src/HOL/Ring_and_Field.thy
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(*  Title:   HOL/Ring_and_Field.thy
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    ID:      $Id$
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    Author:  Gertrud Bauer, Steven Obua, Lawrence C Paulson, and Markus Wenzel,
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             with contributions by Jeremy Avigad
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*)
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header {* (Ordered) Rings and Fields *}
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theory Ring_and_Field
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imports OrderedGroup
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begin
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text {*
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  The theory of partially ordered rings is taken from the books:
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  \begin{itemize}
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  \item \emph{Lattice Theory} by Garret Birkhoff, American Mathematical Society 1979 
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  \item \emph{Partially Ordered Algebraic Systems}, Pergamon Press 1963
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  \end{itemize}
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  Most of the used notions can also be looked up in 
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  \begin{itemize}
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  \item \url{http://www.mathworld.com} by Eric Weisstein et. al.
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  \item \emph{Algebra I} by van der Waerden, Springer.
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  \end{itemize}
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*}
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axclass semiring \<subseteq> ab_semigroup_add, semigroup_mult
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  left_distrib: "(a + b) * c = a * c + b * c"
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  right_distrib: "a * (b + c) = a * b + a * c"
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axclass mult_zero \<subseteq> times, zero
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  mult_zero_left [simp]: "0 * a = 0"
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  mult_zero_right [simp]: "a * 0 = 0"
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axclass semiring_0 \<subseteq> semiring, comm_monoid_add, mult_zero
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axclass semiring_0_cancel \<subseteq> semiring, comm_monoid_add, cancel_ab_semigroup_add
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instance semiring_0_cancel \<subseteq> semiring_0
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proof
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  fix a :: 'a
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  have "0 * a + 0 * a = 0 * a + 0"
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    by (simp add: left_distrib [symmetric])
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  thus "0 * a = 0"
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    by (simp only: add_left_cancel)
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  have "a * 0 + a * 0 = a * 0 + 0"
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    by (simp add: right_distrib [symmetric])
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  thus "a * 0 = 0"
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    by (simp only: add_left_cancel)
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qed
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axclass comm_semiring \<subseteq> ab_semigroup_add, ab_semigroup_mult  
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  distrib: "(a + b) * c = a * c + b * c"
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instance comm_semiring \<subseteq> semiring
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proof
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  fix a b c :: 'a
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  show "(a + b) * c = a * c + b * c" by (simp add: distrib)
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  have "a * (b + c) = (b + c) * a" by (simp add: mult_ac)
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  also have "... = b * a + c * a" by (simp only: distrib)
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  also have "... = a * b + a * c" by (simp add: mult_ac)
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  finally show "a * (b + c) = a * b + a * c" by blast
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qed
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axclass comm_semiring_0 \<subseteq> comm_semiring, comm_monoid_add, mult_zero
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instance comm_semiring_0 \<subseteq> semiring_0 ..
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axclass comm_semiring_0_cancel \<subseteq> comm_semiring, comm_monoid_add, cancel_ab_semigroup_add
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instance comm_semiring_0_cancel \<subseteq> semiring_0_cancel ..
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instance comm_semiring_0_cancel \<subseteq> comm_semiring_0 ..
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axclass zero_neq_one \<subseteq> zero, one
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  zero_neq_one [simp]: "0 \<noteq> 1"
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axclass semiring_1 \<subseteq> zero_neq_one, semiring_0, monoid_mult
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axclass comm_semiring_1 \<subseteq> zero_neq_one, comm_semiring_0, comm_monoid_mult (* previously almost_semiring *)
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instance comm_semiring_1 \<subseteq> semiring_1 ..
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axclass no_zero_divisors \<subseteq> zero, times
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  no_zero_divisors: "a \<noteq> 0 \<Longrightarrow> b \<noteq> 0 \<Longrightarrow> a * b \<noteq> 0"
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axclass semiring_1_cancel \<subseteq> semiring, comm_monoid_add, zero_neq_one, cancel_ab_semigroup_add, monoid_mult
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instance semiring_1_cancel \<subseteq> semiring_0_cancel ..
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instance semiring_1_cancel \<subseteq> semiring_1 ..
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axclass comm_semiring_1_cancel \<subseteq> 
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  comm_semiring, comm_monoid_add, comm_monoid_mult,
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  zero_neq_one, cancel_ab_semigroup_add
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instance comm_semiring_1_cancel \<subseteq> semiring_1_cancel ..
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instance comm_semiring_1_cancel \<subseteq> comm_semiring_0_cancel ..
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instance comm_semiring_1_cancel \<subseteq> comm_semiring_1 ..
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axclass ring \<subseteq> semiring, ab_group_add
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instance ring \<subseteq> semiring_0_cancel ..
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axclass comm_ring \<subseteq> comm_semiring, ab_group_add
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instance comm_ring \<subseteq> ring ..
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instance comm_ring \<subseteq> comm_semiring_0_cancel ..
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axclass ring_1 \<subseteq> ring, zero_neq_one, monoid_mult
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instance ring_1 \<subseteq> semiring_1_cancel ..
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axclass comm_ring_1 \<subseteq> comm_ring, zero_neq_one, comm_monoid_mult (* previously ring *)
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instance comm_ring_1 \<subseteq> ring_1 ..
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instance comm_ring_1 \<subseteq> comm_semiring_1_cancel ..
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axclass idom \<subseteq> comm_ring_1, no_zero_divisors
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axclass division_ring \<subseteq> ring_1, inverse
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  left_inverse [simp]:  "a \<noteq> 0 ==> inverse a * a = 1"
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  right_inverse [simp]: "a \<noteq> 0 ==> a * inverse a = 1"
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axclass field \<subseteq> comm_ring_1, inverse
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  field_left_inverse: "a \<noteq> 0 ==> inverse a * a = 1"
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  divide_inverse:     "a / b = a * inverse b"
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lemma field_right_inverse:
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      assumes not0: "a \<noteq> 0" shows "a * inverse (a::'a::field) = 1"
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proof -
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  have "a * inverse a = inverse a * a" by (rule mult_commute)
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  also have "... = 1" using not0 by (rule field_left_inverse)
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  finally show ?thesis .
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qed
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23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
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instance field \<subseteq> division_ring
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by (intro_classes, erule field_left_inverse, erule field_right_inverse)
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lemma field_mult_eq_0_iff [simp]:
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  "(a*b = (0::'a::division_ring)) = (a = 0 | b = 0)"
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proof cases
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  assume "a=0" thus ?thesis by simp
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next
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  assume anz [simp]: "a\<noteq>0"
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  { assume "a * b = 0"
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    hence "inverse a * (a * b) = 0" by simp
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    hence "b = 0"  by (simp (no_asm_use) add: mult_assoc [symmetric])}
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  thus ?thesis by force
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qed
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instance field \<subseteq> idom
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by (intro_classes, simp)
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axclass division_by_zero \<subseteq> zero, inverse
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  inverse_zero [simp]: "inverse 0 = 0"
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subsection {* Distribution rules *}
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theorems ring_distrib = right_distrib left_distrib
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text{*For the @{text combine_numerals} simproc*}
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lemma combine_common_factor:
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     "a*e + (b*e + c) = (a+b)*e + (c::'a::semiring)"
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by (simp add: left_distrib add_ac)
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lemma minus_mult_left: "- (a * b) = (-a) * (b::'a::ring)"
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apply (rule equals_zero_I)
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apply (simp add: left_distrib [symmetric]) 
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done
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lemma minus_mult_right: "- (a * b) = a * -(b::'a::ring)"
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apply (rule equals_zero_I)
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apply (simp add: right_distrib [symmetric]) 
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done
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lemma minus_mult_minus [simp]: "(- a) * (- b) = a * (b::'a::ring)"
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  by (simp add: minus_mult_left [symmetric] minus_mult_right [symmetric])
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lemma minus_mult_commute: "(- a) * b = a * (- b::'a::ring)"
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  by (simp add: minus_mult_left [symmetric] minus_mult_right [symmetric])
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lemma right_diff_distrib: "a * (b - c) = a * b - a * (c::'a::ring)"
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by (simp add: right_distrib diff_minus 
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              minus_mult_left [symmetric] minus_mult_right [symmetric]) 
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lemma left_diff_distrib: "(a - b) * c = a * c - b * (c::'a::ring)"
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by (simp add: left_distrib diff_minus 
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              minus_mult_left [symmetric] minus_mult_right [symmetric]) 
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axclass mult_mono \<subseteq> times, zero, ord
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  mult_left_mono: "a <= b \<Longrightarrow> 0 <= c \<Longrightarrow> c * a <= c * b"
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  mult_right_mono: "a <= b \<Longrightarrow> 0 <= c \<Longrightarrow> a * c <= b * c"
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axclass pordered_semiring \<subseteq> mult_mono, semiring_0, pordered_ab_semigroup_add 
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2d83f93c3580 * Added annihilation axioms ("x * 0 = 0") to axclass semiring_0.
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axclass pordered_cancel_semiring \<subseteq> 
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  mult_mono, pordered_ab_semigroup_add,
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  semiring, comm_monoid_add, 
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  pordered_ab_semigroup_add, cancel_ab_semigroup_add
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instance pordered_cancel_semiring \<subseteq> semiring_0_cancel ..
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instance pordered_cancel_semiring \<subseteq> pordered_semiring .. 
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2d83f93c3580 * Added annihilation axioms ("x * 0 = 0") to axclass semiring_0.
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axclass ordered_semiring_strict \<subseteq> semiring, comm_monoid_add, ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
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  mult_strict_left_mono: "a < b \<Longrightarrow> 0 < c \<Longrightarrow> c * a < c * b"
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  mult_strict_right_mono: "a < b \<Longrightarrow> 0 < c \<Longrightarrow> a * c < b * c"
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instance ordered_semiring_strict \<subseteq> semiring_0_cancel ..
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instance ordered_semiring_strict \<subseteq> pordered_cancel_semiring
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apply intro_classes
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   218
apply (case_tac "a < b & 0 < c")
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   219
apply (auto simp add: mult_strict_left_mono order_less_le)
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apply (auto simp add: mult_strict_left_mono order_le_less)
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   221
apply (simp add: mult_strict_right_mono)
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done
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   223
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   224
axclass mult_mono1 \<subseteq> times, zero, ord
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  mult_mono: "a <= b \<Longrightarrow> 0 <= c \<Longrightarrow> c * a <= c * b"
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   226
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   227
axclass pordered_comm_semiring \<subseteq> comm_semiring_0, pordered_ab_semigroup_add, mult_mono1
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   228
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   229
axclass pordered_cancel_comm_semiring \<subseteq> 
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   230
  comm_semiring_0_cancel, pordered_ab_semigroup_add, mult_mono1
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   231
  
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instance pordered_cancel_comm_semiring \<subseteq> pordered_comm_semiring ..
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   233
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   234
axclass ordered_comm_semiring_strict \<subseteq> comm_semiring_0, ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
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   235
  mult_strict_mono: "a < b \<Longrightarrow> 0 < c \<Longrightarrow> c * a < c * b"
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   236
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   237
instance pordered_comm_semiring \<subseteq> pordered_semiring
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   238
proof
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   239
  fix a b c :: 'a
2d83f93c3580 * Added annihilation axioms ("x * 0 = 0") to axclass semiring_0.
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   240
  assume A: "a <= b" "0 <= c"
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   241
  with mult_mono show "c * a <= c * b" .
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   242
2d83f93c3580 * Added annihilation axioms ("x * 0 = 0") to axclass semiring_0.
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   243
  from mult_commute have "a * c = c * a" ..
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   244
  also from mult_mono A have "\<dots> <= c * b" .
