src/HOL/Ring_and_Field.thy
author paulson
Fri Jan 09 10:46:18 2004 +0100 (2004-01-09)
changeset 14348 744c868ee0b7
parent 14341 a09441bd4f1e
child 14353 79f9fbef9106
permissions -rw-r--r--
Defining the type class "ringpower" and deleting superseded theorems for
types nat, int, real, hypreal
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(*  Title:   HOL/Ring_and_Field.thy
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    ID:      $Id$
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    Author:  Gertrud Bauer and Markus Wenzel, TU Muenchen
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             Lawrence C Paulson, University of Cambridge
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    License: GPL (GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE)
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*)
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header {*
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  \title{Ring and field structures}
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  \author{Gertrud Bauer and Markus Wenzel}
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*}
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theory Ring_and_Field = Inductive:
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text{*Lemmas and extension to semirings by L. C. Paulson*}
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subsection {* Abstract algebraic structures *}
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axclass semiring \<subseteq> zero, one, plus, times
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  add_assoc: "(a + b) + c = a + (b + c)"
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  add_commute: "a + b = b + a"
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  add_0 [simp]: "0 + a = a"
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  add_left_imp_eq: "a + b = a + c ==> b=c"
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    --{*This axiom is needed for semirings only: for rings, etc., it is
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        redundant. Including it allows many more of the following results
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        to be proved for semirings too. The drawback is that this redundant
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        axiom must be proved for instances of rings.*}
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  mult_assoc: "(a * b) * c = a * (b * c)"
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  mult_commute: "a * b = b * a"
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  mult_1 [simp]: "1 * a = a"
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  left_distrib: "(a + b) * c = a * c + b * c"
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  zero_neq_one [simp]: "0 \<noteq> 1"
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axclass ring \<subseteq> semiring, minus
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  left_minus [simp]: "- a + a = 0"
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  diff_minus: "a - b = a + (-b)"
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axclass ordered_semiring \<subseteq> semiring, linorder
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  zero_less_one: "0 < 1" --{*This axiom too is needed for semirings only.*}
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  add_left_mono: "a \<le> b ==> c + a \<le> c + b"
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  mult_strict_left_mono: "a < b ==> 0 < c ==> c * a < c * b"
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axclass ordered_ring \<subseteq> ordered_semiring, ring
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  abs_if: "\<bar>a\<bar> = (if a < 0 then -a else a)"
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axclass field \<subseteq> ring, inverse
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  left_inverse [simp]: "a \<noteq> 0 ==> inverse a * a = 1"
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  divide_inverse:      "b \<noteq> 0 ==> a / b = a * inverse b"
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axclass ordered_field \<subseteq> ordered_ring, field
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axclass division_by_zero \<subseteq> zero, inverse
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  inverse_zero [simp]: "inverse 0 = 0"
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  divide_zero [simp]: "a / 0 = 0"
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subsection {* Derived Rules for Addition *}
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lemma add_0_right [simp]: "a + 0 = (a::'a::semiring)"
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proof -
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  have "a + 0 = 0 + a" by (simp only: add_commute)
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  also have "... = a" by simp
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  finally show ?thesis .
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qed
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lemma add_left_commute: "a + (b + c) = b + (a + (c::'a::semiring))"
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  by (rule mk_left_commute [of "op +", OF add_assoc add_commute])
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theorems add_ac = add_assoc add_commute add_left_commute
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lemma right_minus [simp]: "a + -(a::'a::ring) = 0"
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proof -
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  have "a + -a = -a + a" by (simp add: add_ac)
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  also have "... = 0" by simp
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  finally show ?thesis .
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qed
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lemma right_minus_eq: "(a - b = 0) = (a = (b::'a::ring))"
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proof
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  have "a = a - b + b" by (simp add: diff_minus add_ac)
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  also assume "a - b = 0"
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  finally show "a = b" by simp
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next
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  assume "a = b"
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  thus "a - b = 0" by (simp add: diff_minus)
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qed
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lemma add_left_cancel [simp]:
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     "(a + b = a + c) = (b = (c::'a::semiring))"
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by (blast dest: add_left_imp_eq) 
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lemma add_right_cancel [simp]:
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     "(b + a = c + a) = (b = (c::'a::semiring))"
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  by (simp add: add_commute)
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lemma minus_minus [simp]: "- (- (a::'a::ring)) = a"
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  proof (rule add_left_cancel [of "-a", THEN iffD1])
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    show "(-a + -(-a) = -a + a)"
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    by simp
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  qed
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lemma equals_zero_I: "a+b = 0 ==> -a = (b::'a::ring)"
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apply (rule right_minus_eq [THEN iffD1, symmetric])
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apply (simp add: diff_minus add_commute) 
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done
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lemma minus_zero [simp]: "- 0 = (0::'a::ring)"
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by (simp add: equals_zero_I)
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lemma diff_self [simp]: "a - (a::'a::ring) = 0"
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  by (simp add: diff_minus)
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lemma diff_0 [simp]: "(0::'a::ring) - a = -a"
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by (simp add: diff_minus)
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lemma diff_0_right [simp]: "a - (0::'a::ring) = a" 
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by (simp add: diff_minus)
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lemma diff_minus_eq_add [simp]: "a - - b = a + (b::'a::ring)"
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by (simp add: diff_minus)
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lemma neg_equal_iff_equal [simp]: "(-a = -b) = (a = (b::'a::ring))" 
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  proof 
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    assume "- a = - b"
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    hence "- (- a) = - (- b)"
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      by simp
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    thus "a=b" by simp
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  next
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    assume "a=b"
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    thus "-a = -b" by simp
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  qed
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lemma neg_equal_0_iff_equal [simp]: "(-a = 0) = (a = (0::'a::ring))"
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by (subst neg_equal_iff_equal [symmetric], simp)
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lemma neg_0_equal_iff_equal [simp]: "(0 = -a) = (0 = (a::'a::ring))"
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by (subst neg_equal_iff_equal [symmetric], simp)
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text{*The next two equations can make the simplifier loop!*}
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lemma equation_minus_iff: "(a = - b) = (b = - (a::'a::ring))"
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  proof -
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  have "(- (-a) = - b) = (- a = b)" by (rule neg_equal_iff_equal)
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  thus ?thesis by (simp add: eq_commute)
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  qed
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lemma minus_equation_iff: "(- a = b) = (- (b::'a::ring) = a)"
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  proof -
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  have "(- a = - (-b)) = (a = -b)" by (rule neg_equal_iff_equal)
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  thus ?thesis by (simp add: eq_commute)
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  qed
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subsection {* Derived rules for multiplication *}
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lemma mult_1_right [simp]: "a * (1::'a::semiring) = a"
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proof -
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  have "a * 1 = 1 * a" by (simp add: mult_commute)
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  also have "... = a" by simp
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  finally show ?thesis .
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qed
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lemma mult_left_commute: "a * (b * c) = b * (a * (c::'a::semiring))"
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  by (rule mk_left_commute [of "op *", OF mult_assoc mult_commute])
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theorems mult_ac = mult_assoc mult_commute mult_left_commute
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lemma mult_left_zero [simp]: "0 * a = (0::'a::semiring)"
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proof -
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  have "0*a + 0*a = 0*a + 0"
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    by (simp add: left_distrib [symmetric])
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  thus ?thesis by (simp only: add_left_cancel)
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qed
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lemma mult_right_zero [simp]: "a * 0 = (0::'a::semiring)"
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  by (simp add: mult_commute)
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subsection {* Distribution rules *}
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lemma right_distrib: "a * (b + c) = a * b + a * (c::'a::semiring)"
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proof -
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  have "a * (b + c) = (b + c) * a" by (simp add: mult_ac)
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  also have "... = b * a + c * a" by (simp only: left_distrib)
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  also have "... = a * b + a * c" by (simp add: mult_ac)
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  finally show ?thesis .
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qed
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theorems ring_distrib = right_distrib left_distrib
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text{*For the @{text combine_numerals} simproc*}
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lemma combine_common_factor: "a*e + (b*e + c) = (a+b)*e + (c::'a::semiring)"
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by (simp add: left_distrib add_ac)
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lemma minus_add_distrib [simp]: "- (a + b) = -a + -(b::'a::ring)"
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apply (rule equals_zero_I)
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apply (simp add: add_ac) 
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done
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lemma minus_mult_left: "- (a * b) = (-a) * (b::'a::ring)"
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apply (rule equals_zero_I)
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apply (simp add: left_distrib [symmetric]) 
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done
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lemma minus_mult_right: "- (a * b) = a * -(b::'a::ring)"
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apply (rule equals_zero_I)
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apply (simp add: right_distrib [symmetric]) 
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done
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lemma minus_mult_minus [simp]: "(- a) * (- b) = a * (b::'a::ring)"
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  by (simp add: minus_mult_left [symmetric] minus_mult_right [symmetric])
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lemma right_diff_distrib: "a * (b - c) = a * b - a * (c::'a::ring)"
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by (simp add: right_distrib diff_minus 
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              minus_mult_left [symmetric] minus_mult_right [symmetric]) 
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lemma left_diff_distrib: "(a - b) * c = a * c - b * (c::'a::ring)"
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by (simp add: mult_commute [of _ c] right_diff_distrib) 
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lemma minus_diff_eq [simp]: "- (a - b) = b - (a::'a::ring)"
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by (simp add: diff_minus add_commute) 
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subsection {* Ordering Rules for Addition *}
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lemma add_right_mono: "a \<le> (b::'a::ordered_semiring) ==> a + c \<le> b + c"
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by (simp add: add_commute [of _ c] add_left_mono)
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text {* non-strict, in both arguments *}
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lemma add_mono: "[|a \<le> b;  c \<le> d|] ==> a + c \<le> b + (d::'a::ordered_semiring)"
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  apply (erule add_right_mono [THEN order_trans])
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  apply (simp add: add_commute add_left_mono)
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  done
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lemma add_strict_left_mono:
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     "a < b ==> c + a < c + (b::'a::ordered_semiring)"
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 by (simp add: order_less_le add_left_mono) 
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lemma add_strict_right_mono:
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     "a < b ==> a + c < b + (c::'a::ordered_semiring)"
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 by (simp add: add_commute [of _ c] add_strict_left_mono)
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text{*Strict monotonicity in both arguments*}
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lemma add_strict_mono: "[|a<b; c<d|] ==> a + c < b + (d::'a::ordered_semiring)"
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apply (erule add_strict_right_mono [THEN order_less_trans])
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apply (erule add_strict_left_mono)
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done
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lemma add_less_le_mono: "[| a<b; c\<le>d |] ==> a + c < b + (d::'a::ordered_semiring)"
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apply (erule add_strict_right_mono [THEN order_less_le_trans])
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apply (erule add_left_mono) 
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done
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lemma add_le_less_mono:
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     "[| a\<le>b; c<d |] ==> a + c < b + (d::'a::ordered_semiring)"
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apply (erule add_right_mono [THEN order_le_less_trans])
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apply (erule add_strict_left_mono) 
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done
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lemma add_less_imp_less_left:
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      assumes less: "c + a < c + b"  shows "a < (b::'a::ordered_semiring)"
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  proof (rule ccontr)
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    assume "~ a < b"
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    hence "b \<le> a" by (simp add: linorder_not_less)
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    hence "c+b \<le> c+a" by (rule add_left_mono)
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    with this and less show False 
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      by (simp add: linorder_not_less [symmetric])
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  qed
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lemma add_less_imp_less_right:
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      "a + c < b + c ==> a < (b::'a::ordered_semiring)"
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apply (rule add_less_imp_less_left [of c])
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apply (simp add: add_commute)  
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done
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lemma add_less_cancel_left [simp]:
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    "(c+a < c+b) = (a < (b::'a::ordered_semiring))"
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by (blast intro: add_less_imp_less_left add_strict_left_mono) 
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lemma add_less_cancel_right [simp]:
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    "(a+c < b+c) = (a < (b::'a::ordered_semiring))"
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by (blast intro: add_less_imp_less_right add_strict_right_mono)
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lemma add_le_cancel_left [simp]:
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    "(c+a \<le> c+b) = (a \<le> (b::'a::ordered_semiring))"
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by (simp add: linorder_not_less [symmetric]) 
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lemma add_le_cancel_right [simp]:
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    "(a+c \<le> b+c) = (a \<le> (b::'a::ordered_semiring))"
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by (simp add: linorder_not_less [symmetric]) 
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lemma add_le_imp_le_left:
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      "c + a \<le> c + b ==> a \<le> (b::'a::ordered_semiring)"
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by simp
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lemma add_le_imp_le_right:
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      "a + c \<le> b + c ==> a \<le> (b::'a::ordered_semiring)"
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by simp
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subsection {* Ordering Rules for Unary Minus *}
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lemma le_imp_neg_le:
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      assumes "a \<le> (b::'a::ordered_ring)" shows "-b \<le> -a"
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  proof -
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  have "-a+a \<le> -a+b"
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    by (rule add_left_mono) 
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  hence "0 \<le> -a+b"
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    by simp
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  hence "0 + (-b) \<le> (-a + b) + (-b)"
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    by (rule add_right_mono) 
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  thus ?thesis
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    by (simp add: add_assoc)
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  qed
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paulson@14265
   318
lemma neg_le_iff_le [simp]: "(-b \<le> -a) = (a \<le> (b::'a::ordered_ring))"
paulson@14265
   319
  proof 
paulson@14265
   320
    assume "- b \<le> - a"
paulson@14268
   321
    hence "- (- a) \<le> - (- b)"
paulson@14265
   322
      by (rule le_imp_neg_le)
paulson@14266
   323
    thus "a\<le>b" by simp
paulson@14265
   324
  next
paulson@14265
   325
    assume "a\<le>b"
paulson@14266
   326
    thus "-b \<le> -a" by (rule le_imp_neg_le)
paulson@14265
   327
  qed
paulson@14265
   328
paulson@14265
   329
lemma neg_le_0_iff_le [simp]: "(-a \<le> 0) = (0 \<le> (a::'a::ordered_ring))"
paulson@14265
   330
by (subst neg_le_iff_le [symmetric], simp)
paulson@14265
   331
paulson@14265
   332
lemma neg_0_le_iff_le [simp]: "(0 \<le> -a) = (a \<le> (0::'a::ordered_ring))"
paulson@14265
   333
by (subst neg_le_iff_le [symmetric], simp)
paulson@14265
   334
paulson@14265
   335
lemma neg_less_iff_less [simp]: "(-b < -a) = (a < (b::'a::ordered_ring))"
paulson@14265
   336
by (force simp add: order_less_le) 
paulson@14265
   337
paulson@14265
   338
lemma neg_less_0_iff_less [simp]: "(-a < 0) = (0 < (a::'a::ordered_ring))"
paulson@14265
   339
by (subst neg_less_iff_less [symmetric], simp)
paulson@14265
   340
paulson@14265
   341
lemma neg_0_less_iff_less [simp]: "(0 < -a) = (a < (0::'a::ordered_ring))"
paulson@14265
   342
by (subst neg_less_iff_less [symmetric], simp)
paulson@14265
   343
paulson@14272
   344
text{*The next several equations can make the simplifier loop!*}
paulson@14272
   345
paulson@14272
   346
lemma less_minus_iff: "(a < - b) = (b < - (a::'a::ordered_ring))"
paulson@14272
   347
  proof -
paulson@14272
   348
  have "(- (-a) < - b) = (b < - a)" by (rule neg_less_iff_less)
paulson@14272
   349
  thus ?thesis by simp
paulson@14272
   350
  qed
paulson@14272
   351
paulson@14272
   352
lemma minus_less_iff: "(- a < b) = (- b < (a::'a::ordered_ring))"
paulson@14272
   353
  proof -
paulson@14272
   354
  have "(- a < - (-b)) = (- b < a)" by (rule neg_less_iff_less)
paulson@14272
   355
  thus ?thesis by simp
paulson@14272
   356
  qed
paulson@14272
   357
paulson@14272
   358
lemma le_minus_iff: "(a \<le> - b) = (b \<le> - (a::'a::ordered_ring))"
paulson@14272
   359
apply (simp add: linorder_not_less [symmetric])
paulson@14272
   360
apply (rule minus_less_iff) 
paulson@14272
   361
done
paulson@14272
   362
paulson@14272
   363
lemma minus_le_iff: "(- a \<le> b) = (- b \<le> (a::'a::ordered_ring))"
paulson@14272
   364
apply (simp add: linorder_not_less [symmetric])
paulson@14272
   365
apply (rule less_minus_iff) 
paulson@14272
   366
done
paulson@14272
   367
paulson@14270
   368
paulson@14270
   369
subsection{*Subtraction Laws*}
paulson@14270
   370
paulson@14270
   371
lemma add_diff_eq: "a + (b - c) = (a + b) - (c::'a::ring)"
paulson@14270
   372
by (simp add: diff_minus add_ac)
paulson@14270
   373
paulson@14270
   374
lemma diff_add_eq: "(a - b) + c = (a + c) - (b::'a::ring)"
paulson@14270
   375
by (simp add: diff_minus add_ac)
paulson@14270
   376
paulson@14270
   377
lemma diff_eq_eq: "(a-b = c) = (a = c + (b::'a::ring))"
paulson@14270
   378
by (auto simp add: diff_minus add_assoc)
paulson@14270
   379
paulson@14270
   380
lemma eq_diff_eq: "(a = c-b) = (a + (b::'a::ring) = c)"
paulson@14270
   381
by (auto simp add: diff_minus add_assoc)
paulson@14270
   382
paulson@14270
   383
lemma diff_diff_eq: "(a - b) - c = a - (b + (c::'a::ring))"
paulson@14270
   384
by (simp add: diff_minus add_ac)
paulson@14270
   385
paulson@14270
   386
lemma diff_diff_eq2: "a - (b - c) = (a + c) - (b::'a::ring)"
paulson@14270
   387
by (simp add: diff_minus add_ac)
paulson@14270
   388
paulson@14270
   389
text{*Further subtraction laws for ordered rings*}
paulson@14270
   390
paulson@14272
   391
lemma less_iff_diff_less_0: "(a < b) = (a - b < (0::'a::ordered_ring))"
paulson@14270
   392
proof -
paulson@14270
   393
  have  "(a < b) = (a + (- b) < b + (-b))"  
paulson@14270
   394
    by (simp only: add_less_cancel_right)
paulson@14270
   395
  also have "... =  (a - b < 0)" by (simp add: diff_minus)
paulson@14270
   396
  finally show ?thesis .
