src/HOL/Analysis/Vitali_Covering_Theorem.thy
author paulson <lp15@cam.ac.uk>
Tue Apr 17 22:35:48 2018 +0100 (16 months ago)
changeset 67998 73a5a33486ee
parent 67996 6a9d1b31a7c5
child 68017 e99f9b3962bf
permissions -rw-r--r--
Change of variables proof
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theory Vitali_Covering_Theorem
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  imports Ball_Volume "HOL-Library.Permutations"
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begin
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lemma stretch_Galois:
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  fixes x :: "real^'n"
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  shows "(\<And>k. m k \<noteq> 0) \<Longrightarrow> ((y = (\<chi> k. m k * x$k)) \<longleftrightarrow> (\<chi> k. y$k / m k) = x)"
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  by auto
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lemma lambda_swap_Galois:
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   "(x = (\<chi> i. y $ Fun.swap m n id i) \<longleftrightarrow> (\<chi> i. x $ Fun.swap m n id i) = y)"
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  by (auto; simp add: pointfree_idE vec_eq_iff)
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lemma lambda_add_Galois:
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  fixes x :: "real^'n"
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  shows "m \<noteq> n \<Longrightarrow> (x = (\<chi> i. if i = m then y$m + y$n else y$i) \<longleftrightarrow> (\<chi> i. if i = m then x$m - x$n else x$i) = y)"
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  by (safe; simp add: vec_eq_iff)
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lemma Vitali_covering_lemma_cballs_balls:
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  fixes a :: "'a \<Rightarrow> 'b::euclidean_space"
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  assumes "\<And>i. i \<in> K \<Longrightarrow> 0 < r i \<and> r i \<le> B"
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  obtains C where "countable C" "C \<subseteq> K"
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     "pairwise (\<lambda>i j. disjnt (cball (a i) (r i)) (cball (a j) (r j))) C"
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     "\<And>i. i \<in> K \<Longrightarrow> \<exists>j. j \<in> C \<and>
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                        \<not> disjnt (cball (a i) (r i)) (cball (a j) (r j)) \<and>
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                        cball (a i) (r i) \<subseteq> ball (a j) (5 * r j)"
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proof (cases "K = {}")
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  case True
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  with that show ?thesis
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    by auto
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next
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  case False
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  then have "B > 0"
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    using assms less_le_trans by auto
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  have rgt0[simp]: "\<And>i. i \<in> K \<Longrightarrow> 0 < r i"
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    using assms by auto
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  let ?djnt = "pairwise (\<lambda>i j. disjnt (cball (a i) (r i)) (cball (a j) (r j)))"
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  have "\<exists>C. \<forall>n. (C n \<subseteq> K \<and>
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             (\<forall>i \<in> C n. B/2 ^ n \<le> r i) \<and> ?djnt (C n) \<and>
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             (\<forall>i \<in> K. B/2 ^ n < r i
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                 \<longrightarrow> (\<exists>j. j \<in> C n \<and>
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                         \<not> disjnt (cball (a i) (r i)) (cball (a j) (r j)) \<and>
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                         cball (a i) (r i) \<subseteq> ball (a j) (5 * r j)))) \<and> (C n \<subseteq> C(Suc n))"
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  proof (rule dependent_nat_choice, safe)
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    fix C n
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    define D where "D \<equiv> {i \<in> K. B/2 ^ Suc n < r i \<and> (\<forall>j\<in>C. disjnt (cball(a i)(r i)) (cball (a j) (r j)))}"
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    let ?cover_ar = "\<lambda>i j. \<not> disjnt (cball (a i) (r i)) (cball (a j) (r j)) \<and>
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                             cball (a i) (r i) \<subseteq> ball (a j) (5 * r j)"
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    assume "C \<subseteq> K"
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      and Ble: "\<forall>i\<in>C. B/2 ^ n \<le> r i"
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      and djntC: "?djnt C"
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      and cov_n: "\<forall>i\<in>K. B/2 ^ n < r i \<longrightarrow> (\<exists>j. j \<in> C \<and> ?cover_ar i j)"
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    have *: "\<forall>C\<in>chains {C. C \<subseteq> D \<and> ?djnt C}. \<Union>C \<in> {C. C \<subseteq> D \<and> ?djnt C}"
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    proof (clarsimp simp: chains_def)
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      fix C
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      assume C: "C \<subseteq> {C. C \<subseteq> D \<and> ?djnt C}" and "chain\<^sub>\<subseteq> C"
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      show "\<Union>C \<subseteq> D \<and> ?djnt (\<Union>C)"
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        unfolding pairwise_def
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      proof (intro ballI conjI impI)
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        show "\<Union>C \<subseteq> D"
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          using C by blast
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      next
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        fix x y
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        assume "x \<in> \<Union>C" and "y \<in> \<Union>C" and "x \<noteq> y"
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        then obtain X Y where XY: "x \<in> X" "X \<in> C" "y \<in> Y" "Y \<in> C"
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          by blast
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        then consider "X \<subseteq> Y" | "Y \<subseteq> X"
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          by (meson \<open>chain\<^sub>\<subseteq> C\<close> chain_subset_def)
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        then show "disjnt (cball (a x) (r x)) (cball (a y) (r y))"
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        proof cases
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          case 1
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          with C XY \<open>x \<noteq> y\<close> show ?thesis
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            unfolding pairwise_def by blast
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        next
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          case 2
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          with C XY \<open>x \<noteq> y\<close> show ?thesis
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            unfolding pairwise_def by blast
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        qed
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      qed
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    qed
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    obtain E where "E \<subseteq> D" and djntE: "?djnt E" and maximalE: "\<And>X. \<lbrakk>X \<subseteq> D; ?djnt X; E \<subseteq> X\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> X = E"
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      using Zorn_Lemma [OF *] by safe blast
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    show "\<exists>L. (L \<subseteq> K \<and>
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               (\<forall>i\<in>L. B/2 ^ Suc n \<le> r i) \<and> ?djnt L \<and>
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               (\<forall>i\<in>K. B/2 ^ Suc n < r i \<longrightarrow> (\<exists>j. j \<in> L \<and> ?cover_ar i j))) \<and> C \<subseteq> L"
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    proof (intro exI conjI ballI)
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      show "C \<union> E \<subseteq> K"
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        using D_def \<open>C \<subseteq> K\<close> \<open>E \<subseteq> D\<close> by blast
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      show "B/2 ^ Suc n \<le> r i" if i: "i \<in> C \<union> E" for i
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        using i
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      proof
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        assume "i \<in> C"
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        have "B/2 ^ Suc n \<le> B/2 ^ n"
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          using \<open>B > 0\<close> by (simp add: divide_simps)
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        also have "\<dots> \<le> r i"
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          using Ble \<open>i \<in> C\<close> by blast
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        finally show ?thesis .
