Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@25184
  2291
haftmann@25184
  2292
* Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
haftmann@25184
  2293
"cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
haftmann@25184
  2294
clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@25184
  2295
haftmann@25184
  2296
* Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
haftmann@25184
  2297
changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
haftmann@25184
  2298
haftmann@25184
  2299
* The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
haftmann@25184
  2300
for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
haftmann@25184
  2301
in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
haftmann@25184
  2302
Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
haftmann@25184
  2303
is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
haftmann@25184
  2304
command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
haftmann@25184
  2305
in the current context.
haftmann@25184
  2306
haftmann@25184
  2307
* Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
haftmann@25184
  2308
lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
haftmann@25184
  2309
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@25184
  2310
haftmann@25184
  2311
* Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
haftmann@25184
  2312
with new class dense_linear_order.
haftmann@25184
  2313
haftmann@25184
  2314
* Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
haftmann@25184
  2315
haftmann@25184
  2316
    constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
haftmann@25184
  2317
    constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
haftmann@25184
  2318
haftmann@25184
  2319
    classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
haftmann@25184
  2320
      "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
haftmann@25184
  2321
    class "lorder" now named "lattice"
haftmann@25184
  2322
    class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
haftmann@25184
  2323
haftmann@25184
  2324
    Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
haftmann@25184
  2325
    for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
haftmann@25184
  2326
haftmann@25184
  2327
  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
haftmann@25184
  2328
haftmann@25184
  2329
    meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
haftmann@25184
  2330
    meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
haftmann@25184
  2331
    join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
haftmann@25184
  2332
    join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
haftmann@25184
  2333
    meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
haftmann@25184
  2334
    le_meetI                ~> le_infI
haftmann@25184
  2335
    join_leI                ~> le_supI
haftmann@25184
  2336
    le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
haftmann@25184
  2337
    le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
haftmann@25184
  2338
    meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
haftmann@25184
  2339
    join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
haftmann@25184
  2340
    meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
haftmann@25184
  2341
    join_comm               ~> sup_commute
haftmann@25184
  2342
    meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
haftmann@25184
  2343
    meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
haftmann@25184
  2344
    le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
haftmann@25184
  2345
    le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
haftmann@25184
  2346
    meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
haftmann@25184
  2347
    join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
haftmann@25184
  2348
    meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
haftmann@25184
  2349
    meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
haftmann@25184
  2350
    join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
haftmann@25184
  2351
    join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
haftmann@25184
  2352
    meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
haftmann@25184
  2353
    join_aci                ~> sup_aci
haftmann@25184
  2354
    le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
haftmann@25184
  2355
    le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
haftmann@25184
  2356
    join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
haftmann@25184
  2357
    join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
haftmann@25184
  2358
    meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
haftmann@25184
  2359
    meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
haftmann@25184
  2360
    meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
haftmann@25184
  2361
    join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
haftmann@25184
  2362
    distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
haftmann@25184
  2363
    distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
haftmann@25184
  2364
haftmann@25184
  2365
    add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
haftmann@25184
  2366
    add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
haftmann@25184
  2367
    is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
haftmann@25184
  2368
    is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
haftmann@25184
  2369
    add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
haftmann@25184
  2370
    add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
haftmann@25184
  2371
    add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
haftmann@25184
  2372
    join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
haftmann@25184
  2373
    meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
haftmann@25184
  2374
    add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
haftmann@25184
  2375
    meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
haftmann@25184
  2376
    join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
haftmann@25184
  2377
    meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
haftmann@25184
  2378
    join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
haftmann@25184
  2379
    neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
haftmann@25184
  2380
    neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
haftmann@25184
  2381
    join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
haftmann@25184
  2382
haftmann@25184
  2383
    mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
haftmann@25184
  2384
    mono_join               ~> mono_sup
haftmann@25184
  2385
    meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
haftmann@25184
  2386
    join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
haftmann@25184
  2387
    meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
haftmann@25184
  2388
    join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
haftmann@25184
  2389
    meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
haftmann@25184
  2390
    join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
haftmann@25184
  2391
    meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
haftmann@25184
  2392
    meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
haftmann@25184
  2393
    meet1I                  ~> inf1I
haftmann@25184
  2394
    meet2I                  ~> inf2I
haftmann@25184
  2395
    meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
haftmann@25184
  2396
    meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
haftmann@25184
  2397
    meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
haftmann@25184
  2398
    meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
haftmann@25184
  2399
    meet1E                  ~> inf1E
haftmann@25184
  2400
    meet2E                  ~> inf2E
haftmann@25184
  2401
    join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
haftmann@25184
  2402
    join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
haftmann@25184
  2403
    join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
haftmann@25184
  2404
    join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
haftmann@25184
  2405
    join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
haftmann@25184
  2406
    join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
haftmann@25184
  2407
    join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
haftmann@25184
  2408
    join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
haftmann@25184
  2409
    join1E                  ~> sup1E
haftmann@25184
  2410
    join2E                  ~> sup2E
haftmann@25184
  2411
haftmann@25184
  2412
    is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
haftmann@25184
  2413
    Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
haftmann@25184
  2414
    Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
haftmann@25184
  2415
    Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
haftmann@25184
  2416
    Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
haftmann@25184
  2417
    Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
haftmann@25184
  2418
haftmann@25184
  2419
    Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
haftmann@25184
  2420
    Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
haftmann@25184
  2421
    Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
haftmann@25184
  2422
    Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
haftmann@25184
  2423
haftmann@25184
  2424
    listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
haftmann@25184
  2425
    listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
haftmann@25184
  2426
haftmann@25184
  2427
    meet_min                ~> inf_min
haftmann@25184
  2428
    join_max                ~> sup_max
haftmann@25184
  2429
haftmann@25184
  2430
* Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
haftmann@25184
  2431
type "'a::size ==> bool"
haftmann@25184
  2432
wenzelm@24800
  2433
* Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
wenzelm@24800
  2434
"foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
wenzelm@24800
  2435
simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
haftmann@25184
  2436
"*.size".
