src/HOL/Tools/res_axioms.ML
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(*  Author: Jia Meng, Cambridge University Computer Laboratory
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    ID: $Id$
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    Copyright 2004 University of Cambridge
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Transformation of axiom rules (elim/intro/etc) into CNF forms.    
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*)
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signature RES_AXIOMS =
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  sig
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  val elimRule_tac : thm -> Tactical.tactic
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  val elimR2Fol : thm -> term
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  val transform_elim : thm -> thm
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  val cnf_axiom : (string * thm) -> thm list
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  val meta_cnf_axiom : thm -> thm list
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  val claset_rules_of_thy : theory -> (string * thm) list
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  val simpset_rules_of_thy : theory -> (string * thm) list
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  val claset_rules_of_ctxt: Proof.context -> (string * thm) list
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  val simpset_rules_of_ctxt : Proof.context -> (string * thm) list
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  val pairname : thm -> (string * thm)
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  val skolem_thm : thm -> thm list
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  val cnf_rules_pairs : (string * Thm.thm) list -> (Thm.thm * (string * int)) list list;
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  val meson_method_setup : theory -> theory
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  val setup : theory -> theory
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  val atpset_rules_of_thy : theory -> (string * thm) list
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  val atpset_rules_of_ctxt : Proof.context -> (string * thm) list
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  end;
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structure ResAxioms : RES_AXIOMS =
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struct
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(**** Transformation of Elimination Rules into First-Order Formulas****)
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(* a tactic used to prove an elim-rule. *)
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fun elimRule_tac th =
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    (resolve_tac [impI,notI] 1) THEN (etac th 1) THEN REPEAT(blast_tac HOL_cs 1);
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fun add_EX tm [] = tm
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  | add_EX tm ((x,xtp)::xs) = add_EX (HOLogic.exists_const xtp $ Abs(x,xtp,tm)) xs;
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(*Checks for the premise ~P when the conclusion is P.*)
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fun is_neg (Const("Trueprop",_) $ (Const("Not",_) $ Free(p,_))) 
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           (Const("Trueprop",_) $ Free(q,_)) = (p = q)
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  | is_neg _ _ = false;
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exception ELIMR2FOL;
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(*Handles the case where the dummy "conclusion" variable appears negated in the
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  premises, so the final consequent must be kept.*)
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fun strip_concl' prems bvs (Const ("==>",_) $ P $ Q) =
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      strip_concl' (HOLogic.dest_Trueprop P :: prems) bvs  Q
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  | strip_concl' prems bvs P = 
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      let val P' = HOLogic.Not $ (HOLogic.dest_Trueprop P)
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      in add_EX (foldr1 HOLogic.mk_conj (P'::prems)) bvs end;
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(*Recurrsion over the minor premise of an elimination rule. Final consequent
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  is ignored, as it is the dummy "conclusion" variable.*)
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fun strip_concl prems bvs concl (Const ("all", _) $ Abs (x,xtp,body)) = 
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      strip_concl prems ((x,xtp)::bvs) concl body
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  | strip_concl prems bvs concl (Const ("==>",_) $ P $ Q) =
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      if (is_neg P concl) then (strip_concl' prems bvs Q)
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      else strip_concl (HOLogic.dest_Trueprop P::prems) bvs  concl Q
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  | strip_concl prems bvs concl Q = 
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      if concl aconv Q then add_EX (foldr1 HOLogic.mk_conj prems) bvs
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      else raise ELIMR2FOL (*expected conclusion not found!*)
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fun trans_elim (major,[],_) = HOLogic.Not $ major
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  | trans_elim (major,minors,concl) =
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      let val disjs = foldr1 HOLogic.mk_disj (map (strip_concl [] [] concl) minors)
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      in  HOLogic.mk_imp (major, disjs)  end;
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(* convert an elim rule into an equivalent formula, of type term. *)
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fun elimR2Fol elimR = 
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  let val elimR' = #1 (Drule.freeze_thaw elimR)
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      val (prems,concl) = (prems_of elimR', concl_of elimR')
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      val cv = case concl of    (*conclusion variable*)
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		  Const("Trueprop",_) $ (v as Free(_,Type("bool",[]))) => v
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		| v as Free(_, Type("prop",[])) => v
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		| _ => raise ELIMR2FOL
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  in case prems of
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      [] => raise ELIMR2FOL
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    | (Const("Trueprop",_) $ major) :: minors => 