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      qed (use D_def \<open>E \<subseteq> D\<close> in auto)
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      show "?djnt (C \<union> E)"
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        using D_def \<open>C \<subseteq> K\<close> \<open>E \<subseteq> D\<close> djntC djntE
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        unfolding pairwise_def disjnt_def by blast
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    next
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      fix i
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      assume "i \<in> K"
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      show "B/2 ^ Suc n < r i \<longrightarrow> (\<exists>j. j \<in> C \<union> E \<and> ?cover_ar i j)"
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      proof (cases "r i \<le> B/2^n")
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        case False
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        then show ?thesis
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          using cov_n \<open>i \<in> K\<close> by auto
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      next
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        case True
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        have "cball (a i) (r i) \<subseteq> ball (a j) (5 * r j)"
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          if less: "B/2 ^ Suc n < r i" and j: "j \<in> C \<union> E"
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            and nondis: "\<not> disjnt (cball (a i) (r i)) (cball (a j) (r j))" for j
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        proof -
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          obtain x where x: "dist (a i) x \<le> r i" "dist (a j) x \<le> r j"
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            using nondis by (force simp: disjnt_def)
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          have "dist (a i) (a j) \<le> dist (a i) x + dist x (a j)"
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            by (simp add: dist_triangle)
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          also have "\<dots> \<le> r i + r j"
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            by (metis add_mono_thms_linordered_semiring(1) dist_commute x)
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          finally have aij: "dist (a i) (a j) + r i < 5 * r j" if "r i < 2 * r j"
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            using that by auto
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          show ?thesis
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            using j
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          proof
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            assume "j \<in> C"
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            have "B/2^n < 2 * r j"
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              using Ble True \<open>j \<in> C\<close> less by auto
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            with aij True show "cball (a i) (r i) \<subseteq> ball (a j) (5 * r j)"
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              by (simp add: cball_subset_ball_iff)
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          next
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            assume "j \<in> E"
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            then have "B/2 ^ n < 2 * r j"
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              using D_def \<open>E \<subseteq> D\<close> by auto
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            with True have "r i < 2 * r j"
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              by auto
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            with aij show "cball (a i) (r i) \<subseteq> ball (a j) (5 * r j)"
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              by (simp add: cball_subset_ball_iff)
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          qed
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        qed
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      moreover have "\<exists>j. j \<in> C \<union> E \<and> \<not> disjnt (cball (a i) (r i)) (cball (a j) (r j))"
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        if "B/2 ^ Suc n < r i"
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      proof (rule classical)
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        assume NON: "\<not> ?thesis"
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        show ?thesis
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        proof (cases "i \<in> D")
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          case True
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          have "insert i E = E"
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          proof (rule maximalE)
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            show "insert i E \<subseteq> D"
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              by (simp add: True \<open>E \<subseteq> D\<close>)
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            show "pairwise (\<lambda>i j. disjnt (cball (a i) (r i)) (cball (a j) (r j))) (insert i E)"
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              using False NON by (auto simp: pairwise_insert djntE disjnt_sym)
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          qed auto
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          then show ?thesis
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            using \<open>i \<in> K\<close> assms by fastforce
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        next
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          case False
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          with that show ?thesis
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            by (auto simp: D_def disjnt_def \<open>i \<in> K\<close>)
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        qed
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      qed
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      ultimately
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      show "B/2 ^ Suc n < r i \<longrightarrow>
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            (\<exists>j. j \<in> C \<union> E \<and>
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                 \<not> disjnt (cball (a i) (r i)) (cball (a j) (r j)) \<and>
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                 cball (a i) (r i) \<subseteq> ball (a j) (5 * r j))"
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        by blast
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      qed
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    qed auto
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  qed (use assms in force)
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  then obtain F where FK: "\<And>n. F n \<subseteq> K"
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               and Fle: "\<And>n i. i \<in> F n \<Longrightarrow> B/2 ^ n \<le> r i"
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               and Fdjnt:  "\<And>n. ?djnt (F n)"