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   245
  also from mult_commute have "c * b = b * c" ..
2d83f93c3580 * Added annihilation axioms ("x * 0 = 0") to axclass semiring_0.
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   246
  finally show "a * c <= b * c" .
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   247
qed
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   249
instance pordered_cancel_comm_semiring \<subseteq> pordered_cancel_semiring ..
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   251
instance ordered_comm_semiring_strict \<subseteq> ordered_semiring_strict
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   252
by (intro_classes, insert mult_strict_mono, simp_all add: mult_commute, blast+)
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5efbb548107d Tidying of the integer development; towards removing the
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   253
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   254
instance ordered_comm_semiring_strict \<subseteq> pordered_cancel_comm_semiring
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   255
apply (intro_classes)
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   256
apply (case_tac "a < b & 0 < c")
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   257
apply (auto simp add: mult_strict_left_mono order_less_le)
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   258
apply (auto simp add: mult_strict_left_mono order_le_less)
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5efbb548107d Tidying of the integer development; towards removing the
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   259
done
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21199
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   261
axclass pordered_ring \<subseteq> ring, pordered_cancel_semiring 
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   262
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   263
instance pordered_ring \<subseteq> pordered_ab_group_add ..
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   264
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   265
axclass lordered_ring \<subseteq> pordered_ring, lordered_ab_group_abs
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   266
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   267
instance lordered_ring \<subseteq> lordered_ab_group_meet ..
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   268
b9ab8babd8b3 Further development of matrix theory
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   269
instance lordered_ring \<subseteq> lordered_ab_group_join ..
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   270
20633
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   271
axclass abs_if \<subseteq> minus, ord, zero
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   272
  abs_if: "abs a = (if (a < 0) then (-a) else a)"
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   273
20633
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   274
axclass ordered_ring_strict \<subseteq> ring, ordered_semiring_strict, abs_if
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diff changeset
   275
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   276
instance ordered_ring_strict \<subseteq> lordered_ab_group ..
14270
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   277
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   278
instance ordered_ring_strict \<subseteq> lordered_ring
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   279
by (intro_classes, simp add: abs_if join_eq_if)
14270
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   280
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   281
axclass pordered_comm_ring \<subseteq> comm_ring, pordered_comm_semiring
14270
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   282
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   283
axclass ordered_semidom \<subseteq> comm_semiring_1_cancel, ordered_comm_semiring_strict (* previously ordered_semiring *)
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   284
  zero_less_one [simp]: "0 < 1"
14270
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   285
20633
e98f59806244 renamed axclass_xxxx axclasses;
wenzelm
parents: 20609
diff changeset
   286
axclass ordered_idom \<subseteq> comm_ring_1, ordered_comm_semiring_strict, abs_if (* previously ordered_ring *)
14270
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   287
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   288
instance ordered_idom \<subseteq> ordered_ring_strict ..
14272
5efbb548107d Tidying of the integer development; towards removing the
paulson
parents: 14270
diff changeset
   289
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   290
axclass ordered_field \<subseteq> field, ordered_idom
14272
5efbb548107d Tidying of the integer development; towards removing the
paulson
parents: 14270
diff changeset
   291
15923
01d5d0c1c078 fixed lin.arith
nipkow
parents: 15769
diff changeset
   292
lemmas linorder_neqE_ordered_idom =
01d5d0c1c078 fixed lin.arith
nipkow
parents: 15769
diff changeset
   293
 linorder_neqE[where 'a = "?'b::ordered_idom"]
01d5d0c1c078 fixed lin.arith
nipkow
parents: 15769
diff changeset
   294
14272
5efbb548107d Tidying of the integer development; towards removing the
paulson
parents: 14270
diff changeset
   295
lemma eq_add_iff1:
5efbb548107d Tidying of the integer development; towards removing the
paulson
parents: 14270
diff changeset
   296
     "(a*e + c = b*e + d) = ((a-b)*e + c = (d::'a::ring))"
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   297
apply (simp add: diff_minus left_distrib)
14272
5efbb548107d Tidying of the integer development; towards removing the
paulson
parents: 14270
diff changeset
   298
apply (simp add: diff_minus left_distrib add_ac)
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   299
apply (simp add: compare_rls minus_mult_left [symmetric])
14272
5efbb548107d Tidying of the integer development; towards removing the
paulson
parents: 14270
diff changeset
   300
done
5efbb548107d Tidying of the integer development; towards removing the
paulson
parents: 14270
diff changeset
   301
5efbb548107d Tidying of the integer development; towards removing the
paulson
parents: 14270
diff changeset
   302
lemma eq_add_iff2:
5efbb548107d Tidying of the integer development; towards removing the
paulson
parents: 14270
diff changeset
   303
     "(a*e + c = b*e + d) = (c = (b-a)*e + (d::'a::ring))"
5efbb548107d Tidying of the integer development; towards removing the
paulson
parents: 14270
diff changeset
   304
apply (simp add: diff_minus left_distrib add_ac)
5efbb548107d Tidying of the integer development; towards removing the
paulson
parents: 14270
diff changeset
   305
apply (simp add: compare_rls minus_mult_left [symmetric]) 
5efbb548107d Tidying of the integer development; towards removing the
paulson
parents: 14270
diff changeset
   306
done
5efbb548107d Tidying of the integer development; towards removing the
paulson
parents: 14270
diff changeset
   307
5efbb548107d Tidying of the integer development; towards removing the
paulson
parents: 14270
diff changeset
   308
lemma less_add_iff1:
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   309
     "(a*e + c < b*e + d) = ((a-b)*e + c < (d::'a::pordered_ring))"
14272
5efbb548107d Tidying of the integer development; towards removing the
paulson
parents: 14270
diff changeset
   310
apply (simp add: diff_minus left_distrib add_ac)
5efbb548107d Tidying of the integer development; towards removing the
paulson
parents: 14270
diff changeset
   311
apply (simp add: compare_rls minus_mult_left [symmetric]) 
5efbb548107d Tidying of the integer development; towards removing the
paulson
parents: 14270
diff changeset
   312
done
5efbb548107d Tidying of the integer development; towards removing the
paulson
parents: 14270
diff changeset
   313
5efbb548107d Tidying of the integer development; towards removing the
paulson
parents: 14270
diff changeset
   314
lemma less_add_iff2:
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   315
     "(a*e + c < b*e + d) = (c < (b-a)*e + (d::'a::pordered_ring))"
14272
5efbb548107d Tidying of the integer development; towards removing the
paulson
parents: 14270
diff changeset
   316
apply (simp add: diff_minus left_distrib add_ac)
5efbb548107d Tidying of the integer development; towards removing the
paulson
parents: 14270
diff changeset
   317
apply (simp add: compare_rls minus_mult_left [symmetric]) 
5efbb548107d Tidying of the integer development; towards removing the
paulson
parents: 14270
diff changeset
   318
done
5efbb548107d Tidying of the integer development; towards removing the
paulson
parents: 14270
diff changeset
   319
5efbb548107d Tidying of the integer development; towards removing the
paulson
parents: 14270
diff changeset
   320
lemma le_add_iff1:
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   321
     "(a*e + c \<le> b*e + d) = ((a-b)*e + c \<le> (d::'a::pordered_ring))"
14272
5efbb548107d Tidying of the integer development; towards removing the
paulson
parents: 14270
diff changeset
   322
apply (simp add: diff_minus left_distrib add_ac)
5efbb548107d Tidying of the integer development; towards removing the
paulson
parents: 14270
diff changeset
   323
apply (simp add: compare_rls minus_mult_left [symmetric]) 
5efbb548107d Tidying of the integer development; towards removing the
paulson
parents: 14270
diff changeset
   324
done
5efbb548107d Tidying of the integer development; towards removing the
paulson
parents: 14270
diff changeset
   325
5efbb548107d Tidying of the integer development; towards removing the
paulson
parents: 14270
diff changeset
   326
lemma le_add_iff2:
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   327
     "(a*e + c \<le> b*e + d) = (c \<le> (b-a)*e + (d::'a::pordered_ring))"
14272
5efbb548107d Tidying of the integer development; towards removing the
paulson
parents: 14270
diff changeset
   328
apply (simp add: diff_minus left_distrib add_ac)
5efbb548107d Tidying of the integer development; towards removing the
paulson
parents: 14270
diff changeset
   329
apply (simp add: compare_rls minus_mult_left [symmetric]) 
5efbb548107d Tidying of the integer development; towards removing the
paulson
parents: 14270
diff changeset
   330
done
5efbb548107d Tidying of the integer development; towards removing the
paulson
parents: 14270
diff changeset
   331
14270
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   332
subsection {* Ordering Rules for Multiplication *}
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   333
14348
744c868ee0b7 Defining the type class "ringpower" and deleting superseded theorems for
paulson
parents: 14341
diff changeset
   334
lemma mult_left_le_imp_le:
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   335
     "[|c*a \<le> c*b; 0 < c|] ==> a \<le> (b::'a::ordered_semiring_strict)"
14348
744c868ee0b7 Defining the type class "ringpower" and deleting superseded theorems for
paulson
parents: 14341
diff changeset
   336
  by (force simp add: mult_strict_left_mono linorder_not_less [symmetric])
744c868ee0b7 Defining the type class "ringpower" and deleting superseded theorems for
paulson
parents: 14341
diff changeset
   337
 
744c868ee0b7 Defining the type class "ringpower" and deleting superseded theorems for
paulson
parents: 14341
diff changeset
   338
lemma mult_right_le_imp_le:
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   339
     "[|a*c \<le> b*c; 0 < c|] ==> a \<le> (b::'a::ordered_semiring_strict)"
14348
744c868ee0b7 Defining the type class "ringpower" and deleting superseded theorems for
paulson
parents: 14341
diff changeset
   340
  by (force simp add: mult_strict_right_mono linorder_not_less [symmetric])
744c868ee0b7 Defining the type class "ringpower" and deleting superseded theorems for
paulson
parents: 14341
diff changeset
   341
744c868ee0b7 Defining the type class "ringpower" and deleting superseded theorems for
paulson
parents: 14341
diff changeset
   342
lemma mult_left_less_imp_less:
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   343
     "[|c*a < c*b; 0 \<le> c|] ==> a < (b::'a::ordered_semiring_strict)"
14348
744c868ee0b7 Defining the type class "ringpower" and deleting superseded theorems for
paulson
parents: 14341
diff changeset
   344
  by (force simp add: mult_left_mono linorder_not_le [symmetric])
744c868ee0b7 Defining the type class "ringpower" and deleting superseded theorems for
paulson
parents: 14341
diff changeset
   345
 
744c868ee0b7 Defining the type class "ringpower" and deleting superseded theorems for
paulson
parents: 14341
diff changeset
   346
lemma mult_right_less_imp_less:
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   347
     "[|a*c < b*c; 0 \<le> c|] ==> a < (b::'a::ordered_semiring_strict)"
14348
744c868ee0b7 Defining the type class "ringpower" and deleting superseded theorems for
paulson
parents: 14341
diff changeset
   348
  by (force simp add: mult_right_mono linorder_not_le [symmetric])
744c868ee0b7 Defining the type class "ringpower" and deleting superseded theorems for
paulson
parents: 14341
diff changeset
   349
14265
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   350
lemma mult_strict_left_mono_neg:
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   351
     "[|b < a; c < 0|] ==> c * a < c * (b::'a::ordered_ring_strict)"
14265
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   352
apply (drule mult_strict_left_mono [of _ _ "-c"])
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   353
apply (simp_all add: minus_mult_left [symmetric]) 
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   354
done
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   355
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   356
lemma mult_left_mono_neg:
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   357
     "[|b \<le> a; c \<le> 0|] ==> c * a \<le>  c * (b::'a::pordered_ring)"
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   358
apply (drule mult_left_mono [of _ _ "-c"])
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   359
apply (simp_all add: minus_mult_left [symmetric]) 
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   360
done
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   361
14265
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   362
lemma mult_strict_right_mono_neg:
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   363
     "[|b < a; c < 0|] ==> a * c < b * (c::'a::ordered_ring_strict)"
14265
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   364
apply (drule mult_strict_right_mono [of _ _ "-c"])
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   365
apply (simp_all add: minus_mult_right [symmetric]) 
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   366
done
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   367
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   368
lemma mult_right_mono_neg:
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   369
     "[|b \<le> a; c \<le> 0|] ==> a * c \<le>  (b::'a::pordered_ring) * c"
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   370
apply (drule mult_right_mono [of _ _ "-c"])
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   371
apply (simp)
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   372
apply (simp_all add: minus_mult_right [symmetric]) 
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   373
done
14265
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   374
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   375
subsection{* Products of Signs *}
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   376
16775
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
   377
lemma mult_pos_pos: "[| (0::'a::ordered_semiring_strict) < a; 0 < b |] ==> 0 < a*b"
14265
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   378
by (drule mult_strict_left_mono [of 0 b], auto)
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   379
16775
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
   380
lemma mult_nonneg_nonneg: "[| (0::'a::pordered_cancel_semiring) \<le> a; 0 \<le> b |] ==> 0 \<le> a*b"
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   381
by (drule mult_left_mono [of 0 b], auto)
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   382
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   383
lemma mult_pos_neg: "[| (0::'a::ordered_semiring_strict) < a; b < 0 |] ==> a*b < 0"
14265
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   384
by (drule mult_strict_left_mono [of b 0], auto)
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   385
16775
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
   386
lemma mult_nonneg_nonpos: "[| (0::'a::pordered_cancel_semiring) \<le> a; b \<le> 0 |] ==> a*b \<le> 0"
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   387
by (drule mult_left_mono [of b 0], auto)
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   388
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   389
lemma mult_pos_neg2: "[| (0::'a::ordered_semiring_strict) < a; b < 0 |] ==> b*a < 0" 
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   390
by (drule mult_strict_right_mono[of b 0], auto)
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   391
16775
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
   392
lemma mult_nonneg_nonpos2: "[| (0::'a::pordered_cancel_semiring) \<le> a; b \<le> 0 |] ==> b*a \<le> 0" 
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   393
by (drule mult_right_mono[of b 0], auto)
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   394
16775
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
   395
lemma mult_neg_neg: "[| a < (0::'a::ordered_ring_strict); b < 0 |] ==> 0 < a*b"
14265
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   396
by (drule mult_strict_right_mono_neg, auto)
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   397
16775
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
   398
lemma mult_nonpos_nonpos: "[| a \<le> (0::'a::pordered_ring); b \<le> 0 |] ==> 0 \<le> a*b"
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   399
by (drule mult_right_mono_neg[of a 0 b ], auto)
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   400
14341
a09441bd4f1e Ring_and_Field now requires axiom add_left_imp_eq for semirings.
