NEWS
author wenzelm
Sat Oct 04 17:40:56 2008 +0200 (2008-10-04)
changeset 28504 7ad7d7d6df47
parent 28475 ed1385cb2e01
child 28522 eacb54d9e78d
permissions -rw-r--r--
simplified main Isabelle executables: removed Isabelle and isabelle (replaced by isabelle-process), renamed isatool to isabelle;
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Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
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==============================================
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New in this Isabelle version
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----------------------------
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*** General ***
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* Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
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case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
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  - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
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    "isatool."
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  - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
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    removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
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  - The "Isabelle" alias for "isabelle-interface" has been removed.
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Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
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ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
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respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
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Also note that user interfaces are now better wrapped as regular
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Isabelle tools instead of using the special isabelle-interface wrapper
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(which can be confusing if the interface is uninstalled or changed
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otherwise).  See "isabelle tty" and "isabelle emacs" for contemporary
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examples.
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INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
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purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
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install -p ...", or use symlinks.
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* The Isabelle System Manual (system) has been updated, with formally
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checked references as hyperlinks.
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* Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
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addressing etc.
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* Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
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Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
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makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
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* Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
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interface instead.
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*** Pure ***
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* Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
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  unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
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  unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
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* Different bookkeeping for code equations:
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  a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular constant
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     is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other parts of the
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     code generator framework).
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  b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code attribute)
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     gain priority over default code equations stemming from definition, primrec,
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     fun etc.
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  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Global versions of theorems stemming from classes do not carry
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a parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Dropped "locale (open)".  INCOMPATBILITY.
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* Interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
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INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
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methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
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* Interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation attributes.
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INCOMPATBILITY.
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* Command 'instance': attached definitions no longer accepted.
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INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target.
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* Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
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context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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*** Document preparation ***
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* Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
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demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
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syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
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*** HOL ***
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* Wrapper script for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
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sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.).  See also
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ISABELLE_HOME/contrib/SystemOnTPTP and the VAMPIRE_HOME setting
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variable.
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* Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
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Declare with attribute [code nbe].
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* Command "value" now integrates different evaluation
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mechanisms.  The result of the first successful evaluation mechanism
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is printed.  In square brackets a particular named evaluation
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mechanisms may be specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See
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further src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
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* HOL/Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit induction
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rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of "wellorder" by
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means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* HOL/Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
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INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
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etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
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preorder_class.*.
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* HOL/Ring_and_Field and HOL/Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
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moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
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dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
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of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
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semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
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renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
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    dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
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    zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
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    DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
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    DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
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    mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
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    mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
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* HOL/Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
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zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
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the HOL Distribution.  zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and ilcm;
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corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILY.  To
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recover tupled syntax, use syntax declarations like:
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    hide (open) const gcd
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    abbreviation gcd where
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      "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
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    notation (output)
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      GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
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(analogously for lcm, zgcd, zlcm).
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* HOL/Real/Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* New ML antiquotation @{code}: takes constant as argument, generates
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corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
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resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
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All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
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simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
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instrumentalizing code generation.  See HOL/ex/Code_Antiq for a toy
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example, or HOL/Complex/ex/ReflectedFerrack for a more ambitious
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application.  In future you ought refrain from ad-hoc compiling
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generated SML code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical
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reasons) @{code} cannot refer to constants for which user-defined
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serializations are set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart
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directly in that cases.
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* Integrated image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry points Main.thy and
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Complex_Main.thy remain as they are.
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* New image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
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tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  By convention
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the corresponding theory Plain should be ancestor of every further
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(library) theory.  Some library theories now have ancestor Plain
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(instead of Main), thus theory Main occasionally has to be imported
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explicitly.
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* The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
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an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
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* Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
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as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
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corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
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are now presented as a list of individual projections
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(e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
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explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
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rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
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elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
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rule: prod.exhaust) here.
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* Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
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* Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
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* Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
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takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
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represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
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proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
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have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
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    unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
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    prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
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    sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
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    Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
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    Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
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* Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
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instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
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theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
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menu.