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               and FF:  "\<And>n i. \<lbrakk>i \<in> K; B/2 ^ n < r i\<rbrakk>
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                        \<Longrightarrow> \<exists>j. j \<in> F n \<and> \<not> disjnt (cball (a i) (r i)) (cball (a j) (r j)) \<and>
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                                cball (a i) (r i) \<subseteq> ball (a j) (5 * r j)"
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               and inc:  "\<And>n. F n \<subseteq> F(Suc n)"
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    by (force simp: all_conj_distrib)
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  show thesis
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  proof
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    have *: "countable I"
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      if "I \<subseteq> K" and pw: "pairwise (\<lambda>i j. disjnt (cball (a i) (r i)) (cball (a j) (r j))) I" for I
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    proof -
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      show ?thesis
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      proof (rule countable_image_inj_on [of "\<lambda>i. cball(a i)(r i)"])
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        show "countable ((\<lambda>i. cball (a i) (r i)) ` I)"
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        proof (rule countable_disjoint_nonempty_interior_subsets)
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          show "disjoint ((\<lambda>i. cball (a i) (r i)) ` I)"
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            by (auto simp: dest: pairwiseD [OF pw] intro: pairwise_imageI)
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          show "\<And>S. \<lbrakk>S \<in> (\<lambda>i. cball (a i) (r i)) ` I; interior S = {}\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> S = {}"
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            using \<open>I \<subseteq> K\<close>
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            by (auto simp: not_less [symmetric])
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        qed
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      next
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        have "\<And>x y. \<lbrakk>x \<in> I; y \<in> I; a x = a y; r x = r y\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> x = y"
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          using pw \<open>I \<subseteq> K\<close> assms
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          apply (clarsimp simp: pairwise_def disjnt_def)
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          by (metis assms centre_in_cball subsetD empty_iff inf.idem less_eq_real_def)
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        then show "inj_on (\<lambda>i. cball (a i) (r i)) I"
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          using \<open>I \<subseteq> K\<close> by (fastforce simp: inj_on_def cball_eq_cball_iff dest: assms)
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      qed
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    qed
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    show "(Union(range F)) \<subseteq> K"
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      using FK by blast
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    moreover show "pairwise (\<lambda>i j. disjnt (cball (a i) (r i)) (cball (a j) (r j))) (Union(range F))"
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    proof (rule pairwise_chain_Union)
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      show "chain\<^sub>\<subseteq> (range F)"
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        unfolding chain_subset_def by clarify (meson inc lift_Suc_mono_le linear subsetCE)
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    qed (use Fdjnt in blast)
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    ultimately show "countable (Union(range F))"
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      by (blast intro: *)
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  next
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    fix i assume "i \<in> K"
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    then obtain n where "(1/2) ^ n < r i / B"
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      using  \<open>B > 0\<close> assms real_arch_pow_inv by fastforce
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    then have B2: "B/2 ^ n < r i"
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      using \<open>B > 0\<close> by (simp add: divide_simps)
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    have "0 < r i" "r i \<le> B"
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      by (auto simp: \<open>i \<in> K\<close> assms)
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    show "\<exists>j. j \<in> (Union(range F)) \<and>
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          \<not> disjnt (cball (a i) (r i)) (cball (a j) (r j)) \<and>
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          cball (a i) (r i) \<subseteq> ball (a j) (5 * r j)"
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      using FF [OF \<open>i \<in> K\<close> B2] by auto
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  qed
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qed
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subsection\<open>Vitali covering theorem\<close>
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lemma Vitali_covering_lemma_cballs:
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  fixes a :: "'a \<Rightarrow> 'b::euclidean_space"
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  assumes S: "S \<subseteq> (\<Union>i\<in>K. cball (a i) (r i))"
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      and r: "\<And>i. i \<in> K \<Longrightarrow> 0 < r i \<and> r i \<le> B"
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  obtains C where "countable C" "C \<subseteq> K"
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     "pairwise (\<lambda>i j. disjnt (cball (a i) (r i)) (cball (a j) (r j))) C"
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     "S \<subseteq> (\<Union>i\<in>C. cball (a i) (5 * r i))"
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proof -
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  obtain C where C: "countable C" "C \<subseteq> K"
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                    "pairwise (\<lambda>i j. disjnt (cball (a i) (r i)) (cball (a j) (r j))) C"
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           and cov: "\<And>i. i \<in> K \<Longrightarrow> \<exists>j. j \<in> C \<and> \<not> disjnt (cball (a i) (r i)) (cball (a j) (r j)) \<and>
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                        cball (a i) (r i) \<subseteq> ball (a j) (5 * r j)"
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    by (rule Vitali_covering_lemma_cballs_balls [OF r, where a=a]) (blast intro: that)+
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  show ?thesis
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  proof
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    have "(\<Union>i\<in>K. cball (a i) (r i)) \<subseteq> (\<Union>i\<in>C. cball (a i) (5 * r i))"
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      using cov subset_iff by fastforce