paulson
parents: 14334
diff changeset
   401
lemma zero_less_mult_pos:
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   402
     "[| 0 < a*b; 0 < a|] ==> 0 < (b::'a::ordered_semiring_strict)"
14265
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   403
apply (case_tac "b\<le>0") 
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   404
 apply (auto simp add: order_le_less linorder_not_less)
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   405
apply (drule_tac mult_pos_neg [of a b]) 
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   406
 apply (auto dest: order_less_not_sym)
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   407
done
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   408
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   409
lemma zero_less_mult_pos2:
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   410
     "[| 0 < b*a; 0 < a|] ==> 0 < (b::'a::ordered_semiring_strict)"
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   411
apply (case_tac "b\<le>0") 
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   412
 apply (auto simp add: order_le_less linorder_not_less)
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   413
apply (drule_tac mult_pos_neg2 [of a b]) 
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   414
 apply (auto dest: order_less_not_sym)
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   415
done
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   416
14265
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   417
lemma zero_less_mult_iff:
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   418
     "((0::'a::ordered_ring_strict) < a*b) = (0 < a & 0 < b | a < 0 & b < 0)"
16775
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
   419
apply (auto simp add: order_le_less linorder_not_less mult_pos_pos 
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
   420
  mult_neg_neg)
14265
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   421
apply (blast dest: zero_less_mult_pos) 
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   422
apply (blast dest: zero_less_mult_pos2)
14265
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   423
done
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   424
14341
a09441bd4f1e Ring_and_Field now requires axiom add_left_imp_eq for semirings.
paulson
parents: 14334
diff changeset
   425
text{*A field has no "zero divisors", and this theorem holds without the
14277
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
   426
      assumption of an ordering.  See @{text field_mult_eq_0_iff} below.*}
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   427
lemma mult_eq_0_iff [simp]: "(a*b = (0::'a::ordered_ring_strict)) = (a = 0 | b = 0)"
14265
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   428
apply (case_tac "a < 0")
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   429
apply (auto simp add: linorder_not_less order_le_less linorder_neq_iff)
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   430
apply (force dest: mult_strict_right_mono_neg mult_strict_right_mono)+
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   431
done
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   432
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   433
lemma zero_le_mult_iff:
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   434
     "((0::'a::ordered_ring_strict) \<le> a*b) = (0 \<le> a & 0 \<le> b | a \<le> 0 & b \<le> 0)"
14265
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   435
by (auto simp add: eq_commute [of 0] order_le_less linorder_not_less
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   436
                   zero_less_mult_iff)
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   437
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   438
lemma mult_less_0_iff:
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   439
     "(a*b < (0::'a::ordered_ring_strict)) = (0 < a & b < 0 | a < 0 & 0 < b)"
14265
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   440
apply (insert zero_less_mult_iff [of "-a" b]) 
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   441
apply (force simp add: minus_mult_left[symmetric]) 
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   442
done
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   443
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   444
lemma mult_le_0_iff:
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   445
     "(a*b \<le> (0::'a::ordered_ring_strict)) = (0 \<le> a & b \<le> 0 | a \<le> 0 & 0 \<le> b)"
14265
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   446
apply (insert zero_le_mult_iff [of "-a" b]) 
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   447
apply (force simp add: minus_mult_left[symmetric]) 
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   448
done
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   449
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   450
lemma split_mult_pos_le: "(0 \<le> a & 0 \<le> b) | (a \<le> 0 & b \<le> 0) \<Longrightarrow> 0 \<le> a * (b::_::pordered_ring)"
16775
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
   451
by (auto simp add: mult_nonneg_nonneg mult_nonpos_nonpos)
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   452
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   453
lemma split_mult_neg_le: "(0 \<le> a & b \<le> 0) | (a \<le> 0 & 0 \<le> b) \<Longrightarrow> a * b \<le> (0::_::pordered_cancel_semiring)" 
16775
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
   454
by (auto simp add: mult_nonneg_nonpos mult_nonneg_nonpos2)
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   455
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   456
lemma zero_le_square: "(0::'a::ordered_ring_strict) \<le> a*a"
14265
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   457
by (simp add: zero_le_mult_iff linorder_linear) 
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   458
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   459
text{*Proving axiom @{text zero_less_one} makes all @{text ordered_semidom}
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   460
      theorems available to members of @{term ordered_idom} *}
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   461
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   462
instance ordered_idom \<subseteq> ordered_semidom
14421
ee97b6463cb4 new Ring_and_Field hierarchy, eliminating redundant axioms
paulson
parents: 14398
diff changeset
   463
proof
ee97b6463cb4 new Ring_and_Field hierarchy, eliminating redundant axioms
paulson
parents: 14398
diff changeset
   464
  have "(0::'a) \<le> 1*1" by (rule zero_le_square)
14430
5cb24165a2e1 new material from Avigad, and simplified treatment of division by 0
paulson
parents: 14421
diff changeset
   465
  thus "(0::'a) < 1" by (simp add: order_le_less) 
14421
ee97b6463cb4 new Ring_and_Field hierarchy, eliminating redundant axioms
paulson
parents: 14398
diff changeset
   466
qed
ee97b6463cb4 new Ring_and_Field hierarchy, eliminating redundant axioms
paulson
parents: 14398
diff changeset
   467
20609
5681da8c12ef renamed axclass_xxxx axclasses
obua
parents: 20496
diff changeset
   468
instance ordered_ring_strict \<subseteq> no_zero_divisors 
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   469
by (intro_classes, simp)
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   470
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   471
instance ordered_idom \<subseteq> idom ..