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*** HOL-Algebra ***
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* New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
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  is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and
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  lattice locales use a record structure with field eq for the
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  equivalence.
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* New theory of factorial domains.
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* Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simprules by default.
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INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
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and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
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* Renamed the following theorems.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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UpperD ~> Upper_memD
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LowerD ~> Lower_memD
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least_carrier ~> least_closed
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greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
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greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
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one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
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one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
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*** HOL-NSA ***
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* Created new image HOL-NSA, containing theories of nonstandard
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analysis which were previously part of HOL-Complex.  Entry point
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Hyperreal.thy remains valid, but theories formerly using
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Complex_Main.thy should now use new entry point Hypercomplex.thy.
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*** ZF ***
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* Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
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*** ML ***
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* Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
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to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
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name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
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is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
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accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
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the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
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* ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
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context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
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become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
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top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
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INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
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compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
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theory. [Poly/ML 5.2 or later]
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* Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
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context. Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
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a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
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ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
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proof.  [Poly/ML 5.2 or later]
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* Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
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transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
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for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
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theory state.
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* Name bindings in higher specification mechanisms (notably
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LocalTheory.define, LocalTheory.note, and derived packages) are now
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formalized as type Name.binding, replacing old bstring.
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INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap strings via Name.binding function, see
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also Name.name_of.  Packages should pass name bindings given by the
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user to underlying specification mechanisms; this enables precise
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tracking of source positions, for example.
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* Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
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LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
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bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
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* Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
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res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
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context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
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the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
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thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
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Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
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Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
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use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
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Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
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resort for legacy applications.
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* Antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
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\<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
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  @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
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  @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
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  @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
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  @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
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  @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
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  @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
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  @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
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  @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
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  @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
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*** System ***
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* Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1 is no longer supported, only for
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Poly/ML 5.2 or later.
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* The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
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Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
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installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
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isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
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installation location of the Proof General distribution.
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* Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
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the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
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Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
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process wrapper has been discontinued.)
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* Status messages (with exact source position information) are
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emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
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user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
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prover operations.
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* Homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see Isabelle/lib/fonts.
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New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
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-------------------------------
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*** General ***
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* The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
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and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
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* Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
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implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
wenzelm@25994
   345
conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
wenzelm@25994
   346
provides a proper context already.
wenzelm@25994
   347
wenzelm@26323
   348
* Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
wenzelm@26323
   349
file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
wenzelm@26323
   350
'use' within a theory file will do the job.
wenzelm@26323
   351
wenzelm@26650
   352
* Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
wenzelm@26650
   353
is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
wenzelm@26659
   354
space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
wenzelm@26650
   355
swap theory imports.
wenzelm@26650
   356
wenzelm@27067
   357
* Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
wenzelm@27067
   358
INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
wenzelm@27067
   359
wenzelm@27067
   360
* Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
wenzelm@27067
   361
which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
wenzelm@27067
   362
white space without escapes.
wenzelm@27067
   363
wenzelm@27067
   364
* Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
wenzelm@27067
   365
specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
wenzelm@27067
   366
"foo_bar".
wenzelm@27067
   367
wenzelm@25522
   368
haftmann@25502
   369
*** Pure ***
haftmann@25502
   370
wenzelm@26718
   371
* Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
wenzelm@26718
   372
fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
wenzelm@26718
   373
berghofe@26681
   374
* Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
berghofe@26681
   375
There are three ways of invoking it:
berghofe@26681
   376
berghofe@26681
   377
(1) unused_thms
berghofe@26681
   378
     Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
berghofe@26681
   379
berghofe@26681
   380
(2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
berghofe@26681
   381
     Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
berghofe@26681
   382
     excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
berghofe@26681
   383
berghofe@26681
   384
(3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
berghofe@26681
   385
     Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
berghofe@26681
   386
     their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
berghofe@26681
   387
     their ancestors.