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    with S show "S \<subseteq> (\<Union>i\<in>C. cball (a i) (5 * r i))"
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      by blast
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  qed (use C in auto)
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qed
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lemma Vitali_covering_lemma_balls:
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  fixes a :: "'a \<Rightarrow> 'b::euclidean_space"
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  assumes S: "S \<subseteq> (\<Union>i\<in>K. ball (a i) (r i))"
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      and r: "\<And>i. i \<in> K \<Longrightarrow> 0 < r i \<and> r i \<le> B"
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  obtains C where "countable C" "C \<subseteq> K"
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     "pairwise (\<lambda>i j. disjnt (ball (a i) (r i)) (ball (a j) (r j))) C"
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     "S \<subseteq> (\<Union>i\<in>C. ball (a i) (5 * r i))"
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proof -
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  obtain C where C: "countable C" "C \<subseteq> K"
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           and pw:  "pairwise (\<lambda>i j. disjnt (cball (a i) (r i)) (cball (a j) (r j))) C"
lp15@67996
   265
           and cov: "\<And>i. i \<in> K \<Longrightarrow> \<exists>j. j \<in> C \<and> \<not> disjnt (cball (a i) (r i)) (cball (a j) (r j)) \<and>
lp15@67996
   266
                        cball (a i) (r i) \<subseteq> ball (a j) (5 * r j)"
lp15@67996
   267
    by (rule Vitali_covering_lemma_cballs_balls [OF r, where a=a]) (blast intro: that)+
lp15@67996
   268
  show ?thesis
lp15@67996
   269
  proof
lp15@67996
   270
    have "(\<Union>i\<in>K. ball (a i) (r i)) \<subseteq> (\<Union>i\<in>C. ball (a i) (5 * r i))"
lp15@67996
   271
      using cov subset_iff
lp15@67996
   272
      by clarsimp (meson less_imp_le mem_ball mem_cball subset_eq)
lp15@67996
   273
    with S show "S \<subseteq> (\<Union>i\<in>C. ball (a i) (5 * r i))"
lp15@67996
   274
      by blast
lp15@67996
   275
    show "pairwise (\<lambda>i j. disjnt (ball (a i) (r i)) (ball (a j) (r j))) C"
lp15@67996
   276
      using pw
lp15@67996
   277
      by (clarsimp simp: pairwise_def) (meson ball_subset_cball disjnt_subset1 disjnt_subset2)
lp15@67996
   278
  qed (use C in auto)
lp15@67996
   279
qed
lp15@67996
   280
lp15@67996
   281
lp15@67996
   282
proposition Vitali_covering_theorem_cballs:
lp15@67996
   283
  fixes a :: "'a \<Rightarrow> 'n::euclidean_space"
lp15@67996
   284
  assumes r: "\<And>i. i \<in> K \<Longrightarrow> 0 < r i"
lp15@67996
   285
      and S: "\<And>x d. \<lbrakk>x \<in> S; 0 < d\<rbrakk>
lp15@67996
   286
                     \<Longrightarrow> \<exists>i. i \<in> K \<and> x \<in> cball (a i) (r i) \<and> r i < d"
lp15@67996
   287
  obtains C where "countable C" "C \<subseteq> K"
lp15@67996
   288
     "pairwise (\<lambda>i j. disjnt (cball (a i) (r i)) (cball (a j) (r j))) C"
lp15@67996
   289
     "negligible(S - (\<Union>i \<in> C. cball (a i) (r i)))"
lp15@67996
   290
proof -
lp15@67996
   291
  let ?\<mu> = "measure lebesgue"
lp15@67996
   292
  have *: "\<exists>C. countable C \<and> C \<subseteq> K \<and>
lp15@67996
   293
            pairwise (\<lambda>i j. disjnt (cball (a i) (r i)) (cball (a j) (r j))) C \<and>
lp15@67996
   294
            negligible(S - (\<Union>i \<in> C. cball (a i) (r i)))"
lp15@67996
   295
    if r01: "\<And>i. i \<in> K \<Longrightarrow> 0 < r i \<and> r i \<le> 1"
lp15@67996
   296
       and Sd: "\<And>x d. \<lbrakk>x \<in> S; 0 < d\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> \<exists>i. i \<in> K \<and> x \<in> cball (a i) (r i) \<and> r i < d"
lp15@67996
   297
     for K r and a :: "'a \<Rightarrow> 'n"
lp15@67996
   298
  proof -
lp15@67996
   299
    obtain C where C: "countable C" "C \<subseteq> K"
lp15@67996
   300
      and pwC: "pairwise (\<lambda>i j. disjnt (cball (a i) (r i)) (cball (a j) (r j))) C"
lp15@67996
   301
      and cov: "\<And>i. i \<in> K \<Longrightarrow> \<exists>j. j \<in> C \<and> \<not> disjnt (cball (a i) (r i)) (cball (a j) (r j)) \<and>
lp15@67996
   302
                        cball (a i) (r i) \<subseteq> ball (a j) (5 * r j)"
lp15@67996
   303
      by (rule Vitali_covering_lemma_cballs_balls [of K r 1 a]) (auto simp: r01)
lp15@67996
   304
    have ar_injective: "\<And>x y. \<lbrakk>x \<in> C; y \<in> C; a x = a y; r x = r y\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> x = y"
lp15@67996
   305
      using \<open>C \<subseteq> K\<close> pwC cov
lp15@67996
   306
      by (force simp: pairwise_def disjnt_def)
lp15@67996
   307
    show ?thesis
lp15@67996
   308
    proof (intro exI conjI)
lp15@67996
   309
      show "negligible (S - (\<Union>i\<in>C. cball (a i) (r i)))"
lp15@67996
   310
      proof (clarsimp simp: negligible_on_intervals [of "S-T" for T])
lp15@67996
   311
        fix l u
lp15@67996
   312
        show "negligible ((S - (\<Union>i\<in>C. cball (a i) (r i))) \<inter> cbox l u)"
lp15@67996
   313
          unfolding negligible_outer_le
lp15@67996
   314
        proof (intro allI impI)
lp15@67996
   315
          fix e::real
lp15@67996
   316
          assume "e > 0"
lp15@67996
   317
          define D where "D \<equiv> {i \<in> C. \<not> disjnt (ball(a i) (5 * r i)) (cbox l u)}"
lp15@67996
   318
          then have "D \<subseteq> C"
lp15@67996
   319
            by auto
lp15@67996
   320
          have "countable D"
lp15@67996
   321
            unfolding D_def using \<open>countable C\<close> by simp
lp15@67996
   322
          have UD: "(\<Union>i\<in>D. cball (a i) (r i)) \<in> lmeasurable"
lp15@67996
   323
          proof (rule fmeasurableI2)
lp15@67996
   324
            show "cbox (l - 6 *\<^sub>R One) (u + 6 *\<^sub>R One) \<in> lmeasurable"
lp15@67996
   325
              by blast
lp15@67996
   326
            have "y \<in> cbox (l - 6 *\<^sub>R One) (u + 6 *\<^sub>R One)"
lp15@67996
   327
              if "i \<in> C" and x: "x \<in> cbox l u" and ai: "dist (a i) y \<le> r i" "dist (a i) x < 5 * r i"
lp15@67996
   328
              for i x y
lp15@67996
   329
            proof -
lp15@67996
   330
              have d6: "dist y x < 6 * r i"
lp15@67996
   331
                using dist_triangle3 [of y x "a i"] that by linarith
lp15@67996
   332
              show ?thesis
lp15@67996
   333
              proof (clarsimp simp: mem_box algebra_simps)
lp15@67996
   334
                fix j::'n
lp15@67996
   335
                assume j: "j \<in> Basis"
lp15@67996
   336
                then have xyj: "\<bar>x \<bullet> j - y \<bullet> j\<bar> \<le> dist y x"
lp15@67996
   337
                  by (metis Basis_le_norm dist_commute dist_norm inner_diff_left)
lp15@67996
   338
                have "l \<bullet> j \<le> x \<bullet> j"
lp15@67996
   339
                  using \<open>j \<in> Basis\<close> mem_box \<open>x \<in> cbox l u\<close> by blast
lp15@67996
   340
                also have "\<dots> \<le> y \<bullet> j + 6 * r i"
lp15@67996
   341
                  using d6 xyj by (auto simp: algebra_simps)
lp15@67996
   342
                also have "\<dots> \<le> y \<bullet> j + 6"
lp15@67996
   343
                  using r01 [of i] \<open>C \<subseteq> K\<close> \<open>i \<in> C\<close> by auto
lp15@67996
   344
                finally have l: "l \<bullet> j \<le> y \<bullet> j + 6" .
lp15@67996