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   472
14387
e96d5c42c4b0 Polymorphic treatment of binary arithmetic using axclasses
paulson
parents: 14377
diff changeset
   473
text{*All three types of comparision involving 0 and 1 are covered.*}
e96d5c42c4b0 Polymorphic treatment of binary arithmetic using axclasses
paulson
parents: 14377
diff changeset
   474
17085
5b57f995a179 more simprules now have names
paulson
parents: 16775
diff changeset
   475
lemmas one_neq_zero = zero_neq_one [THEN not_sym]
5b57f995a179 more simprules now have names
paulson
parents: 16775
diff changeset
   476
declare one_neq_zero [simp]
14387
e96d5c42c4b0 Polymorphic treatment of binary arithmetic using axclasses
paulson
parents: 14377
diff changeset
   477
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   478
lemma zero_le_one [simp]: "(0::'a::ordered_semidom) \<le> 1"
14268
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   479
  by (rule zero_less_one [THEN order_less_imp_le]) 
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   480
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   481
lemma not_one_le_zero [simp]: "~ (1::'a::ordered_semidom) \<le> 0"
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   482
by (simp add: linorder_not_le) 
14387
e96d5c42c4b0 Polymorphic treatment of binary arithmetic using axclasses
paulson
parents: 14377
diff changeset
   483
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   484
lemma not_one_less_zero [simp]: "~ (1::'a::ordered_semidom) < 0"
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   485
by (simp add: linorder_not_less) 
14268
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   486
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   487
subsection{*More Monotonicity*}
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   488
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   489
text{*Strict monotonicity in both arguments*}
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   490
lemma mult_strict_mono:
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   491
     "[|a<b; c<d; 0<b; 0\<le>c|] ==> a * c < b * (d::'a::ordered_semiring_strict)"
14268
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   492
apply (case_tac "c=0")
16775
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
   493
 apply (simp add: mult_pos_pos) 
14268
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   494
apply (erule mult_strict_right_mono [THEN order_less_trans])
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   495
 apply (force simp add: order_le_less) 
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   496
apply (erule mult_strict_left_mono, assumption)
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   497
done
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   498
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   499
text{*This weaker variant has more natural premises*}
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   500
lemma mult_strict_mono':
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   501
     "[| a<b; c<d; 0 \<le> a; 0 \<le> c|] ==> a * c < b * (d::'a::ordered_semiring_strict)"
14268
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   502
apply (rule mult_strict_mono)
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   503
apply (blast intro: order_le_less_trans)+
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   504
done
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   505
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   506
lemma mult_mono:
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   507
     "[|a \<le> b; c \<le> d; 0 \<le> b; 0 \<le> c|] 
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   508
      ==> a * c  \<le>  b * (d::'a::pordered_semiring)"
14268
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   509
apply (erule mult_right_mono [THEN order_trans], assumption)
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   510
apply (erule mult_left_mono, assumption)
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   511
done
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   512
21258
62f25a96f0c1 added lemma mult_mono'
huffman
parents: 21199
diff changeset
   513
lemma mult_mono':
62f25a96f0c1 added lemma mult_mono'
huffman
parents: 21199
diff changeset
   514
     "[|a \<le> b; c \<le> d; 0 \<le> a; 0 \<le> c|] 
62f25a96f0c1 added lemma mult_mono'
huffman
parents: 21199
diff changeset
   515
      ==> a * c  \<le>  b * (d::'a::pordered_semiring)"
62f25a96f0c1 added lemma mult_mono'
huffman
parents: 21199
diff changeset
   516
apply (rule mult_mono)
62f25a96f0c1 added lemma mult_mono'
huffman
parents: 21199
diff changeset
   517
apply (fast intro: order_trans)+
62f25a96f0c1 added lemma mult_mono'
huffman
parents: 21199
diff changeset
   518
done
62f25a96f0c1 added lemma mult_mono'
huffman
parents: 21199
diff changeset
   519
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   520
lemma less_1_mult: "[| 1 < m; 1 < n |] ==> 1 < m*(n::'a::ordered_semidom)"
14387
e96d5c42c4b0 Polymorphic treatment of binary arithmetic using axclasses
paulson
parents: 14377
diff changeset
   521
apply (insert mult_strict_mono [of 1 m 1 n]) 
14430
5cb24165a2e1 new material from Avigad, and simplified treatment of division by 0
paulson
parents: 14421
diff changeset
   522
apply (simp add:  order_less_trans [OF zero_less_one]) 
14387
e96d5c42c4b0 Polymorphic treatment of binary arithmetic using axclasses
paulson
parents: 14377
diff changeset
   523
done
e96d5c42c4b0 Polymorphic treatment of binary arithmetic using axclasses
paulson
parents: 14377
diff changeset
   524
16775
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
   525
lemma mult_less_le_imp_less: "(a::'a::ordered_semiring_strict) < b ==>
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
   526
    c <= d ==> 0 <= a ==> 0 < c ==> a * c < b * d"
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
   527
  apply (subgoal_tac "a * c < b * c")
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
   528
  apply (erule order_less_le_trans)
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
   529
  apply (erule mult_left_mono)
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
   530
  apply simp
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
   531
  apply (erule mult_strict_right_mono)
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
   532
  apply assumption
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
   533
done
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
   534
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
   535
lemma mult_le_less_imp_less: "(a::'a::ordered_semiring_strict) <= b ==>
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
   536
    c < d ==> 0 < a ==> 0 <= c ==> a * c < b * d"
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
   537
  apply (subgoal_tac "a * c <= b * c")
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
   538
  apply (erule order_le_less_trans)
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
   539
  apply (erule mult_strict_left_mono)
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
   540
  apply simp
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
   541
  apply (erule mult_right_mono)
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
   542
  apply simp
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
   543
done
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
   544
14268
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   545
subsection{*Cancellation Laws for Relationships With a Common Factor*}
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   546
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   547
text{*Cancellation laws for @{term "c*a < c*b"} and @{term "a*c < b*c"},
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   548
   also with the relations @{text "\<le>"} and equality.*}
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   549
15234
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   550
text{*These ``disjunction'' versions produce two cases when the comparison is
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   551
 an assumption, but effectively four when the comparison is a goal.*}
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   552
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   553
lemma mult_less_cancel_right_disj:
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   554
    "(a*c < b*c) = ((0 < c & a < b) | (c < 0 & b < (a::'a::ordered_ring_strict)))"
14268
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   555
apply (case_tac "c = 0")
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   556
apply (auto simp add: linorder_neq_iff mult_strict_right_mono 
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   557
                      mult_strict_right_mono_neg)
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   558
apply (auto simp add: linorder_not_less 
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   559
                      linorder_not_le [symmetric, of "a*c"]
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   560
                      linorder_not_le [symmetric, of a])
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   561
apply (erule_tac [!] notE)
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   562
apply (auto simp add: order_less_imp_le mult_right_mono 
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   563
                      mult_right_mono_neg)
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   564
done
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   565
15234
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   566
lemma mult_less_cancel_left_disj:
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   567
    "(c*a < c*b) = ((0 < c & a < b) | (c < 0 & b < (a::'a::ordered_ring_strict)))"
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   568
apply (case_tac "c = 0")
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   569
apply (auto simp add: linorder_neq_iff mult_strict_left_mono 
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   570
                      mult_strict_left_mono_neg)
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   571
apply (auto simp add: linorder_not_less 
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   572
                      linorder_not_le [symmetric, of "c*a"]
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   573
                      linorder_not_le [symmetric, of a])
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   574
apply (erule_tac [!] notE)
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   575
apply (auto simp add: order_less_imp_le mult_left_mono 
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   576
                      mult_left_mono_neg)
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   577
done
14268
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   578
15234
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   579
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   580
text{*The ``conjunction of implication'' lemmas produce two cases when the
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   581
comparison is a goal, but give four when the comparison is an assumption.*}
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   582
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   583
lemma mult_less_cancel_right:
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   584
  fixes c :: "'a :: ordered_ring_strict"
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   585
  shows      "(a*c < b*c) = ((0 \<le> c --> a < b) & (c \<le> 0 --> b < a))"
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   586
by (insert mult_less_cancel_right_disj [of a c b], auto)
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   587
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   588
lemma mult_less_cancel_left:
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   589
  fixes c :: "'a :: ordered_ring_strict"
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   590
  shows      "(c*a < c*b) = ((0 \<le> c --> a < b) & (c \<le> 0 --> b < a))"
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   591
by (insert mult_less_cancel_left_disj [of c a b], auto)
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   592
14268
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   593
lemma mult_le_cancel_right:
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   594
     "(a*c \<le> b*c) = ((0<c --> a\<le>b) & (c<0 --> b \<le> (a::'a::ordered_ring_strict)))"
15234
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   595
by (simp add: linorder_not_less [symmetric] mult_less_cancel_right_disj)
14268
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   596
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   597
lemma mult_le_cancel_left:
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   598
     "(c*a \<le> c*b) = ((0<c --> a\<le>b) & (c<0 --> b \<le> (a::'a::ordered_ring_strict)))"
15234
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   599
by (simp add: linorder_not_less [symmetric] mult_less_cancel_left_disj)
14268
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   600
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   601
lemma mult_less_imp_less_left:
14341
a09441bd4f1e Ring_and_Field now requires axiom add_left_imp_eq for semirings.
paulson
parents: 14334
diff changeset
   602
      assumes less: "c*a < c*b" and nonneg: "0 \<le> c"
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   603
      shows "a < (b::'a::ordered_semiring_strict)"
14377
f454b3004f8f tidying up, especially the Complex numbers
paulson
parents: 14370
diff changeset
   604
proof (rule ccontr)
f454b3004f8f tidying up, especially the Complex numbers
paulson
parents: 14370
diff changeset
   605
  assume "~ a < b"
f454b3004f8f tidying up, especially the Complex numbers
paulson
parents: 14370
diff changeset
   606
  hence "b \<le> a" by (simp add: linorder_not_less)
f454b3004f8f tidying up, especially the Complex numbers
paulson
parents: 14370
diff changeset
   607
  hence "c*b \<le> c*a" by (rule mult_left_mono)
f454b3004f8f tidying up, especially the Complex numbers
paulson
parents: 14370
diff changeset
   608
  with this and less show False 
f454b3004f8f tidying up, especially the Complex numbers
paulson
parents: 14370
diff changeset
   609
    by (simp add: linorder_not_less [symmetric])
f454b3004f8f tidying up, especially the Complex numbers
paulson
parents: 14370
diff changeset
   610
qed
14268
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   611
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   612
lemma mult_less_imp_less_right:
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   613
  assumes less: "a*c < b*c" and nonneg: "0 <= c"
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   614
  shows "a < (b::'a::ordered_semiring_strict)"
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   615
proof (rule ccontr)
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   616
  assume "~ a < b"
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   617
  hence "b \<le> a" by (simp add: linorder_not_less)
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   618
  hence "b*c \<le> a*c" by (rule mult_right_mono)
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   619
  with this and less show False 
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   620
    by (simp add: linorder_not_less [symmetric])
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   621
qed  
14268
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   622
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   623
text{*Cancellation of equalities with a common factor*}
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   624
lemma mult_cancel_right [simp]:
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   625
     "(a*c = b*c) = (c = (0::'a::ordered_ring_strict) | a=b)"
14268
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   626
apply (cut_tac linorder_less_linear [of 0 c])
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   627
apply (force dest: mult_strict_right_mono_neg mult_strict_right_mono
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   628
             simp add: linorder_neq_iff)
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   629
done
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   630
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   631
text{*These cancellation theorems require an ordering. Versions are proved
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   632
      below that work for fields without an ordering.*}
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   633
lemma mult_cancel_left [simp]:
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   634
     "(c*a = c*b) = (c = (0::'a::ordered_ring_strict) | a=b)"
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   635
apply (cut_tac linorder_less_linear [of 0 c])
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   636
apply (force dest: mult_strict_left_mono_neg mult_strict_left_mono
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   637
             simp add: linorder_neq_iff)
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   638
done
14268
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   639
15234
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   640
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   641
subsubsection{*Special Cancellation Simprules for Multiplication*}
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   642
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   643
text{*These also produce two cases when the comparison is a goal.*}
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   644
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   645
lemma mult_le_cancel_right1:
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   646
