src/HOL/Library/Quotient.thy
author haftmann
Wed, 21 Jan 2009 23:40:23 +0100
changeset 29608 564ea783ace8
parent 27487 c8a6ce181805
child 30738 0842e906300c
permissions -rw-r--r--
no base sort in class import
Ignore whitespace changes - Everywhere: Within whitespace: At end of lines:
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(*  Title:      HOL/Library/Quotient.thy
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    ID:         $Id$
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    Author:     Markus Wenzel, TU Muenchen
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*)
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header {* Quotient types *}
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theory Quotient
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imports Plain "~~/src/HOL/Hilbert_Choice"
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begin
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text {*
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 We introduce the notion of quotient types over equivalence relations
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 via type classes.
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*}
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subsection {* Equivalence relations and quotient types *}
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text {*
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 \medskip Type class @{text equiv} models equivalence relations @{text
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 "\<sim> :: 'a => 'a => bool"}.
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*}
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class eqv =
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  fixes eqv :: "'a \<Rightarrow> 'a \<Rightarrow> bool"    (infixl "\<sim>" 50)
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class equiv = eqv +
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  assumes equiv_refl [intro]: "x \<sim> x"
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  assumes equiv_trans [trans]: "x \<sim> y \<Longrightarrow> y \<sim> z \<Longrightarrow> x \<sim> z"
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  assumes equiv_sym [sym]: "x \<sim> y \<Longrightarrow> y \<sim> x"
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lemma equiv_not_sym [sym]: "\<not> (x \<sim> y) ==> \<not> (y \<sim> (x::'a::equiv))"
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proof -
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  assume "\<not> (x \<sim> y)" then show "\<not> (y \<sim> x)"
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    by (rule contrapos_nn) (rule equiv_sym)
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qed
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lemma not_equiv_trans1 [trans]: "\<not> (x \<sim> y) ==> y \<sim> z ==> \<not> (x \<sim> (z::'a::equiv))"
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proof -
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  assume "\<not> (x \<sim> y)" and "y \<sim> z"
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  show "\<not> (x \<sim> z)"
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  proof
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    assume "x \<sim> z"
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    also from `y \<sim> z` have "z \<sim> y" ..
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    finally have "x \<sim> y" .
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    with `\<not> (x \<sim> y)` show False by contradiction
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  qed
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qed
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lemma not_equiv_trans2 [trans]: "x \<sim> y ==> \<not> (y \<sim> z) ==> \<not> (x \<sim> (z::'a::equiv))"
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proof -
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  assume "\<not> (y \<sim> z)" then have "\<not> (z \<sim> y)" ..
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  also assume "x \<sim> y" then have "y \<sim> x" ..
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  finally have "\<not> (z \<sim> x)" . then show "(\<not> x \<sim> z)" ..
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qed
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text {*
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 \medskip The quotient type @{text "'a quot"} consists of all
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 \emph{equivalence classes} over elements of the base type @{typ 'a}.
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*}
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typedef 'a quot = "{{x. a \<sim> x} | a::'a::eqv. True}"
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  by blast
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lemma quotI [intro]: "{x. a \<sim> x} \<in> quot"
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  unfolding quot_def by blast
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lemma quotE [elim]: "R \<in> quot ==> (!!a. R = {x. a \<sim> x} ==> C) ==> C"
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  unfolding quot_def by blast
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text {*
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 \medskip Abstracted equivalence classes are the canonical
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 representation of elements of a quotient type.
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*}
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definition
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  "class" :: "'a::equiv => 'a quot"  ("\<lfloor>_\<rfloor>") where
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  "\<lfloor>a\<rfloor> = Abs_quot {x. a \<sim> x}"
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theorem quot_exhaust: "\<exists>a. A = \<lfloor>a\<rfloor>"
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proof (cases A)
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  fix R assume R: "A = Abs_quot R"
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  assume "R \<in> quot" then have "\<exists>a. R = {x. a \<sim> x}" by blast
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  with R have "\<exists>a. A = Abs_quot {x. a \<sim> x}" by blast
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  then show ?thesis unfolding class_def .
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qed
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lemma quot_cases [cases type: quot]: "(!!a. A = \<lfloor>a\<rfloor> ==> C) ==> C"
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  using quot_exhaust by blast
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subsection {* Equality on quotients *}
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text {*
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 Equality of canonical quotient elements coincides with the original
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 relation.
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*}
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theorem quot_equality [iff?]: "(\<lfloor>a\<rfloor> = \<lfloor>b\<rfloor>) = (a \<sim> b)"
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proof
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  assume eq: "\<lfloor>a\<rfloor> = \<lfloor>b\<rfloor>"
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  show "a \<sim> b"
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  proof -
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    from eq have "{x. a \<sim> x} = {x. b \<sim> x}"
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      by (simp only: class_def Abs_quot_inject quotI)
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    moreover have "a \<sim> a" ..
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    ultimately have "a \<in> {x. b \<sim> x}" by blast
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    then have "b \<sim> a" by blast
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    then show ?thesis ..
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  qed
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next
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  assume ab: "a \<sim> b"
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  show "\<lfloor>a\<rfloor> = \<lfloor>b\<rfloor>"
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  proof -
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    have "{x. a \<sim> x} = {x. b \<sim> x}"
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    proof (rule Collect_cong)
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      fix x show "(a \<sim> x) = (b \<sim> x)"
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      proof
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        from ab have "b \<sim> a" ..
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        also assume "a \<sim> x"
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        finally show "b \<sim> x" .
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      next
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        note ab
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        also assume "b \<sim> x"
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        finally show "a \<sim> x" .
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      qed
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    qed
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    then show ?thesis by (simp only: class_def)
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  qed
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qed
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subsection {* Picking representing elements *}
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definition
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  pick :: "'a::equiv quot => 'a" where
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  "pick A = (SOME a. A = \<lfloor>a\<rfloor>)"
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theorem pick_equiv [intro]: "pick \<lfloor>a\<rfloor> \<sim> a"
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proof (unfold pick_def)
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  show "(SOME x. \<lfloor>a\<rfloor> = \<lfloor>x\<rfloor>) \<sim> a"
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  proof (rule someI2)
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    show "\<lfloor>a\<rfloor> = \<lfloor>a\<rfloor>" ..
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    fix x assume "\<lfloor>a\<rfloor> = \<lfloor>x\<rfloor>"
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    then have "a \<sim> x" .. then show "x \<sim> a" ..
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  qed
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qed
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theorem pick_inverse [intro]: "\<lfloor>pick A\<rfloor> = A"
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proof (cases A)
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  fix a assume a: "A = \<lfloor>a\<rfloor>"
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  then have "pick A \<sim> a" by (simp only: pick_equiv)
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  then have "\<lfloor>pick A\<rfloor> = \<lfloor>a\<rfloor>" ..
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  with a show ?thesis by simp
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qed
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text {*
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 \medskip The following rules support canonical function definitions
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 on quotient types (with up to two arguments).  Note that the
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 stripped-down version without additional conditions is sufficient
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 most of the time.
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*}
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theorem quot_cond_function:
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  assumes eq: "!!X Y. P X Y ==> f X Y == g (pick X) (pick Y)"
2bffdf62fe7f tuned proofs;
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    and cong: "!!x x' y y'. \<lfloor>x\<rfloor> = \<lfloor>x'\<rfloor> ==> \<lfloor>y\<rfloor> = \<lfloor>y'\<rfloor>
2bffdf62fe7f tuned proofs;
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      ==> P \<lfloor>x\<rfloor> \<lfloor>y\<rfloor> ==> P \<lfloor>x'\<rfloor> \<lfloor>y'\<rfloor> ==> g x y = g x' y'"
2bffdf62fe7f tuned proofs;
wenzelm
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    and P: "P \<lfloor>a\<rfloor> \<lfloor>b\<rfloor>"
2bffdf62fe7f tuned proofs;
wenzelm
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  shows "f \<lfloor>a\<rfloor> \<lfloor>b\<rfloor> = g a b"
10473
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wenzelm
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proof -
18372
2bffdf62fe7f tuned proofs;
wenzelm
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  from eq and P have "f \<lfloor>a\<rfloor> \<lfloor>b\<rfloor> = g (pick \<lfloor>a\<rfloor>) (pick \<lfloor>b\<rfloor>)" by (simp only:)
10505
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wenzelm
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  also have "... = g a b"
10491
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  proof (rule cong)
10483
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wenzelm
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    show "\<lfloor>pick \<lfloor>a\<rfloor>\<rfloor> = \<lfloor>a\<rfloor>" ..
eb93ace45a6e removed quot_cond_function1, quot_function1;
wenzelm
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    moreover
eb93ace45a6e removed quot_cond_function1, quot_function1;
wenzelm
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    show "\<lfloor>pick \<lfloor>b\<rfloor>\<rfloor> = \<lfloor>b\<rfloor>" ..
10491
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    moreover
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wenzelm
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    show "P \<lfloor>a\<rfloor> \<lfloor>b\<rfloor>" by (rule P)
10491
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    ultimately show "P \<lfloor>pick \<lfloor>a\<rfloor>\<rfloor> \<lfloor>pick \<lfloor>b\<rfloor>\<rfloor>" by (simp only:)
10285
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  qed
6949e17f314a simplified quotients (only plain total equivs);
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  finally show ?thesis .
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qed
6949e17f314a simplified quotients (only plain total equivs);
wenzelm
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10483
eb93ace45a6e removed quot_cond_function1, quot_function1;
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theorem quot_function:
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  assumes "!!X Y. f X Y == g (pick X) (pick Y)"
2bffdf62fe7f tuned proofs;
wenzelm
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    and "!!x x' y y'. \<lfloor>x\<rfloor> = \<lfloor>x'\<rfloor> ==> \<lfloor>y\<rfloor> = \<lfloor>y'\<rfloor> ==> g x y = g x' y'"
2bffdf62fe7f tuned proofs;
wenzelm
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  shows "f \<lfloor>a\<rfloor> \<lfloor>b\<rfloor> = g a b"
23394
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wenzelm
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  using assms and TrueI
18372
2bffdf62fe7f tuned proofs;
wenzelm
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  by (rule quot_cond_function)
10285
6949e17f314a simplified quotients (only plain total equivs);
wenzelm
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10499
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bauerg
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theorem quot_function':
2f33d0fd242e alternative function definition;
bauerg
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  "(!!X Y. f X Y == g (pick X) (pick Y)) ==>
2f33d0fd242e alternative function definition;
bauerg
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    (!!x x' y y'. x \<sim> x' ==> y \<sim> y' ==> g x y = g x' y') ==>
2f33d0fd242e alternative function definition;
bauerg
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    f \<lfloor>a\<rfloor> \<lfloor>b\<rfloor> = g a b"
18372
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wenzelm
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  by (rule quot_function) (simp_all only: quot_equality)
10499
2f33d0fd242e alternative function definition;
bauerg
parents: 10491
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10250
ca93fe25a84b Quotient types;
wenzelm
parents:
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end