   345
                have "y \<bullet> j \<le> x \<bullet> j + 6 * r i"
lp15@67996
   346
                  using d6 xyj by (auto simp: algebra_simps)
lp15@67996
   347
                also have "\<dots> \<le> u \<bullet> j + 6 * r i"
lp15@67996
   348
                  using j  x by (auto simp: mem_box)
lp15@67996
   349
                also have "\<dots> \<le> u \<bullet> j + 6"
lp15@67996
   350
                  using r01 [of i] \<open>C \<subseteq> K\<close> \<open>i \<in> C\<close> by auto
lp15@67996
   351
                finally have u: "y \<bullet> j \<le> u \<bullet> j + 6" .
lp15@67996
   352
                show "l \<bullet> j \<le> y \<bullet> j + 6 \<and> y \<bullet> j \<le> u \<bullet> j + 6"
lp15@67996
   353
                  using l u by blast
lp15@67996
   354
              qed
lp15@67996
   355
            qed
lp15@67996
   356
            then show "(\<Union>i\<in>D. cball (a i) (r i)) \<subseteq> cbox (l - 6 *\<^sub>R One) (u + 6 *\<^sub>R One)"
lp15@67996
   357
              by (force simp: D_def disjnt_def)
lp15@67996
   358
            show "(\<Union>i\<in>D. cball (a i) (r i)) \<in> sets lebesgue"
lp15@67996
   359
              using \<open>countable D\<close> by auto
lp15@67996
   360
          qed
lp15@67996
   361
          obtain D1 where "D1 \<subseteq> D" "finite D1"
lp15@67996
   362
            and measD1: "?\<mu> (\<Union>i\<in>D. cball (a i) (r i)) - e / 5 ^ DIM('n) < ?\<mu> (\<Union>i\<in>D1. cball (a i) (r i))"
lp15@67996
   363
          proof (rule measure_countable_Union_approachable [where e = "e / 5 ^ (DIM('n))"])
lp15@67996
   364
            show "countable ((\<lambda>i. cball (a i) (r i)) ` D)"
lp15@67996
   365
              using \<open>countable D\<close> by auto
lp15@67996
   366
            show "\<And>d. d \<in> (\<lambda>i. cball (a i) (r i)) ` D \<Longrightarrow> d \<in> lmeasurable"
lp15@67996
   367
              by auto
lp15@67996
   368
            show "\<And>D'. \<lbrakk>D' \<subseteq> (\<lambda>i. cball (a i) (r i)) ` D; finite D'\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> ?\<mu> (\<Union>D') \<le> ?\<mu> (\<Union>i\<in>D. cball (a i) (r i))"
lp15@67996
   369
              by (fastforce simp add: intro!: measure_mono_fmeasurable UD)
lp15@67996
   370
          qed (use \<open>e > 0\<close> in \<open>auto dest: finite_subset_image\<close>)
lp15@67996
   371
          show "\<exists>T. (S - (\<Union>i\<in>C. cball (a i) (r i))) \<inter>
lp15@67996
   372
                    cbox l u \<subseteq> T \<and> T \<in> lmeasurable \<and> ?\<mu> T \<le> e"
lp15@67996
   373
          proof (intro exI conjI)
lp15@67996
   374
            show "(S - (\<Union>i\<in>C. cball (a i) (r i))) \<inter> cbox l u \<subseteq> (\<Union>i\<in>D - D1. ball (a i) (5 * r i))"
lp15@67996
   375
            proof clarify
lp15@67996
   376
              fix x
lp15@67996
   377
              assume x: "x \<in> cbox l u" "x \<in> S" "x \<notin> (\<Union>i\<in>C. cball (a i) (r i))"
lp15@67996
   378
              have "closed (\<Union>i\<in>D1. cball (a i) (r i))"
lp15@67996
   379
                using \<open>finite D1\<close> by blast
lp15@67996
   380
              moreover have "x \<notin> (\<Union>j\<in>D1. cball (a j) (r j))"
lp15@67996
   381
                using x \<open>D1 \<subseteq> D\<close> unfolding D_def by blast
lp15@67996
   382
              ultimately obtain q where "q > 0" and q: "ball x q \<subseteq> - (\<Union>i\<in>D1. cball (a i) (r i))"
lp15@67996
   383
                by (metis (no_types, lifting) ComplI open_contains_ball closed_def)
lp15@67996
   384
              obtain i where "i \<in> K" and xi: "x \<in> cball (a i) (r i)" and ri: "r i < q/2"
lp15@67996
   385
                using Sd [OF \<open>x \<in> S\<close>] \<open>q > 0\<close> half_gt_zero by blast
lp15@67996
   386
              then obtain j where "j \<in> C"
lp15@67996
   387
                             and nondisj: "\<not> disjnt (cball (a i) (r i)) (cball (a j) (r j))"
lp15@67996
   388
                             and sub5j:  "cball (a i) (r i) \<subseteq> ball (a j) (5 * r j)"
lp15@67996
   389
                using cov [OF \<open>i \<in> K\<close>] by metis
lp15@67996
   390
              show "x \<in> (\<Union>i\<in>D - D1. ball (a i) (5 * r i))"
lp15@67996
   391
              proof
lp15@67996
   392
                show "j \<in> D - D1"
lp15@67996
   393
                proof
lp15@67996
   394
                  show "j \<in> D"
lp15@67996
   395
                    using \<open>j \<in> C\<close> sub5j \<open>x \<in> cbox l u\<close> xi by (auto simp: D_def disjnt_def)
lp15@67996
   396
                  obtain y where yi: "dist (a i) y \<le> r i" and yj: "dist (a j) y \<le> r j"
lp15@67996
   397
                    using disjnt_def nondisj by fastforce
lp15@67996
   398
                  have "dist x y \<le> r i + r i"
lp15@67996
   399
                    by (metis add_mono dist_commute dist_triangle_le mem_cball xi yi)
lp15@67996
   400
                  also have "\<dots> < q"
lp15@67996
   401
                    using ri by linarith
lp15@67996
   402
                  finally have "y \<in> ball x q"
lp15@67996
   403
                    by simp
lp15@67996
   404
                  with yj q show "j \<notin> D1"
lp15@67996
   405
                    by (auto simp: disjoint_UN_iff)
lp15@67996
   406
                qed
lp15@67996
   407
                show "x \<in> ball (a j) (5 * r j)"
lp15@67996
   408
                  using xi sub5j by blast
lp15@67996
   409
              qed
lp15@67996
   410
            qed
lp15@67996
   411
            have 3: "?\<mu> (\<Union>i\<in>D2. ball (a i) (5 * r i)) \<le> e"
lp15@67996
   412
              if D2: "D2 \<subseteq> D - D1" and "finite D2" for D2
lp15@67996
   413
            proof -
lp15@67996
   414
              have rgt0: "0 < r i" if "i \<in> D2" for i
lp15@67996
   415
                using \<open>C \<subseteq> K\<close> D_def \<open>i \<in> D2\<close> D2 r01
lp15@67996
   416
                by (simp add: subset_iff)
lp15@67996
   417
              then have inj: "inj_on (\<lambda>i. ball (a i) (5 * r i)) D2"
lp15@67996
   418
                using \<open>C \<subseteq> K\<close> D2 by (fastforce simp: inj_on_def D_def ball_eq_ball_iff intro: ar_injective)
lp15@67996
   419
              have "?\<mu> (\<Union>i\<in>D2. ball (a i) (5 * r i)) \<le> sum (?\<mu>) ((\<lambda>i. ball (a i) (5 * r i)) ` D2)"
lp15@67996
   420
                using that by (force intro: measure_Union_le)
lp15@67996
   421
              also have "\<dots>  = (\<Sum>i\<in>D2. ?\<mu> (ball (a i) (5 * r i)))"
lp15@67996
   422
                by (simp add: comm_monoid_add_class.sum.reindex [OF inj])
lp15@67996
   423
              also have "\<dots> = (\<Sum>i\<in>D2. 5 ^ DIM('n) * ?\<mu> (ball (a i) (r i)))"
lp15@67996
   424
              proof (rule sum.cong [OF refl])
lp15@67996
   425
                fix i
lp15@67996
   426
                assume "i \<in> D2"
lp15@67996
   427
                show "?\<mu> (ball (a i) (5 * r i)) = 5 ^ DIM('n) * ?\<mu> (ball (a i) (r i))"
lp15@67996
   428
                  using rgt0 [OF \<open>i \<in> D2\<close>] by (simp add: content_ball)
lp15@67996
   429
              qed
lp15@67996
   430
              also have "\<dots> = (\<Sum>i\<in>D2. ?\<mu> (ball (a i) (r i))) * 5 ^ DIM('n)"
lp15@67996
   431
                by (simp add: sum_distrib_left mult.commute)
lp15@67996
   432
              finally have "?\<mu> (\<Union>i\<in>D2. ball (a i) (5 * r i)) \<le> (\<Sum>i\<in>D2. ?\<mu> (ball (a i) (r i))) * 5 ^ DIM('n)" .
lp15@67996
   433
              moreover have "(\<Sum>i\<in>D2. ?\<mu> (ball (a i) (r i))) \<le> e / 5 ^ DIM('n)"
lp15@67996
   434
              proof -
lp15@67996
   435
                have D12_dis: "((\<Union>x\<in>D1. cball (a x) (r x)) \<inter> (\<Union>x\<in>D2. cball (a x) (r x))) \<le> {}"
lp15@67996
   436
                proof clarify
lp15@67996
   437
                  fix w d1 d2
lp15@67996
   438
                  assume "d1 \<in> D1" "w d1 d2 \<in> cball (a d1) (r d1)" "d2 \<in> D2" "w d1 d2 \<in> cball (a d2) (r d2)"
lp15@67996
   439
                  then show "w d1 d2 \<in> {}"
lp15@67996
   440
                    by (metis DiffE disjnt_iff subsetCE D2 \<open>D1 \<subseteq> D\<close> \<open>D \<subseteq> C\<close> pairwiseD [OF pwC, of d1 d2])
lp15@67996
   441
                qed
lp15@67996
   442
                have inj: "inj_on (\<lambda>i. cball (a i) (r i)) D2"
lp15@67996
   443
                  using rgt0 D2 \<open>D \<subseteq> C\<close> by (force simp: inj_on_def cball_eq_cball_iff intro!: ar_injective)
lp15@67996
   444
                have ds: "disjoint ((\<lambda>i. cball (a i) (r i)) ` D2)"
lp15@67996
   445
                  using D2 \<open>D \<subseteq> C\<close> by (auto intro: pairwiseI pairwiseD [OF pwC])
lp15@67996
   446
                have "(\<Sum>i\<in>D2. ?\<mu> (ball (a i) (r i))) = (\<Sum>i\<in>D2. ?\<mu> (cball (a i) (r i)))"
lp15@67996
   447
                  using rgt0 by (simp add: content_ball content_cball less_eq_real_def)
lp15@67996
   448
                also have "\<dots> = sum ?\<mu> ((\<lambda>i. cball (a i) (r i)) ` D2)"
lp15@67996
   449
                  by (simp add: comm_monoid_add_class.sum.reindex [OF inj])
lp15@67996
   450
                also have "\<dots> = ?\<mu> (\<Union>i\<in>D2. cball (a i) (r i))"
lp15@67996
   451
                  by (auto intro: measure_Union' [symmetric] ds simp add: \<open>finite D2\<close>)
lp15@67996
   452
                finally have "?\<mu> (\<Union>i\<in>D1. cball (a i) (r i)) + (\<Sum>i\<in>D2. ?\<mu> (ball (a i) (r i))) =
lp15@67996
   453
                              ?\<mu> (\<Union>i\<in>D1. cball (a i) (r i)) + ?\<mu> (\<Union>i\<in>D2. cball (a i) (r i))"
lp15@67996
   454
                  by simp
lp15@67996
   455
                also have "\<dots> = ?\<mu> (\<Union>i \<in> D1 \<union> D2. cball (a i) (r i))"
lp15@67996
   456
                  using D12_dis by (simp add: measure_Un3 \<open>finite D1\<close> \<open>finite D2\<close> fmeasurable.finite_UN)
lp15@67996
   457
                also have "\<dots> \<le> ?\<mu> (\<Union>i\<in>D. cball (a i) (r i))"
lp15@67996
   458
                  using D2 \<open>D1 \<subseteq> D\<close> by (fastforce intro!: measure_mono_fmeasurable [OF _ _ UD] \<open>finite D1\<close> \<open>finite D2\<close>)
lp15@67996
   459
                finally have "?\<mu> (\<Union>i\<in>D1. cball (a i) (r i)) + (\<Sum>i\<in>D2. ?\<mu> (ball (a i) (r i))) \<le> ?\<mu> (\<Union>i\<in>D. cball (a i) (r i))" .
lp15@67996
   460
                with measD1 show ?thesis
lp15@67996
   461
                  by simp
lp15@67996
   462
              qed
lp15@67996
   463
                ultimately show ?thesis
lp15@67996
   464
                  by (simp add: divide_simps)
lp15@67996
   465
            qed
lp15@67996
   466
            have co: "countable (D - D1)"
lp15@67996
   467
              by (simp add: \<open>countable D\<close>)
lp15@67996
   468
            show "(\<Union>i\<in>D - D1. ball (a i) (5 * r i)) \<in> lmeasurable"
lp15@67996
   469
              using \<open>e > 0\<close> by (auto simp: fmeasurable_UN_bound [OF co _ 3])
lp15@67996
   470
            show "?\<mu> (\<Union>i\<in>D - D1. ball (a i) (5 * r i)) \<le> e"
lp15@67996
   471
              using \<open>e > 0\<close> by (auto simp: measure_UN_bound [OF co _ 3])
lp15@67996
   472
          qed
lp15@67996
   473
        qed
lp15@67996
   474
      qed
lp15@67996
   475
    qed (use C pwC in auto)
lp15@67996
   476
  qed
lp15@67996
   477
  define K' where "K' \<equiv> {i \<in> K. r i \<le> 1}"
lp15@67996
   478
  have 1: "\<And>i. i \<in> K' \<Longrightarrow> 0 < r i \<and> r i \<le> 1"
lp15@67996
   479
    using K'_def r by auto
lp15@67996
   480
  have 2: "\<exists>i. i \<in> K' \<and> x \<in> cball (a i) (r i) \<and> r i < d"
lp15@67996
   481
    if "x \<in> S \<and> 0 < d" for x d
lp15@67996
   482
    using that by (auto simp: K'_def dest!: S [where d = "min d 1"])
lp15@67996
   483
  have "K' \<subseteq> K"
lp15@67996
   484
    using K'_def by auto
lp15@67996
   485
  then show thesis
lp15@67996
   486
    using * [OF 1 2] that by fastforce
lp15@67996
   487
qed
lp15@67996
   488
lp15@67996
   489
lp15@67996
   490
proposition Vitali_covering_theorem_balls:
lp15@67996
   491
  fixes a :: "'a \<Rightarrow> 'b::euclidean_space"
lp15@67996
   492
  assumes S: "\<And>x d. \<lbrakk>x \<in> S; 0 < d\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> \<exists>i. i \<in> K \<and> x \<in> ball (a i) (r i) \<and> r i < d"
lp15@67996
   493
  obtains C where "countable C" "C \<subseteq> K"
lp15@67996
   494
     "pairwise (\<lambda>i j. disjnt (ball (a i) (r i)) (ball (a j) (r j))) C"
lp15@67996
   495
     "negligible(S - (\<Union>i \<in> C. ball (a i) (r i)))"
lp15@67996
   496
proof -
lp15@67996
   497
  have 1: "\<exists>i. i \<in> {i \<in> K. 0 < r i} \<and> x \<in> cball (a i) (r i) \<and> r i < d"
lp15@67996
   498
         if xd: "x \<in> S" "d > 0" for x d
lp15@67996
   499
    by (metis (mono_tags, lifting) assms ball_eq_empty less_eq_real_def mem_Collect_eq mem_ball mem_cball not_le xd(1) xd(2))
lp15@67996
   500
  obtain C where C: "countable C" "C \<subseteq> K"
lp15@67996
   501
             and pw: "pairwise (\<lambda>i j. disjnt (cball (a i) (r i)) (cball (a j) (r j))) C"
lp15@67996
   502
             and neg: "negligible(S - (\<Union>i \<in> C. cball (a i) (r i)))"
lp15@67996
   503
    by (rule Vitali_covering_theorem_cballs [of "{i \<in> K. 0 < r i}" r S a, OF _ 1]) auto
lp15@67996
   504
  show thesis
lp15@67996
   505
  proof
lp15@67996
   506
    show "pairwise (\<lambda>i j. disjnt (ball (a i) (r i)) (ball (a j) (r j))) C"
lp15@67996
   507
      apply (rule pairwise_mono [OF pw])
lp15@67996
   508
      apply (auto simp: disjnt_def)
lp15@67996
   509
      by (meson disjoint_iff_not_equal less_imp_le mem_cball)
lp15@67996
   510
    have "negligible (\<Union>i\<in>C. sphere (a i) (r i))"
lp15@67996
   511
      by (auto intro: negligible_sphere \<open>countable C\<close>)
lp15@67996
   512
    then have "negligible (S - (\<Union>i \<in> C. cball(a i)(r i)) \<union> (\<Union>i \<in> C. sphere (a i) (r i)))"
lp15@67996
   513
      by (rule negligible_Un [OF neg])
lp15@67996
   514
    then show "negligible (S - (\<Union>i\<in>C. ball (a i) (r i)))"
lp15@67996
   515
      by (rule negligible_subset) force
lp15@67996
   516
  qed (use C in auto)
lp15@67996
   517
qed
lp15@67996
   518
lp15@67996
   519
lp15@67996
   520
lemma negligible_eq_zero_density_alt:
lp15@67996
   521
     "negligible S \<longleftrightarrow>
lp15@67996
   522
      (\<forall>x \<in> S. \<forall>e > 0.