  fixes c :: "'a :: ordered_idom"
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   647
  shows "(c \<le> b*c) = ((0<c --> 1\<le>b) & (c<0 --> b \<le> 1))"
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   648
by (insert mult_le_cancel_right [of 1 c b], simp)
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   649
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   650
lemma mult_le_cancel_right2:
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   651
  fixes c :: "'a :: ordered_idom"
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   652
  shows "(a*c \<le> c) = ((0<c --> a\<le>1) & (c<0 --> 1 \<le> a))"
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   653
by (insert mult_le_cancel_right [of a c 1], simp)
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   654
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   655
lemma mult_le_cancel_left1:
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   656
  fixes c :: "'a :: ordered_idom"
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   657
  shows "(c \<le> c*b) = ((0<c --> 1\<le>b) & (c<0 --> b \<le> 1))"
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   658
by (insert mult_le_cancel_left [of c 1 b], simp)
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   659
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   660
lemma mult_le_cancel_left2:
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   661
  fixes c :: "'a :: ordered_idom"
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   662
  shows "(c*a \<le> c) = ((0<c --> a\<le>1) & (c<0 --> 1 \<le> a))"
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   663
by (insert mult_le_cancel_left [of c a 1], simp)
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   664
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   665
lemma mult_less_cancel_right1:
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   666
  fixes c :: "'a :: ordered_idom"
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   667
  shows "(c < b*c) = ((0 \<le> c --> 1<b) & (c \<le> 0 --> b < 1))"
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   668
by (insert mult_less_cancel_right [of 1 c b], simp)
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   669
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   670
lemma mult_less_cancel_right2:
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   671
  fixes c :: "'a :: ordered_idom"
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   672
  shows "(a*c < c) = ((0 \<le> c --> a<1) & (c \<le> 0 --> 1 < a))"
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   673
by (insert mult_less_cancel_right [of a c 1], simp)
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   674
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   675
lemma mult_less_cancel_left1:
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   676
  fixes c :: "'a :: ordered_idom"
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   677
  shows "(c < c*b) = ((0 \<le> c --> 1<b) & (c \<le> 0 --> b < 1))"
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   678
by (insert mult_less_cancel_left [of c 1 b], simp)
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   679
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   680
lemma mult_less_cancel_left2:
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   681
  fixes c :: "'a :: ordered_idom"
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   682
  shows "(c*a < c) = ((0 \<le> c --> a<1) & (c \<le> 0 --> 1 < a))"
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   683
by (insert mult_less_cancel_left [of c a 1], simp)
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   684
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   685
lemma mult_cancel_right1 [simp]:
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   686
fixes c :: "'a :: ordered_idom"
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   687
  shows "(c = b*c) = (c = 0 | b=1)"
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   688
by (insert mult_cancel_right [of 1 c b], force)
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   689
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   690
lemma mult_cancel_right2 [simp]:
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   691
fixes c :: "'a :: ordered_idom"
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   692
  shows "(a*c = c) = (c = 0 | a=1)"
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   693
by (insert mult_cancel_right [of a c 1], simp)
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   694
 
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   695
lemma mult_cancel_left1 [simp]:
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   696
fixes c :: "'a :: ordered_idom"
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   697
  shows "(c = c*b) = (c = 0 | b=1)"
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   698
by (insert mult_cancel_left [of c 1 b], force)
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   699
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   700
lemma mult_cancel_left2 [simp]:
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   701
fixes c :: "'a :: ordered_idom"
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   702
  shows "(c*a = c) = (c = 0 | a=1)"
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   703
by (insert mult_cancel_left [of c a 1], simp)
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   704
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   705
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   706
text{*Simprules for comparisons where common factors can be cancelled.*}
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   707
lemmas mult_compare_simps =
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   708
    mult_le_cancel_right mult_le_cancel_left
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   709
    mult_le_cancel_right1 mult_le_cancel_right2
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   710
    mult_le_cancel_left1 mult_le_cancel_left2
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   711
    mult_less_cancel_right mult_less_cancel_left
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   712
    mult_less_cancel_right1 mult_less_cancel_right2
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   713
    mult_less_cancel_left1 mult_less_cancel_left2
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   714
    mult_cancel_right mult_cancel_left
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   715
    mult_cancel_right1 mult_cancel_right2
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   716
    mult_cancel_left1 mult_cancel_left2
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   717
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
   718
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   719
text{*This list of rewrites decides ring equalities by ordered rewriting.*}
15178
5f621aa35c25 Matrix theory, linear programming
obua
parents: 15140
diff changeset
   720
lemmas ring_eq_simps =  
5f621aa35c25 Matrix theory, linear programming
obua
parents: 15140
diff changeset
   721
(*  mult_ac*)
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   722
  left_distrib right_distrib left_diff_distrib right_diff_distrib
15178
5f621aa35c25 Matrix theory, linear programming
obua
parents: 15140
diff changeset
   723
  group_eq_simps
5f621aa35c25 Matrix theory, linear programming
obua
parents: 15140
diff changeset
   724
(*  add_ac
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   725
  add_diff_eq diff_add_eq diff_diff_eq diff_diff_eq2
15178
5f621aa35c25 Matrix theory, linear programming
obua
parents: 15140
diff changeset
   726
  diff_eq_eq eq_diff_eq *)
14738
83f1a514dcb4 changes made due to new Ring_and_Field theory
obua
parents: 14603
diff changeset
   727
    
14265
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   728
subsection {* Fields *}
95b42e69436c HOL: installation of Ring_and_Field as the basis for Naturals and Reals
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   729
14288
d149e3cbdb39 Moving some theorems from Real/RealArith0.ML
paulson
parents: 14284
diff changeset
   730
lemma right_inverse_eq: "b \<noteq> 0 ==> (a / b = 1) = (a = (b::'a::field))"
d149e3cbdb39 Moving some theorems from Real/RealArith0.ML
paulson
parents: 14284
diff changeset
   731
proof
d149e3cbdb39 Moving some theorems from Real/RealArith0.ML
paulson
parents: 14284
diff changeset
   732
  assume neq: "b \<noteq> 0"
d149e3cbdb39 Moving some theorems from Real/RealArith0.ML
paulson
parents: 14284
diff changeset
   733
  {
d149e3cbdb39 Moving some theorems from Real/RealArith0.ML
paulson
parents: 14284
diff changeset
   734
    hence "a = (a / b) * b" by (simp add: divide_inverse mult_ac)
d149e3cbdb39 Moving some theorems from Real/RealArith0.ML
paulson
parents: 14284
diff changeset
   735
    also assume "a / b = 1"
d149e3cbdb39 Moving some theorems from Real/RealArith0.ML
paulson
parents: 14284
diff changeset
   736
    finally show "a = b" by simp
d149e3cbdb39 Moving some theorems from Real/RealArith0.ML
paulson
parents: 14284
diff changeset
   737
  next
d149e3cbdb39 Moving some theorems from Real/RealArith0.ML
paulson
parents: 14284
diff changeset
   738
    assume "a = b"
d149e3cbdb39 Moving some theorems from Real/RealArith0.ML
paulson
parents: 14284
diff changeset
   739
    with neq show "a / b = 1" by (simp add: divide_inverse)
d149e3cbdb39 Moving some theorems from Real/RealArith0.ML
paulson
parents: 14284
diff changeset
   740
  }
d149e3cbdb39 Moving some theorems from Real/RealArith0.ML
paulson
parents: 14284
diff changeset
   741
qed
d149e3cbdb39 Moving some theorems from Real/RealArith0.ML
paulson
parents: 14284
diff changeset
   742
d149e3cbdb39 Moving some theorems from Real/RealArith0.ML
paulson
parents: 14284
diff changeset
   743
lemma nonzero_inverse_eq_divide: "a \<noteq> 0 ==> inverse (a::'a::field) = 1/a"
d149e3cbdb39 Moving some theorems from Real/RealArith0.ML
paulson
parents: 14284
diff changeset
   744
by (simp add: divide_inverse)
d149e3cbdb39 Moving some theorems from Real/RealArith0.ML
paulson
parents: 14284
diff changeset
   745
15228
4d332d10fa3d revised simprules for division
paulson
parents: 15197
diff changeset
   746
lemma divide_self: "a \<noteq> 0 ==> a / (a::'a::field) = 1"
14288
d149e3cbdb39 Moving some theorems from Real/RealArith0.ML
paulson
parents: 14284
diff changeset
   747
  by (simp add: divide_inverse)
d149e3cbdb39 Moving some theorems from Real/RealArith0.ML
paulson
parents: 14284
diff changeset
   748
14430
5cb24165a2e1 new material from Avigad, and simplified treatment of division by 0
paulson
parents: 14421
diff changeset
   749
lemma divide_zero [simp]: "a / 0 = (0::'a::{field,division_by_zero})"
5cb24165a2e1 new material from Avigad, and simplified treatment of division by 0
paulson
parents: 14421
diff changeset
   750
by (simp add: divide_inverse)
14277
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
   751
15228
4d332d10fa3d revised simprules for division
paulson
parents: 15197
diff changeset
   752
lemma divide_self_if [simp]:
4d332d10fa3d revised simprules for division
paulson
parents: 15197
diff changeset
   753
     "a / (a::'a::{field,division_by_zero}) = (if a=0 then 0 else 1)"
4d332d10fa3d revised simprules for division
paulson
parents: 15197
diff changeset
   754
  by (simp add: divide_self)
4d332d10fa3d revised simprules for division
paulson
parents: 15197
diff changeset
   755
14430
5cb24165a2e1 new material from Avigad, and simplified treatment of division by 0
paulson
parents: 14421
diff changeset
   756
lemma divide_zero_left [simp]: "0/a = (0::'a::field)"
5cb24165a2e1 new material from Avigad, and simplified treatment of division by 0
paulson
parents: 14421
diff changeset
   757
by (simp add: divide_inverse)
14277
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
   758
14430
5cb24165a2e1 new material from Avigad, and simplified treatment of division by 0
paulson
parents: 14421
diff changeset
   759
lemma inverse_eq_divide: "inverse (a::'a::field) = 1/a"
5cb24165a2e1 new material from Avigad, and simplified treatment of division by 0
paulson
parents: 14421
diff changeset
   760
by (simp add: divide_inverse)
14277
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
   761
14430
5cb24165a2e1 new material from Avigad, and simplified treatment of division by 0
paulson
parents: 14421
diff changeset
   762
lemma add_divide_distrib: "(a+b)/(c::'a::field) = a/c + b/c"
14293
22542982bffd moving some division theorems to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14288
diff changeset
   763
by (simp add: divide_inverse left_distrib) 
22542982bffd moving some division theorems to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14288
diff changeset
   764
22542982bffd moving some division theorems to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14288
diff changeset
   765
14270
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   766
text{*Compared with @{text mult_eq_0_iff}, this version removes the requirement
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   767
      of an ordering.*}
20496
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   768
lemma field_mult_eq_0_iff [simp]:
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   769
  "(a*b = (0::'a::division_ring)) = (a = 0 | b = 0)"
14377
f454b3004f8f tidying up, especially the Complex numbers
paulson
parents: 14370
diff changeset
   770
proof cases
f454b3004f8f tidying up, especially the Complex numbers
paulson
parents: 14370
diff changeset
   771
  assume "a=0" thus ?thesis by simp
f454b3004f8f tidying up, especially the Complex numbers
paulson
parents: 14370
diff changeset
   772
next
f454b3004f8f tidying up, especially the Complex numbers
paulson
parents: 14370
diff changeset
   773
  assume anz [simp]: "a\<noteq>0"
f454b3004f8f tidying up, especially the Complex numbers
paulson
parents: 14370
diff changeset
   774
  { assume "a * b = 0"
f454b3004f8f tidying up, especially the Complex numbers
paulson
parents: 14370
diff changeset
   775
    hence "inverse a * (a * b) = 0" by simp
f454b3004f8f tidying up, especially the Complex numbers
paulson
parents: 14370
diff changeset
   776
    hence "b = 0"  by (simp (no_asm_use) add: mult_assoc [symmetric])}
f454b3004f8f tidying up, especially the Complex numbers
paulson
parents: 14370
diff changeset
   777
  thus ?thesis by force
f454b3004f8f tidying up, especially the Complex numbers
paulson
parents: 14370
diff changeset
   778
qed
14270
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   779
14268
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   780
text{*Cancellation of equalities with a common factor*}
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   781
lemma field_mult_cancel_right_lemma:
20496
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   782
      assumes cnz: "c \<noteq> (0::'a::division_ring)"
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   783
         and eq:  "a*c = b*c"
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   784
        shows "a=b"
14377
f454b3004f8f tidying up, especially the Complex numbers
paulson
parents: 14370
diff changeset
   785
proof -
14268
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   786
  have "(a * c) * inverse c = (b * c) * inverse c"
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   787
    by (simp add: eq)
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   788
  thus "a=b"
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   789
    by (simp add: mult_assoc cnz)
14377
f454b3004f8f tidying up, especially the Complex numbers
paulson
parents: 14370
diff changeset
   790
qed
14268
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   791
14348
744c868ee0b7 Defining the type class "ringpower" and deleting superseded theorems for
paulson
parents: 14341
diff changeset
   792
lemma field_mult_cancel_right [simp]:
20496
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   793
     "(a*c = b*c) = (c = (0::'a::division_ring) | a=b)"
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   794
proof -
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   795
  have "(a*c = b*c) = (a*c - b*c = 0)"
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   796
    by simp
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   797
  also have "\<dots> = ((a - b)*c = 0)"
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   798
     by (simp only: left_diff_distrib)
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   799
  also have "\<dots> = (c = 0 \<or> a = b)"
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   800
     by (simp add: disj_commute)
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   801
  finally show ?thesis .
14377
f454b3004f8f tidying up, especially the Complex numbers
paulson
parents: 14370
diff changeset
   802
qed
14268
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   803
14348
744c868ee0b7 Defining the type class "ringpower" and deleting superseded theorems for
paulson
parents: 14341
diff changeset
   804
lemma field_mult_cancel_left [simp]:
20496
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   805
     "(c*a = c*b) = (c = (0::'a::division_ring) | a=b)"
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   806
proof -
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   807
  have "(c*a = c*b) = (c*a - c*b = 0)"
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   808
    by simp
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   809
  also have "\<dots> = (c*(a - b) = 0)"
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   810
     by (simp only: right_diff_distrib)
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   811
  also have "\<dots> = (c = 0 \<or> a = b)"
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   812
     by simp
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   813
  finally show ?thesis .