haftmann@25184
  2437
haftmann@25184
  2438
* Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
haftmann@25184
  2439
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
  2440
wenzelm@24800
  2441
* HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
wenzelm@24800
  2442
Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
wenzelm@24800
  2443
fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
  2444
wenzelm@25129
  2445
* HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@25129
  2446
wenzelm@24800
  2447
* HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
wenzelm@24800
  2448
machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
wenzelm@24800
  2449
operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
wenzelm@24800
  2450
linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
wenzelm@24800
  2451
lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
wenzelm@24800
  2452
arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
wenzelm@24800
  2453
numerals on all operations.
kleing@24333
  2454
kleing@24333
  2455
* Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
kleing@24333
  2456
kleing@24333
  2457
* Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
kleing@24333
  2458
haftmann@23850
  2459
* Code generator library theories:
haftmann@24993
  2460
  - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
haftmann@23850
  2461
    languages.
haftmann@24993
  2462
  - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
haftmann@23850
  2463
    languages.
haftmann@24993
  2464
  - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
haftmann@24993
  2465
    codes; includes Code_Integer.
wenzelm@24800
  2466
  - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
wenzelm@24800
  2467
  - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
haftmann@23850
  2468
    denominator).
wenzelm@24800
  2469
  - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
haftmann@23850
  2470
    representable by rational numbers.
wenzelm@24800
  2471
  - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
haftmann@23850
  2472
    result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
haftmann@24993
  2473
    includes Code_Integer.
haftmann@24993
  2474
  - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
haftmann@24993
  2475
    target-language built-in integers.
haftmann@26355
  2476
  - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
haftmann@24993
  2477
    strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
haftmann@23850
  2478
berghofe@23783
  2479
* New package for inductive predicates
berghofe@23783
  2480
berghofe@23783
  2481
  An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
berghofe@23783
  2482
berghofe@23783
  2483
    inductive
berghofe@23783
  2484
      p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
berghofe@23783
  2485
      for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
berghofe@23783
  2486
    where
berghofe@23783
  2487
      rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
berghofe@23783
  2488
    | ...
berghofe@23783
  2489
wenzelm@24800
  2490
  with full support for type-inference, rather than
berghofe@23783
  2491
berghofe@23783
  2492
    consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
berghofe@23783
  2493
berghofe@23783
  2494
    abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
berghofe@23783
  2495
    where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
berghofe@23783
  2496
berghofe@23783
  2497
    inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
berghofe@23783
  2498
    intros
berghofe@23783
  2499
      rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
berghofe@23783
  2500
      ...
berghofe@23783
  2501
berghofe@23783
  2502
  For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
berghofe@23783
  2503
  sets to be defined with the new package via
berghofe@23783
  2504
berghofe@23783
  2505
    inductive_set
berghofe@23783
  2506
      s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
berghofe@23783
  2507
      for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
berghofe@23783
  2508
    where
berghofe@23783
  2509
      rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
berghofe@23783
  2510
    | ...
berghofe@23783
  2511
berghofe@23783
  2512
  or
berghofe@23783
  2513
berghofe@23783
  2514
    inductive_set
berghofe@23783
  2515
      s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
berghofe@23783
  2516
      and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
berghofe@23783
  2517
      for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
berghofe@23783
  2518
    where
berghofe@23783
  2519
      "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
berghofe@23783
  2520
    | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
berghofe@23783
  2521
    | ...