berghofe@26681
   388
wenzelm@26718
   389
In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
wenzelm@26718
   390
unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
wenzelm@26874
   391
of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
wenzelm@26874
   392
to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
wenzelm@26718
   393
this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
wenzelm@26718
   394
reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
wenzelm@26718
   395
unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
wenzelm@26718
   396
wenzelm@26718
   397
Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
wenzelm@26718
   398
unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
wenzelm@26874
   399
usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
berghofe@26681
   400
wenzelm@26650
   401
* Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
wenzelm@26650
   402
theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
wenzelm@26650
   403
duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
wenzelm@26650
   404
that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
wenzelm@26650
   405
PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
wenzelm@26650
   406
wenzelm@26660
   407
* Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
wenzelm@26660
   408
wenzelm@26496
   409
* Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
wenzelm@26496
   410
clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
wenzelm@26496
   411
update of theories within ML code.
wenzelm@26479
   412
wenzelm@26955
   413
* Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
wenzelm@26955
   414
INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
wenzelm@26955
   415
additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
wenzelm@26955
   416
depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
wenzelm@26650
   417
wenzelm@26495
   418
* Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
wenzelm@26479
   419
theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
wenzelm@26479
   420
instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
wenzelm@26479
   421
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@26479
   422
wenzelm@26874
   423
* Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
wenzelm@26434
   424
wenzelm@25970
   425
* Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
wenzelm@25970
   426
instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
wenzelm@25970
   427
Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
wenzelm@27067
   428
See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
wenzelm@27067
   429
src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
haftmann@25502
   430
wenzelm@26201
   431
* Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
wenzelm@26201
   432
facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
wenzelm@26201
   433
background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
wenzelm@26201
   434
"fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
wenzelm@26201
   435
situations.
wenzelm@26201
   436
wenzelm@26925
   437
* Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
wenzelm@26925
   438
"(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
wenzelm@26925
   439
proof text.
wenzelm@26925
   440
wenzelm@26925
   441
* Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
wenzelm@26925
   442
INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
wenzelm@26925
   443
wenzelm@26874
   444
* Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
wenzelm@26874
   445
hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
wenzelm@26874
   446
predicates.
ballarin@26765
   447
ballarin@26765
   448
haftmann@26762
   449
*** Document preparation ***
haftmann@26762
   450
wenzelm@26914
   451
* Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
wenzelm@26914
   452
both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
wenzelm@26914
   453
obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
wenzelm@26914
   454
spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
wenzelm@26920
   455
value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
wenzelm@26920
   456
"a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
wenzelm@26914
   457
wenzelm@27008
   458
* Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
wenzelm@27008
   459
method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
wenzelm@27008
   460
arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
haftmann@26762
   461
haftmann@26762
   462
wenzelm@25464
   463
*** HOL ***
wenzelm@25464
   464
wenzelm@27067
   465
* New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
wenzelm@27067
   466
definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
wenzelm@27067
   467
"primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
wenzelm@27067
   468
by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
wenzelm@27067
   469
When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
wenzelm@27067
   470
primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
wenzelm@27067
   471
wenzelm@27067
   472
* Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
wenzelm@27067
   473
with multithreading.
wenzelm@27067
   474
wenzelm@27067
   475
* Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
wenzelm@27067
   476
theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
wenzelm@27067
   477
exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
wenzelm@27067
   478
wenzelm@27067
   479
* Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
wenzelm@27067
   480
enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
wenzelm@27067
   481
reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
wenzelm@27067
   482
sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@27067
   483
haftmann@27104
   484
* Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
wenzelm@27067
   485
from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
wenzelm@27067
   486
out some operations that are done internally by the function package
wenzelm@27067
   487
and makes them available separately.  See
wenzelm@27067
   488
src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
wenzelm@27067
   489
wenzelm@27067
   490
* More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
wenzelm@27067
   491
proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
wenzelm@27067
   492
form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
wenzelm@27067
   493
The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
wenzelm@27067
   494
just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
wenzelm@27067
   495
termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
wenzelm@27067
   496
type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
wenzelm@27067
   497
the declared rules.
wenzelm@27067
   498
wenzelm@27067
   499
This setup also deals with rules like 
wenzelm@27067
   500
wenzelm@27067
   501
  "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
wenzelm@27067
   502
wenzelm@27067
   503
which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
wenzelm@27067
   504
Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
wenzelm@27067
   505
berghofe@26964
   506
* Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
berghofe@26964
   507
berghofe@26964
   508
  INCOMPATIBILITIES:
berghofe@26964
   509
wenzelm@27008
   510
  - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
wenzelm@27008
   511
    definitions on => and bool.