lp15@67996
   523
        \<exists>d U. 0 < d \<and> d \<le> e \<and> S \<inter> ball x d \<subseteq> U \<and>
lp15@67996
   524
              U \<in> lmeasurable \<and> measure lebesgue U < e * measure lebesgue (ball x d))"
lp15@67996
   525
     (is "_ = (\<forall>x \<in> S. \<forall>e > 0. ?Q x e)")
lp15@67996
   526
proof (intro iffI ballI allI impI)
lp15@67996
   527
  fix x and e :: real
lp15@67996
   528
  assume "negligible S" and "x \<in> S" and "e > 0"
lp15@67996
   529
  then
lp15@67996
   530
  show "\<exists>d U. 0 < d \<and> d \<le> e \<and> S \<inter> ball x d \<subseteq> U \<and> U \<in> lmeasurable \<and>
lp15@67996
   531
              measure lebesgue U < e * measure lebesgue (ball x d)"
lp15@67996
   532
    apply (rule_tac x=e in exI)
lp15@67996
   533
    apply (rule_tac x="S \<inter> ball x e" in exI)
lp15@67996
   534
    apply (auto simp: negligible_imp_measurable negligible_Int negligible_imp_measure0 zero_less_measure_iff)
lp15@67996
   535
    done
lp15@67996
   536
next
lp15@67996
   537
  assume R [rule_format]: "\<forall>x \<in> S. \<forall>e > 0. ?Q x e"
lp15@67996
   538
  let ?\<mu> = "measure lebesgue"
lp15@67996
   539
  have "\<exists>U. openin (subtopology euclidean S) U \<and> z \<in> U \<and> negligible U"
lp15@67996
   540
    if "z \<in> S" for z
lp15@67996
   541
  proof (intro exI conjI)
lp15@67996
   542
    show "openin (subtopology euclidean S) (S \<inter> ball z 1)"
lp15@67996
   543
      by (simp add: openin_open_Int)
lp15@67996
   544
    show "z \<in> S \<inter> ball z 1"
lp15@67996
   545
      using \<open>z \<in> S\<close> by auto
lp15@67996
   546
    show "negligible (S \<inter> ball z 1)"
lp15@67996
   547
    proof (clarsimp simp: negligible_outer_le)
lp15@67996
   548
      fix e :: "real"
lp15@67996
   549
      assume "e > 0"
lp15@67996
   550
      let ?K = "{(x,d). x \<in> S \<and> 0 < d \<and> ball x d \<subseteq> ball z 1 \<and>
lp15@67996
   551
                     (\<exists>U. S \<inter> ball x d \<subseteq> U \<and> U \<in> lmeasurable \<and>
lp15@67996
   552
                         ?\<mu> U < e / ?\<mu> (ball z 1) * ?\<mu> (ball x d))}"
lp15@67996
   553
      obtain C where "countable C" and Csub: "C \<subseteq> ?K"
lp15@67996
   554
        and pwC: "pairwise (\<lambda>i j. disjnt (ball (fst i) (snd i)) (ball (fst j) (snd j))) C"
lp15@67996
   555
        and negC: "negligible((S \<inter> ball z 1) - (\<Union>i \<in> C. ball (fst i) (snd i)))"
lp15@67996
   556
      proof (rule Vitali_covering_theorem_balls [of "S \<inter> ball z 1" ?K fst snd])
lp15@67996
   557
        fix x and d :: "real"
lp15@67996
   558
        assume x: "x \<in> S \<inter> ball z 1" and "d > 0"
lp15@67996
   559
        obtain k where "k > 0" and k: "ball x k \<subseteq> ball z 1"
lp15@67996
   560
          by (meson Int_iff open_ball openE x)
lp15@67996
   561
        let ?\<epsilon> = "min (e / ?\<mu> (ball z 1) / 2) (min (d / 2) k)"
lp15@67996
   562
        obtain r U where r: "r > 0" "r \<le> ?\<epsilon>" and U: "S \<inter> ball x r \<subseteq> U" "U \<in> lmeasurable"
lp15@67996
   563
          and mU: "?\<mu> U < ?\<epsilon> * ?\<mu> (ball x r)"
lp15@67996
   564
          using R [of x ?\<epsilon>] \<open>d > 0\<close> \<open>e > 0\<close> \<open>k > 0\<close> x by auto
lp15@67996
   565
        show "\<exists>i. i \<in> ?K \<and> x \<in> ball (fst i) (snd i) \<and> snd i < d"
lp15@67996
   566
        proof (rule exI [of _ "(x,r)"], simp, intro conjI exI)
lp15@67996
   567
          have "ball x r \<subseteq> ball x k"
lp15@67996
   568
            using r by (simp add: ball_subset_ball_iff)
lp15@67996
   569
          also have "\<dots> \<subseteq> ball z 1"
lp15@67996
   570
            using ball_subset_ball_iff k by auto
lp15@67996
   571
          finally show "ball x r \<subseteq> ball z 1" .