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        if member (op aconv) (term_frees major) cv then raise ELIMR2FOL
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        else (trans_elim (major, minors, concl) handle TERM _ => raise ELIMR2FOL)
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    | _ => raise ELIMR2FOL
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  end;
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(* convert an elim-rule into an equivalent theorem that does not have the 
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   predicate variable.  Leave other theorems unchanged.*) 
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fun transform_elim th =
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    let val ctm = cterm_of (sign_of_thm th) (HOLogic.mk_Trueprop (elimR2Fol th))
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    in Goal.prove_raw [] ctm (fn _ => elimRule_tac th) end
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    handle ELIMR2FOL => th (*not an elimination rule*)
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         | exn => (warning ("transform_elim failed: " ^ Toplevel.exn_message exn ^ 
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                            " for theorem " ^ string_of_thm th); th) 
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(**** Transformation of Clasets and Simpsets into First-Order Axioms ****)
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(*Transfer a theorem into theory Reconstruction.thy if it is not already
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  inside that theory -- because it's needed for Skolemization *)
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(*This will refer to the final version of theory Reconstruction.*)
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val recon_thy_ref = Theory.self_ref (the_context ());  
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(*If called while Reconstruction is being created, it will transfer to the
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  current version. If called afterward, it will transfer to the final version.*)
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fun transfer_to_Reconstruction th =
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    transfer (Theory.deref recon_thy_ref) th handle THM _ => th;
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fun is_taut th =
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      case (prop_of th) of
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           (Const ("Trueprop", _) $ Const ("True", _)) => true
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         | _ => false;
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(* remove tautologous clauses *)
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val rm_redundant_cls = List.filter (not o is_taut);
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(**** SKOLEMIZATION BY INFERENCE (lcp) ****)
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(*Traverse a theorem, declaring Skolem function definitions. String s is the suggested
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  prefix for the Skolem constant. Result is a new theory*)
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fun declare_skofuns s th thy =
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  let fun dec_sko (Const ("Ex",_) $ (xtp as Abs(_,T,p))) (n, (thy, axs)) =
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	    (*Existential: declare a Skolem function, then insert into body and continue*)
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	    let val cname = s ^ "_" ^ Int.toString n
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		val args = term_frees xtp  (*get the formal parameter list*)
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		val Ts = map type_of args
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		val cT = Ts ---> T
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		val c = Const (Sign.full_name thy cname, cT)
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		val rhs = list_abs_free (map dest_Free args, HOLogic.choice_const T $ xtp)
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		        (*Forms a lambda-abstraction over the formal parameters*)
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		val def = equals cT $ c $ rhs
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		val thy' = Theory.add_consts_i [(cname, cT, NoSyn)] thy
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		           (*Theory is augmented with the constant, then its def*)
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		val cdef = cname ^ "_def"
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		val thy'' = Theory.add_defs_i false false [(cdef, def)] thy'
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	    in dec_sko (subst_bound (list_comb(c,args), p)) 
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	               (n+1, (thy'', get_axiom thy'' cdef :: axs)) 
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	    end
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	| dec_sko (Const ("All",_) $ (xtp as Abs(a,T,p))) (n, thx) =
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	    (*Universal quant: insert a free variable into body and continue*)
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	    let val fname = Name.variant (add_term_names (p,[])) a
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	    in dec_sko (subst_bound (Free(fname,T), p)) (n, thx) end
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	| dec_sko (Const ("op &", _) $ p $ q) nthy = dec_sko q (dec_sko p nthy)
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	| dec_sko (Const ("op |", _) $ p $ q) nthy = dec_sko q (dec_sko p nthy)
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	| dec_sko (Const ("Trueprop", _) $ p) nthy = dec_sko p nthy
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	| dec_sko t nthx = nthx (*Do nothing otherwise*)
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  in  #2 (dec_sko (#prop (rep_thm th)) (1, (thy,[])))  end;
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(*Traverse a theorem, accumulating Skolem function definitions.*)
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fun assume_skofuns th =
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  let fun dec_sko (Const ("Ex",_) $ (xtp as Abs(_,T,p))) defs =
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	    (*Existential: declare a Skolem function, then insert into body and continue*)
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	    let val name = Name.variant (add_term_names (p,[])) (gensym "sko_")
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                val skos = map (#1 o Logic.dest_equals) defs  (*existing sko fns*)
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		val args = term_frees xtp \\ skos  (*the formal parameters*)
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		val Ts = map type_of args