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   814
qed
14268
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   815
20496
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   816
lemma nonzero_imp_inverse_nonzero:
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   817
  "a \<noteq> 0 ==> inverse a \<noteq> (0::'a::division_ring)"
14377
f454b3004f8f tidying up, especially the Complex numbers
paulson
parents: 14370
diff changeset
   818
proof
14268
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   819
  assume ianz: "inverse a = 0"
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   820
  assume "a \<noteq> 0"
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   821
  hence "1 = a * inverse a" by simp
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   822
  also have "... = 0" by (simp add: ianz)
20496
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   823
  finally have "1 = (0::'a::division_ring)" .
14268
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   824
  thus False by (simp add: eq_commute)
14377
f454b3004f8f tidying up, especially the Complex numbers
paulson
parents: 14370
diff changeset
   825
qed
14268
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   826
14277
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
   827
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
   828
subsection{*Basic Properties of @{term inverse}*}
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
   829
20496
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   830
lemma inverse_zero_imp_zero: "inverse a = 0 ==> a = (0::'a::division_ring)"
14268
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   831
apply (rule ccontr) 
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   832
apply (blast dest: nonzero_imp_inverse_nonzero) 
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   833
done
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   834
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   835
lemma inverse_nonzero_imp_nonzero:
20496
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   836
   "inverse a = 0 ==> a = (0::'a::division_ring)"
14268
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   837
apply (rule ccontr) 
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   838
apply (blast dest: nonzero_imp_inverse_nonzero) 
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   839
done
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   840
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   841
lemma inverse_nonzero_iff_nonzero [simp]:
20496
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   842
   "(inverse a = 0) = (a = (0::'a::{division_ring,division_by_zero}))"
14268
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   843
by (force dest: inverse_nonzero_imp_nonzero) 
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   844
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   845
lemma nonzero_inverse_minus_eq:
20496
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   846
      assumes [simp]: "a\<noteq>0"
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   847
      shows "inverse(-a) = -inverse(a::'a::division_ring)"
14377
f454b3004f8f tidying up, especially the Complex numbers
paulson
parents: 14370
diff changeset
   848
proof -
f454b3004f8f tidying up, especially the Complex numbers
paulson
parents: 14370
diff changeset
   849
  have "-a * inverse (- a) = -a * - inverse a"
f454b3004f8f tidying up, especially the Complex numbers
paulson
parents: 14370
diff changeset
   850
    by simp
f454b3004f8f tidying up, especially the Complex numbers
paulson
parents: 14370
diff changeset
   851
  thus ?thesis 
f454b3004f8f tidying up, especially the Complex numbers
paulson
parents: 14370
diff changeset
   852
    by (simp only: field_mult_cancel_left, simp)
f454b3004f8f tidying up, especially the Complex numbers
paulson
parents: 14370
diff changeset
   853
qed
14268
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   854
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   855
lemma inverse_minus_eq [simp]:
20496
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   856
   "inverse(-a) = -inverse(a::'a::{division_ring,division_by_zero})"
14377
f454b3004f8f tidying up, especially the Complex numbers
paulson
parents: 14370
diff changeset
   857
proof cases
f454b3004f8f tidying up, especially the Complex numbers
paulson
parents: 14370
diff changeset
   858
  assume "a=0" thus ?thesis by (simp add: inverse_zero)
f454b3004f8f tidying up, especially the Complex numbers
paulson
parents: 14370
diff changeset
   859
next
f454b3004f8f tidying up, especially the Complex numbers
paulson
parents: 14370
diff changeset
   860
  assume "a\<noteq>0" 
f454b3004f8f tidying up, especially the Complex numbers
paulson
parents: 14370
diff changeset
   861
  thus ?thesis by (simp add: nonzero_inverse_minus_eq)
f454b3004f8f tidying up, especially the Complex numbers
paulson
parents: 14370
diff changeset
   862
qed
14268
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   863
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   864
lemma nonzero_inverse_eq_imp_eq:
14269
502a7c95de73 conversion of some Real theories to Isar scripts
paulson
parents: 14268
diff changeset
   865
      assumes inveq: "inverse a = inverse b"
502a7c95de73 conversion of some Real theories to Isar scripts
paulson
parents: 14268
diff changeset
   866
	  and anz:  "a \<noteq> 0"
502a7c95de73 conversion of some Real theories to Isar scripts
paulson
parents: 14268
diff changeset
   867
	  and bnz:  "b \<noteq> 0"
20496
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   868
	 shows "a = (b::'a::division_ring)"
14377
f454b3004f8f tidying up, especially the Complex numbers
paulson
parents: 14370
diff changeset
   869
proof -
14268
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   870
  have "a * inverse b = a * inverse a"
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   871
    by (simp add: inveq)
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   872
  hence "(a * inverse b) * b = (a * inverse a) * b"
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   873
    by simp
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   874
  thus "a = b"
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   875
    by (simp add: mult_assoc anz bnz)
14377
f454b3004f8f tidying up, especially the Complex numbers
paulson
parents: 14370
diff changeset
   876
qed
14268
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   877
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   878
lemma inverse_eq_imp_eq:
20496
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   879
  "inverse a = inverse b ==> a = (b::'a::{division_ring,division_by_zero})"
14268
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   880
apply (case_tac "a=0 | b=0") 
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   881
 apply (force dest!: inverse_zero_imp_zero
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   882
              simp add: eq_commute [of "0::'a"])
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   883
apply (force dest!: nonzero_inverse_eq_imp_eq) 
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   884
done
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   885
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   886
lemma inverse_eq_iff_eq [simp]:
20496
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   887
  "(inverse a = inverse b) = (a = (b::'a::{division_ring,division_by_zero}))"
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   888
by (force dest!: inverse_eq_imp_eq)
14268
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
   889
14270
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   890
lemma nonzero_inverse_inverse_eq:
20496
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   891
      assumes [simp]: "a \<noteq> 0"
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   892
      shows "inverse(inverse (a::'a::division_ring)) = a"
14270
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   893
  proof -
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   894
  have "(inverse (inverse a) * inverse a) * a = a" 
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   895
    by (simp add: nonzero_imp_inverse_nonzero)
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   896
  thus ?thesis
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   897
    by (simp add: mult_assoc)
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   898
  qed
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   899
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   900
lemma inverse_inverse_eq [simp]:
20496
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   901
     "inverse(inverse (a::'a::{division_ring,division_by_zero})) = a"
14270
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   902
  proof cases
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   903
    assume "a=0" thus ?thesis by simp
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   904
  next
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   905
    assume "a\<noteq>0" 
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   906
    thus ?thesis by (simp add: nonzero_inverse_inverse_eq)
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   907
  qed
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   908
20496
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   909
lemma inverse_1 [simp]: "inverse 1 = (1::'a::division_ring)"
14270
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   910
  proof -
20496
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   911
  have "inverse 1 * 1 = (1::'a::division_ring)" 
14270
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   912
    by (rule left_inverse [OF zero_neq_one [symmetric]])
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   913
  thus ?thesis  by simp
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   914
  qed
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   915
15077
89840837108e converting Hyperreal/Transcendental to Isar script
paulson
parents: 15010
diff changeset
   916
lemma inverse_unique: 
89840837108e converting Hyperreal/Transcendental to Isar script
paulson
parents: 15010
diff changeset
   917
  assumes ab: "a*b = 1"
20496
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   918
  shows "inverse a = (b::'a::division_ring)"
15077
89840837108e converting Hyperreal/Transcendental to Isar script
paulson
parents: 15010
diff changeset
   919
proof -
89840837108e converting Hyperreal/Transcendental to Isar script
paulson
parents: 15010
diff changeset
   920
  have "a \<noteq> 0" using ab by auto
89840837108e converting Hyperreal/Transcendental to Isar script
paulson
parents: 15010
diff changeset
   921
  moreover have "inverse a * (a * b) = inverse a" by (simp add: ab) 
89840837108e converting Hyperreal/Transcendental to Isar script
paulson
parents: 15010
diff changeset
   922
  ultimately show ?thesis by (simp add: mult_assoc [symmetric]) 
89840837108e converting Hyperreal/Transcendental to Isar script
paulson
parents: 15010
diff changeset
   923
qed
89840837108e converting Hyperreal/Transcendental to Isar script
paulson
parents: 15010
diff changeset
   924
14270
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   925
lemma nonzero_inverse_mult_distrib: 
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   926
      assumes anz: "a \<noteq> 0"
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   927
          and bnz: "b \<noteq> 0"
20496
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   928
      shows "inverse(a*b) = inverse(b) * inverse(a::'a::division_ring)"
14270
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   929
  proof -
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   930
  have "inverse(a*b) * (a * b) * inverse(b) = inverse(b)" 
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   931
    by (simp add: field_mult_eq_0_iff anz bnz)
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   932
  hence "inverse(a*b) * a = inverse(b)" 
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   933
    by (simp add: mult_assoc bnz)
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   934
  hence "inverse(a*b) * a * inverse(a) = inverse(b) * inverse(a)" 
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   935
    by simp
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   936
  thus ?thesis
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   937
    by (simp add: mult_assoc anz)
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   938
  qed
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   939
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   940
text{*This version builds in division by zero while also re-orienting
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   941
      the right-hand side.*}
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   942
lemma inverse_mult_distrib [simp]:
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   943
     "inverse(a*b) = inverse(a) * inverse(b::'a::{field,division_by_zero})"
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   944
  proof cases
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   945
    assume "a \<noteq> 0 & b \<noteq> 0" 
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   946
    thus ?thesis  by (simp add: nonzero_inverse_mult_distrib mult_commute)
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   947
  next
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   948
    assume "~ (a \<noteq> 0 & b \<noteq> 0)" 
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   949
    thus ?thesis  by force
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   950
  qed
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   951
20496
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   952
lemma division_ring_inverse_add:
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   953
  "[|(a::'a::division_ring) \<noteq> 0; b \<noteq> 0|]
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   954
   ==> inverse a + inverse b = inverse a * (a+b) * inverse b"
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   955
by (simp add: right_distrib left_distrib mult_assoc)
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   956
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   957
lemma division_ring_inverse_diff:
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   958
  "[|(a::'a::division_ring) \<noteq> 0; b \<noteq> 0|]
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   959
   ==> inverse a - inverse b = inverse a * (b-a) * inverse b"
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   960
by (simp add: right_diff_distrib left_diff_distrib mult_assoc)
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   961
14270
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   962
text{*There is no slick version using division by zero.*}
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   963
lemma inverse_add:
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   964
     "[|a \<noteq> 0;  b \<noteq> 0|]
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   965
      ==> inverse a + inverse b = (a+b) * inverse a * inverse (b::'a::field)"
20496
23eb6034c06d added axclass division_ring (like field without commutativity; includes e.g. quaternions) and generalized some theorems from field to division_ring
huffman
parents: 19404
diff changeset
   966
by (simp add: division_ring_inverse_add mult_ac)
14270
342451d763f9 More re-organising of numerical theorems
paulson
parents: 14269
diff changeset
   967
14365
3d4df8c166ae replacing HOL/Real/PRat, PNat by the rational number development
paulson
parents: 14353
diff changeset
   968
lemma inverse_divide [simp]:
3d4df8c166ae replacing HOL/Real/PRat, PNat by the rational number development
paulson
parents: 14353
diff changeset
   969
      "inverse (a/b) = b / (a::'a::{field,division_by_zero})"
