doc-src/TutorialI/basics.tex
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\chapter{Basic Concepts}
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\section{Introduction}
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This is a tutorial on how to use Isabelle/HOL as a specification and
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verification system. Isabelle is a generic system for implementing logical
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formalisms, and Isabelle/HOL is the specialization of Isabelle for
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HOL, which abbreviates Higher-Order Logic. We introduce HOL step by step
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following the equation
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\[ \mbox{HOL} = \mbox{Functional Programming} + \mbox{Logic}. \]
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We assume that the reader is familiar with the basic concepts of both fields.
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For excellent introductions to functional programming consult the textbooks
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by Bird and Wadler~\cite{Bird-Wadler} or Paulson~\cite{paulson-ml2}.  Although
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this tutorial initially concentrates on functional programming, do not be
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misled: HOL can express most mathematical concepts, and functional
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programming is just one particularly simple and ubiquitous instance.
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This tutorial introduces HOL via Isabelle/Isar~\cite{isabelle-isar-ref},
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which is an extension of Isabelle~\cite{paulson-isa-book} with structured
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proofs.\footnote{Thus the full name of the system should be
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  Isabelle/Isar/HOL, but that is a bit of a mouthful.} The most noticeable
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difference to classical Isabelle (which is the basis of another version of
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this tutorial) is the replacement of the ML level by a dedicated language for
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definitions and proofs.
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A tutorial is by definition incomplete.  Currently the tutorial only
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introduces the rudiments of Isar's proof language. To fully exploit the power
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of Isar you need to consult the Isabelle/Isar Reference
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Manual~\cite{isabelle-isar-ref}. If you want to use Isabelle's ML level
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directly (for example for writing your own proof procedures) see the Isabelle
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Reference Manual~\cite{isabelle-ref}; for details relating to HOL see the
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Isabelle/HOL manual~\cite{isabelle-HOL}. All manuals have a comprehensive
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index.
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\section{Theories}
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\label{sec:Basic:Theories}
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Working with Isabelle means creating theories. Roughly speaking, a
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\bfindex{theory} is a named collection of types, functions, and theorems,
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much like a module in a programming language or a specification in a
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specification language. In fact, theories in HOL can be either. The general
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format of a theory \texttt{T} is
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\begin{ttbox}
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theory T = B\(@1\) + \(\cdots\) + B\(@n\):
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\(\textit{declarations, definitions, and proofs}\)
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end
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\end{ttbox}
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where \texttt{B}$@1$, \dots, \texttt{B}$@n$ are the names of existing
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theories that \texttt{T} is based on and \texttt{\textit{declarations,
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    definitions, and proofs}} represents the newly introduced concepts
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(types, functions etc.) and proofs about them. The \texttt{B}$@i$ are the
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direct \textbf{parent theories}\indexbold{parent theory} of \texttt{T}.
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Everything defined in the parent theories (and their parents \dots) is
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automatically visible. To avoid name clashes, identifiers can be
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\textbf{qualified} by theory names as in \texttt{T.f} and
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\texttt{B.f}.\indexbold{identifier!qualified} Each theory \texttt{T} must
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reside in a \bfindex{theory file} named \texttt{T.thy}.
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This tutorial is concerned with introducing you to the different linguistic
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constructs that can fill \textit{\texttt{declarations, definitions, and
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    proofs}} in the above theory template.  A complete grammar of the basic
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constructs is found in the Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual.
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HOL's theory library is available online at
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\begin{center}\small
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    \url{http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/}
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\end{center}
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and is recommended browsing. Note that most of the theories in the library
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are based on classical Isabelle without the Isar extension. This means that
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they look slightly different than the theories in this tutorial, and that all
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proofs are in separate ML files.
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\begin{warn}
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  HOL contains a theory \isaindexbold{Main}, the union of all the basic
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  predefined theories like arithmetic, lists, sets, etc.\ (see the online
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  library).  Unless you know what you are doing, always include \isa{Main}
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  as a direct or indirect parent theory of all your theories.
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\end{warn}
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\section{Types, terms and formulae}
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\label{sec:TypesTermsForms}
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\indexbold{type}
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Embedded in a theory are the types, terms and formulae of HOL. HOL is a typed
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logic whose type system resembles that of functional programming languages
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like ML or Haskell. Thus there are
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\begin{description}
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\item[base types,] in particular \isaindex{bool}, the type of truth values,
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and \isaindex{nat}, the type of natural numbers.
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\item[type constructors,] in particular \isaindex{list}, the type of
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lists, and \isaindex{set}, the type of sets. Type constructors are written
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postfix, e.g.\ \isa{(nat)list} is the type of lists whose elements are
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natural numbers. Parentheses around single arguments can be dropped (as in
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\isa{nat list}), multiple arguments are separated by commas (as in
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\isa{(bool,nat)ty}).
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\item[function types,] denoted by \isasymFun\indexbold{$IsaFun@\isasymFun}.
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  In HOL \isasymFun\ represents \emph{total} functions only. As is customary,
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  \isa{$\tau@1$ \isasymFun~$\tau@2$ \isasymFun~$\tau@3$} means
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  \isa{$\tau@1$ \isasymFun~($\tau@2$ \isasymFun~$\tau@3$)}. Isabelle also
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  supports the notation \isa{[$\tau@1,\dots,\tau@n$] \isasymFun~$\tau$}
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  which abbreviates \isa{$\tau@1$ \isasymFun~$\cdots$ \isasymFun~$\tau@n$
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    \isasymFun~$\tau$}.
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\item[type variables,]\indexbold{type variable}\indexbold{variable!type}
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  denoted by \ttindexboldpos{'a}{$Isatype}, \isa{'b} etc., just like in ML. They give rise
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  to polymorphic types like \isa{'a \isasymFun~'a}, the type of the identity
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  function.
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\end{description}
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\begin{warn}
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  Types are extremely important because they prevent us from writing
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  nonsense.  Isabelle insists that all terms and formulae must be well-typed
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  and will print an error message if a type mismatch is encountered. To
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  reduce the amount of explicit type information that needs to be provided by
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  the user, Isabelle infers the type of all variables automatically (this is
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  called \bfindex{type inference}) and keeps quiet about it. Occasionally
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  this may lead to misunderstandings between you and the system. If anything
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  strange happens, we recommend to set the \rmindex{flag}
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  \isaindexbold{show_types} that tells Isabelle to display type information
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  that is usually suppressed: simply type
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\begin{ttbox}
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ML "set show_types"
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\end{ttbox}
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\noindent
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This can be reversed by \texttt{ML "reset show_types"}. Various other flags
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can be set and reset in the same manner.\indexbold{flag!(re)setting}
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\end{warn}
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\textbf{Terms}\indexbold{term} are formed as in functional programming by
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applying functions to arguments. If \isa{f} is a function of type
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\isa{$\tau@1$ \isasymFun~$\tau@2$} and \isa{t} is a term of type
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$\tau@1$ then \isa{f~t} is a term of type $\tau@2$. HOL also supports
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infix functions like \isa{+} and some basic constructs from functional
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programming:
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\begin{description}
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\item[\isa{if $b$ then $t@1$ else $t@2$}]\indexbold{*if}
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means what you think it means and requires that
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$b$ is of type \isa{bool} and $t@1$ and $t@2$ are of the same type.
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\item[\isa{let $x$ = $t$ in $u$}]\indexbold{*let}
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is equivalent to $u$ where all occurrences of $x$ have been replaced by
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$t$. For example,
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\isa{let x = 0 in x+x} is equivalent to \isa{0+0}. Multiple bindings are separated
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by semicolons: \isa{let $x@1$ = $t@1$; \dots; $x@n$ = $t@n$ in $u$}.
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\item[\isa{case $e$ of $c@1$ \isasymFun~$e@1$ |~\dots~| $c@n$ \isasymFun~$e@n$}]
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\indexbold{*case}
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evaluates to $e@i$ if $e$ is of the form $c@i$.
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\end{description}
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Terms may also contain
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\isasymlambda-abstractions\indexbold{$Isalam@\isasymlambda}. For example,
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\isa{\isasymlambda{}x.~x+1} is the function that takes an argument \isa{x} and
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returns \isa{x+1}. Instead of
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\isa{\isasymlambda{}x.\isasymlambda{}y.\isasymlambda{}z.~$t$} we can write
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\isa{\isasymlambda{}x~y~z.~$t$}.
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\textbf{Formulae}\indexbold{formula} are terms of type \isaindexbold{bool}.
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There are the basic constants \isaindexbold{True} and \isaindexbold{False} and
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the usual logical connectives (in decreasing order of priority):
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\indexboldpos{\isasymnot}{$HOL0not}, \indexboldpos{\isasymand}{$HOL0and},
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\indexboldpos{\isasymor}{$HOL0or}, and \indexboldpos{\isasymimp}{$HOL0imp},
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all of which (except the unary \isasymnot) associate to the right. In
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particular \isa{A \isasymimp~B \isasymimp~C} means \isa{A \isasymimp~(B
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  \isasymimp~C)} and is thus logically equivalent to \isa{A \isasymand~B
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  \isasymimp~C} (which is \isa{(A \isasymand~B) \isasymimp~C}).
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Equality is available in the form of the infix function
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\isa{=}\indexbold{$HOL0eq@\texttt{=}} of type \isa{'a \isasymFun~'a
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  \isasymFun~bool}. Thus \isa{$t@1$ = $t@2$} is a formula provided $t@1$
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and $t@2$ are terms of the same type. In case $t@1$ and $t@2$ are of type
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\isa{bool}, \isa{=} acts as if-and-only-if. The formula
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\isa{$t@1$~\isasymnoteq~$t@2$} is merely an abbreviation for
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\isa{\isasymnot($t@1$ = $t@2$)}.
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The syntax for quantifiers is
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\isa{\isasymforall{}x.~$P$}\indexbold{$HOL0All@\isasymforall} and
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\isa{\isasymexists{}x.~$P$}\indexbold{$HOL0Ex@\isasymexists}.  There is
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even \isa{\isasymuniqex{}x.~$P$}\index{$HOL0ExU@\isasymuniqex|bold}, which
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means that there exists exactly one \isa{x} that satisfies \isa{$P$}.  Nested
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quantifications can be abbreviated: \isa{\isasymforall{}x~y~z.~$P$} means
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\isa{\isasymforall{}x.\isasymforall{}y.\isasymforall{}z.~$P$}.
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Despite type inference, it is sometimes necessary to attach explicit
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\textbf{type constraints}\indexbold{type constraint} to a term.  The syntax is
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\isa{$t$::$\tau$} as in \isa{x < (y::nat)}. Note that
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\ttindexboldpos{::}{$Isatype} binds weakly and should therefore be enclosed
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in parentheses: \isa{x < y::nat} is ill-typed because it is interpreted as
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\isa{(x < y)::nat}. The main reason for type constraints are overloaded
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functions like \isa{+}, \isa{*} and \isa{<}. See {\S}\ref{sec:overloading} for
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a full discussion of overloading.
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\begin{warn}
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In general, HOL's concrete syntax tries to follow the conventions of
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functional programming and mathematics. Below we list the main rules that you
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should be familiar with to avoid certain syntactic traps. A particular
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problem for novices can be the priority of operators. If you are unsure, use
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more rather than fewer parentheses. In those cases where Isabelle echoes your
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input, you can see which parentheses are dropped---they were superfluous. If
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you are unsure how to interpret Isabelle's output because you don't know
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where the (dropped) parentheses go, set (and possibly reset) the \rmindex{flag}
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\isaindexbold{show_brackets}:
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\begin{ttbox}
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ML "set show_brackets"; \(\dots\); ML "reset show_brackets";
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\end{ttbox}
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\end{warn}
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\begin{itemize}
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\item
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Remember that \isa{f t u} means \isa{(f t) u} and not \isa{f(t u)}!
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\item
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Isabelle allows infix functions like \isa{+}. The prefix form of function
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application binds more strongly than anything else and hence \isa{f~x + y}
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means \isa{(f~x)~+~y} and not \isa{f(x+y)}.
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\item Remember that in HOL if-and-only-if is expressed using equality.  But
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  equality has a high priority, as befitting a relation, while if-and-only-if
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  typically has the lowest priority.  Thus, \isa{\isasymnot~\isasymnot~P =
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    P} means \isa{\isasymnot\isasymnot(P = P)} and not
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  \isa{(\isasymnot\isasymnot P) = P}. When using \isa{=} to mean
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  logical equivalence, enclose both operands in parentheses, as in \isa{(A
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    \isasymand~B) = (B \isasymand~A)}.