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		val cT = Ts ---> T
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		val c = Free (name, cT)
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		val rhs = list_abs_free (map dest_Free args,        
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		                         HOLogic.choice_const T $ xtp)
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		      (*Forms a lambda-abstraction over the formal parameters*)
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		val def = equals cT $ c $ rhs
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	    in dec_sko (subst_bound (list_comb(c,args), p)) 
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	               (def :: defs)
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	    end
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	| dec_sko (Const ("All",_) $ (xtp as Abs(a,T,p))) defs =
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	    (*Universal quant: insert a free variable into body and continue*)
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	    let val fname = Name.variant (add_term_names (p,[])) a
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	    in dec_sko (subst_bound (Free(fname,T), p)) defs end
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	| dec_sko (Const ("op &", _) $ p $ q) defs = dec_sko q (dec_sko p defs)
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	| dec_sko (Const ("op |", _) $ p $ q) defs = dec_sko q (dec_sko p defs)
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	| dec_sko (Const ("Trueprop", _) $ p) defs = dec_sko p defs
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	| dec_sko t defs = defs (*Do nothing otherwise*)
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  in  dec_sko (#prop (rep_thm th)) []  end;
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(*cterms are used throughout for efficiency*)
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val cTrueprop = Thm.cterm_of HOL.thy HOLogic.Trueprop;
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(*cterm version of mk_cTrueprop*)
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fun c_mkTrueprop A = Thm.capply cTrueprop A;
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(*Given an abstraction over n variables, replace the bound variables by free
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  ones. Return the body, along with the list of free variables.*)
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fun c_variant_abs_multi (ct0, vars) = 
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      let val (cv,ct) = Thm.dest_abs NONE ct0
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      in  c_variant_abs_multi (ct, cv::vars)  end
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      handle CTERM _ => (ct0, rev vars);
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(*Given the definition of a Skolem function, return a theorem to replace 
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  an existential formula by a use of that function. 
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   Example: "EX x. x : A & x ~: B ==> sko A B : A & sko A B ~: B"  [.] *)
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fun skolem_of_def def =  
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  let val (c,rhs) = Drule.dest_equals (cprop_of (#1 (Drule.freeze_thaw def)))
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      val (ch, frees) = c_variant_abs_multi (rhs, [])
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      val (chilbert,cabs) = Thm.dest_comb ch
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      val {sign,t, ...} = rep_cterm chilbert
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      val T = case t of Const ("Hilbert_Choice.Eps", Type("fun",[_,T])) => T
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                      | _ => raise THM ("skolem_of_def: expected Eps", 0, [def])
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      val cex = Thm.cterm_of sign (HOLogic.exists_const T)
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      val ex_tm = c_mkTrueprop (Thm.capply cex cabs)
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      and conc =  c_mkTrueprop (Drule.beta_conv cabs (Drule.list_comb(c,frees)));
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      fun tacf [prem] = rewrite_goals_tac [def] THEN rtac (prem RS someI_ex) 1
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  in  Goal.prove_raw [ex_tm] conc tacf 
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       |> forall_intr_list frees
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       |> forall_elim_vars 0  (*Introduce Vars, but don't discharge defs.*)
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       |> Thm.varifyT
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  end;
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(*Converts an Isabelle theorem (intro, elim or simp format) into nnf.*)
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(*It now works for HOL too. *)
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fun to_nnf th = 
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    th |> transfer_to_Reconstruction
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       |> transform_elim |> Drule.freeze_thaw |> #1
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       |> ObjectLogic.atomize_thm |> make_nnf;
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(*The cache prevents repeated clausification of a theorem, 
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  and also repeated declaration of Skolem functions*)  
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  (* FIXME better use Termtab!? No, we MUST use theory data!!*)
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val clause_cache = ref (Symtab.empty : (thm * thm list) Symtab.table)
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(*Generate Skolem functions for a theorem supplied in nnf*)
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fun skolem_of_nnf th =
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  map (skolem_of_def o assume o (cterm_of (theory_of_thm th))) (assume_skofuns th);
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(*Skolemize a named theorem, with Skolem functions as additional premises.*)
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(*also works for HOL*) 
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fun skolem_thm th = 
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  let val nnfth = to_nnf th
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  in  rm_redundant_cls (Meson.make_cnf (skolem_of_nnf nnfth) nnfth)
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  end
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  handle THM _ => [];
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(*Declare Skolem functions for a theorem, supplied in nnf and with its name.