berghofe@26964
   512
berghofe@26964
   513
  - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
wenzelm@27008
   514
    using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
wenzelm@27008
   515
    the following theorems have been renamed:
berghofe@26964
   516
berghofe@26964
   517
      subset_def   -> subset_eq
berghofe@26964
   518
      psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
berghofe@26964
   519
      set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
berghofe@26964
   520
      Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
berghofe@26964
   521
      Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
berghofe@26964
   522
      Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
berghofe@26964
   523
      sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
berghofe@26964
   524
      inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
berghofe@26964
   525
berghofe@26964
   526
  - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
berghofe@26964
   527
    rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
berghofe@26964
   528
    the unknowns in the rule is a set.
berghofe@26964
   529
berghofe@26964
   530
  - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
berghofe@26964
   531
    The proof pattern
berghofe@26964
   532
berghofe@26964
   533
      have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
berghofe@26964
   534
      then have "EX S. P S" ..
berghofe@26964
   535
wenzelm@27008
   536
    no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
wenzelm@27008
   537
    algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
berghofe@26964
   538
berghofe@26964
   539
      have "EX S. P S"
berghofe@26964
   540
      proof
berghofe@26964
   541
        show "P S" <...>
berghofe@26964
   542
      qed
berghofe@26964
   543
berghofe@26964
   544
  - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
berghofe@26964
   545
    The proof pattern
berghofe@26964
   546
berghofe@26964
   547
      have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
berghofe@26964
   548
      also have "S = T" <...>
berghofe@26964
   549
      finally have "P T" .
berghofe@26964
   550
wenzelm@27008
   551
    no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
wenzelm@27008
   552
    must be replaced by something like
berghofe@26964
   553
berghofe@26964
   554
      have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
berghofe@26964
   555
      moreover have "S = T" <...>
berghofe@26964
   556
      ultimately have "P T" by simp
berghofe@26964
   557
berghofe@26964
   558
  - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
berghofe@26964
   559
    Code performing pattern matching on types via
berghofe@26964
   560
berghofe@26964
   561
      Type ("set", [T]) => ...
berghofe@26964
   562
wenzelm@27008
   563
    must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
wenzelm@27008
   564
    binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
wenzelm@27008
   565
    type of the form
berghofe@26964
   566
berghofe@26964
   567
      T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
berghofe@26964
   568
berghofe@26964
   569
    rather than
berghofe@26964
   570
berghofe@26964
   571
      T1 => ... => Tn => U set
berghofe@26964
   572
wenzelm@26874
   573
* Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
wenzelm@27067
   574
Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
krauss@26748
   575
haftmann@26513
   576
* Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@26513
   577
wenzelm@26874
   578
* Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
wenzelm@26874
   579
enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
haftmann@26445
   580
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@26445
   581
wenzelm@26874
   582
* Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
wenzelm@26874
   583
and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@26874
   584
wenzelm@26422
   585
* HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
wenzelm@26422
   586
Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@26422
   587
wenzelm@26874
   588
* Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
wenzelm@26874
   589
injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
wenzelm@26874
   590
Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@26355
   591
wenzelm@26335
   592
* Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
wenzelm@26335
   593
the same name in theory Orderings:
wenzelm@26335
   594
wenzelm@26335
   595
  less_trans
wenzelm@26335
   596
  less_linear
wenzelm@26335
   597
  le_imp_less_or_eq
wenzelm@26335
   598
  le_less_trans
wenzelm@26335
   599
  less_le_trans
wenzelm@26335
   600
  less_not_sym
wenzelm@26335
   601
  less_asym
wenzelm@26335
   602
wenzelm@26335
   603
Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
wenzelm@26335
   604
less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
wenzelm@26335
   605
and different variable names.
wenzelm@26315
   606
haftmann@26231
   607
* Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
haftmann@26231
   608
wenzelm@27008
   609
* Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
wenzelm@27008
   610
finite maps.