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\item
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Constructs with an opening but without a closing delimiter bind very weakly
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and should therefore be enclosed in parentheses if they appear in subterms, as
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in \isa{f = (\isasymlambda{}x.~x)}. This includes \isaindex{if},
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\isaindex{let}, \isaindex{case}, \isa{\isasymlambda}, and quantifiers.
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\item
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Never write \isa{\isasymlambda{}x.x} or \isa{\isasymforall{}x.x=x}
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because \isa{x.x} is always read as a single qualified identifier that
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refers to an item \isa{x} in theory \isa{x}. Write
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\isa{\isasymlambda{}x.~x} and \isa{\isasymforall{}x.~x=x} instead.
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\item Identifiers\indexbold{identifier} may contain \isa{_} and \isa{'}.
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\end{itemize}
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For the sake of readability the usual mathematical symbols are used throughout
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the tutorial. Their ASCII-equivalents are shown in figure~\ref{fig:ascii} in
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the appendix.
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\section{Variables}
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\label{sec:variables}
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\indexbold{variable}
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Isabelle distinguishes free and bound variables just as is customary. Bound
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variables are automatically renamed to avoid clashes with free variables. In
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addition, Isabelle has a third kind of variable, called a \bfindex{schematic
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  variable}\indexbold{variable!schematic} or \bfindex{unknown}, which starts
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with a \isa{?}.  Logically, an unknown is a free variable. But it may be
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instantiated by another term during the proof process. For example, the
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mathematical theorem $x = x$ is represented in Isabelle as \isa{?x = ?x},
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which means that Isabelle can instantiate it arbitrarily. This is in contrast
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to ordinary variables, which remain fixed. The programming language Prolog
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calls unknowns {\em logical\/} variables.
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Most of the time you can and should ignore unknowns and work with ordinary
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variables. Just don't be surprised that after you have finished the proof of
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a theorem, Isabelle will turn your free variables into unknowns: it merely
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indicates that Isabelle will automatically instantiate those unknowns
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suitably when the theorem is used in some other proof.
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Note that for readability we often drop the \isa{?}s when displaying a theorem.
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\begin{warn}
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  If you use \isa{?}\index{$HOL0Ex@\texttt{?}} as an existential
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  quantifier, it needs to be followed by a space. Otherwise \isa{?x} is
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  interpreted as a schematic variable.
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\end{warn}
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\section{Interaction and interfaces}
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Interaction with Isabelle can either occur at the shell level or through more
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advanced interfaces. To keep the tutorial independent of the interface we
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have phrased the description of the intraction in a neutral language. For
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example, the phrase ``to abandon a proof'' means to type \isacommand{oops} at the
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shell level, which is explained the first time the phrase is used. Other
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interfaces perform the same act by cursor movements and/or mouse clicks.
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Although shell-based interaction is quite feasible for the kind of proof
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scripts currently presented in this tutorial, the recommended interface for
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Isabelle/Isar is the Emacs-based \bfindex{Proof
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  General}~\cite{Aspinall:TACAS:2000,proofgeneral}.
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Some interfaces (including the shell level) offer special fonts with
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mathematical symbols. For those that do not, remember that ASCII-equivalents
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are shown in figure~\ref{fig:ascii} in the appendix.
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Finally, a word about semicolons.\indexbold{$Isar@\texttt{;}} 
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Commands may but need not be terminated by semicolons.
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At the shell level it is advisable to use semicolons to enforce that a command
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is executed immediately; otherwise Isabelle may wait for the next keyword
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before it knows that the command is complete.
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\section{Getting started}
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Assuming you have installed Isabelle, you start it by typing \texttt{isabelle
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  -I HOL} in a shell window.\footnote{Simply executing \texttt{isabelle -I}
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  starts the default logic, which usually is already \texttt{HOL}.  This is
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  controlled by the \texttt{ISABELLE_LOGIC} setting, see \emph{The Isabelle
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    System Manual} for more details.} This presents you with Isabelle's most
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basic ASCII interface.  In addition you need to open an editor window to
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create theory files.  While you are developing a theory, we recommend to
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type each command into the file first and then enter it into Isabelle by
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copy-and-paste, thus ensuring that you have a complete record of your theory.
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As mentioned above, Proof General offers a much superior interface.
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If you have installed Proof General, you can start it with \texttt{Isabelle}.