berghofe@23783
  2522
berghofe@23783
  2523
  if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
berghofe@23783
  2524
wenzelm@25177
  2525
  Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
wenzelm@25177
  2526
  src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
berghofe@23783
  2527
berghofe@23783
  2528
  INCOMPATIBILITIES:
berghofe@23783
  2529
berghofe@23783
  2530
  - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
wenzelm@24800
  2531
    is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
wenzelm@24800
  2532
    introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
wenzelm@24800
  2533
    introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
wenzelm@24800
  2534
    than before the actual inductive definition.
wenzelm@24800
  2535
wenzelm@24800
  2536
  - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
wenzelm@24800
  2537
    quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
wenzelm@24800
  2538
    rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
wenzelm@24800
  2539
    some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
wenzelm@24800
  2540
    reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
wenzelm@24800
  2541
    statements of the form
berghofe@23783
  2542
berghofe@23783
  2543
      case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
berghofe@23783
  2544
berghofe@23783
  2545
    or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
berghofe@23783
  2546
    meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
berghofe@23783
  2547
berghofe@23783
  2548
      | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
berghofe@23783
  2549
berghofe@23783
  2550
  - The format of the elimination rules is now
berghofe@23783
  2551
berghofe@23783
  2552
      p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
berghofe@23783
  2553
        (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
berghofe@23783
  2554
        ==> ... ==> P
berghofe@23783
  2555
berghofe@23783
  2556
    for predicates and
berghofe@23783
  2557
berghofe@23783
  2558
      (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
berghofe@23783
  2559
        (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
berghofe@23783
  2560
        ==> ... ==> P
berghofe@23783
  2561
berghofe@23783
  2562
    for sets rather than
berghofe@23783
  2563
berghofe@23783
  2564
      x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
berghofe@23783
  2565
        (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
berghofe@23783
  2566
        ==> ... ==> P
berghofe@23783
  2567
wenzelm@24800
  2568
    This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
wenzelm@24800
  2569
    (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
wenzelm@24800
  2570
    rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
wenzelm@24800
  2571
wenzelm@24800
  2572
  - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
wenzelm@24800
  2573
    sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
wenzelm@24800
  2574
    list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
berghofe@23783
  2575
krauss@25198
  2576
* New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
krauss@25198
  2577
supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
krauss@25198
  2578
more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
krauss@25198
  2579
for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
krauss@25198
  2580
package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
krauss@25198
  2581
users are encouraged to use the new package.
krauss@25198
  2582
krauss@25198
  2583
* Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
krauss@25198
  2584
relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
krauss@25198
  2585
wenzelm@24800
  2586
* Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
wenzelm@24800
  2587
"_") and take their order into account, like in functional
wenzelm@24800
  2588
programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
wenzelm@24800
  2589
case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
wenzelm@24800
  2590
constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
wenzelm@24800
  2591
the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
wenzelm@24800
  2592
the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
wenzelm@24800
  2593
abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
wenzelm@24800
  2594
variable.
nipkow@23564
  2595
huffman@23468
  2596
* IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
wenzelm@24800
  2597
is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
wenzelm@24800
  2598
rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
wenzelm@24800
  2599
previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
huffman@23468
  2600
  - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
huffman@23468
  2601
  - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
huffman@23377
  2602
chaieb@23295
  2603
* Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
wenzelm@24800
  2604
Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
wenzelm@24800
  2605
tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
wenzelm@24800
  2606
a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
wenzelm@24800
  2607
declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
wenzelm@24800
  2608
already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
wenzelm@24800
  2609
of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
wenzelm@24800
  2610
CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
wenzelm@24800
  2611
architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
wenzelm@24800
  2612
wenzelm@25033
  2613
* Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
wenzelm@25033
  2614
special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
wenzelm@25033
  2615
"algebra"). The method is already installed for class
wenzelm@25033
  2616
{ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
wenzelm@25033
  2617
rat, etc.
wenzelm@25033
  2618
wenzelm@24800
  2619
* Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
wenzelm@24800
  2620
antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
wenzelm@24800
  2621
circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
wenzelm@24800
  2622
haftmann@24996
  2623
* primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
haftmann@22845
  2624
wenzelm@24800
  2625
* New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
wenzelm@24800
  2626
Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
wenzelm@24800
  2627
wenzelm@24800
  2628
* New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
wenzelm@25177
  2629
[(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
wenzelm@24800
  2630
wenzelm@24800
  2631
* The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
wenzelm@24800
  2632
xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
wenzelm@24800
  2633
comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800