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  It returns a modified theory, unless skolemization fails.*)
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fun skolem thy (name,th) =
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  let val cname = (case name of "" => gensym "sko" | s => Sign.base_name s)
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  in Option.map 
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        (fn nnfth => 
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          let val (thy',defs) = declare_skofuns cname nnfth thy
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              val skoths = map skolem_of_def defs
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          in (thy', rm_redundant_cls (Meson.make_cnf skoths nnfth)) end)
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      (SOME (to_nnf th)  handle THM _ => NONE) 
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  end;
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(*Populate the clause cache using the supplied theorem. Return the clausal form
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  and modified theory.*)
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fun skolem_cache_thm ((name,th), thy) = 
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  case Symtab.lookup (!clause_cache) name of
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      NONE => 
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	(case skolem thy (name, Thm.transfer thy th) of
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	     NONE => ([th],thy)
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	   | SOME (thy',cls) => 
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	       (change clause_cache (Symtab.update (name, (th, cls))); (cls,thy')))
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    | SOME (th',cls) =>
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        if eq_thm(th,th') then (cls,thy)
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	else (Output.debug ("skolem_cache: Ignoring variant of theorem " ^ name); 
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	      Output.debug (string_of_thm th);
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	      Output.debug (string_of_thm th');
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	      ([th],thy));
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fun skolem_cache ((name,th), thy) = #2 (skolem_cache_thm ((name,th), thy));
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(*Exported function to convert Isabelle theorems into axiom clauses*) 
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fun cnf_axiom (name,th) =
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  case name of
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	"" => skolem_thm th (*no name, so can't cache*)
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      | s  => case Symtab.lookup (!clause_cache) s of
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		NONE => 
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		  let val cls = skolem_thm th
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		  in change clause_cache (Symtab.update (s, (th, cls))); cls end
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	      | SOME(th',cls) =>
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		  if eq_thm(th,th') then cls
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		  else (Output.debug ("cnf_axiom: duplicate or variant of theorem " ^ name); 
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		        Output.debug (string_of_thm th);
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		        Output.debug (string_of_thm th');
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		        cls);
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fun pairname th = (Thm.name_of_thm th, th);
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fun meta_cnf_axiom th = 
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    map Meson.make_meta_clause (cnf_axiom (pairname th));
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(**** Extract and Clausify theorems from a theory's claset and simpset ****)
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(*Preserve the name of "th" after the transformation "f"*)
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fun preserve_name f th = Thm.name_thm (Thm.name_of_thm th, f th);
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fun rules_of_claset cs =
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  let val {safeIs,safeEs,hazIs,hazEs,...} = rep_cs cs
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      val intros = safeIs @ hazIs
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      val elims  = map Classical.classical_rule (safeEs @ hazEs)
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  in
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     Output.debug ("rules_of_claset intros: " ^ Int.toString(length intros) ^ 
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            " elims: " ^ Int.toString(length elims));
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     map pairname (intros @ elims)
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  end;
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fun rules_of_simpset ss =
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  let val ({rules,...}, _) = rep_ss ss
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      val simps = Net.entries rules
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  in 
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      Output.debug ("rules_of_simpset: " ^ Int.toString(length simps));
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      map (fn r => (#name r, #thm r)) simps
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  end;
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fun claset_rules_of_thy thy = rules_of_claset (claset_of thy);