14430
5cb24165a2e1 new material from Avigad, and simplified treatment of division by 0
paulson
parents: 14421
diff changeset
   970
  by (simp add: divide_inverse mult_commute)
14365
3d4df8c166ae replacing HOL/Real/PRat, PNat by the rational number development
paulson
parents: 14353
diff changeset
   971
16775
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
   972
subsection {* Calculations with fractions *}
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
   973
14277
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
   974
lemma nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_left:
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
   975
  assumes [simp]: "b\<noteq>0" and [simp]: "c\<noteq>0" 
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
   976
    shows "(c*a)/(c*b) = a/(b::'a::field)"
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
   977
proof -
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
   978
  have "(c*a)/(c*b) = c * a * (inverse b * inverse c)"
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
   979
    by (simp add: field_mult_eq_0_iff divide_inverse 
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
   980
                  nonzero_inverse_mult_distrib)
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
   981
  also have "... =  a * inverse b * (inverse c * c)"
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
   982
    by (simp only: mult_ac)
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
   983
  also have "... =  a * inverse b"
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
   984
    by simp
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
   985
    finally show ?thesis 
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
   986
    by (simp add: divide_inverse)
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
   987
qed
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
   988
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
   989
lemma mult_divide_cancel_left:
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
   990
     "c\<noteq>0 ==> (c*a) / (c*b) = a / (b::'a::{field,division_by_zero})"
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
   991
apply (case_tac "b = 0")
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
   992
apply (simp_all add: nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_left)
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
   993
done
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
   994
14321
55c688d2eefa new theorems
paulson
parents: 14305
diff changeset
   995
lemma nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_right:
55c688d2eefa new theorems
paulson
parents: 14305
diff changeset
   996
     "[|b\<noteq>0; c\<noteq>0|] ==> (a*c) / (b*c) = a/(b::'a::field)"
55c688d2eefa new theorems
paulson
parents: 14305
diff changeset
   997
by (simp add: mult_commute [of _ c] nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_left) 
55c688d2eefa new theorems
paulson
parents: 14305
diff changeset
   998
55c688d2eefa new theorems
paulson
parents: 14305
diff changeset
   999
lemma mult_divide_cancel_right:
55c688d2eefa new theorems
paulson
parents: 14305
diff changeset
  1000
     "c\<noteq>0 ==> (a*c) / (b*c) = a / (b::'a::{field,division_by_zero})"
55c688d2eefa new theorems
paulson
parents: 14305
diff changeset
  1001
apply (case_tac "b = 0")
55c688d2eefa new theorems
paulson
parents: 14305
diff changeset
  1002
apply (simp_all add: nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_right)
55c688d2eefa new theorems
paulson
parents: 14305
diff changeset
  1003
done
55c688d2eefa new theorems
paulson
parents: 14305
diff changeset
  1004
14277
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1005
(*For ExtractCommonTerm*)
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1006
lemma mult_divide_cancel_eq_if:
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1007
     "(c*a) / (c*b) = 
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1008
      (if c=0 then 0 else a / (b::'a::{field,division_by_zero}))"
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1009
  by (simp add: mult_divide_cancel_left)
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1010
14284
f1abe67c448a re-organisation of Real/RealArith0.ML; more `Isar scripts
paulson
parents: 14277
diff changeset
  1011
lemma divide_1 [simp]: "a/1 = (a::'a::field)"
14430
5cb24165a2e1 new material from Avigad, and simplified treatment of division by 0
paulson
parents: 14421
diff changeset
  1012
  by (simp add: divide_inverse)
14284
f1abe67c448a re-organisation of Real/RealArith0.ML; more `Isar scripts
paulson
parents: 14277
diff changeset
  1013
15234
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1014
lemma times_divide_eq_right: "a * (b/c) = (a*b) / (c::'a::field)"
14430
5cb24165a2e1 new material from Avigad, and simplified treatment of division by 0
paulson
parents: 14421
diff changeset
  1015
by (simp add: divide_inverse mult_assoc)
14288
d149e3cbdb39 Moving some theorems from Real/RealArith0.ML
paulson
parents: 14284
diff changeset
  1016
14430
5cb24165a2e1 new material from Avigad, and simplified treatment of division by 0
paulson
parents: 14421
diff changeset
  1017
lemma times_divide_eq_left: "(b/c) * a = (b*a) / (c::'a::field)"
5cb24165a2e1 new material from Avigad, and simplified treatment of division by 0
paulson
parents: 14421
diff changeset
  1018
by (simp add: divide_inverse mult_ac)
14288
d149e3cbdb39 Moving some theorems from Real/RealArith0.ML
paulson
parents: 14284
diff changeset
  1019
d149e3cbdb39 Moving some theorems from Real/RealArith0.ML
paulson
parents: 14284
diff changeset
  1020
lemma divide_divide_eq_right [simp]:
d149e3cbdb39 Moving some theorems from Real/RealArith0.ML
paulson
parents: 14284
diff changeset
  1021
     "a / (b/c) = (a*c) / (b::'a::{field,division_by_zero})"
14430
5cb24165a2e1 new material from Avigad, and simplified treatment of division by 0
paulson
parents: 14421
diff changeset
  1022
by (simp add: divide_inverse mult_ac)
14288
d149e3cbdb39 Moving some theorems from Real/RealArith0.ML
paulson
parents: 14284
diff changeset
  1023
d149e3cbdb39 Moving some theorems from Real/RealArith0.ML
paulson
parents: 14284
diff changeset
  1024
lemma divide_divide_eq_left [simp]:
d149e3cbdb39 Moving some theorems from Real/RealArith0.ML
paulson
parents: 14284
diff changeset
  1025
     "(a / b) / (c::'a::{field,division_by_zero}) = a / (b*c)"
14430
5cb24165a2e1 new material from Avigad, and simplified treatment of division by 0
paulson
parents: 14421
diff changeset
  1026
by (simp add: divide_inverse mult_assoc)
14288
d149e3cbdb39 Moving some theorems from Real/RealArith0.ML
paulson
parents: 14284
diff changeset
  1027
16775
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
  1028
lemma add_frac_eq: "(y::'a::field) ~= 0 ==> z ~= 0 ==>
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
  1029
    x / y + w / z = (x * z + w * y) / (y * z)"
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
  1030
  apply (subgoal_tac "x / y = (x * z) / (y * z)")
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
  1031
  apply (erule ssubst)
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
  1032
  apply (subgoal_tac "w / z = (w * y) / (y * z)")
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
  1033
  apply (erule ssubst)
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
  1034
  apply (rule add_divide_distrib [THEN sym])
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
  1035
  apply (subst mult_commute)
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
  1036
  apply (erule nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_left [THEN sym])
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
  1037
  apply assumption
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
  1038
  apply (erule nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_right [THEN sym])
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
  1039
  apply assumption
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
  1040
done
14268
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1041
15234
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1042
subsubsection{*Special Cancellation Simprules for Division*}
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1043
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1044
lemma mult_divide_cancel_left_if [simp]:
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1045
  fixes c :: "'a :: {field,division_by_zero}"
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1046
  shows "(c*a) / (c*b) = (if c=0 then 0 else a/b)"
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1047
by (simp add: mult_divide_cancel_left)
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1048
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1049
lemma mult_divide_cancel_right_if [simp]:
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1050
  fixes c :: "'a :: {field,division_by_zero}"
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1051
  shows "(a*c) / (b*c) = (if c=0 then 0 else a/b)"
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1052
by (simp add: mult_divide_cancel_right)
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1053
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1054
lemma mult_divide_cancel_left_if1 [simp]:
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1055
  fixes c :: "'a :: {field,division_by_zero}"
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1056
  shows "c / (c*b) = (if c=0 then 0 else 1/b)"
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1057
apply (insert mult_divide_cancel_left_if [of c 1 b]) 
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1058
apply (simp del: mult_divide_cancel_left_if)
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1059
done
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1060
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1061
lemma mult_divide_cancel_left_if2 [simp]:
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1062
  fixes c :: "'a :: {field,division_by_zero}"
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1063
  shows "(c*a) / c = (if c=0 then 0 else a)" 
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1064
apply (insert mult_divide_cancel_left_if [of c a 1]) 
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1065
apply (simp del: mult_divide_cancel_left_if)
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1066
done
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1067
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1068
lemma mult_divide_cancel_right_if1 [simp]:
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1069
  fixes c :: "'a :: {field,division_by_zero}"
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1070
  shows "c / (b*c) = (if c=0 then 0 else 1/b)"
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1071
apply (insert mult_divide_cancel_right_if [of 1 c b]) 
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1072
apply (simp del: mult_divide_cancel_right_if)
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1073
done
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1074
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1075
lemma mult_divide_cancel_right_if2 [simp]:
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1076
  fixes c :: "'a :: {field,division_by_zero}"
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1077
  shows "(a*c) / c = (if c=0 then 0 else a)" 
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1078
apply (insert mult_divide_cancel_right_if [of a c 1]) 
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1079
apply (simp del: mult_divide_cancel_right_if)
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1080
done
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1081
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1082
text{*Two lemmas for cancelling the denominator*}
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1083
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1084
lemma times_divide_self_right [simp]: 
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1085
  fixes a :: "'a :: {field,division_by_zero}"
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1086
  shows "a * (b/a) = (if a=0 then 0 else b)"
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1087
by (simp add: times_divide_eq_right)
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1088
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1089
lemma times_divide_self_left [simp]: 
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1090
  fixes a :: "'a :: {field,division_by_zero}"
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1091
  shows "(b/a) * a = (if a=0 then 0 else b)"
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1092
by (simp add: times_divide_eq_left)
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1093
ec91a90c604e simplification tweaks for better arithmetic reasoning
paulson
parents: 15229
diff changeset
  1094
14293
22542982bffd moving some division theorems to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14288
diff changeset
  1095
subsection {* Division and Unary Minus *}
22542982bffd moving some division theorems to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14288
diff changeset
  1096
22542982bffd moving some division theorems to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14288
diff changeset
  1097
lemma nonzero_minus_divide_left: "b \<noteq> 0 ==> - (a/b) = (-a) / (b::'a::field)"
22542982bffd moving some division theorems to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14288
diff changeset
  1098
by (simp add: divide_inverse minus_mult_left)
22542982bffd moving some division theorems to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14288
diff changeset
  1099
22542982bffd moving some division theorems to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14288
diff changeset
  1100
lemma nonzero_minus_divide_right: "b \<noteq> 0 ==> - (a/b) = a / -(b::'a::field)"
22542982bffd moving some division theorems to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14288
diff changeset
  1101
by (simp add: divide_inverse nonzero_inverse_minus_eq minus_mult_right)
22542982bffd moving some division theorems to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14288
diff changeset
  1102
22542982bffd moving some division theorems to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14288
diff changeset
  1103
lemma nonzero_minus_divide_divide: "b \<noteq> 0 ==> (-a)/(-b) = a / (b::'a::field)"
22542982bffd moving some division theorems to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14288
diff changeset
  1104
by (simp add: divide_inverse nonzero_inverse_minus_eq)
22542982bffd moving some division theorems to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14288
diff changeset
  1105
14430
5cb24165a2e1 new material from Avigad, and simplified treatment of division by 0
paulson
parents: 14421
diff changeset
  1106
lemma minus_divide_left: "- (a/b) = (-a) / (b::'a::field)"
5cb24165a2e1 new material from Avigad, and simplified treatment of division by 0
paulson
parents: 14421
diff changeset
  1107
by (simp add: divide_inverse minus_mult_left [symmetric])
14293
22542982bffd moving some division theorems to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14288
diff changeset
  1108
22542982bffd moving some division theorems to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14288
diff changeset
  1109
lemma minus_divide_right: "- (a/b) = a / -(b::'a::{field,division_by_zero})"
14430
5cb24165a2e1 new material from Avigad, and simplified treatment of division by 0
paulson
parents: 14421
diff changeset
  1110
by (simp add: divide_inverse minus_mult_right [symmetric])
5cb24165a2e1 new material from Avigad, and simplified treatment of division by 0
paulson
parents: 14421
diff changeset
  1111
14293
22542982bffd moving some division theorems to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14288