lp15@67996
   572
          have "?\<epsilon> * ?\<mu> (ball x r) \<le> e * content (ball x r) / content (ball z 1)"
lp15@67996
   573
            using r \<open>e > 0\<close> by (simp add: ord_class.min_def divide_simps)
lp15@67996
   574
          with mU show "?\<mu> U < e * content (ball x r) / content (ball z 1)"
lp15@67996
   575
            by auto
lp15@67996
   576
        qed (use r U x in auto)
lp15@67996
   577
      qed
lp15@67996
   578
      have "\<exists>U. case p of (x,d) \<Rightarrow> S \<inter> ball x d \<subseteq> U \<and>
lp15@67996
   579
                        U \<in> lmeasurable \<and> ?\<mu> U < e / ?\<mu> (ball z 1) * ?\<mu> (ball x d)"
lp15@67996
   580
        if "p \<in> C" for p
lp15@67996
   581
        using that Csub by auto
lp15@67996
   582
      then obtain U where U:
lp15@67996
   583
                "\<And>p. p \<in> C \<Longrightarrow>
lp15@67996
   584
                       case p of (x,d) \<Rightarrow> S \<inter> ball x d \<subseteq> U p \<and>
lp15@67996
   585
                        U p \<in> lmeasurable \<and> ?\<mu> (U p) < e / ?\<mu> (ball z 1) * ?\<mu> (ball x d)"
lp15@67996
   586
        by (rule that [OF someI_ex])
lp15@67996
   587
      let ?T = "((S \<inter> ball z 1) - (\<Union>(x,d)\<in>C. ball x d)) \<union> \<Union>(U ` C)"
lp15@67996
   588
      show "\<exists>T. S \<inter> ball z 1 \<subseteq> T \<and> T \<in> lmeasurable \<and> ?\<mu> T \<le> e"
lp15@67996
   589
      proof (intro exI conjI)
lp15@67996
   590
        show "S \<inter> ball z 1 \<subseteq> ?T"
lp15@67996
   591
          using U by fastforce
lp15@67996
   592
        { have Um: "U i \<in> lmeasurable" if "i \<in> C" for i
lp15@67996
   593
            using that U by blast
lp15@67996
   594
          have lee: "?\<mu> (\<Union>i\<in>I. U i) \<le> e" if "I \<subseteq> C" "finite I" for I
lp15@67996
   595
          proof -
lp15@67996
   596
            have "?\<mu> (\<Union>(x,d)\<in>I. ball x d) \<le> ?\<mu> (ball z 1)"
lp15@67996
   597
              apply (rule measure_mono_fmeasurable)
lp15@67996
   598
              using \<open>I \<subseteq> C\<close> \<open>finite I\<close> Csub by (force simp: prod.case_eq_if sets.finite_UN)+
lp15@67996
   599
            then have le1: "(?\<mu> (\<Union>(x,d)\<in>I. ball x d) / ?\<mu> (ball z 1)) \<le> 1"
lp15@67996
   600
              by simp
lp15@67996
   601
            have "?\<mu> (\<Union>i\<in>I. U i) \<le> (\<Sum>i\<in>I. ?\<mu> (U i))"
lp15@67996
   602
              using that U by (blast intro: measure_UNION_le)
lp15@67996
   603
            also have "\<dots> \<le> (\<Sum>(x,r)\<in>I. e / ?\<mu> (ball z 1) * ?\<mu> (ball x r))"
lp15@67996
   604
              by (rule sum_mono) (use \<open>I \<subseteq> C\<close> U in force)
lp15@67996
   605
            also have "\<dots> = (e / ?\<mu> (ball z 1)) * (\<Sum>(x,r)\<in>I. ?\<mu> (ball x r))"
lp15@67996
   606
              by (simp add: case_prod_app prod.case_distrib sum_distrib_left)
lp15@67996
   607
            also have "\<dots> = e * (?\<mu> (\<Union>(x,r)\<in>I. ball x r) / ?\<mu> (ball z 1))"
lp15@67996
   608
              apply (subst measure_UNION')
lp15@67996
   609
              using that pwC by (auto simp: case_prod_unfold elim: pairwise_mono)
lp15@67996
   610
            also have "\<dots> \<le> e"
lp15@67996
   611
              by (metis mult.commute mult.left_neutral real_mult_le_cancel_iff1 \<open>e > 0\<close> le1)
lp15@67996
   612
            finally show ?thesis .
lp15@67996
   613
          qed
lp15@67996
   614
          have "UNION C U \<in> lmeasurable" "?\<mu> (\<Union>(U ` C)) \<le> e"
lp15@67996
   615
            using \<open>e > 0\<close> Um lee
lp15@67996
   616
            by(auto intro!: fmeasurable_UN_bound [OF \<open>countable C\<close>] measure_UN_bound [OF \<open>countable C\<close>])
lp15@67996
   617
        }
lp15@67996
   618
        moreover have "?\<mu> ?T = ?\<mu> (UNION C U)"
lp15@67996
   619
        proof (rule measure_negligible_symdiff [OF \<open>UNION C U \<in> lmeasurable\<close>])
lp15@67996
   620
          show "negligible((UNION C U - ?T) \<union> (?T - UNION C U))"
lp15@67996
   621
            by (force intro!: negligible_subset [OF negC])
lp15@67996
   622
        qed
lp15@67996
   623
        ultimately show "?T \<in> lmeasurable"  "?\<mu> ?T \<le> e"
lp15@67996
   624
          by (simp_all add: fmeasurable.Un negC negligible_imp_measurable split_def)
lp15@67996
   625
      qed
lp15@67996
   626
    qed
lp15@67996
   627
  qed
lp15@67996
   628
  with locally_negligible_alt show "negligible S"
lp15@67996
   629
    by metis
lp15@67996
   630
qed
lp15@67996
   631
lp15@67996
   632
proposition negligible_eq_zero_density:
lp15@67996
   633
   "negligible S \<longleftrightarrow>
lp15@67996
   634
    (\<forall>x\<in>S. \<forall>r>0. \<forall>e>0. \<exists>d. 0 < d \<and> d \<le> r \<and>
lp15@67996
   635
                   (\<exists>U. S \<inter> ball x d \<subseteq> U \<and> U \<in> lmeasurable \<and> measure lebesgue U < e * measure lebesgue (ball x d)))"
lp15@67996
   636
proof -
lp15@67996
   637
  let ?Q = "\<lambda>x d e. \<exists>U. S \<inter> ball x d \<subseteq> U \<and> U \<in> lmeasurable \<and> measure lebesgue U < e * content (ball x d)"
lp15@67996
   638
  have "(\<forall>e>0. \<exists>d>0. d \<le> e \<and> ?Q x d e) = (\<forall>r>0. \<forall>e>0. \<exists>d>0. d \<le> r \<and> ?Q x d e)"
lp15@67996
   639
    if "x \<in> S" for x
lp15@67996
   640
  proof (intro iffI allI impI)
lp15@67996
   641
    fix r :: "real" and e :: "real"
lp15@67996
   642
    assume L [rule_format]: "\<forall>e>0. \<exists>d>0. d \<le> e \<and> ?Q x d e" and "r > 0" "e > 0"
lp15@67996
   643
    show "\<exists>d>0. d \<le> r \<and> ?Q x d e"
lp15@67996
   644
      using L [of "min r e"] apply (rule ex_forward)
lp15@67996
   645
      using \<open>r > 0\<close> \<open>e > 0\<close>  by (auto intro: less_le_trans elim!: ex_forward)
lp15@67996
   646
  qed auto
lp15@67996
   647
  then show ?thesis
lp15@67996
   648
    by (force simp: negligible_eq_zero_density_alt)
lp15@67996
   649
qed
lp15@67996
   650
lp15@67996
   651
end