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fun simpset_rules_of_thy thy = rules_of_simpset (simpset_of thy);
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fun atpset_rules_of_thy thy = map pairname (ResAtpSet.atp_rules_of_thy thy);
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fun claset_rules_of_ctxt ctxt = rules_of_claset (local_claset_of ctxt);
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fun simpset_rules_of_ctxt ctxt = rules_of_simpset (local_simpset_of ctxt);
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fun atpset_rules_of_ctxt ctxt = map pairname (ResAtpSet.atp_rules_of_ctxt ctxt);
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(**** Translate a set of classical/simplifier rules into CNF (still as type "thm")  ****)
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(* classical rules: works for both FOL and HOL *)
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fun cnf_rules [] err_list = ([],err_list)
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  | cnf_rules ((name,th) :: ths) err_list = 
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      let val (ts,es) = cnf_rules ths err_list
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      in  (cnf_axiom (name,th) :: ts,es) handle  _ => (ts, (th::es))  end;  
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fun pair_name_cls k (n, []) = []
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  | pair_name_cls k (n, cls::clss) = (cls, (n,k)) :: pair_name_cls (k+1) (n, clss)
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fun cnf_rules_pairs_aux pairs [] = pairs
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  | cnf_rules_pairs_aux pairs ((name,th)::ths) =
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      let val pairs' = (pair_name_cls 0 (name, cnf_axiom(name,th))) :: pairs
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		       handle THM _ => pairs | ResClause.CLAUSE _ => pairs
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			    | ResHolClause.LAM2COMB _ => pairs
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      in  cnf_rules_pairs_aux pairs' ths  end;
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val cnf_rules_pairs = cnf_rules_pairs_aux [];
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(**** Convert all theorems of a claset/simpset into clauses (ResClause.clause, or ResHolClause.clause) ****)
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(*These should include any plausibly-useful theorems, especially if they need
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  Skolem functions. FIXME: this list is VERY INCOMPLETE*)
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val default_initial_thms = map pairname
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  [refl_def, antisym_def, sym_def, trans_def, single_valued_def,
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   subset_refl, Union_least, Inter_greatest];
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(*Setup function: takes a theory and installs ALL simprules and claset rules 
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  into the clause cache*)
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fun clause_cache_setup thy =
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  let val simps = simpset_rules_of_thy thy
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      and clas  = claset_rules_of_thy thy
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      and thy0  = List.foldl skolem_cache thy default_initial_thms
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      val thy1  = List.foldl skolem_cache thy0 clas
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  in List.foldl skolem_cache thy1 simps end;
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(*Could be duplicate theorem names, due to multiple attributes*)
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(*** meson proof methods ***)
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fun cnf_rules_of_ths ths = List.concat (#1 (cnf_rules (map pairname ths) []));
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fun meson_meth ths ctxt =
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  Method.SIMPLE_METHOD' HEADGOAL
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    (CHANGED_PROP o Meson.meson_claset_tac (cnf_rules_of_ths ths) (local_claset_of ctxt));
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val meson_method_setup =
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  Method.add_methods
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    [("meson", Method.thms_ctxt_args meson_meth, 
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      "MESON resolution proof procedure")];
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(*** The Skolemization attribute ***)
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fun conj2_rule (th1,th2) = conjI OF [th1,th2];
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(*Conjoin a list of clauses to recreate a single theorem*)
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val conj_rule = foldr1 conj2_rule;
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fun skolem (Context.Theory thy, th) =
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      let
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        val name = Thm.name_of_thm th
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        val (cls, thy') = skolem_cache_thm ((name, th), thy)
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      in (Context.Theory thy', conj_rule cls) end
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  | skolem (context, th) = (context, conj_rule (skolem_thm th));
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val setup_attrs = Attrib.add_attributes
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  [("skolem", Attrib.no_args skolem, "skolemization of a theorem")];
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val setup = clause_cache_setup #> setup_attrs;
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end;