paulson@14270
   397
qed
paulson@14270
   398
paulson@14270
   399
lemma diff_less_eq: "(a-b < c) = (a < c + (b::'a::ordered_ring))"
paulson@14272
   400
apply (subst less_iff_diff_less_0)
paulson@14272
   401
apply (rule less_iff_diff_less_0 [of _ c, THEN ssubst])
paulson@14270
   402
apply (simp add: diff_minus add_ac)
paulson@14270
   403
done
paulson@14270
   404
paulson@14270
   405
lemma less_diff_eq: "(a < c-b) = (a + (b::'a::ordered_ring) < c)"
paulson@14272
   406
apply (subst less_iff_diff_less_0)
paulson@14272
   407
apply (rule less_iff_diff_less_0 [of _ "c-b", THEN ssubst])
paulson@14270
   408
apply (simp add: diff_minus add_ac)
paulson@14270
   409
done
paulson@14270
   410
paulson@14270
   411
lemma diff_le_eq: "(a-b \<le> c) = (a \<le> c + (b::'a::ordered_ring))"
paulson@14270
   412
by (simp add: linorder_not_less [symmetric] less_diff_eq)
paulson@14270
   413
paulson@14270
   414
lemma le_diff_eq: "(a \<le> c-b) = (a + (b::'a::ordered_ring) \<le> c)"
paulson@14270
   415
by (simp add: linorder_not_less [symmetric] diff_less_eq)
paulson@14270
   416
paulson@14270
   417
text{*This list of rewrites simplifies (in)equalities by bringing subtractions
paulson@14270
   418
  to the top and then moving negative terms to the other side.
paulson@14270
   419
  Use with @{text add_ac}*}
paulson@14270
   420
lemmas compare_rls =
paulson@14270
   421
       diff_minus [symmetric]
paulson@14270
   422
       add_diff_eq diff_add_eq diff_diff_eq diff_diff_eq2
paulson@14270
   423
       diff_less_eq less_diff_eq diff_le_eq le_diff_eq
paulson@14270
   424
       diff_eq_eq eq_diff_eq
paulson@14270
   425
paulson@14270
   426
paulson@14272
   427
subsection{*Lemmas for the @{text cancel_numerals} simproc*}
paulson@14272
   428
paulson@14272
   429
lemma eq_iff_diff_eq_0: "(a = b) = (a-b = (0::'a::ring))"
paulson@14272
   430
by (simp add: compare_rls)
paulson@14272
   431
paulson@14272
   432
lemma le_iff_diff_le_0: "(a \<le> b) = (a-b \<le> (0::'a::ordered_ring))"
paulson@14272
   433
by (simp add: compare_rls)
paulson@14272
   434
paulson@14272
   435
lemma eq_add_iff1:
paulson@14272
   436
     "(a*e + c = b*e + d) = ((a-b)*e + c = (d::'a::ring))"
paulson@14272
   437
apply (simp add: diff_minus left_distrib add_ac)
paulson@14272
   438
apply (simp add: compare_rls minus_mult_left [symmetric]) 
paulson@14272
   439
done
paulson@14272
   440
paulson@14272
   441
lemma eq_add_iff2:
paulson@14272
   442
     "(a*e + c = b*e + d) = (c = (b-a)*e + (d::'a::ring))"
paulson@14272
   443
apply (simp add: diff_minus left_distrib add_ac)
paulson@14272
   444
apply (simp add: compare_rls minus_mult_left [symmetric]) 
paulson@14272
   445
done
paulson@14272
   446
paulson@14272
   447
lemma less_add_iff1:
paulson@14272
   448
     "(a*e + c < b*e + d) = ((a-b)*e + c < (d::'a::ordered_ring))"
paulson@14272
   449
apply (simp add: diff_minus left_distrib add_ac)
paulson@14272
   450
apply (simp add: compare_rls minus_mult_left [symmetric]) 
paulson@14272
   451
done
paulson@14272
   452
paulson@14272
   453
lemma less_add_iff2:
paulson@14272
   454
     "(a*e + c < b*e + d) = (c < (b-a)*e + (d::'a::ordered_ring))"
paulson@14272
   455
apply (simp add: diff_minus left_distrib add_ac)
paulson@14272
   456
apply (simp add: compare_rls minus_mult_left [symmetric]) 
paulson@14272
   457
done
paulson@14272
   458
paulson@14272
   459
lemma le_add_iff1:
paulson@14272
   460
     "(a*e + c \<le> b*e + d) = ((a-b)*e + c \<le> (d::'a::ordered_ring))"
paulson@14272
   461
apply (simp add: diff_minus left_distrib add_ac)
paulson@14272
   462
apply (simp add: compare_rls minus_mult_left [symmetric]) 
paulson@14272
   463
done
paulson@14272
   464
paulson@14272
   465
lemma le_add_iff2:
paulson@14272
   466
     "(a*e + c \<le> b*e + d) = (c \<le> (b-a)*e + (d::'a::ordered_ring))"
paulson@14272
   467
apply (simp add: diff_minus left_distrib add_ac)
paulson@14272
   468
apply (simp add: compare_rls minus_mult_left [symmetric]) 
paulson@14272
   469
done
paulson@14272
   470
paulson@14272
   471
paulson@14270
   472
subsection {* Ordering Rules for Multiplication *}
paulson@14270
   473
paulson@14265
   474
lemma mult_strict_right_mono:
paulson@14265
   475
     "[|a < b; 0 < c|] ==> a * c < b * (c::'a::ordered_semiring)"
paulson@14265
   476
by (simp add: mult_commute [of _ c] mult_strict_left_mono)
paulson@14265
   477
paulson@14265
   478
lemma mult_left_mono:
paulson@14341
   479
     "[|a \<le> b; 0 \<le> c|] ==> c * a \<le> c * (b::'a::ordered_semiring)"
paulson@14267
   480
  apply (case_tac "c=0", simp)
paulson@14267
   481
  apply (force simp add: mult_strict_left_mono order_le_less) 
paulson@14267
   482
  done
paulson@14265
   483
paulson@14265
   484
lemma mult_right_mono:
paulson@14341
   485
     "[|a \<le> b; 0 \<le> c|] ==> a*c \<le> b * (c::'a::ordered_semiring)"
paulson@14267
   486
  by (simp add: mult_left_mono mult_commute [of _ c]) 
paulson@14265
   487
paulson@14348
   488
lemma mult_left_le_imp_le:
paulson@14348
   489
     "[|c*a \<le> c*b; 0 < c|] ==> a \<le> (b::'a::ordered_semiring)"
paulson@14348
   490
  by (force simp add: mult_strict_left_mono linorder_not_less [symmetric])
paulson@14348
   491
 
paulson@14348
   492
lemma mult_right_le_imp_le:
paulson@14348
   493
     "[|a*c \<le> b*c; 0 < c|] ==> a \<le> (b::'a::ordered_semiring)"
paulson@14348
   494
  by (force simp add: mult_strict_right_mono linorder_not_less [symmetric])
paulson@14348
   495
paulson@14348
   496
lemma mult_left_less_imp_less:
paulson@14348
   497
     "[|c*a < c*b; 0 \<le> c|] ==> a < (b::'a::ordered_semiring)"
paulson@14348
   498
  by (force simp add: mult_left_mono linorder_not_le [symmetric])
paulson@14348
   499
 
paulson@14348
   500
lemma mult_right_less_imp_less:
paulson@14348
   501
     "[|a*c < b*c; 0 \<le> c|] ==> a < (b::'a::ordered_semiring)"
paulson@14348
   502
  by (force simp add: mult_right_mono linorder_not_le [symmetric])
paulson@14348
   503
paulson@14265
   504
lemma mult_strict_left_mono_neg:
paulson@14265
   505
     "[|b < a; c < 0|] ==> c * a < c * (b::'a::ordered_ring)"
paulson@14265
   506
apply (drule mult_strict_left_mono [of _ _ "-c"])
paulson@14265
   507
apply (simp_all add: minus_mult_left [symmetric]) 
paulson@14265
   508
done
paulson@14265
   509
paulson@14265
   510
lemma mult_strict_right_mono_neg:
paulson@14265
   511
     "[|b < a; c < 0|] ==> a * c < b * (c::'a::ordered_ring)"
paulson@14265
   512
apply (drule mult_strict_right_mono [of _ _ "-c"])
paulson@14265
   513
apply (simp_all add: minus_mult_right [symmetric]) 
paulson@14265
   514
done
paulson@14265
   515
paulson@14265
   516
paulson@14265
   517
subsection{* Products of Signs *}
paulson@14265
   518
paulson@14341
   519
lemma mult_pos: "[| (0::'a::ordered_semiring) < a; 0 < b |] ==> 0 < a*b"
paulson@14265
   520
by (drule mult_strict_left_mono [of 0 b], auto)
paulson@14265
   521
paulson@14341
   522
lemma mult_pos_neg: "[| (0::'a::ordered_semiring) < a; b < 0 |] ==> a*b < 0"
paulson@14265
   523
by (drule mult_strict_left_mono [of b 0], auto)
paulson@14265
   524
paulson@14265
   525
lemma mult_neg: "[| a < (0::'a::ordered_ring); b < 0 |] ==> 0 < a*b"
paulson@14265
   526
by (drule mult_strict_right_mono_neg, auto)
paulson@14265
   527
paulson@14341
   528
lemma zero_less_mult_pos:
paulson@14341
   529
     "[| 0 < a*b; 0 < a|] ==> 0 < (b::'a::ordered_semiring)"
paulson@14265
   530
apply (case_tac "b\<le>0") 
paulson@14265
   531
 apply (auto simp add: order_le_less linorder_not_less)
paulson@14265
   532
apply (drule_tac mult_pos_neg [of a b]) 
paulson@14265
   533
 apply (auto dest: order_less_not_sym)
paulson@14265
   534
done
paulson@14265
   535
paulson@14265
   536
lemma zero_less_mult_iff:
paulson@14265
   537
     "((0::'a::ordered_ring) < a*b) = (0 < a & 0 < b | a < 0 & b < 0)"
paulson@14265
   538
apply (auto simp add: order_le_less linorder_not_less mult_pos mult_neg)
paulson@14265
   539
apply (blast dest: zero_less_mult_pos) 
paulson@14265
   540
apply (simp add: mult_commute [of a b]) 
paulson@14265
   541
apply (blast dest: zero_less_mult_pos) 
paulson@14265
   542
done
paulson@14265
   543
paulson@14341
   544
text{*A field has no "zero divisors", and this theorem holds without the
paulson@14277
   545
      assumption of an ordering.  See @{text field_mult_eq_0_iff} below.*}
paulson@14266
   546
lemma mult_eq_0_iff [simp]: "(a*b = (0::'a::ordered_ring)) = (a = 0 | b = 0)"
paulson@14265
   547
apply (case_tac "a < 0")
paulson@14265
   548
apply (auto simp add: linorder_not_less order_le_less linorder_neq_iff)
paulson@14265
   549
apply (force dest: mult_strict_right_mono_neg mult_strict_right_mono)+
paulson@14265
   550
done
paulson@14265
   551
paulson@14265
   552
lemma zero_le_mult_iff:
paulson@14265
   553
     "((0::'a::ordered_ring) \<le> a*b) = (0 \<le> a & 0 \<le> b | a \<le> 0 & b \<le> 0)"
paulson@14265
   554
by (auto simp add: eq_commute [of 0] order_le_less linorder_not_less
paulson@14265
   555
                   zero_less_mult_iff)
paulson@14265
   556
paulson@14265
   557
lemma mult_less_0_iff:
paulson@14265
   558
     "(a*b < (0::'a::ordered_ring)) = (0 < a & b < 0 | a < 0 & 0 < b)"
paulson@14265
   559
apply (insert zero_less_mult_iff [of "-a" b]) 
paulson@14265
   560
apply (force simp add: minus_mult_left[symmetric]) 
paulson@14265
   561
done
paulson@14265
   562
paulson@14265
   563
lemma mult_le_0_iff:
paulson@14265
   564
     "(a*b \<le> (0::'a::ordered_ring)) = (0 \<le> a & b \<le> 0 | a \<le> 0 & 0 \<le> b)"
paulson@14265
   565
apply (insert zero_le_mult_iff [of "-a" b]) 
paulson@14265
   566
apply (force simp add: minus_mult_left[symmetric]) 
paulson@14265
   567
done
paulson@14265
   568
paulson@14265
   569
lemma zero_le_square: "(0::'a::ordered_ring) \<le> a*a"
paulson@14265
   570
by (simp add: zero_le_mult_iff linorder_linear) 
paulson@14265
   571
paulson@14348
   572
lemma zero_le_one: "(0::'a::ordered_semiring) \<le> 1"
paulson@14268
   573
  by (rule zero_less_one [THEN order_less_imp_le]) 
paulson@14268
   574
paulson@14268
   575
paulson@14268
   576
subsection{*More Monotonicity*}
paulson@14268
   577
paulson@14268
   578
lemma mult_left_mono_neg:
paulson@14268
   579
     "[|b \<le> a; c \<le> 0|] ==> c * a \<le> c * (b::'a::ordered_ring)"