diff changeset
  1112
22542982bffd moving some division theorems to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14288
diff changeset
  1113
text{*The effect is to extract signs from divisions*}
17085
5b57f995a179 more simprules now have names
paulson
parents: 16775
diff changeset
  1114
lemmas divide_minus_left = minus_divide_left [symmetric]
5b57f995a179 more simprules now have names
paulson
parents: 16775
diff changeset
  1115
lemmas divide_minus_right = minus_divide_right [symmetric]
5b57f995a179 more simprules now have names
paulson
parents: 16775
diff changeset
  1116
declare divide_minus_left [simp]   divide_minus_right [simp]
14293
22542982bffd moving some division theorems to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14288
diff changeset
  1117
14387
e96d5c42c4b0 Polymorphic treatment of binary arithmetic using axclasses
paulson
parents: 14377
diff changeset
  1118
text{*Also, extract signs from products*}
17085
5b57f995a179 more simprules now have names
paulson
parents: 16775
diff changeset
  1119
lemmas mult_minus_left = minus_mult_left [symmetric]
5b57f995a179 more simprules now have names
paulson
parents: 16775
diff changeset
  1120
lemmas mult_minus_right = minus_mult_right [symmetric]
5b57f995a179 more simprules now have names
paulson
parents: 16775
diff changeset
  1121
declare mult_minus_left [simp]   mult_minus_right [simp]
14387
e96d5c42c4b0 Polymorphic treatment of binary arithmetic using axclasses
paulson
parents: 14377
diff changeset
  1122
14293
22542982bffd moving some division theorems to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14288
diff changeset
  1123
lemma minus_divide_divide [simp]:
22542982bffd moving some division theorems to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14288
diff changeset
  1124
     "(-a)/(-b) = a / (b::'a::{field,division_by_zero})"
22542982bffd moving some division theorems to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14288
diff changeset
  1125
apply (case_tac "b=0", simp) 
22542982bffd moving some division theorems to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14288
diff changeset
  1126
apply (simp add: nonzero_minus_divide_divide) 
22542982bffd moving some division theorems to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14288
diff changeset
  1127
done
22542982bffd moving some division theorems to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14288
diff changeset
  1128
14430
5cb24165a2e1 new material from Avigad, and simplified treatment of division by 0
paulson
parents: 14421
diff changeset
  1129
lemma diff_divide_distrib: "(a-b)/(c::'a::field) = a/c - b/c"
14387
e96d5c42c4b0 Polymorphic treatment of binary arithmetic using axclasses
paulson
parents: 14377
diff changeset
  1130
by (simp add: diff_minus add_divide_distrib) 
e96d5c42c4b0 Polymorphic treatment of binary arithmetic using axclasses
paulson
parents: 14377
diff changeset
  1131
16775
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
  1132
lemma diff_frac_eq: "(y::'a::field) ~= 0 ==> z ~= 0 ==>
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
  1133
    x / y - w / z = (x * z - w * y) / (y * z)"
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
  1134
  apply (subst diff_def)+
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
  1135
  apply (subst minus_divide_left)
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
  1136
  apply (subst add_frac_eq)
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
  1137
  apply simp_all
c1b87ef4a1c3 added lemmas to OrderedGroup.thy (reasoning about signs, absolute value, triangle inequalities)
avigad
parents: 16568
diff changeset
  1138
done
14293
22542982bffd moving some division theorems to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14288
diff changeset
  1139
14268
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1140
subsection {* Ordered Fields *}
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1141
14277
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1142
lemma positive_imp_inverse_positive: 
14269
502a7c95de73 conversion of some Real theories to Isar scripts
paulson
parents: 14268
diff changeset
  1143
      assumes a_gt_0: "0 < a"  shows "0 < inverse (a::'a::ordered_field)"
14268
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1144
  proof -
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1145
  have "0 < a * inverse a" 
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1146
    by (simp add: a_gt_0 [THEN order_less_imp_not_eq2] zero_less_one)
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1147
  thus "0 < inverse a" 
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1148
    by (simp add: a_gt_0 [THEN order_less_not_sym] zero_less_mult_iff)
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1149
  qed
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1150
14277
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1151
lemma negative_imp_inverse_negative:
14268
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1152
     "a < 0 ==> inverse a < (0::'a::ordered_field)"
14277
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1153
  by (insert positive_imp_inverse_positive [of "-a"], 
14268
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1154
      simp add: nonzero_inverse_minus_eq order_less_imp_not_eq) 
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1155
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1156
lemma inverse_le_imp_le:
14269
502a7c95de73 conversion of some Real theories to Isar scripts
paulson
parents: 14268
diff changeset
  1157
      assumes invle: "inverse a \<le> inverse b"
502a7c95de73 conversion of some Real theories to Isar scripts
paulson
parents: 14268
diff changeset
  1158
	  and apos:  "0 < a"
502a7c95de73 conversion of some Real theories to Isar scripts
paulson
parents: 14268
diff changeset
  1159
	 shows "b \<le> (a::'a::ordered_field)"
14268
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1160
  proof (rule classical)
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1161
  assume "~ b \<le> a"
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1162
  hence "a < b"
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1163
    by (simp add: linorder_not_le)
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1164
  hence bpos: "0 < b"
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1165
    by (blast intro: apos order_less_trans)
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1166
  hence "a * inverse a \<le> a * inverse b"
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1167
    by (simp add: apos invle order_less_imp_le mult_left_mono)
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1168
  hence "(a * inverse a) * b \<le> (a * inverse b) * b"
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1169
    by (simp add: bpos order_less_imp_le mult_right_mono)
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1170
  thus "b \<le> a"
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1171
    by (simp add: mult_assoc apos bpos order_less_imp_not_eq2)
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1172
  qed
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1173
14277
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1174
lemma inverse_positive_imp_positive:
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1175
      assumes inv_gt_0: "0 < inverse a"
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1176
          and [simp]:   "a \<noteq> 0"
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1177
        shows "0 < (a::'a::ordered_field)"
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1178
  proof -
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1179
  have "0 < inverse (inverse a)"
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1180
    by (rule positive_imp_inverse_positive)
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1181
  thus "0 < a"
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1182
    by (simp add: nonzero_inverse_inverse_eq)
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1183
  qed
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1184
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1185
lemma inverse_positive_iff_positive [simp]:
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1186
      "(0 < inverse a) = (0 < (a::'a::{ordered_field,division_by_zero}))"
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1187
apply (case_tac "a = 0", simp)
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1188
apply (blast intro: inverse_positive_imp_positive positive_imp_inverse_positive)
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1189
done
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1190
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1191
lemma inverse_negative_imp_negative:
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1192
      assumes inv_less_0: "inverse a < 0"
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1193
          and [simp]:   "a \<noteq> 0"
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1194
        shows "a < (0::'a::ordered_field)"
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1195
  proof -
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1196
  have "inverse (inverse a) < 0"
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1197
    by (rule negative_imp_inverse_negative)
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1198
  thus "a < 0"
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1199
    by (simp add: nonzero_inverse_inverse_eq)
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1200
  qed
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1201
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1202
lemma inverse_negative_iff_negative [simp]:
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1203
      "(inverse a < 0) = (a < (0::'a::{ordered_field,division_by_zero}))"
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1204
apply (case_tac "a = 0", simp)
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1205
apply (blast intro: inverse_negative_imp_negative negative_imp_inverse_negative)
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1206
done
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1207
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1208
lemma inverse_nonnegative_iff_nonnegative [simp]:
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1209
      "(0 \<le> inverse a) = (0 \<le> (a::'a::{ordered_field,division_by_zero}))"
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1210
by (simp add: linorder_not_less [symmetric])
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1211
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1212
lemma inverse_nonpositive_iff_nonpositive [simp]:
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1213
      "(inverse a \<le> 0) = (a \<le> (0::'a::{ordered_field,division_by_zero}))"
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1214
by (simp add: linorder_not_less [symmetric])
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1215
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1216
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1217
subsection{*Anti-Monotonicity of @{term inverse}*}
ad66687ece6e more field division lemmas transferred from Real to Ring_and_Field
paulson
parents: 14272
diff changeset
  1218
14268
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1219
lemma less_imp_inverse_less:
14269
502a7c95de73 conversion of some Real theories to Isar scripts
paulson
parents: 14268
diff changeset
  1220
      assumes less: "a < b"
502a7c95de73 conversion of some Real theories to Isar scripts
paulson
parents: 14268
diff changeset
  1221
	  and apos:  "0 < a"
502a7c95de73 conversion of some Real theories to Isar scripts
paulson
parents: 14268
diff changeset
  1222
	shows "inverse b < inverse (a::'a::ordered_field)"
14268
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1223
  proof (rule ccontr)
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1224
  assume "~ inverse b < inverse a"
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1225
  hence "inverse a \<le> inverse b"
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1226
    by (simp add: linorder_not_less)
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1227
  hence "~ (a < b)"
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1228
    by (simp add: linorder_not_less inverse_le_imp_le [OF _ apos])
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1229
  thus False
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1230
    by (rule notE [OF _ less])
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1231
  qed
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1232
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1233
lemma inverse_less_imp_less:
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1234
   "[|inverse a < inverse b; 0 < a|] ==> b < (a::'a::ordered_field)"
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1235
apply (simp add: order_less_le [of "inverse a"] order_less_le [of "b"])
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1236
apply (force dest!: inverse_le_imp_le nonzero_inverse_eq_imp_eq) 
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1237
done
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1238
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1239
text{*Both premises are essential. Consider -1 and 1.*}
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1240
lemma inverse_less_iff_less [simp]:
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1241
     "[|0 < a; 0 < b|] 
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1242
      ==> (inverse a < inverse b) = (b < (a::'a::ordered_field))"
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1243
by (blast intro: less_imp_inverse_less dest: inverse_less_imp_less) 
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1244
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1245
lemma le_imp_inverse_le:
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1246
   "[|a \<le> b; 0 < a|] ==> inverse b \<le> inverse (a::'a::ordered_field)"
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1247
  by (force simp add: order_le_less less_imp_inverse_less)
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1248
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1249
lemma inverse_le_iff_le [simp]:
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1250
     "[|0 < a; 0 < b|] 
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1251
      ==> (inverse a \<le> inverse b) = (b \<le> (a::'a::ordered_field))"
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1252
by (blast intro: le_imp_inverse_le dest: inverse_le_imp_le) 
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1253
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1254
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1255
text{*These results refer to both operands being negative.  The opposite-sign
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1256
case is trivial, since inverse preserves signs.*}
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1257
lemma inverse_le_imp_le_neg:
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1258
   "[|inverse a \<le> inverse b; b < 0|] ==> b \<le> (a::'a::ordered_field)"
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1259
  apply (rule classical) 
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1260
  apply (subgoal_tac "a < 0") 
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1261
   prefer 2 apply (force simp add: linorder_not_le intro: order_less_trans) 
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1262
  apply (insert inverse_le_imp_le [of "-b" "-a"])
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: 14267
diff changeset
  1263
  apply (simp add: order_less_imp_not_eq nonzero_inverse_minus_eq) 
5cf13e80be0e Removal of Hyperreal/ExtraThms2.ML, sending the material to the correct files.
paulson
parents: