src/HOL/Finite.ML
author paulson
Thu Sep 25 12:13:18 1997 +0200 (1997-09-25)
changeset 3708 56facaebf3e3
parent 3517 2547f33fa33a
child 3724 f33e301a89f5
permissions -rw-r--r--
Changed some proofs to use Clarify_tac
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(*  Title:      HOL/Finite.thy
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    ID:         $Id$
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    Author:     Lawrence C Paulson & Tobias Nipkow
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    Copyright   1995  University of Cambridge & TU Muenchen
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Finite sets and their cardinality
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*)
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open Finite;
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section "finite";
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(*
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goalw Finite.thy Fin.defs "!!A B. A<=B ==> Fin(A) <= Fin(B)";
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by (rtac lfp_mono 1);
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by (REPEAT (ares_tac basic_monos 1));
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qed "Fin_mono";
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goalw Finite.thy Fin.defs "Fin(A) <= Pow(A)";
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by (blast_tac (!claset addSIs [lfp_lowerbound]) 1);
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qed "Fin_subset_Pow";
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(* A : Fin(B) ==> A <= B *)
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val FinD = Fin_subset_Pow RS subsetD RS PowD;
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*)
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(*Discharging ~ x:y entails extra work*)
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val major::prems = goal Finite.thy 
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    "[| finite F;  P({}); \
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\       !!F x. [| finite F;  x ~: F;  P(F) |] ==> P(insert x F) \
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\    |] ==> P(F)";
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by (rtac (major RS Finites.induct) 1);
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by (excluded_middle_tac "a:A" 2);
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by (etac (insert_absorb RS ssubst) 3 THEN assume_tac 3);   (*backtracking!*)
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by (REPEAT (ares_tac prems 1));
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qed "finite_induct";
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val major::prems = goal Finite.thy 
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    "[| finite F; \
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\       P({}); \
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\       !!F a. [| finite F; a:A; a ~: F;  P(F) |] ==> P(insert a F) \
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\    |] ==> F <= A --> P(F)";
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by (rtac (major RS finite_induct) 1);
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by (ALLGOALS (blast_tac (!claset addIs prems)));
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val lemma = result();
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val prems = goal Finite.thy 
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    "[| finite F;  F <= A; \
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\       P({}); \
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\       !!F a. [| finite F; a:A; a ~: F;  P(F) |] ==> P(insert a F) \
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\    |] ==> P(F)";
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by (blast_tac (HOL_cs addIs ((lemma RS mp)::prems)) 1);
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qed "finite_subset_induct";
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Addsimps Finites.intrs;
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AddSIs Finites.intrs;
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(*The union of two finite sets is finite*)
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val major::prems = goal Finite.thy
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    "[| finite F;  finite G |] ==> finite(F Un G)";
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by (rtac (major RS finite_induct) 1);
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by (ALLGOALS (asm_simp_tac (!simpset addsimps prems)));
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qed "finite_UnI";
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(*Every subset of a finite set is finite*)
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val [subs,fin] = goal Finite.thy "[| A<=B;  finite B |] ==> finite A";
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by (EVERY1 [subgoal_tac "ALL C. C<=B --> finite C",
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            rtac mp, etac spec,
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            rtac subs]);
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by (rtac (fin RS finite_induct) 1);
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by (simp_tac (!simpset addsimps [subset_Un_eq]) 1);
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by (safe_tac (!claset addSDs [subset_insert_iff RS iffD1]));
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by (eres_inst_tac [("t","C")] (insert_Diff RS subst) 2);
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by (ALLGOALS Asm_simp_tac);
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qed "finite_subset";
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goal Finite.thy "finite(F Un G) = (finite F & finite G)";
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by (blast_tac (!claset addIs [finite_UnI] addDs
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                [Un_upper1 RS finite_subset, Un_upper2 RS finite_subset]) 1);
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qed "finite_Un";
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AddIffs[finite_Un];
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goal Finite.thy "finite(insert a A) = finite A";
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by (stac insert_is_Un 1);
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by (simp_tac (HOL_ss addsimps [finite_Un]) 1);
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by (Blast_tac 1);
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qed "finite_insert";
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Addsimps[finite_insert];
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(*The image of a finite set is finite *)
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goal Finite.thy  "!!F. finite F ==> finite(h``F)";
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by (etac finite_induct 1);
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by (Simp_tac 1);
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by (Asm_simp_tac 1);
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qed "finite_imageI";
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val major::prems = goal Finite.thy 
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    "[| finite c;  finite b;                                  \
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\       P(b);                                                   \
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\       !!x y. [| finite y;  x:y;  P(y) |] ==> P(y-{x}) \
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\    |] ==> c<=b --> P(b-c)";
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by (rtac (major RS finite_induct) 1);
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by (stac Diff_insert 2);
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by (ALLGOALS (asm_simp_tac
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                (!simpset addsimps (prems@[Diff_subset RS finite_subset]))));
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val lemma = result();
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val prems = goal Finite.thy 
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    "[| finite A;                                       \
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\       P(A);                                           \
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\       !!a A. [| finite A;  a:A;  P(A) |] ==> P(A-{a}) \
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\    |] ==> P({})";
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by (rtac (Diff_cancel RS subst) 1);
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by (rtac (lemma RS mp) 1);
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by (REPEAT (ares_tac (subset_refl::prems) 1));
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qed "finite_empty_induct";
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(* finite B ==> finite (B - Ba) *)
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bind_thm ("finite_Diff", Diff_subset RS finite_subset);
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Addsimps [finite_Diff];
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goal Finite.thy "finite(A-{a}) = finite(A)";
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by (case_tac "a:A" 1);
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by (rtac (finite_insert RS sym RS trans) 1);
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by (stac insert_Diff 1);
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by (ALLGOALS Asm_simp_tac);
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qed "finite_Diff_singleton";
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AddIffs [finite_Diff_singleton];
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goal Finite.thy "!!A. finite B ==> !A. f``A = B --> inj_onto f A --> finite A";
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by (etac finite_induct 1);
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 by (ALLGOALS Asm_simp_tac);
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by (Clarify_tac 1);
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by (subgoal_tac "EX y:A. f y = x & F = f``(A-{y})" 1);
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 by (Clarify_tac 1);
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 by (rewtac inj_onto_def);
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 by (Blast_tac 1);
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by (thin_tac "ALL A. ?PP(A)" 1);
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by (forward_tac [[equalityD2, insertI1] MRS subsetD] 1);
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by (Clarify_tac 1);
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by (res_inst_tac [("x","xa")] bexI 1);
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by (ALLGOALS Asm_simp_tac);
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by (blast_tac (!claset addEs [equalityE]) 1);
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val lemma = result();
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goal Finite.thy "!!A. [| finite(f``A);  inj_onto f A |] ==> finite A";
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by (dtac lemma 1);
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by (Blast_tac 1);
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qed "finite_imageD";
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(** The powerset of a finite set **)
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goal Finite.thy "!!A. finite(Pow A) ==> finite A";
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by (subgoal_tac "finite ((%x.{x})``A)" 1);
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by (rtac finite_subset 2);
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by (assume_tac 3);
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by (ALLGOALS
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    (fast_tac (!claset addSDs [rewrite_rule [inj_onto_def] finite_imageD])));
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val lemma = result();
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goal Finite.thy "finite(Pow A) = finite A";
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by (rtac iffI 1);
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by (etac lemma 1);
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(*Opposite inclusion: finite A ==> finite (Pow A) *)
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by (etac finite_induct 1);
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by (ALLGOALS 
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    (asm_simp_tac
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     (!simpset addsimps [finite_UnI, finite_imageI, Pow_insert])));
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qed "finite_Pow_iff";
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AddIffs [finite_Pow_iff];
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goal Finite.thy "finite(r^-1) = finite r";
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by (subgoal_tac "r^-1 = (%(x,y).(y,x))``r" 1);
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 by (Asm_simp_tac 1);
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 by (rtac iffI 1);
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  by (etac (rewrite_rule [inj_onto_def] finite_imageD) 1);
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  by (simp_tac (!simpset setloop (split_tac[expand_split])) 1);
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 by (etac finite_imageI 1);
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by (simp_tac (!simpset addsimps [inverse_def,image_def]) 1);
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by (Auto_tac());
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 by (rtac bexI 1);
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 by (assume_tac 2);
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 by (Simp_tac 1);
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by (split_all_tac 1);
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by (Asm_full_simp_tac 1);
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qed "finite_inverse";
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AddIffs [finite_inverse];
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section "Finite cardinality -- 'card'";
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goal Set.thy "{f i |i. P i | i=n} = insert (f n) {f i|i. P i}";
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by (Blast_tac 1);
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val Collect_conv_insert = result();
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goalw Finite.thy [card_def] "card {} = 0";
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by (rtac Least_equality 1);
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by (ALLGOALS Asm_full_simp_tac);
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qed "card_empty";
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Addsimps [card_empty];
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val [major] = goal Finite.thy
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  "finite A ==> ? (n::nat) f. A = {f i |i. i<n}";
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by (rtac (major RS finite_induct) 1);
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 by (res_inst_tac [("x","0")] exI 1);
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 by (Simp_tac 1);
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by (etac exE 1);
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by (etac exE 1);
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by (hyp_subst_tac 1);
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by (res_inst_tac [("x","Suc n")] exI 1);
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by (res_inst_tac [("x","%i. if i<n then f i else x")] exI 1);
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by (asm_simp_tac (!simpset addsimps [Collect_conv_insert, less_Suc_eq]
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                          addcongs [rev_conj_cong]) 1);
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qed "finite_has_card";
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goal Finite.thy
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  "!!A.[| x ~: A; insert x A = {f i|i.i<n} |] ==> \
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\  ? m::nat. m<n & (? g. A = {g i|i.i<m})";
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by (res_inst_tac [("n","n")] natE 1);
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 by (hyp_subst_tac 1);
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 by (Asm_full_simp_tac 1);
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by (rename_tac "m" 1);
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by (hyp_subst_tac 1);
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by (case_tac "? a. a:A" 1);
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 by (res_inst_tac [("x","0")] exI 2);
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 by (Simp_tac 2);
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 by (Blast_tac 2);
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by (etac exE 1);
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by (simp_tac (!simpset addsimps [less_Suc_eq]) 1);
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by (rtac exI 1);
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by (rtac (refl RS disjI2 RS conjI) 1);
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by (etac equalityE 1);
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by (asm_full_simp_tac
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     (!simpset addsimps [subset_insert,Collect_conv_insert, less_Suc_eq]) 1);
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by (safe_tac (!claset));
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  by (Asm_full_simp_tac 1);
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  by (res_inst_tac [("x","%i. if f i = f m then a else f i")] exI 1);
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  by (SELECT_GOAL(safe_tac (!claset))1);
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   by (subgoal_tac "x ~= f m" 1);
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    by (Blast_tac 2);
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   by (subgoal_tac "? k. f k = x & k<m" 1);
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    by (Blast_tac 2);
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   by (SELECT_GOAL(safe_tac (!claset))1);
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   by (res_inst_tac [("x","k")] exI 1);
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   by (Asm_simp_tac 1);
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  by (simp_tac (!simpset setloop (split_tac [expand_if])) 1);
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  by (Blast_tac 1);
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 by (dtac sym 1);
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 by (rotate_tac ~1 1);
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 by (Asm_full_simp_tac 1);
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 by (res_inst_tac [("x","%i. if f i = f m then a else f i")] exI 1);
berghofe@1786
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 by (SELECT_GOAL(safe_tac (!claset))1);
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  by (subgoal_tac "x ~= f m" 1);
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   by (Blast_tac 2);
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  by (subgoal_tac "? k. f k = x & k<m" 1);
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   by (Blast_tac 2);
berghofe@1786
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  by (SELECT_GOAL(safe_tac (!claset))1);
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  by (res_inst_tac [("x","k")] exI 1);
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  by (Asm_simp_tac 1);
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 by (simp_tac (!simpset setloop (split_tac [expand_if])) 1);
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 by (Blast_tac 1);
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by (res_inst_tac [("x","%j. if f j = f i then f m else f j")] exI 1);
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by (SELECT_GOAL(safe_tac (!claset))1);
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 by (subgoal_tac "x ~= f i" 1);
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  by (Blast_tac 2);
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 by (case_tac "x = f m" 1);
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  by (res_inst_tac [("x","i")] exI 1);
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  by (Asm_simp_tac 1);
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 by (subgoal_tac "? k. f k = x & k<m" 1);
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  by (Blast_tac 2);
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 by (SELECT_GOAL(safe_tac (!claset))1);
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 by (res_inst_tac [("x","k")] exI 1);
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 by (Asm_simp_tac 1);
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by (simp_tac (!simpset setloop (split_tac [expand_if])) 1);
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by (Blast_tac 1);
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val lemma = result();
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goal Finite.thy "!!A. [| finite A; x ~: A |] ==> \
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\ (LEAST n. ? f. insert x A = {f i|i.i<n}) = Suc(LEAST n. ? f. A={f i|i.i<n})";
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by (rtac Least_equality 1);
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 by (dtac finite_has_card 1);
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 by (etac exE 1);
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 by (dres_inst_tac [("P","%n.? f. A={f i|i.i<n}")] LeastI 1);
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 by (etac exE 1);
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 by (res_inst_tac
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   [("x","%i. if i<(LEAST n. ? f. A={f i |i. i < n}) then f i else x")] exI 1);
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 by (simp_tac
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    (!simpset addsimps [Collect_conv_insert, less_Suc_eq] 
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              addcongs [rev_conj_cong]) 1);
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 by (etac subst 1);
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 by (rtac refl 1);
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by (rtac notI 1);
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by (etac exE 1);
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by (dtac lemma 1);
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 by (assume_tac 1);
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by (etac exE 1);
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by (etac conjE 1);
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by (dres_inst_tac [("P","%x. ? g. A = {g i |i. i < x}")] Least_le 1);
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by (dtac le_less_trans 1 THEN atac 1);
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by (asm_full_simp_tac (!simpset addsimps [less_Suc_eq]) 1);
paulson@1553
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by (etac disjE 1);
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by (etac less_asym 1 THEN atac 1);
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by (hyp_subst_tac 1);
paulson@1553
   305
by (Asm_full_simp_tac 1);
nipkow@1531
   306
val lemma = result();
nipkow@1531
   307
nipkow@1531
   308
goalw Finite.thy [card_def]
nipkow@1531
   309
  "!!A. [| finite A; x ~: A |] ==> card(insert x A) = Suc(card A)";
paulson@1553
   310
by (etac lemma 1);
paulson@1553
   311
by (assume_tac 1);
nipkow@1531
   312
qed "card_insert_disjoint";
paulson@3352
   313
Addsimps [card_insert_disjoint];
paulson@3352
   314
paulson@3352
   315
goal Finite.thy  "!!A. finite A ==> !B. B <= A --> card(B) <= card(A)";
paulson@3352
   316
by (etac finite_induct 1);
paulson@3352
   317
by (Simp_tac 1);
paulson@3708
   318
by (Clarify_tac 1);
paulson@3352
   319
by (case_tac "x:B" 1);
nipkow@3413
   320
 by (dres_inst_tac [("A","B")] mk_disjoint_insert 1);
paulson@3352
   321
 by (SELECT_GOAL(safe_tac (!claset))1);
paulson@3352
   322
 by (rotate_tac ~1 1);
paulson@3352
   323
 by (asm_full_simp_tac (!simpset addsimps [subset_insert_iff,finite_subset]) 1);
paulson@3352
   324
by (rotate_tac ~1 1);
paulson@3352
   325
by (asm_full_simp_tac (!simpset addsimps [subset_insert_iff,finite_subset]) 1);
paulson@3352
   326
qed_spec_mp "card_mono";
paulson@3352
   327
paulson@3352
   328
goal Finite.thy "!!A B. [| finite A; finite B |]\
paulson@3352
   329
\                       ==> A Int B = {} --> card(A Un B) = card A + card B";
paulson@3352
   330
by (etac finite_induct 1);
paulson@3352
   331
by (ALLGOALS 
paulson@3517
   332
    (asm_simp_tac (!simpset addsimps [Int_insert_left]
paulson@3517
   333
	                    setloop split_tac [expand_if])));
paulson@3352
   334
qed_spec_mp "card_Un_disjoint";
paulson@3352
   335
paulson@3352
   336
goal Finite.thy "!!A. [| finite A; B<=A |] ==> card A - card B = card (A - B)";
paulson@3352
   337
by (subgoal_tac "(A-B) Un B = A" 1);
paulson@3352
   338
by (Blast_tac 2);
paulson@3457
   339
by (rtac (add_right_cancel RS iffD1) 1);
paulson@3457
   340
by (rtac (card_Un_disjoint RS subst) 1);
paulson@3457
   341
by (etac ssubst 4);
paulson@3352
   342
by (Blast_tac 3);
paulson@3352
   343
by (ALLGOALS 
paulson@3352
   344
    (asm_simp_tac
paulson@3352
   345
     (!simpset addsimps [add_commute, not_less_iff_le, 
paulson@3352
   346
			 add_diff_inverse, card_mono, finite_subset])));
paulson@3352
   347
qed "card_Diff_subset";
nipkow@1531
   348
paulson@1618
   349
goal Finite.thy "!!A. [| finite A; x: A |] ==> Suc(card(A-{x})) = card A";
paulson@1618
   350
by (res_inst_tac [("t", "A")] (insert_Diff RS subst) 1);
paulson@1618
   351
by (assume_tac 1);
paulson@3352
   352
by (Asm_simp_tac 1);
paulson@1618
   353
qed "card_Suc_Diff";
paulson@1618
   354
paulson@1618
   355
goal Finite.thy "!!A. [| finite A; x: A |] ==> card(A-{x}) < card A";
paulson@2031
   356
by (rtac Suc_less_SucD 1);
paulson@1618
   357
by (asm_simp_tac (!simpset addsimps [card_Suc_Diff]) 1);
paulson@1618
   358
qed "card_Diff";
paulson@1618
   359
paulson@3389
   360
paulson@3389
   361
(*** Cardinality of the Powerset ***)
paulson@3389
   362
nipkow@1531
   363
val [major] = goal Finite.thy
nipkow@1531
   364
  "finite A ==> card(insert x A) = Suc(card(A-{x}))";
paulson@1553
   365
by (case_tac "x:A" 1);
paulson@1553
   366
by (asm_simp_tac (!simpset addsimps [insert_absorb]) 1);
paulson@1553
   367
by (dtac mk_disjoint_insert 1);
paulson@1553
   368
by (etac exE 1);
paulson@1553
   369
by (Asm_simp_tac 1);
paulson@1553
   370
by (rtac card_insert_disjoint 1);
paulson@1553
   371
by (rtac (major RSN (2,finite_subset)) 1);
paulson@2922
   372
by (Blast_tac 1);
paulson@2922
   373
by (Blast_tac 1);
paulson@1553
   374
by (asm_simp_tac (!simpset addsimps [major RS card_insert_disjoint]) 1);
nipkow@1531
   375
qed "card_insert";
nipkow@1531
   376
Addsimps [card_insert];
nipkow@1531
   377
paulson@3340
   378
goal Finite.thy "!!A. finite(A) ==> inj_onto f A --> card (f `` A) = card A";
paulson@3340
   379
by (etac finite_induct 1);
paulson@3340
   380
by (ALLGOALS Asm_simp_tac);
paulson@3340
   381
by (Step_tac 1);
paulson@3457
   382
by (rewtac inj_onto_def);
paulson@3340
   383
by (Blast_tac 1);
paulson@3340
   384
by (stac card_insert_disjoint 1);
paulson@3340
   385
by (etac finite_imageI 1);
paulson@3340
   386
by (Blast_tac 1);
paulson@3340
   387
by (Blast_tac 1);
paulson@3340
   388
qed_spec_mp "card_image";
paulson@3340
   389
paulson@3389
   390
goal thy "!!A. finite A ==> card (Pow A) = 2 ^ card A";
paulson@3389
   391
by (etac finite_induct 1);
paulson@3389
   392
by (ALLGOALS (asm_simp_tac (!simpset addsimps [Pow_insert])));
paulson@3389
   393
by (stac card_Un_disjoint 1);
paulson@3389
   394
by (EVERY (map (blast_tac (!claset addIs [finite_imageI])) [3,2,1]));
paulson@3389
   395
by (subgoal_tac "inj_onto (insert x) (Pow F)" 1);
paulson@3389
   396
by (asm_simp_tac (!simpset addsimps [card_image, Pow_insert]) 1);
paulson@3457
   397
by (rewtac inj_onto_def);
paulson@3389
   398
by (blast_tac (!claset addSEs [equalityE]) 1);
paulson@3389
   399
qed "card_Pow";
paulson@3389
   400
Addsimps [card_Pow];
paulson@3340
   401
paulson@3389
   402
paulson@3389
   403
(*Proper subsets*)
nipkow@3222
   404
goalw Finite.thy [psubset_def]
nipkow@3222
   405
"!!B. finite B ==> !A. A < B --> card(A) < card(B)";
nipkow@3222
   406
by (etac finite_induct 1);
nipkow@3222
   407
by (Simp_tac 1);
nipkow@3222
   408
by (Blast_tac 1);
paulson@3708
   409
by (Clarify_tac 1);
nipkow@3222
   410
by (case_tac "x:A" 1);
nipkow@3222
   411
(*1*)
nipkow@3413
   412
by (dres_inst_tac [("A","A")]mk_disjoint_insert 1);
nipkow@3222
   413
by (etac exE 1);
nipkow@3222
   414
by (etac conjE 1);
nipkow@3222
   415
by (hyp_subst_tac 1);
nipkow@3222
   416
by (rotate_tac ~1 1);
nipkow@3222
   417
by (asm_full_simp_tac (!simpset addsimps [subset_insert_iff,finite_subset]) 1);
paulson@3708
   418
by (Blast_tac 1);
nipkow@3222
   419
(*2*)
nipkow@3222
   420
by (rotate_tac ~1 1);
paulson@3708
   421
by (eres_inst_tac [("P","?a<?b")] notE 1);
nipkow@3222
   422
by (asm_full_simp_tac (!simpset addsimps [subset_insert_iff,finite_subset]) 1);
nipkow@3222
   423
by (case_tac "A=F" 1);
paulson@3708
   424
by (ALLGOALS Asm_simp_tac);
nipkow@3222
   425
qed_spec_mp "psubset_card" ;
paulson@3368
   426
paulson@3368
   427
wenzelm@3430
   428
(*Relates to equivalence classes.   Based on a theorem of F. Kammueller's.
paulson@3368
   429
  The "finite C" premise is redundant*)
paulson@3368
   430
goal thy "!!C. finite C ==> finite (Union C) --> \
paulson@3368
   431
\          (! c : C. k dvd card c) -->  \
paulson@3368
   432
\          (! c1: C. ! c2: C. c1 ~= c2 --> c1 Int c2 = {}) \
paulson@3368
   433
\          --> k dvd card(Union C)";
paulson@3368
   434
by (etac finite_induct 1);
paulson@3368
   435
by (ALLGOALS Asm_simp_tac);
paulson@3708
   436
by (Clarify_tac 1);
paulson@3368
   437
by (stac card_Un_disjoint 1);
paulson@3368
   438
by (ALLGOALS
paulson@3368
   439
    (asm_full_simp_tac (!simpset
paulson@3368
   440
			 addsimps [dvd_add, disjoint_eq_subset_Compl])));
paulson@3368
   441
by (thin_tac "!c:F. ?PP(c)" 1);
paulson@3368
   442
by (thin_tac "!c:F. ?PP(c) & ?QQ(c)" 1);
paulson@3708
   443
by (Clarify_tac 1);
paulson@3368
   444
by (ball_tac 1);
paulson@3368
   445
by (Blast_tac 1);
paulson@3368
   446
qed_spec_mp "dvd_partition";
paulson@3368
   447