paulson@14268
   580
apply (drule mult_left_mono [of _ _ "-c"]) 
paulson@14268
   581
apply (simp_all add: minus_mult_left [symmetric]) 
paulson@14268
   582
done
paulson@14268
   583
paulson@14268
   584
lemma mult_right_mono_neg:
paulson@14268
   585
     "[|b \<le> a; c \<le> 0|] ==> a * c \<le> b * (c::'a::ordered_ring)"
paulson@14268
   586
  by (simp add: mult_left_mono_neg mult_commute [of _ c]) 
paulson@14268
   587
paulson@14268
   588
text{*Strict monotonicity in both arguments*}
paulson@14268
   589
lemma mult_strict_mono:
paulson@14341
   590
     "[|a<b; c<d; 0<b; 0\<le>c|] ==> a * c < b * (d::'a::ordered_semiring)"
paulson@14268
   591
apply (case_tac "c=0")
paulson@14268
   592
 apply (simp add: mult_pos) 
paulson@14268
   593
apply (erule mult_strict_right_mono [THEN order_less_trans])
paulson@14268
   594
 apply (force simp add: order_le_less) 
paulson@14268
   595
apply (erule mult_strict_left_mono, assumption)
paulson@14268
   596
done
paulson@14268
   597
paulson@14268
   598
text{*This weaker variant has more natural premises*}
paulson@14268
   599
lemma mult_strict_mono':
paulson@14341
   600
     "[| a<b; c<d; 0 \<le> a; 0 \<le> c|] ==> a * c < b * (d::'a::ordered_semiring)"
paulson@14268
   601
apply (rule mult_strict_mono)
paulson@14268
   602
apply (blast intro: order_le_less_trans)+
paulson@14268
   603
done
paulson@14268
   604
paulson@14268
   605
lemma mult_mono:
paulson@14268
   606
     "[|a \<le> b; c \<le> d; 0 \<le> b; 0 \<le> c|] 
paulson@14341
   607
      ==> a * c  \<le>  b * (d::'a::ordered_semiring)"
paulson@14268
   608
apply (erule mult_right_mono [THEN order_trans], assumption)
paulson@14268
   609
apply (erule mult_left_mono, assumption)
paulson@14268
   610
done
paulson@14268
   611
paulson@14268
   612
paulson@14268
   613
subsection{*Cancellation Laws for Relationships With a Common Factor*}
paulson@14268
   614
paulson@14268
   615
text{*Cancellation laws for @{term "c*a < c*b"} and @{term "a*c < b*c"},
paulson@14268
   616
   also with the relations @{text "\<le>"} and equality.*}
paulson@14268
   617
paulson@14268
   618
lemma mult_less_cancel_right:
paulson@14268
   619
    "(a*c < b*c) = ((0 < c & a < b) | (c < 0 & b < (a::'a::ordered_ring)))"
paulson@14268
   620
apply (case_tac "c = 0")
paulson@14268
   621
apply (auto simp add: linorder_neq_iff mult_strict_right_mono 
paulson@14268
   622
                      mult_strict_right_mono_neg)
paulson@14268
   623
apply (auto simp add: linorder_not_less 
paulson@14268
   624
                      linorder_not_le [symmetric, of "a*c"]
paulson@14268
   625
                      linorder_not_le [symmetric, of a])
paulson@14268
   626
apply (erule_tac [!] notE)
paulson@14268
   627
apply (auto simp add: order_less_imp_le mult_right_mono 
paulson@14268
   628
                      mult_right_mono_neg)
paulson@14268
   629
done
paulson@14268
   630
paulson@14268
   631
lemma mult_less_cancel_left:
paulson@14268
   632
    "(c*a < c*b) = ((0 < c & a < b) | (c < 0 & b < (a::'a::ordered_ring)))"
paulson@14268
   633
by (simp add: mult_commute [of c] mult_less_cancel_right)
paulson@14268
   634
paulson@14268
   635
lemma mult_le_cancel_right:
paulson@14268
   636
     "(a*c \<le> b*c) = ((0<c --> a\<le>b) & (c<0 --> b \<le> (a::'a::ordered_ring)))"
paulson@14268
   637
by (simp add: linorder_not_less [symmetric] mult_less_cancel_right)
paulson@14268
   638
paulson@14268
   639
lemma mult_le_cancel_left:
paulson@14268
   640
     "(c*a \<le> c*b) = ((0<c --> a\<le>b) & (c<0 --> b \<le> (a::'a::ordered_ring)))"
paulson@14268
   641
by (simp add: mult_commute [of c] mult_le_cancel_right)
paulson@14268
   642
paulson@14268
   643
lemma mult_less_imp_less_left:
paulson@14341
   644
      assumes less: "c*a < c*b" and nonneg: "0 \<le> c"
paulson@14341
   645
      shows "a < (b::'a::ordered_semiring)"
paulson@14341
   646
  proof (rule ccontr)
paulson@14341
   647
    assume "~ a < b"
paulson@14341
   648
    hence "b \<le> a" by (simp add: linorder_not_less)
paulson@14341
   649
    hence "c*b \<le> c*a" by (rule mult_left_mono)
paulson@14341
   650
    with this and less show False 
paulson@14341
   651
      by (simp add: linorder_not_less [symmetric])
paulson@14341
   652
  qed
paulson@14268
   653
paulson@14268
   654
lemma mult_less_imp_less_right:
paulson@14341
   655
    "[|a*c < b*c; 0 \<le> c|] ==> a < (b::'a::ordered_semiring)"
paulson@14341
   656
  by (rule mult_less_imp_less_left, simp add: mult_commute)
paulson@14268
   657
paulson@14268
   658
text{*Cancellation of equalities with a common factor*}
paulson@14268
   659
lemma mult_cancel_right [simp]:
paulson@14268
   660
     "(a*c = b*c) = (c = (0::'a::ordered_ring) | a=b)"
paulson@14268
   661
apply (cut_tac linorder_less_linear [of 0 c])
paulson@14268
   662
apply (force dest: mult_strict_right_mono_neg mult_strict_right_mono
paulson@14268
   663
             simp add: linorder_neq_iff)
paulson@14268
   664
done
paulson@14268
   665
paulson@14268
   666
text{*These cancellation theorems require an ordering. Versions are proved
paulson@14268
   667
      below that work for fields without an ordering.*}
paulson@14268
   668
lemma mult_cancel_left [simp]:
paulson@14268
   669
     "(c*a = c*b) = (c = (0::'a::ordered_ring) | a=b)"
paulson@14268
   670
by (simp add: mult_commute [of c] mult_cancel_right)
paulson@14268
   671
paulson@14265
   672
paulson@14265
   673
subsection {* Fields *}
paulson@14265
   674
paulson@14288
   675
lemma right_inverse [simp]:
paulson@14288
   676
      assumes not0: "a \<noteq> 0" shows "a * inverse (a::'a::field) = 1"
paulson@14288
   677
proof -
paulson@14288
   678
  have "a * inverse a = inverse a * a" by (simp add: mult_ac)
paulson@14288
   679
  also have "... = 1" using not0 by simp
paulson@14288
   680
  finally show ?thesis .
paulson@14288
   681
qed
paulson@14288
   682
paulson@14288
   683
lemma right_inverse_eq: "b \<noteq> 0 ==> (a / b = 1) = (a = (b::'a::field))"
paulson@14288
   684
proof
paulson@14288
   685
  assume neq: "b \<noteq> 0"
paulson@14288
   686
  {
paulson@14288
   687
    hence "a = (a / b) * b" by (simp add: divide_inverse mult_ac)
paulson@14288
   688
    also assume "a / b = 1"
paulson@14288
   689
    finally show "a = b" by simp
paulson@14288
   690
  next
paulson@14288
   691
    assume "a = b"
paulson@14288
   692
    with neq show "a / b = 1" by (simp add: divide_inverse)
paulson@14288
   693
  }
paulson@14288
   694
qed
paulson@14288
   695
paulson@14288
   696
lemma nonzero_inverse_eq_divide: "a \<noteq> 0 ==> inverse (a::'a::field) = 1/a"
paulson@14288
   697
by (simp add: divide_inverse)
paulson@14288
   698
paulson@14288
   699
lemma divide_self [simp]: "a \<noteq> 0 ==> a / (a::'a::field) = 1"
paulson@14288
   700
  by (simp add: divide_inverse)
paulson@14288
   701
paulson@14277
   702
lemma divide_inverse_zero: "a/b = a * inverse(b::'a::{field,division_by_zero})"
paulson@14277
   703
apply (case_tac "b = 0")
paulson@14277
   704
apply (simp_all add: divide_inverse)
paulson@14277
   705
done
paulson@14277
   706
paulson@14277
   707
lemma divide_zero_left [simp]: "0/a = (0::'a::{field,division_by_zero})"
paulson@14277
   708
by (simp add: divide_inverse_zero)
paulson@14277
   709
paulson@14277
   710
lemma inverse_eq_divide: "inverse (a::'a::{field,division_by_zero}) = 1/a"
paulson@14277
   711
by (simp add: divide_inverse_zero)
paulson@14277
   712
paulson@14293
   713
lemma nonzero_add_divide_distrib: "c \<noteq> 0 ==> (a+b)/(c::'a::field) = a/c + b/c"
paulson@14293
   714
by (simp add: divide_inverse left_distrib) 
paulson@14293
   715
paulson@14293
   716
lemma add_divide_distrib: "(a+b)/(c::'a::{field,division_by_zero}) = a/c + b/c"
paulson@14293
   717
apply (case_tac "c=0", simp) 
paulson@14293
   718
apply (simp add: nonzero_add_divide_distrib) 
paulson@14293
   719
done
paulson@14293
   720
paulson@14270
   721
text{*Compared with @{text mult_eq_0_iff}, this version removes the requirement
paulson@14270
   722
      of an ordering.*}
paulson@14348
   723
lemma field_mult_eq_0_iff [simp]: "(a*b = (0::'a::field)) = (a = 0 | b = 0)"
paulson@14270
   724
  proof cases
paulson@14270
   725
    assume "a=0" thus ?thesis by simp
paulson@14270
   726
  next
paulson@14270
   727
    assume anz [simp]: "a\<noteq>0"
paulson@14270
   728
    thus ?thesis
paulson@14270
   729
    proof auto
paulson@14270
   730
      assume "a * b = 0"
paulson@14270
   731
      hence "inverse a * (a * b) = 0" by simp
paulson@14270
   732
      thus "b = 0"  by (simp (no_asm_use) add: mult_assoc [symmetric])
paulson@14270
   733
    qed
paulson@14270
   734
  qed
paulson@14270
   735
paulson@14268
   736
text{*Cancellation of equalities with a common factor*}
paulson@14268
   737
lemma field_mult_cancel_right_lemma:
paulson@14269
   738
      assumes cnz: "c \<noteq> (0::'a::field)"
paulson@14269
   739
	  and eq:  "a*c = b*c"
paulson@14269
   740
	 shows "a=b"
paulson@14268
   741
  proof -
paulson@14268
   742
  have "(a * c) * inverse c = (b * c) * inverse c"
paulson@14268
   743
    by (simp add: eq)
paulson@14268
   744
  thus "a=b"
paulson@14268
   745
    by (simp add: mult_assoc cnz)
paulson@14268
   746
  qed
paulson@14268
   747
paulson@14348
   748
lemma field_mult_cancel_right [simp]:
paulson@14268
   749
     "(a*c = b*c) = (c = (0::'a::field) | a=b)"
paulson@14269
   750
  proof cases
paulson@14268
   751
    assume "c=0" thus ?thesis by simp
paulson@14268
   752
  next
paulson@14268
   753
    assume "c\<noteq>0" 
paulson@14268
   754
    thus ?thesis by (force dest: field_mult_cancel_right_lemma)
paulson@14268
   755
  qed
paulson@14268
   756
paulson@14348
   757
lemma field_mult_cancel_left [simp]:
paulson@14268
   758
     "(c*a = c*b) = (c = (0::'a::field) | a=b)"
paulson@14268
   759
  by (simp add: mult_commute [of c] field_mult_cancel_right) 
paulson@14268
   760
paulson@14268
   761
lemma nonzero_imp_inverse_nonzero: "a \<noteq> 0 ==> inverse a \<noteq> (0::'a::field)"
paulson@14268
   762
  proof
paulson@14268
   763
  assume ianz: "inverse a = 0"
paulson@14268
   764
  assume "a \<noteq> 0"
paulson@14268
   765
  hence "1 = a * inverse a" by simp
paulson@14268
   766
  also have "... = 0" by (simp add: ianz)
paulson@14268
   767
  finally have "1 = (0::'a::field)" .
paulson@14268
   768
  thus False by (simp add: eq_commute)
paulson@14268
   769
  qed
paulson@14268
   770
paulson@14277
   771
paulson@14277
   772
subsection{*Basic Properties of @{term inverse}*}
paulson@14277
   773
paulson@14268
   774
lemma inverse_zero_imp_zero: "inverse a = 0 ==> a = (0::'a::field)"
paulson@14268
   775
apply (rule ccontr) 
paulson@14268
   776
apply (blast dest: nonzero_imp_inverse_nonzero) 
paulson@14268
   777
done
paulson@14268
   778
paulson@14268
   779
lemma inverse_nonzero_imp_nonzero:
paulson@14268
   780
   "inverse a = 0 ==> a = (0::'a::field)"
paulson@14268
   781
apply (rule ccontr) 
paulson@14268
   782
apply (blast dest: nonzero_imp_inverse_nonzero) 
paulson@14268
   783
done
paulson@14268
   784
paulson@14268
   785
lemma inverse_nonzero_iff_nonzero [simp]:
paulson@14268
   786
   "(inverse a = 0) = (a = (0::'a::{field,division_by_zero}))"
paulson@14268
   787
by (force dest: inverse_nonzero_imp_nonzero) 
paulson@14268
   788
paulson@14268
   789
lemma nonzero_inverse_minus_eq:
paulson@14269
   790
      assumes [simp]: "a\<noteq>0"  shows "inverse(-a) = -inverse(a::'a::field)"
paulson@14268
   791
  proof -
paulson@14269
   792
    have "-a * inverse (- a) = -a * - inverse a"
paulson@14268
   793
      by simp
paulson@14268
   794
    thus ?thesis 
paulson@14269
   795
      by (simp only: field_mult_cancel_left, simp)
paulson@14268
   796
  qed
paulson@14268
   797
paulson@14268
   798
lemma inverse_minus_eq [simp]:
paulson@14268
   799
     "inverse(-a) = -inverse(a::'a::{field,division_by_zero})";
paulson@14269
   800
  proof cases
paulson@14268
   801
    assume "a=0" thus ?thesis by (simp add: inverse_zero)
paulson@14268
   802
  next
paulson@14268
   803
    assume "a\<noteq>0" 
paulson@14268
   804
    thus ?thesis by (simp add: nonzero_inverse_minus_eq)
paulson@14268
   805
  qed
paulson@14268
   806
paulson@14268
   807
lemma nonzero_inverse_eq_imp_eq:
paulson@14269
   808
      assumes inveq: "inverse a = inverse b"
paulson@14269
   809
	  and anz:  "a \<noteq> 0"
paulson@14269
   810
	  and bnz:  "b \<noteq> 0"
paulson@14269
   811
	 shows "a = (b::'a::field)"
paulson@14268
   812
  proof -
paulson@14268
   813
  have "a * inverse b = a * inverse a"
paulson@14268
   814
    by (simp add: inveq)
paulson@14268
   815
  hence "(a * inverse b) * b = (a * inverse a) * b"
paulson@14268
   816
    by simp
paulson@14268
   817
  thus "a = b"
paulson@14268
   818
    by (simp add: mult_assoc anz bnz)
paulson@14268
   819
  qed
paulson@14268
   820
paulson@14268
   821
lemma inverse_eq_imp_eq:
paulson@14268
   822
     "inverse a = inverse b ==> a = (b::'a::{field,division_by_zero})"
paulson@14268
   823
apply (case_tac "a=0 | b=0") 
paulson@14268
   824
 apply (force dest!: inverse_zero_imp_zero
paulson@14268
   825
              simp add: eq_commute [of "0::'a"])
paulson@14268
   826
apply (force dest!: nonzero_inverse_eq_imp_eq) 
paulson@14268
   827
done
paulson@14268
   828
paulson@14268
   829
lemma inverse_eq_iff_eq [simp]:
paulson@14268
   830
     "(inverse a = inverse b) = (a = (b::'a::{field,division_by_zero}))"
paulson@14268
   831
by (force dest!: inverse_eq_imp_eq) 
paulson@14268
   832
paulson@14270
   833
lemma nonzero_inverse_inverse_eq:
paulson@14270
   834
      assumes [simp]: "a \<noteq> 0"  shows "inverse(inverse (a::'a::field)) = a"
paulson@14270
   835
  proof -
paulson@14270
   836
  have "(inverse (inverse a) * inverse a) * a = a" 
paulson@14270
   837
    by (simp add: nonzero_imp_inverse_nonzero)
paulson@14270
   838
  thus ?thesis
paulson@14270
   839
    by (simp add: mult_assoc)
paulson@14270
   840
  qed
paulson@14270
   841
paulson@14270
   842
lemma inverse_inverse_eq [simp]:
paulson@14270
   843
     "inverse(inverse (a::'a::{field,division_by_zero})) = a"
paulson@14270
   844
  proof cases
paulson@14270
   845
    assume "a=0" thus ?thesis by simp
paulson@14270
   846
  next
paulson@14270
   847
    assume "a\<noteq>0" 
paulson@14270
   848
    thus ?thesis by (simp add: nonzero_inverse_inverse_eq)
paulson@14270
   849
  qed
paulson@14270
   850
paulson@14270
   851
lemma inverse_1 [simp]: "inverse 1 = (1::'a::field)"
paulson@14270
   852
  proof -
paulson@14270
   853
  have "inverse 1 * 1 = (1::'a::field)" 
paulson@14270
   854
    by (rule left_inverse [OF zero_neq_one [symmetric]])
paulson@14270
   855
  thus ?thesis  by simp
paulson@14270
   856
  qed
paulson@14270
   857
paulson@14270
   858
lemma nonzero_inverse_mult_distrib: 
paulson@14270
   859
      assumes anz: "a \<noteq> 0"
paulson@14270
   860
          and bnz: "b \<noteq> 0"
paulson@14270
   861
      shows "inverse(a*b) = inverse(b) * inverse(a::'a::field)"
paulson@14270
   862
  proof -
paulson@14270
   863
  have "inverse(a*b) * (a * b) * inverse(b) = inverse(b)" 
paulson@14270
   864
    by (simp add: field_mult_eq_0_iff anz bnz)
paulson@14270
   865
  hence "inverse(a*b) * a = inverse(b)" 
paulson@14270
   866
    by (simp add: mult_assoc bnz)
paulson@14270
   867
  hence "inverse(a*b) * a * inverse(a) = inverse(b) * inverse(a)" 
paulson@14270
   868
    by simp
paulson@14270
   869
  thus ?thesis
paulson@14270
   870
    by (simp add: mult_assoc anz)
paulson@14270
   871
  qed
paulson@14270
   872
paulson@14270
   873
text{*This version builds in division by zero while also re-orienting
paulson@14270
   874
      the right-hand side.*}
paulson@14270
   875
lemma inverse_mult_distrib [simp]:
paulson@14270
   876
     "inverse(a*b) = inverse(a) * inverse(b::'a::{field,division_by_zero})"
paulson@14270
   877
  proof cases
paulson@14270
   878
    assume "a \<noteq> 0 & b \<noteq> 0" 
paulson@14270
   879
    thus ?thesis  by (simp add: nonzero_inverse_mult_distrib mult_commute)
paulson@14270
   880
  next
paulson@14270
   881
    assume "~ (a \<noteq> 0 & b \<noteq> 0)" 
paulson@14270
   882
    thus ?thesis  by force
paulson@14270
   883
  qed
paulson@14270
   884
paulson@14270
   885
text{*There is no slick version using division by zero.*}
paulson@14270
   886
lemma inverse_add:
paulson@14270
   887
     "[|a \<noteq> 0;  b \<noteq> 0|]
paulson@14270
   888
      ==> inverse a + inverse b = (a+b) * inverse a * inverse (b::'a::field)"
paulson@14270
   889
apply (simp add: left_distrib mult_assoc)
paulson@14270
   890
apply (simp add: mult_commute [of "inverse a"]) 
paulson@14270
   891
apply (simp add: mult_assoc [symmetric] add_commute)
paulson@14270
   892
done
paulson@14270
   893
paulson@14277
   894
lemma nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_left:
paulson@14277
   895
  assumes [simp]: "b\<noteq>0" and [simp]: "c\<noteq>0" 
paulson@14277
   896
    shows "(c*a)/(c*b) = a/(b::'a::field)"
paulson@14277
   897
proof -
paulson@14277
   898
  have "(c*a)/(c*b) = c * a * (inverse b * inverse c)"
paulson@14277
   899
    by (simp add: field_mult_eq_0_iff divide_inverse 
paulson@14277
   900
                  nonzero_inverse_mult_distrib)
paulson@14277
   901
  also have "... =  a * inverse b * (inverse c * c)"
paulson@14277
   902
    by (simp only: mult_ac)
paulson@14277
   903
  also have "... =  a * inverse b"
paulson@14277
   904
    by simp
paulson@14277
   905
    finally show ?thesis 
paulson@14277
   906
    by (simp add: divide_inverse)
paulson@14277
   907
qed
paulson@14277
   908
paulson@14277
   909
lemma mult_divide_cancel_left:
paulson@14277
   910
     "c\<noteq>0 ==> (c*a) / (c*b) = a / (b::'a::{field,division_by_zero})"
paulson@14277
   911
apply (case_tac "b = 0")
paulson@14277
   912
apply (simp_all add: nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_left)
paulson@14277
   913
done
paulson@14277
   914
paulson@14321
   915
lemma nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_right:
paulson@14321
   916
     "[|b\<noteq>0; c\<noteq>0|] ==> (a*c) / (b*c) = a/(b::'a::field)"
paulson@14321
   917
by (simp add: mult_commute [of _ c] nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_left) 
paulson@14321
   918
paulson@14321
   919
lemma mult_divide_cancel_right:
paulson@14321
   920
     "c\<noteq>0 ==> (a*c) / (b*c) = a / (b::'a::{field,division_by_zero})"
paulson@14321
   921
apply (case_tac "b = 0")
paulson@14321
   922
apply (simp_all add: nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_right)
paulson@14321
   923
done
paulson@14321
   924
paulson@14277
   925
(*For ExtractCommonTerm*)
paulson@14277
   926
lemma mult_divide_cancel_eq_if:
paulson@14277
   927
     "(c*a) / (c*b) = 
paulson@14277
   928
      (if c=0 then 0 else a / (b::'a::{field,division_by_zero}))"
paulson@14277
   929
  by (simp add: mult_divide_cancel_left)
paulson@14277
   930
paulson@14284
   931
lemma divide_1 [simp]: "a/1 = (a::'a::field)"
paulson@14284
   932
  by (simp add: divide_inverse [OF not_sym])
paulson@14284
   933
paulson@14288
   934
lemma times_divide_eq_right [simp]:
paulson@14288
   935
     "a * (b/c) = (a*b) / (c::'a::{field,division_by_zero})"
paulson@14288
   936
by (simp add: divide_inverse_zero mult_assoc)
paulson@14288
   937
paulson@14288
   938
lemma times_divide_eq_left [simp]:
paulson@14288
   939
     "(b/c) * a = (b*a) / (c::'a::{field,division_by_zero})"
paulson@14288
   940
by (simp add: divide_inverse_zero mult_ac)
paulson@14288
   941
paulson@14288
   942
lemma divide_divide_eq_right [simp]:
paulson@14288
   943
     "a / (b/c) = (a*c) / (b::'a::{field,division_by_zero})"
paulson@14288
   944
by (simp add: divide_inverse_zero mult_ac)
paulson@14288
   945
paulson@14288
   946
lemma divide_divide_eq_left [simp]:
paulson@14288
   947
     "(a / b) / (c::'a::{field,division_by_zero}) = a / (b*c)"
paulson@14288
   948
by (simp add: divide_inverse_zero mult_assoc)
paulson@14288
   949
paulson@14268
   950
paulson@14293
   951
subsection {* Division and Unary Minus *}
paulson@14293
   952
paulson@14293
   953
lemma nonzero_minus_divide_left: "b \<noteq> 0 ==> - (a/b) = (-a) / (b::'a::field)"
paulson@14293
   954
by (simp add: divide_inverse minus_mult_left)
paulson@14293
   955
paulson@14293
   956
lemma nonzero_minus_divide_right: "b \<noteq> 0 ==> - (a/b) = a / -(b::'a::field)"
paulson@14293
   957
by (simp add: divide_inverse nonzero_inverse_minus_eq minus_mult_right)
paulson@14293
   958
paulson@14293
   959
lemma nonzero_minus_divide_divide: "b \<noteq> 0 ==> (-a)/(-b) = a / (b::'a::field)"
paulson@14293
   960
by (simp add: divide_inverse nonzero_inverse_minus_eq)
paulson@14293
   961
paulson@14293
   962
lemma minus_divide_left: "- (a/b) = (-a) / (b::'a::{field,division_by_zero})"
paulson@14293
   963
apply (case_tac "b=0", simp) 
paulson@14293
   964
apply (simp add: nonzero_minus_divide_left) 
paulson@14293
   965
done
paulson@14293
   966
paulson@14293
   967
lemma minus_divide_right: "- (a/b) = a / -(b::'a::{field,division_by_zero})"
paulson@14293
   968
apply (case_tac "b=0", simp) 
paulson@14293
   969
by (rule nonzero_minus_divide_right) 
paulson@14293
   970
paulson@14293
   971
text{*The effect is to extract signs from divisions*}
paulson@14293
   972
declare minus_divide_left  [symmetric, simp]
paulson@14293
   973
declare minus_divide_right [symmetric, simp]
paulson@14293
   974
paulson@14293
   975
lemma minus_divide_divide [simp]:
paulson@14293
   976
     "(-a)/(-b) = a / (b::'a::{field,division_by_zero})"
paulson@14293
   977
apply (case_tac "b=0", simp) 
paulson@14293
   978
apply (simp add: nonzero_minus_divide_divide) 
paulson@14293
   979
done
paulson@14293
   980
paulson@14293
   981
paulson@14268
   982
subsection {* Ordered Fields *}
paulson@14268
   983
paulson@14277
   984
lemma positive_imp_inverse_positive: 
paulson@14269
   985
      assumes a_gt_0: "0 < a"  shows "0 < inverse (a::'a::ordered_field)"
paulson@14268
   986
  proof -
paulson@14268
   987
  have "0 < a * inverse a" 
paulson@14268
   988
    by (simp add: a_gt_0 [THEN order_less_imp_not_eq2] zero_less_one)
paulson@14268
   989
  thus "0 < inverse a" 
paulson@14268
   990
    by (simp add: a_gt_0 [THEN order_less_not_sym] zero_less_mult_iff)
paulson@14268
   991
  qed
paulson@14268
   992
paulson@14277
   993
lemma negative_imp_inverse_negative:
paulson@14268
   994
     "a < 0 ==> inverse a < (0::'a::ordered_field)"
paulson@14277
   995
  by (insert positive_imp_inverse_positive [of "-a"], 
paulson@14268
   996
      simp add: nonzero_inverse_minus_eq order_less_imp_not_eq) 
paulson@14268
   997
paulson@14268
   998
lemma inverse_le_imp_le:
paulson@14269
   999
      assumes invle: "inverse a \<le> inverse b"
paulson@14269
  1000
	  and apos:  "0 < a"
paulson@14269
  1001
	 shows "b \<le> (a::'a::ordered_field)"
paulson@14268
  1002
  proof (rule classical)
paulson@14268
  1003
  assume "~ b \<le> a"
paulson@14268
  1004
  hence "a < b"
paulson@14268
  1005
    by (simp add: linorder_not_le)
paulson@14268
  1006
  hence bpos: "0 < b"
paulson@14268
  1007
    by (blast intro: apos order_less_trans)
paulson@14268
  1008
  hence "a * inverse a \<le> a * inverse b"
paulson@14268
  1009
    by (simp add: apos invle order_less_imp_le mult_left_mono)
paulson@14268
  1010
  hence "(a * inverse a) * b \<le> (a * inverse b) * b"
paulson@14268
  1011
    by (simp add: bpos order_less_imp_le mult_right_mono)
paulson@14268
  1012
  thus "b \<le> a"
paulson@14268
  1013
    by (simp add: mult_assoc apos bpos order_less_imp_not_eq2)
paulson@14268
  1014
  qed
paulson@14268
  1015
paulson@14277
  1016
lemma inverse_positive_imp_positive:
paulson@14277
  1017
      assumes inv_gt_0: "0 < inverse a"
paulson@14277
  1018
          and [simp]:   "a \<noteq> 0"
paulson@14277
  1019
        shows "0 < (a::'a::ordered_field)"
paulson@14277
  1020
  proof -
paulson@14277
  1021
  have "0 < inverse (inverse a)"
paulson@14277
  1022
    by (rule positive_imp_inverse_positive)
paulson@14277
  1023
  thus "0 < a"
paulson@14277
  1024
    by (simp add: nonzero_inverse_inverse_eq)
paulson@14277
  1025
  qed
paulson@14277
  1026
paulson@14277
  1027
lemma inverse_positive_iff_positive [simp]:
paulson@14277
  1028
      "(0 < inverse a) = (0 < (a::'a::{ordered_field,division_by_zero}))"
paulson@14277
  1029
apply (case_tac "a = 0", simp)
paulson@14277
  1030
apply (blast intro: inverse_positive_imp_positive positive_imp_inverse_positive)
paulson@14277
  1031
done
paulson@14277
  1032
paulson@14277
  1033
lemma inverse_negative_imp_negative:
paulson@14277
  1034
      assumes inv_less_0: "inverse a < 0"
paulson@14277
  1035
          and [simp]:   "a \<noteq> 0"
paulson@14277
  1036
        shows "a < (0::'a::ordered_field)"
paulson@14277
  1037
  proof -
paulson@14277
  1038
  have "inverse (inverse a) < 0"
paulson@14277
  1039
    by (rule negative_imp_inverse_negative)
paulson@14277
  1040
  thus "a < 0"
paulson@14277
  1041
    by (simp add: nonzero_inverse_inverse_eq)
paulson@14277
  1042
  qed
paulson@14277
  1043
paulson@14277
  1044
lemma inverse_negative_iff_negative [simp]:
paulson@14277
  1045
      "(inverse a < 0) = (a < (0::'a::{ordered_field,division_by_zero}))"
paulson@14277
  1046
apply (case_tac "a = 0", simp)
paulson@14277
  1047
apply (blast intro: inverse_negative_imp_negative negative_imp_inverse_negative)
paulson@14277
  1048
done
paulson@14277
  1049
paulson@14277
  1050
lemma inverse_nonnegative_iff_nonnegative [simp]:
paulson@14277
  1051
      "(0 \<le> inverse a) = (0 \<le> (a::'a::{ordered_field,division_by_zero}))"
paulson@14277
  1052
by (simp add: linorder_not_less [symmetric])
paulson@14277
  1053
paulson@14277
  1054
lemma inverse_nonpositive_iff_nonpositive [simp]:
paulson@14277
  1055
      "(inverse a \<le> 0) = (a \<le> (0::'a::{ordered_field,division_by_zero}))"
paulson@14277
  1056
by (simp add: linorder_not_less [symmetric])
paulson@14277
  1057
paulson@14277
  1058
paulson@14277
  1059
subsection{*Anti-Monotonicity of @{term inverse}*}
paulson@14277
  1060
paulson@14268
  1061
lemma less_imp_inverse_less:
paulson@14269
  1062
      assumes less: "a < b"
paulson@14269
  1063
	  and apos:  "0 < a"
paulson@14269
  1064
	shows "inverse b < inverse (a::'a::ordered_field)"
paulson@14268
  1065
  proof (rule ccontr)
paulson@14268
  1066
  assume "~ inverse b < inverse a"
paulson@14268
  1067
  hence "inverse a \<le> inverse b"
paulson@14268
  1068
    by (simp add: linorder_not_less)
paulson@14268
  1069
  hence "~ (a < b)"
paulson@14268
  1070
    by (simp add: linorder_not_less inverse_le_imp_le [OF _ apos])
paulson@14268
  1071
  thus False
paulson@14268
  1072
    by (rule notE [OF _ less])
paulson@14268
  1073
  qed
paulson@14268
  1074
paulson@14268
  1075
lemma inverse_less_imp_less:
paulson@14268
  1076
   "[|inverse a < inverse b; 0 < a|] ==> b < (a::'a::ordered_field)"
paulson@14268
  1077
apply (simp add: order_less_le [of "inverse a"] order_less_le [of "b"])
paulson@14268
  1078
apply (force dest!: inverse_le_imp_le nonzero_inverse_eq_imp_eq) 
paulson@14268
  1079
done
paulson@14268
  1080
paulson@14268
  1081
text{*Both premises are essential. Consider -1 and 1.*}
paulson@14268
  1082
lemma inverse_less_iff_less [simp]:
paulson@14268
  1083
     "[|0 < a; 0 < b|] 
paulson@14268
  1084
      ==> (inverse a < inverse b) = (b < (a::'a::ordered_field))"
paulson@14268
  1085
by (blast intro: less_imp_inverse_less dest: inverse_less_imp_less) 
paulson@14268
  1086
paulson@14268
  1087
lemma le_imp_inverse_le:
paulson@14268
  1088
   "[|a \<le> b; 0 < a|] ==> inverse b \<le> inverse (a::'a::ordered_field)"
paulson@14268
  1089
  by (force simp add: order_le_less less_imp_inverse_less)
paulson@14268
  1090
paulson@14268
  1091
lemma inverse_le_iff_le [simp]:
paulson@14268
  1092
     "[|0 < a; 0 < b|] 
paulson@14268
  1093
      ==> (inverse a \<le> inverse b) = (b \<le> (a::'a::ordered_field))"
paulson@14268
  1094
by (blast intro: le_imp_inverse_le dest: inverse_le_imp_le) 
paulson@14268
  1095
paulson@14268
  1096
paulson@14268
  1097
text{*These results refer to both operands being negative.  The opposite-sign
paulson@14268
  1098
case is trivial, since inverse preserves signs.*}
paulson@14268
  1099
lemma inverse_le_imp_le_neg:
paulson@14268
  1100
   "[|inverse a \<le> inverse b; b < 0|] ==> b \<le> (a::'a::ordered_field)"
paulson@14268
  1101
  apply (rule classical) 
paulson@14268
  1102
  apply (subgoal_tac "a < 0") 
paulson@14268
  1103
   prefer 2 apply (force simp add: linorder_not_le intro: order_less_trans) 
paulson@14268
  1104
  apply (insert inverse_le_imp_le [of "-b" "-a"])
paulson@14268
  1105
  apply (simp add: order_less_imp_not_eq nonzero_inverse_minus_eq) 
paulson@14268
  1106
  done
paulson@14268
  1107
paulson@14268
  1108
lemma less_imp_inverse_less_neg:
paulson@14268
  1109
   "[|a < b; b < 0|] ==> inverse b < inverse (a::'a::ordered_field)"
paulson@14268
  1110
  apply (subgoal_tac "a < 0") 
paulson@14268
  1111
   prefer 2 apply (blast intro: order_less_trans) 
paulson@14268
  1112
  apply (insert less_imp_inverse_less [of "-b" "-a"])
paulson@14268
  1113
  apply (simp add: order_less_imp_not_eq nonzero_inverse_minus_eq) 
paulson@14268
  1114
  done
paulson@14268
  1115
paulson@14268
  1116
lemma inverse_less_imp_less_neg:
paulson@14268
  1117
   "[|inverse a < inverse b; b < 0|] ==> b < (a::'a::ordered_field)"
paulson@14268
  1118
  apply (rule classical) 
paulson@14268
  1119
  apply (subgoal_tac "a < 0") 
paulson@14268
  1120
   prefer 2
paulson@14268
  1121
   apply (force simp add: linorder_not_less intro: order_le_less_trans) 
paulson@14268
  1122
  apply (insert inverse_less_imp_less [of "-b" "-a"])
paulson@14268
  1123
  apply (simp add: order_less_imp_not_eq nonzero_inverse_minus_eq) 
paulson@14268
  1124
  done
paulson@14268
  1125
paulson@14268
  1126
lemma inverse_less_iff_less_neg [simp]:
paulson@14268
  1127
     "[|a < 0; b < 0|] 
paulson@14268
  1128
      ==> (inverse a < inverse b) = (b < (a::'a::ordered_field))"
paulson@14268
  1129
  apply (insert inverse_less_iff_less [of "-b" "-a"])
paulson@14268
  1130
  apply (simp del: inverse_less_iff_less 
paulson@14268
  1131
	      add: order_less_imp_not_eq nonzero_inverse_minus_eq) 
paulson@14268
  1132
  done
paulson@14268
  1133
paulson@14268
  1134
lemma le_imp_inverse_le_neg:
paulson@14268
  1135
   "[|a \<le> b; b < 0|] ==> inverse b \<le> inverse (a::'a::ordered_field)"
paulson@14268
  1136
  by (force simp add: order_le_less less_imp_inverse_less_neg)
paulson@14268
  1137
paulson@14268
  1138
lemma inverse_le_iff_le_neg [simp]:
paulson@14268
  1139
     "[|a < 0; b < 0|] 
paulson@14268
  1140
      ==> (inverse a \<le> inverse b) = (b \<le> (a::'a::ordered_field))"
paulson@14268
  1141
by (blast intro: le_imp_inverse_le_neg dest: inverse_le_imp_le_neg) 
paulson@14265
  1142
paulson@14277
  1143
paulson@14277
  1144
subsection{*Division and Signs*}
paulson@14277
  1145
paulson@14277
  1146
lemma zero_less_divide_iff:
paulson@14277
  1147
     "((0::'a::{ordered_field,division_by_zero}) < a/b) = (0 < a & 0 < b | a < 0 & b < 0)"
paulson@14277
  1148
by (simp add: divide_inverse_zero zero_less_mult_iff)
paulson@14277
  1149
paulson@14277
  1150
lemma divide_less_0_iff:
paulson@14277
  1151
     "(a/b < (0::'a::{ordered_field,division_by_zero})) = 
paulson@14277
  1152
      (0 < a & b < 0 | a < 0 & 0 < b)"
paulson@14277
  1153
by (simp add: divide_inverse_zero mult_less_0_iff)
paulson@14277
  1154
paulson@14277
  1155
lemma zero_le_divide_iff:
paulson@14277
  1156
     "((0::'a::{ordered_field,division_by_zero}) \<le> a/b) =
paulson@14277
  1157
      (0 \<le> a & 0 \<le> b | a \<le> 0 & b \<le> 0)"
paulson@14277
  1158
by (simp add: divide_inverse_zero zero_le_mult_iff)
paulson@14277
  1159
paulson@14277
  1160
lemma divide_le_0_iff:
paulson@14288
  1161
     "(a/b \<le> (0::'a::{ordered_field,division_by_zero})) =
paulson@14288
  1162
      (0 \<le> a & b \<le> 0 | a \<le> 0 & 0 \<le> b)"
paulson@14277
  1163
by (simp add: divide_inverse_zero mult_le_0_iff)
paulson@14277
  1164
paulson@14277
  1165
lemma divide_eq_0_iff [simp]:
paulson@14277
  1166
     "(a/b = 0) = (a=0 | b=(0::'a::{field,division_by_zero}))"
paulson@14277
  1167
by (simp add: divide_inverse_zero field_mult_eq_0_iff)
paulson@14277
  1168
paulson@14288
  1169
paulson@14288
  1170
subsection{*Simplification of Inequalities Involving Literal Divisors*}
paulson@14288
  1171
paulson@14288
  1172
lemma pos_le_divide_eq: "0 < (c::'a::ordered_field) ==> (a \<le> b/c) = (a*c \<le> b)"
paulson@14288
  1173
proof -
paulson@14288
  1174
  assume less: "0<c"
paulson@14288
  1175
  hence "(a \<le> b/c) = (a*c \<le> (b/c)*c)"
paulson@14288
  1176
    by (simp add: mult_le_cancel_right order_less_not_sym [OF less])
paulson@14288
  1177
  also have "... = (a*c \<le> b)"
paulson@14288
  1178
    by (simp add: order_less_imp_not_eq2 [OF less] divide_inverse mult_assoc) 
paulson@14288
  1179
  finally show ?thesis .
paulson@14288
  1180
qed
paulson@14288
  1181
paulson@14288
  1182
paulson@14288
  1183
lemma neg_le_divide_eq: "c < (0::'a::ordered_field) ==> (a \<le> b/c) = (b \<le> a*c)"
paulson@14288
  1184
proof -
paulson@14288
  1185
  assume less: "c<0"
paulson@14288
  1186
  hence "(a \<le> b/c) = ((b/c)*c \<le> a*c)"
paulson@14288
  1187
    by (simp add: mult_le_cancel_right order_less_not_sym [OF less])
paulson@14288
  1188
  also have "... = (b \<le> a*c)"
paulson@14288
  1189
    by (simp add: order_less_imp_not_eq [OF less] divide_inverse mult_assoc) 
paulson@14288
  1190
  finally show ?thesis .
paulson@14288
  1191
qed
paulson@14288
  1192
paulson@14288
  1193
lemma le_divide_eq:
paulson@14288
  1194
  "(a \<le> b/c) = 
paulson@14288
  1195
   (if 0 < c then a*c \<le> b
paulson@14288
  1196
             else if c < 0 then b \<le> a*c
paulson@14288
  1197
             else  a \<le> (0::'a::{ordered_field,division_by_zero}))"
paulson@14288
  1198
apply (case_tac "c=0", simp) 
paulson@14288
  1199
apply (force simp add: pos_le_divide_eq neg_le_divide_eq linorder_neq_iff) 
paulson@14288
  1200
done
paulson@14288
  1201
paulson@14288
  1202
lemma pos_divide_le_eq: "0 < (c::'a::ordered_field) ==> (b/c \<le> a) = (b \<le> a*c)"
paulson@14288
  1203
proof -
paulson@14288
  1204
  assume less: "0<c"
paulson@14288
  1205
  hence "(b/c \<le> a) = ((b/c)*c \<le> a*c)"
paulson@14288
  1206
    by (simp add: mult_le_cancel_right order_less_not_sym [OF less])
paulson@14288
  1207
  also have "... = (b \<le> a*c)"
paulson@14288
  1208
    by (simp add: order_less_imp_not_eq2 [OF less] divide_inverse mult_assoc) 
paulson@14288
  1209
  finally show ?thesis .
paulson@14288
  1210
qed
paulson@14288
  1211
paulson@14288
  1212
lemma neg_divide_le_eq: "c < (0::'a::ordered_field) ==> (b/c \<le> a) = (a*c \<le> b)"
paulson@14288
  1213
proof -
paulson@14288
  1214
  assume less: "c<0"
paulson@14288
  1215
  hence "(b/c \<le> a) = (a*c \<le> (b/c)*c)"
paulson@14288
  1216
    by (simp add: mult_le_cancel_right order_less_not_sym [OF less])
paulson@14288
  1217
  also have "... = (a*c \<le> b)"
paulson@14288
  1218
    by (simp add: order_less_imp_not_eq [OF less] divide_inverse mult_assoc) 
paulson@14288
  1219
  finally show ?thesis .
paulson@14288
  1220
qed
paulson@14288
  1221
paulson@14288
  1222
lemma divide_le_eq:
paulson@14288
  1223
  "(b/c \<le> a) = 
paulson@14288
  1224
   (if 0 < c then b \<le> a*c
paulson@14288
  1225
             else if c < 0 then a*c \<le> b
paulson@14288
  1226
             else 0 \<le> (a::'a::{ordered_field,division_by_zero}))"
paulson@14288
  1227
apply (case_tac "c=0", simp) 
paulson@14288
  1228
apply (force simp add: pos_divide_le_eq neg_divide_le_eq linorder_neq_iff) 
paulson@14288
  1229
done
paulson@14288
  1230
paulson@14288
  1231
paulson@14288
  1232
lemma pos_less_divide_eq:
paulson@14288
  1233
     "0 < (c::'a::ordered_field) ==> (a < b/c) = (a*c < b)"
paulson@14288
  1234
proof -
paulson@14288
  1235
  assume less: "0<c"
paulson@14288
  1236
  hence "(a < b/c) = (a*c < (b/c)*c)"
paulson@14288
  1237
    by (simp add: mult_less_cancel_right order_less_not_sym [OF less])
paulson@14288
  1238
  also have "... = (a*c < b)"
paulson@14288
  1239
    by (simp add: order_less_imp_not_eq2 [OF less] divide_inverse mult_assoc) 
paulson@14288
  1240
  finally show ?thesis .
paulson@14288
  1241
qed
paulson@14288
  1242
paulson@14288
  1243
lemma neg_less_divide_eq:
paulson@14288
  1244
 "c < (0::'a::ordered_field) ==> (a < b/c) = (b < a*c)"
paulson@14288
  1245
proof -
paulson@14288
  1246
  assume less: "c<0"
paulson@14288
  1247
  hence "(a < b/c) = ((b/c)*c < a*c)"
paulson@14288
  1248
    by (simp add: mult_less_cancel_right order_less_not_sym [OF less])
paulson@14288
  1249
  also have "... = (b < a*c)"
paulson@14288
  1250
    by (simp add: order_less_imp_not_eq [OF less] divide_inverse mult_assoc) 
paulson@14288
  1251
  finally show ?thesis .
paulson@14288
  1252
qed
paulson@14288
  1253
paulson@14288
  1254
lemma less_divide_eq:
paulson@14288
  1255
  "(a < b/c) = 
paulson@14288
  1256
   (if 0 < c then a*c < b
paulson@14288
  1257
             else if c < 0 then b < a*c
paulson@14288
  1258
             else  a < (0::'a::{ordered_field,division_by_zero}))"
paulson@14288
  1259
apply (case_tac "c=0", simp) 
paulson@14288
  1260
apply (force simp add: pos_less_divide_eq neg_less_divide_eq linorder_neq_iff) 
paulson@14288
  1261
done
paulson@14288
  1262
paulson@14288
  1263
lemma pos_divide_less_eq:
paulson@14288
  1264
     "0 < (c::'a::ordered_field) ==> (b/c < a) = (b < a*c)"
paulson@14288
  1265
proof -
paulson@14288
  1266
  assume less: "0<c"
paulson@14288
  1267
  hence "(b/c < a) = ((b/c)*c < a*c)"
paulson@14288
  1268
    by (simp add: mult_less_cancel_right order_less_not_sym [OF less])
paulson@14288
  1269
  also have "... = (b < a*c)"
paulson@14288
  1270
    by (simp add: order_less_imp_not_eq2 [OF less] divide_inverse mult_assoc) 
paulson@14288
  1271
  finally show ?thesis .
paulson@14288
  1272
qed
paulson@14288
  1273
paulson@14288
  1274
lemma neg_divide_less_eq:
paulson@14288
  1275
 "c < (0::'a::ordered_field) ==> (b/c < a) = (a*c < b)"
paulson@14288
  1276
proof -
paulson@14288
  1277
  assume less: "c<0"
paulson@14288
  1278
  hence "(b/c < a) = (a*c < (b/c)*c)"
paulson@14288
  1279
    by (simp add: mult_less_cancel_right order_less_not_sym [OF less])
paulson@14288
  1280
  also have "... = (a*c < b)"
paulson@14288
  1281
    by (simp add: order_less_imp_not_eq [OF less] divide_inverse mult_assoc) 
paulson@14288
  1282
  finally show ?thesis .
paulson@14288
  1283
qed
paulson@14288
  1284
paulson@14288
  1285
lemma divide_less_eq:
paulson@14288
  1286
  "(b/c < a) = 
paulson@14288
  1287
   (if 0 < c then b < a*c
paulson@14288
  1288
             else if c < 0 then a*c < b
paulson@14288
  1289
             else 0 < (a::'a::{ordered_field,division_by_zero}))"
paulson@14288
  1290
apply (case_tac "c=0", simp) 
paulson@14288
  1291
apply (force simp add: pos_divide_less_eq neg_divide_less_eq linorder_neq_iff) 
paulson@14288
  1292
done
paulson@14288
  1293
paulson@14288
  1294
lemma nonzero_eq_divide_eq: "c\<noteq>0 ==> ((a::'a::field) = b/c) = (a*c = b)"
paulson@14288
  1295
proof -
paulson@14288
  1296
  assume [simp]: "c\<noteq>0"
paulson@14288
  1297
  have "(a = b/c) = (a*c = (b/c)*c)"
paulson@14288
  1298
    by (simp add: field_mult_cancel_right)
paulson@14288
  1299
  also have "... = (a*c = b)"
paulson@14288
  1300
    by (simp add: divide_inverse mult_assoc) 
paulson@14288
  1301
  finally show ?thesis .
paulson@14288
  1302
qed
paulson@14288
  1303
paulson@14288
  1304
lemma eq_divide_eq:
paulson@14288
  1305
  "((a::'a::{field,division_by_zero}) = b/c) = (if c\<noteq>0 then a*c = b else a=0)"
paulson@14288
  1306
by (simp add: nonzero_eq_divide_eq) 
paulson@14288
  1307
paulson@14288
  1308
lemma nonzero_divide_eq_eq: "c\<noteq>0 ==> (b/c = (a::'a::field)) = (b = a*c)"
paulson@14288
  1309
proof -
paulson@14288
  1310
  assume [simp]: "c\<noteq>0"
paulson@14288
  1311
  have "(b/c = a) = ((b/c)*c = a*c)"
paulson@14288
  1312
    by (simp add: field_mult_cancel_right)
paulson@14288
  1313
  also have "... = (b = a*c)"
paulson@14288
  1314
    by (simp add: divide_inverse mult_assoc) 
paulson@14288
  1315
  finally show ?thesis .
paulson@14288
  1316
qed
paulson@14288
  1317
paulson@14288
  1318
lemma divide_eq_eq:
paulson@14288
  1319
  "(b/c = (a::'a::{field,division_by_zero})) = (if c\<noteq>0 then b = a*c else a=0)"
paulson@14288
  1320
by (force simp add: nonzero_divide_eq_eq) 
paulson@14288
  1321
paulson@14288
  1322
subsection{*Cancellation Laws for Division*}
paulson@14288
  1323
paulson@14288
  1324
lemma divide_cancel_right [simp]:
paulson@14288
  1325
     "(a/c = b/c) = (c = 0 | a = (b::'a::{field,division_by_zero}))"
paulson@14288
  1326
apply (case_tac "c=0", simp) 
paulson@14288
  1327
apply (simp add: divide_inverse_zero field_mult_cancel_right) 
paulson@14288
  1328
done
paulson@14288
  1329
paulson@14288
  1330
lemma divide_cancel_left [simp]:
paulson@14288
  1331
     "(c/a = c/b) = (c = 0 | a = (b::'a::{field,division_by_zero}))" 
paulson@14288
  1332
apply (case_tac "c=0", simp) 
paulson@14288
  1333
apply (simp add: divide_inverse_zero field_mult_cancel_left) 
paulson@14288
  1334
done
paulson@14288
  1335
paulson@14288
  1336
paulson@14293
  1337
subsection {* Ordering Rules for Division *}
paulson@14293
  1338
paulson@14293
  1339
lemma divide_strict_right_mono:
paulson@14293
  1340
     "[|a < b; 0 < c|] ==> a / c < b / (c::'a::ordered_field)"
paulson@14293
  1341
by (simp add: order_less_imp_not_eq2 divide_inverse mult_strict_right_mono 
paulson@14293
  1342
              positive_imp_inverse_positive) 
paulson@14293
  1343
paulson@14293
  1344
lemma divide_right_mono:
paulson@14293
  1345
     "[|a \<le> b; 0 \<le> c|] ==> a/c \<le> b/(c::'a::{ordered_field,division_by_zero})"
paulson@14293
  1346
  by (force simp add: divide_strict_right_mono order_le_less) 
paulson@14293
  1347
paulson@14293
  1348
paulson@14293
  1349
text{*The last premise ensures that @{term a} and @{term b} 
paulson@14293
  1350
      have the same sign*}
paulson@14293
  1351
lemma divide_strict_left_mono:
paulson@14293
  1352
       "[|b < a; 0 < c; 0 < a*b|] ==> c / a < c / (b::'a::ordered_field)"
paulson@14293
  1353
by (force simp add: zero_less_mult_iff divide_inverse mult_strict_left_mono 
paulson@14293
  1354
      order_less_imp_not_eq order_less_imp_not_eq2  
paulson@14293
  1355
      less_imp_inverse_less less_imp_inverse_less_neg) 
paulson@14293
  1356
paulson@14293
  1357
lemma divide_left_mono:
paulson@14293
  1358
     "[|b \<le> a; 0 \<le> c; 0 < a*b|] ==> c / a \<le> c / (b::'a::ordered_field)"
paulson@14293
  1359
  apply (subgoal_tac "a \<noteq> 0 & b \<noteq> 0") 
paulson@14293
  1360
   prefer 2 
paulson@14293
  1361
   apply (force simp add: zero_less_mult_iff order_less_imp_not_eq) 
paulson@14293
  1362
  apply (case_tac "c=0", simp add: divide_inverse)
paulson@14293
  1363
  apply (force simp add: divide_strict_left_mono order_le_less) 
paulson@14293
  1364
  done
paulson@14293
  1365
paulson@14293
  1366
lemma divide_strict_left_mono_neg:
paulson@14293
  1367
     "[|a < b; c < 0; 0 < a*b|] ==> c / a < c / (b::'a::ordered_field)"
paulson@14293
  1368
  apply (subgoal_tac "a \<noteq> 0 & b \<noteq> 0") 
paulson@14293
  1369
   prefer 2 
paulson@14293
  1370
   apply (force simp add: zero_less_mult_iff order_less_imp_not_eq) 
paulson@14293
  1371
  apply (drule divide_strict_left_mono [of _ _ "-c"]) 
paulson@14293
  1372
   apply (simp_all add: mult_commute nonzero_minus_divide_left [symmetric]) 
paulson@14293
  1373
  done
paulson@14293
  1374
paulson@14293
  1375
lemma divide_strict_right_mono_neg:
paulson@14293
  1376
     "[|b < a; c < 0|] ==> a / c < b / (c::'a::ordered_field)"
paulson@14293
  1377
apply (drule divide_strict_right_mono [of _ _ "-c"], simp) 
paulson@14293
  1378
apply (simp add: order_less_imp_not_eq nonzero_minus_divide_right [symmetric]) 
paulson@14293
  1379
done
paulson@14293
  1380
paulson@14293
  1381
paulson@14293
  1382
subsection {* Ordered Fields are Dense *}
paulson@14293
  1383
paulson@14293
  1384
lemma zero_less_two: "0 < (1+1::'a::ordered_field)"
paulson@14293
  1385
proof -
paulson@14293
  1386
  have "0 + 0 <  (1+1::'a::ordered_field)"
paulson@14293
  1387
    by (blast intro: zero_less_one add_strict_mono) 
paulson@14293
  1388
  thus ?thesis by simp
paulson@14293
  1389
qed
paulson@14293
  1390
paulson@14293
  1391
lemma less_half_sum: "a < b ==> a < (a+b) / (1+1::'a::ordered_field)"
paulson@14293
  1392
by (simp add: zero_less_two pos_less_divide_eq right_distrib) 
paulson@14293
  1393
paulson@14293
  1394
lemma gt_half_sum: "a < b ==> (a+b)/(1+1::'a::ordered_field) < b"
paulson@14293
  1395
by (simp add: zero_less_two pos_divide_less_eq right_distrib) 
paulson@14293
  1396
paulson@14293
  1397
lemma dense: "a < b ==> \<exists>r::'a::ordered_field. a < r & r < b"
paulson@14293
  1398
by (blast intro!: less_half_sum gt_half_sum)
paulson@14293
  1399
paulson@14293
  1400
paulson@14293
  1401
subsection {* Absolute Value *}
paulson@14293
  1402
paulson@14293
  1403
lemma abs_zero [simp]: "abs 0 = (0::'a::ordered_ring)"
paulson@14293
  1404
by (simp add: abs_if)
paulson@14293
  1405
paulson@14294
  1406
lemma abs_one [simp]: "abs 1 = (1::'a::ordered_ring)"
paulson@14294
  1407
  by (simp add: abs_if zero_less_one [THEN order_less_not_sym]) 
paulson@14294
  1408
paulson@14294
  1409
lemma abs_mult: "abs (a * b) = abs a * abs (b::'a::ordered_ring)" 
paulson@14294
  1410
apply (case_tac "a=0 | b=0", force) 
paulson@14293
  1411
apply (auto elim: order_less_asym
paulson@14293
  1412
            simp add: abs_if mult_less_0_iff linorder_neq_iff
paulson@14293
  1413
                  minus_mult_left [symmetric] minus_mult_right [symmetric])  
paulson@14293
  1414
done
paulson@14293
  1415
paulson@14348
  1416
paulson@14348
  1417
lemma abs_mult_self: "abs a * abs a = a * (a::'a::ordered_ring)"
paulson@14348
  1418
by (simp add: abs_if) 
paulson@14348
  1419
paulson@14294
  1420
lemma abs_eq_0 [simp]: "(abs a = 0) = (a = (0::'a::ordered_ring))"
paulson@14294
  1421
by (simp add: abs_if)
paulson@14294
  1422
paulson@14294
  1423
lemma zero_less_abs_iff [simp]: "(0 < abs a) = (a \<noteq> (0::'a::ordered_ring))"
paulson@14294
  1424
by (simp add: abs_if linorder_neq_iff)
paulson@14294
  1425
paulson@14294
  1426
lemma abs_not_less_zero [simp]: "~ abs a < (0::'a::ordered_ring)"
paulson@14294
  1427
by (simp add: abs_if  order_less_not_sym [of a 0])
paulson@14294
  1428
paulson@14294
  1429
lemma abs_le_zero_iff [simp]: "(abs a \<le> (0::'a::ordered_ring)) = (a = 0)" 
paulson@14294
  1430
by (simp add: order_le_less) 
paulson@14294
  1431
paulson@14294
  1432
lemma abs_minus_cancel [simp]: "abs (-a) = abs(a::'a::ordered_ring)"
paulson@14294
  1433
apply (auto simp add: abs_if linorder_not_less order_less_not_sym [of 0 a])  
paulson@14294
  1434
apply (drule order_antisym, assumption, simp) 
paulson@14294
  1435
done
paulson@14294
  1436
paulson@14294
  1437
lemma abs_ge_zero [simp]: "(0::'a::ordered_ring) \<le> abs a"
paulson@14294
  1438
apply (simp add: abs_if order_less_imp_le)
paulson@14294
  1439
apply (simp add: linorder_not_less) 
paulson@14294
  1440
done
paulson@14294
  1441
paulson@14294
  1442
lemma abs_idempotent [simp]: "abs (abs a) = abs (a::'a::ordered_ring)"
paulson@14294
  1443
  by (force elim: order_less_asym simp add: abs_if)
paulson@14294
  1444
paulson@14305
  1445
lemma abs_zero_iff [simp]: "(abs a = 0) = (a = (0::'a::ordered_ring))"
paulson@14293
  1446
by (simp add: abs_if)
paulson@14293
  1447
paulson@14294
  1448
lemma abs_ge_self: "a \<le> abs (a::'a::ordered_ring)"
paulson@14294
  1449
apply (simp add: abs_if)
paulson@14294
  1450
apply (simp add: order_less_imp_le order_trans [of _ 0])
paulson@14294
  1451
done
paulson@14294
  1452
paulson@14294
  1453
lemma abs_ge_minus_self: "-a \<le> abs (a::'a::ordered_ring)"
paulson@14294
  1454
by (insert abs_ge_self [of "-a"], simp)
paulson@14294
  1455
paulson@14294
  1456
lemma nonzero_abs_inverse:
paulson@14294
  1457
     "a \<noteq> 0 ==> abs (inverse (a::'a::ordered_field)) = inverse (abs a)"
paulson@14294
  1458
apply (auto simp add: linorder_neq_iff abs_if nonzero_inverse_minus_eq 
paulson@14294
  1459
                      negative_imp_inverse_negative)
paulson@14294
  1460
apply (blast intro: positive_imp_inverse_positive elim: order_less_asym) 
paulson@14294
  1461
done
paulson@14294
  1462
paulson@14294
  1463
lemma abs_inverse [simp]:
paulson@14294
  1464
     "abs (inverse (a::'a::{ordered_field,division_by_zero})) = 
paulson@14294
  1465
      inverse (abs a)"
paulson@14294
  1466
apply (case_tac "a=0", simp) 
paulson@14294
  1467
apply (simp add: nonzero_abs_inverse) 
paulson@14294
  1468
done
paulson@14294
  1469
paulson@14294
  1470
lemma nonzero_abs_divide:
paulson@14294
  1471
     "b \<noteq> 0 ==> abs (a / (b::'a::ordered_field)) = abs a / abs b"
paulson@14294
  1472
by (simp add: divide_inverse abs_mult nonzero_abs_inverse) 
paulson@14294
  1473
paulson@14294
  1474
lemma abs_divide:
paulson@14294
  1475
     "abs (a / (b::'a::{ordered_field,division_by_zero})) = abs a / abs b"
paulson@14294
  1476
apply (case_tac "b=0", simp) 
paulson@14294
  1477
apply (simp add: nonzero_abs_divide) 
paulson@14294
  1478
done
paulson@14294
  1479
paulson@14295
  1480
lemma abs_leI: "[|a \<le> b; -a \<le> b|] ==> abs a \<le> (b::'a::ordered_ring)"
paulson@14295
  1481
by (simp add: abs_if)
paulson@14295
  1482
paulson@14295
  1483
lemma le_minus_self_iff: "(a \<le> -a) = (a \<le> (0::'a::ordered_ring))"
paulson@14295
  1484
proof 
paulson@14295
  1485
  assume ale: "a \<le> -a"
paulson@14295
  1486
  show "a\<le>0"
paulson@14295
  1487
    apply (rule classical) 
paulson@14295
  1488
    apply (simp add: linorder_not_le) 
paulson@14295
  1489
    apply (blast intro: ale order_trans order_less_imp_le
paulson@14295
  1490
                        neg_0_le_iff_le [THEN iffD1]) 
paulson@14295
  1491
    done
paulson@14295
  1492
next
paulson@14295
  1493
  assume "a\<le>0"
paulson@14295
  1494
  hence "0 \<le> -a" by (simp only: neg_0_le_iff_le)
paulson@14295
  1495
  thus "a \<le> -a"  by (blast intro: prems order_trans) 
paulson@14295
  1496
qed
paulson@14295
  1497
paulson@14295
  1498
lemma minus_le_self_iff: "(-a \<le> a) = (0 \<le> (a::'a::ordered_ring))"
paulson@14295
  1499
by (insert le_minus_self_iff [of "-a"], simp)
paulson@14295
  1500
paulson@14295
  1501
lemma eq_minus_self_iff: "(a = -a) = (a = (0::'a::ordered_ring))"
paulson@14295
  1502
by (force simp add: order_eq_iff le_minus_self_iff minus_le_self_iff)
paulson@14295
  1503
paulson@14295
  1504
lemma less_minus_self_iff: "(a < -a) = (a < (0::'a::ordered_ring))"
paulson@14295
  1505
by (simp add: order_less_le le_minus_self_iff eq_minus_self_iff)
paulson@14295
  1506
paulson@14295
  1507
lemma abs_le_D1: "abs a \<le> b ==> a \<le> (b::'a::ordered_ring)"
paulson@14295
  1508
apply (simp add: abs_if split: split_if_asm)
paulson@14295
  1509
apply (rule order_trans [of _ "-a"]) 
paulson@14295
  1510
 apply (simp add: less_minus_self_iff order_less_imp_le, assumption)
paulson@14295
  1511
done
paulson@14295
  1512
paulson@14295
  1513
lemma abs_le_D2: "abs a \<le> b ==> -a \<le> (b::'a::ordered_ring)"
paulson@14295
  1514
by (insert abs_le_D1 [of "-a"], simp)
paulson@14295
  1515
paulson@14295
  1516
lemma abs_le_iff: "(abs a \<le> b) = (a \<le> b & -a \<le> (b::'a::ordered_ring))"
paulson@14295
  1517
by (blast intro: abs_leI dest: abs_le_D1 abs_le_D2)
paulson@14295
  1518
paulson@14295
  1519
lemma abs_less_iff: "(abs a < b) = (a < b & -a < (b::'a::ordered_ring))" 
paulson@14295
  1520
apply (simp add: order_less_le abs_le_iff)  
paulson@14295
  1521
apply (auto simp add: abs_if minus_le_self_iff eq_minus_self_iff) 
paulson@14295
  1522
 apply (simp add:  linorder_not_less [symmetric]) 
paulson@14295
  1523
apply (simp add: le_minus_self_iff linorder_neq_iff) 
paulson@14295
  1524
apply (simp add:  linorder_not_less [symmetric]) 
paulson@14295
  1525
done
paulson@14295
  1526
paulson@14294
  1527
lemma abs_triangle_ineq: "abs (a+b) \<le> abs a + abs (b::'a::ordered_ring)"
paulson@14295
  1528
by (force simp add: abs_le_iff abs_ge_self abs_ge_minus_self add_mono)
paulson@14294
  1529
paulson@14294
  1530
lemma abs_mult_less:
paulson@14294
  1531
     "[| abs a < c; abs b < d |] ==> abs a * abs b < c*(d::'a::ordered_ring)"
paulson@14294
  1532
proof -
paulson@14294
  1533
  assume ac: "abs a < c"
paulson@14294
  1534
  hence cpos: "0<c" by (blast intro: order_le_less_trans abs_ge_zero)
paulson@14294
  1535
  assume "abs b < d"
paulson@14294
  1536
  thus ?thesis by (simp add: ac cpos mult_strict_mono) 
paulson@14294
  1537
qed
paulson@14293
  1538
paulson@14331
  1539
ML
paulson@14331
  1540
{*
paulson@14334
  1541
val add_assoc = thm"add_assoc";
paulson@14334
  1542
val add_commute = thm"add_commute";
paulson@14334
  1543
val mult_assoc = thm"mult_assoc";
paulson@14334
  1544
val mult_commute = thm"mult_commute";
paulson@14334
  1545
val zero_neq_one = thm"zero_neq_one";
paulson@14334
  1546
val diff_minus = thm"diff_minus";
paulson@14334
  1547
val abs_if = thm"abs_if";
paulson@14334
  1548
val divide_inverse = thm"divide_inverse";
paulson@14334
  1549
val inverse_zero = thm"inverse_zero";
paulson@14334
  1550
val divide_zero = thm"divide_zero";
paulson@14334
  1551
val add_0 = thm"add_0";
paulson@14331
  1552
val add_0_right = thm"add_0_right";
paulson@14331
  1553
val add_left_commute = thm"add_left_commute";
paulson@14334
  1554
val left_minus = thm"left_minus";
paulson@14331
  1555
val right_minus = thm"right_minus";
paulson@14331
  1556
val right_minus_eq = thm"right_minus_eq";
paulson@14331
  1557
val add_left_cancel = thm"add_left_cancel";
paulson@14331
  1558
val add_right_cancel = thm"add_right_cancel";
paulson@14331
  1559
val minus_minus = thm"minus_minus";
paulson@14331
  1560
val equals_zero_I = thm"equals_zero_I";
paulson@14331
  1561
val minus_zero = thm"minus_zero";
paulson@14331
  1562
val diff_self = thm"diff_self";
paulson@14331
  1563
val diff_0 = thm"diff_0";
paulson@14331
  1564
val diff_0_right = thm"diff_0_right";
paulson@14331
  1565
val diff_minus_eq_add = thm"diff_minus_eq_add";
paulson@14331
  1566
val neg_equal_iff_equal = thm"neg_equal_iff_equal";
paulson@14331
  1567
val neg_equal_0_iff_equal = thm"neg_equal_0_iff_equal";
paulson@14331
  1568
val neg_0_equal_iff_equal = thm"neg_0_equal_iff_equal";
paulson@14331
  1569
val equation_minus_iff = thm"equation_minus_iff";
paulson@14331
  1570
val minus_equation_iff = thm"minus_equation_iff";
paulson@14334
  1571
val mult_1 = thm"mult_1";
paulson@14331
  1572
val mult_1_right = thm"mult_1_right";
paulson@14331
  1573
val mult_left_commute = thm"mult_left_commute";
paulson@14331
  1574
val mult_left_zero = thm"mult_left_zero";
paulson@14331
  1575
val mult_right_zero = thm"mult_right_zero";
paulson@14334
  1576
val left_distrib = thm "left_distrib";
paulson@14331
  1577
val right_distrib = thm"right_distrib";
paulson@14331
  1578
val combine_common_factor = thm"combine_common_factor";
paulson@14331
  1579
val minus_add_distrib = thm"minus_add_distrib";
paulson@14331
  1580
val minus_mult_left = thm"minus_mult_left";
paulson@14331
  1581
val minus_mult_right = thm"minus_mult_right";
paulson@14331
  1582
val minus_mult_minus = thm"minus_mult_minus";
paulson@14331
  1583
val right_diff_distrib = thm"right_diff_distrib";
paulson@14331
  1584
val left_diff_distrib = thm"left_diff_distrib";
paulson@14331
  1585
val minus_diff_eq = thm"minus_diff_eq";
paulson@14334
  1586
val add_left_mono = thm"add_left_mono";
paulson@14331
  1587
val add_right_mono = thm"add_right_mono";
paulson@14331
  1588
val add_mono = thm"add_mono";
paulson@14331
  1589
val add_strict_left_mono = thm"add_strict_left_mono";
paulson@14331
  1590
val add_strict_right_mono = thm"add_strict_right_mono";
paulson@14331
  1591
val add_strict_mono = thm"add_strict_mono";
paulson@14341
  1592
val add_less_le_mono = thm"add_less_le_mono";
paulson@14341
  1593
val add_le_less_mono = thm"add_le_less_mono";
paulson@14331
  1594
val add_less_imp_less_left = thm"add_less_imp_less_left";
paulson@14331
  1595
val add_less_imp_less_right = thm"add_less_imp_less_right";
paulson@14331
  1596
val add_less_cancel_left = thm"add_less_cancel_left";
paulson@14331
  1597
val add_less_cancel_right = thm"add_less_cancel_right";
paulson@14331
  1598
val add_le_cancel_left = thm"add_le_cancel_left";
paulson@14331
  1599
val add_le_cancel_right = thm"add_le_cancel_right";
paulson@14331
  1600
val add_le_imp_le_left = thm"add_le_imp_le_left";
paulson@14331
  1601
val add_le_imp_le_right = thm"add_le_imp_le_right";
paulson@14331
  1602
val le_imp_neg_le = thm"le_imp_neg_le";
paulson@14331
  1603
val neg_le_iff_le = thm"neg_le_iff_le";
paulson@14331
  1604
val neg_le_0_iff_le = thm"neg_le_0_iff_le";
paulson@14331
  1605
val neg_0_le_iff_le = thm"neg_0_le_iff_le";
paulson@14331
  1606
val neg_less_iff_less = thm"neg_less_iff_less";
paulson@14331
  1607
val neg_less_0_iff_less = thm"neg_less_0_iff_less";
paulson@14331
  1608
val neg_0_less_iff_less = thm"neg_0_less_iff_less";
paulson@14331
  1609
val less_minus_iff = thm"less_minus_iff";
paulson@14331
  1610
val minus_less_iff = thm"minus_less_iff";
paulson@14331
  1611
val le_minus_iff = thm"le_minus_iff";
paulson@14331
  1612
val minus_le_iff = thm"minus_le_iff";
paulson@14331
  1613
val add_diff_eq = thm"add_diff_eq";
paulson@14331
  1614
val diff_add_eq = thm"diff_add_eq";
paulson@14331
  1615
val diff_eq_eq = thm"diff_eq_eq";
paulson@14331
  1616
val eq_diff_eq = thm"eq_diff_eq";
paulson@14331
  1617
val diff_diff_eq = thm"diff_diff_eq";
paulson@14331
  1618
val diff_diff_eq2 = thm"diff_diff_eq2";
paulson@14331
  1619
val less_iff_diff_less_0 = thm"less_iff_diff_less_0";
paulson@14331
  1620
val diff_less_eq = thm"diff_less_eq";
paulson@14331
  1621
val less_diff_eq = thm"less_diff_eq";
paulson@14331
  1622
val diff_le_eq = thm"diff_le_eq";
paulson@14331
  1623
val le_diff_eq = thm"le_diff_eq";
paulson@14331
  1624
val eq_iff_diff_eq_0 = thm"eq_iff_diff_eq_0";
paulson@14331
  1625
val le_iff_diff_le_0 = thm"le_iff_diff_le_0";
paulson@14331
  1626
val eq_add_iff1 = thm"eq_add_iff1";
paulson@14331
  1627
val eq_add_iff2 = thm"eq_add_iff2";
paulson@14331
  1628
val less_add_iff1 = thm"less_add_iff1";
paulson@14331
  1629
val less_add_iff2 = thm"less_add_iff2";
paulson@14331
  1630
val le_add_iff1 = thm"le_add_iff1";
paulson@14331
  1631
val le_add_iff2 = thm"le_add_iff2";
paulson@14334
  1632
val mult_strict_left_mono = thm"mult_strict_left_mono";
paulson@14331
  1633
val mult_strict_right_mono = thm"mult_strict_right_mono";
paulson@14331
  1634
val mult_left_mono = thm"mult_left_mono";
paulson@14331
  1635
val mult_right_mono = thm"mult_right_mono";
paulson@14348
  1636
val mult_left_le_imp_le = thm"mult_left_le_imp_le";
paulson@14348
  1637
val mult_right_le_imp_le = thm"mult_right_le_imp_le";
paulson@14348
  1638
val mult_left_less_imp_less = thm"mult_left_less_imp_less";
paulson@14348
  1639
val mult_right_less_imp_less = thm"mult_right_less_imp_less";
paulson@14331
  1640
val mult_strict_left_mono_neg = thm"mult_strict_left_mono_neg";
paulson@14331
  1641
val mult_strict_right_mono_neg = thm"mult_strict_right_mono_neg";
paulson@14331
  1642
val mult_pos = thm"mult_pos";
paulson@14331
  1643
val mult_pos_neg = thm"mult_pos_neg";
paulson@14331
  1644
val mult_neg = thm"mult_neg";
paulson@14331
  1645
val zero_less_mult_pos = thm"zero_less_mult_pos";
paulson@14331
  1646
val zero_less_mult_iff = thm"zero_less_mult_iff";
paulson@14331
  1647
val mult_eq_0_iff = thm"mult_eq_0_iff";
paulson@14331
  1648
val zero_le_mult_iff = thm"zero_le_mult_iff";
paulson@14331
  1649
val mult_less_0_iff = thm"mult_less_0_iff";
paulson@14331
  1650
val mult_le_0_iff = thm"mult_le_0_iff";
paulson@14331
  1651
val zero_le_square = thm"zero_le_square";
paulson@14331
  1652
val zero_less_one = thm"zero_less_one";
paulson@14331
  1653
val zero_le_one = thm"zero_le_one";
paulson@14331
  1654
val mult_left_mono_neg = thm"mult_left_mono_neg";
paulson@14331
  1655
val mult_right_mono_neg = thm"mult_right_mono_neg";
paulson@14331
  1656
val mult_strict_mono = thm"mult_strict_mono";
paulson@14331
  1657
val mult_strict_mono' = thm"mult_strict_mono'";
paulson@14331
  1658
val mult_mono = thm"mult_mono";
paulson@14331
  1659
val mult_less_cancel_right = thm"mult_less_cancel_right";
paulson@14331
  1660
val mult_less_cancel_left = thm"mult_less_cancel_left";
paulson@14331
  1661
val mult_le_cancel_right = thm"mult_le_cancel_right";
paulson@14331
  1662
val mult_le_cancel_left = thm"mult_le_cancel_left";
paulson@14331
  1663
val mult_less_imp_less_left = thm"mult_less_imp_less_left";
paulson@14331
  1664
val mult_less_imp_less_right = thm"mult_less_imp_less_right";
paulson@14331
  1665
val mult_cancel_right = thm"mult_cancel_right";
paulson@14331
  1666
val mult_cancel_left = thm"mult_cancel_left";
paulson@14331
  1667
val left_inverse = thm "left_inverse";
paulson@14331
  1668
val right_inverse = thm"right_inverse";
paulson@14331
  1669
val right_inverse_eq = thm"right_inverse_eq";
paulson@14331
  1670
val nonzero_inverse_eq_divide = thm"nonzero_inverse_eq_divide";
paulson@14331
  1671
val divide_self = thm"divide_self";
paulson@14331
  1672
val divide_inverse_zero = thm"divide_inverse_zero";
paulson@14331
  1673
val divide_zero_left = thm"divide_zero_left";
paulson@14331
  1674
val inverse_eq_divide = thm"inverse_eq_divide";
paulson@14331
  1675
val nonzero_add_divide_distrib = thm"nonzero_add_divide_distrib";
paulson@14331
  1676
val add_divide_distrib = thm"add_divide_distrib";
paulson@14331
  1677
val field_mult_eq_0_iff = thm"field_mult_eq_0_iff";
paulson@14331
  1678
val field_mult_cancel_right = thm"field_mult_cancel_right";
paulson@14331
  1679
val field_mult_cancel_left = thm"field_mult_cancel_left";
paulson@14331
  1680
val nonzero_imp_inverse_nonzero = thm"nonzero_imp_inverse_nonzero";
paulson@14331
  1681
val inverse_zero_imp_zero = thm"inverse_zero_imp_zero";
paulson@14331
  1682
val inverse_nonzero_imp_nonzero = thm"inverse_nonzero_imp_nonzero";
paulson@14331
  1683
val inverse_nonzero_iff_nonzero = thm"inverse_nonzero_iff_nonzero";
paulson@14331
  1684
val nonzero_inverse_minus_eq = thm"nonzero_inverse_minus_eq";
paulson@14331
  1685
val inverse_minus_eq = thm"inverse_minus_eq";
paulson@14331
  1686
val nonzero_inverse_eq_imp_eq = thm"nonzero_inverse_eq_imp_eq";
paulson@14331
  1687
val inverse_eq_imp_eq = thm"inverse_eq_imp_eq";
paulson@14331
  1688
val inverse_eq_iff_eq = thm"inverse_eq_iff_eq";
paulson@14331
  1689
val nonzero_inverse_inverse_eq = thm"nonzero_inverse_inverse_eq";
paulson@14331
  1690
val inverse_inverse_eq = thm"inverse_inverse_eq";
paulson@14331
  1691
val inverse_1 = thm"inverse_1";
paulson@14331
  1692
val nonzero_inverse_mult_distrib = thm"nonzero_inverse_mult_distrib";
paulson@14331
  1693
val inverse_mult_distrib = thm"inverse_mult_distrib";
paulson@14331
  1694
val inverse_add = thm"inverse_add";
paulson@14331
  1695
val nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_left = thm"nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_left";
paulson@14331
  1696
val mult_divide_cancel_left = thm"mult_divide_cancel_left";
paulson@14331
  1697
val nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_right = thm"nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_right";
paulson@14331
  1698
val mult_divide_cancel_right = thm"mult_divide_cancel_right";
paulson@14331
  1699
val mult_divide_cancel_eq_if = thm"mult_divide_cancel_eq_if";
paulson@14331
  1700
val divide_1 = thm"divide_1";
paulson@14331
  1701
val times_divide_eq_right = thm"times_divide_eq_right";
paulson@14331
  1702
val times_divide_eq_left = thm"times_divide_eq_left";
paulson@14331
  1703
val divide_divide_eq_right = thm"divide_divide_eq_right";
paulson@14331
  1704
val divide_divide_eq_left = thm"divide_divide_eq_left";
paulson@14331
  1705
val nonzero_minus_divide_left = thm"nonzero_minus_divide_left";
paulson@14331
  1706
val nonzero_minus_divide_right = thm"nonzero_minus_divide_right";
paulson@14331
  1707
val nonzero_minus_divide_divide = thm"nonzero_minus_divide_divide";
paulson@14331
  1708
val minus_divide_left = thm"minus_divide_left";
paulson@14331
  1709
val minus_divide_right = thm"minus_divide_right";
paulson@14331
  1710
val minus_divide_divide = thm"minus_divide_divide";
paulson@14331
  1711
val positive_imp_inverse_positive = thm"positive_imp_inverse_positive";
paulson@14331
  1712
val negative_imp_inverse_negative = thm"negative_imp_inverse_negative";
paulson@14331
  1713
val inverse_le_imp_le = thm"inverse_le_imp_le";
paulson@14331
  1714
val inverse_positive_imp_positive = thm"inverse_positive_imp_positive";
paulson@14331
  1715
val inverse_positive_iff_positive = thm"inverse_positive_iff_positive";
paulson@14331
  1716
val inverse_negative_imp_negative = thm"inverse_negative_imp_negative";
paulson@14331
  1717
val inverse_negative_iff_negative = thm"inverse_negative_iff_negative";
paulson@14331
  1718
val inverse_nonnegative_iff_nonnegative = thm"inverse_nonnegative_iff_nonnegative";
paulson@14331
  1719
val inverse_nonpositive_iff_nonpositive = thm"inverse_nonpositive_iff_nonpositive";
paulson@14331
  1720
val less_imp_inverse_less = thm"less_imp_inverse_less";
paulson@14331
  1721
val inverse_less_imp_less = thm"inverse_less_imp_less";
paulson@14331
  1722
val inverse_less_iff_less = thm"inverse_less_iff_less";
paulson@14331
  1723
val le_imp_inverse_le = thm"le_imp_inverse_le";
paulson@14331
  1724
val inverse_le_iff_le = thm"inverse_le_iff_le";
paulson@14331
  1725
val inverse_le_imp_le_neg = thm"inverse_le_imp_le_neg";
paulson@14331
  1726
val less_imp_inverse_less_neg = thm"less_imp_inverse_less_neg";
paulson@14331
  1727
val inverse_less_imp_less_neg = thm"inverse_less_imp_less_neg";
paulson@14331
  1728
val inverse_less_iff_less_neg = thm"inverse_less_iff_less_neg";
paulson@14331
  1729
val le_imp_inverse_le_neg = thm"le_imp_inverse_le_neg";
paulson@14331
  1730
val inverse_le_iff_le_neg = thm"inverse_le_iff_le_neg";
paulson@14331
  1731
val zero_less_divide_iff = thm"zero_less_divide_iff";
paulson@14331
  1732
val divide_less_0_iff = thm"divide_less_0_iff";
paulson@14331
  1733
val zero_le_divide_iff = thm"zero_le_divide_iff";
paulson@14331
  1734
val divide_le_0_iff = thm"divide_le_0_iff";
paulson@14331
  1735
val divide_eq_0_iff = thm"divide_eq_0_iff";
paulson@14331
  1736
val pos_le_divide_eq = thm"pos_le_divide_eq";
paulson@14331
  1737
val neg_le_divide_eq = thm"neg_le_divide_eq";
paulson@14331
  1738
val le_divide_eq = thm"le_divide_eq";
paulson@14331
  1739
val pos_divide_le_eq = thm"pos_divide_le_eq";
paulson@14331
  1740
val neg_divide_le_eq = thm"neg_divide_le_eq";
paulson@14331
  1741
val divide_le_eq = thm"divide_le_eq";
paulson@14331
  1742
val pos_less_divide_eq = thm"pos_less_divide_eq";
paulson@14331
  1743
val neg_less_divide_eq = thm"neg_less_divide_eq";
paulson@14331
  1744
val less_divide_eq = thm"less_divide_eq";
paulson@14331
  1745
val pos_divide_less_eq = thm"pos_divide_less_eq";
paulson@14331
  1746
val neg_divide_less_eq = thm"neg_divide_less_eq";
paulson@14331
  1747
val divide_less_eq = thm"divide_less_eq";
paulson@14331
  1748
val nonzero_eq_divide_eq = thm"nonzero_eq_divide_eq";
paulson@14331
  1749
val eq_divide_eq = thm"eq_divide_eq";
paulson@14331
  1750
val nonzero_divide_eq_eq = thm"nonzero_divide_eq_eq";
paulson@14331
  1751
val divide_eq_eq = thm"divide_eq_eq";
paulson@14331
  1752
val divide_cancel_right = thm"divide_cancel_right";
paulson@14331
  1753
val divide_cancel_left = thm"divide_cancel_left";
paulson@14331
  1754
val divide_strict_right_mono = thm"divide_strict_right_mono";
paulson@14331
  1755
val divide_right_mono = thm"divide_right_mono";
paulson@14331
  1756
val divide_strict_left_mono = thm"divide_strict_left_mono";
paulson@14331
  1757
val divide_left_mono = thm"divide_left_mono";
paulson@14331
  1758
val divide_strict_left_mono_neg = thm"divide_strict_left_mono_neg";
paulson@14331
  1759
val divide_strict_right_mono_neg = thm"divide_strict_right_mono_neg";
paulson@14331
  1760
val zero_less_two = thm"zero_less_two";
paulson@14331
  1761
val less_half_sum = thm"less_half_sum";
paulson@14331
  1762
val gt_half_sum = thm"gt_half_sum";
paulson@14331
  1763
val dense = thm"dense";
paulson@14331
  1764
val abs_zero = thm"abs_zero";
paulson@14331
  1765
val abs_one = thm"abs_one";
paulson@14331
  1766
val abs_mult = thm"abs_mult";
paulson@14348
  1767
val abs_mult_self = thm"abs_mult_self";
paulson@14331
  1768
val abs_eq_0 = thm"abs_eq_0";
paulson@14331
  1769
val zero_less_abs_iff = thm"zero_less_abs_iff";
paulson@14331
  1770
val abs_not_less_zero = thm"abs_not_less_zero";
paulson@14331
  1771
val abs_le_zero_iff = thm"abs_le_zero_iff";
paulson@14331
  1772
val abs_minus_cancel = thm"abs_minus_cancel";
paulson@14331
  1773
val abs_ge_zero = thm"abs_ge_zero";
paulson@14331
  1774
val abs_idempotent = thm"abs_idempotent";
paulson@14331
  1775
val abs_zero_iff = thm"abs_zero_iff";
paulson@14331
  1776
val abs_ge_self = thm"abs_ge_self";
paulson@14331
  1777
val abs_ge_minus_self = thm"abs_ge_minus_self";
paulson@14331
  1778
val nonzero_abs_inverse = thm"nonzero_abs_inverse";
paulson@14331
  1779
val abs_inverse = thm"abs_inverse";
paulson@14331
  1780
val nonzero_abs_divide = thm"nonzero_abs_divide";
paulson@14331
  1781
val abs_divide = thm"abs_divide";
paulson@14331
  1782
val abs_leI = thm"abs_leI";
paulson@14331
  1783
val le_minus_self_iff = thm"le_minus_self_iff";
paulson@14331
  1784
val minus_le_self_iff = thm"minus_le_self_iff";
paulson@14331
  1785
val eq_minus_self_iff = thm"eq_minus_self_iff";
paulson@14331
  1786
val less_minus_self_iff = thm"less_minus_self_iff";
paulson@14331
  1787
val abs_le_D1 = thm"abs_le_D1";
paulson@14331
  1788
val abs_le_D2 = thm"abs_le_D2";
paulson@14331
  1789
val abs_le_iff = thm"abs_le_iff";
paulson@14331
  1790
val abs_less_iff = thm"abs_less_iff";
paulson@14331
  1791
val abs_triangle_ineq = thm"abs_triangle_ineq";
paulson@14331
  1792
val abs_mult_less = thm"abs_mult_less";
paulson@14331
  1793
paulson@14331
  1794
val compare_rls = thms"compare_rls";
paulson@14331
  1795
*}
paulson@14331
  1796
paulson@14293
  1797
paulson@14265
  1798
end