krauss@26197
   611
haftmann@26231
   612
* Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
haftmann@26231
   613
wenzelm@26180
   614
* Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
wenzelm@26180
   615
operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
wenzelm@26180
   616
disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
wenzelm@26180
   617
place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
wenzelm@26180
   618
involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
wenzelm@26180
   619
accordingly.
wenzelm@26180
   620
wenzelm@26180
   621
* Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
wenzelm@26180
   622
depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
wenzelm@26180
   623
le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
wenzelm@26180
   624
[symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
wenzelm@26180
   625
wenzelm@26180
   626
* Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
wenzelm@26180
   627
(whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
wenzelm@26874
   628
abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
wenzelm@26180
   629
ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
wenzelm@26180
   630
lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
haftmann@26139
   631
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@26041
   632
wenzelm@26180
   633
* Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
wenzelm@26180
   634
case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@26180
   635
wenzelm@26180
   636
* Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
wenzelm@26180
   637
lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
wenzelm@26180
   638
Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
haftmann@26013
   639
wenzelm@26874
   640
* Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
wenzelm@27067
   641
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@25961
   642
wenzelm@26180
   643
* Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
haftmann@25942
   644
with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
haftmann@25942
   645
wenzelm@26180
   646
* Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
wenzelm@26180
   647
Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@26180
   648
wenzelm@26180
   649
* Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
wenzelm@26180
   650
numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@26180
   651
wenzelm@26180
   652
* New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
wenzelm@26180
   653
"minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
haftmann@25919
   654
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@25919
   655
wenzelm@25522
   656
* Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
haftmann@25919
   657
syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@25522
   658
wenzelm@25522
   659
* Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
wenzelm@25522
   660
le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
wenzelm@25522
   661
sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
wenzelm@25522
   662
Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
wenzelm@25522
   663
Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
haftmann@25919
   664
equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@25464
   665
schirmer@25705
   666
* Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
wenzelm@25726
   667
%x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
schirmer@25705
   668
INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
wenzelm@25464
   669
wenzelm@27067
   670
* Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
wenzelm@27067
   671
wenzelm@27067
   672
* Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
wenzelm@27067
   673
wenzelm@27067
   674
* Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
wenzelm@27067
   675
pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
wenzelm@27067
   676
well-orders on sets and on types.
krauss@26877
   677
wenzelm@25726
   678
krauss@26197
   679
*** ZF ***
krauss@26197
   680
wenzelm@26874
   681
* Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
wenzelm@26874
   682
same session:
wenzelm@26874
   683
wenzelm@26874
   684
  Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
wenzelm@26874
   685
  Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
wenzelm@26874
   686
  Int       -> Int_ZF
wenzelm@26874
   687
  IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
wenzelm@26874
   688
  Nat       -> Nat_ZF
wenzelm@26874
   689
  List      -> List_ZF
wenzelm@26874
   690
  Main      -> Main_ZF
wenzelm@26874
   691
wenzelm@26874
   692
INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
wenzelm@26874
   693
Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
wenzelm@26874
   694
available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
krauss@26197
   695
krauss@26197
   696
wenzelm@25737
   697
*** ML ***
wenzelm@25737
   698
wenzelm@27067
   699
* ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
wenzelm@27067
   700
name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
wenzelm@27067
   701
wenzelm@26401
   702
* Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
wenzelm@26724
   703
(of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
wenzelm@26401
   704
wenzelm@27067
   705
* Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
wenzelm@26188
   706
wenzelm@25737
   707
* The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
wenzelm@25737
   708
template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
wenzelm@25737
   709
non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
wenzelm@25737
   710
management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
wenzelm@25737
   711
print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@25737
   712
wenzelm@26874
   713
* Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
wenzelm@27008
   714
shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML 5.2).
wenzelm@26874
   715
Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
wenzelm@26222
   716
wenzelm@25737
   717
wenzelm@25626
   718
*** System ***
wenzelm@25626
   719
wenzelm@25971
   720
* Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
wenzelm@25971
   721
in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
wenzelm@25970
   722
wenzelm@25626
   723
* isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
wenzelm@25626
   724
optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
wenzelm@25626
   725
setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
wenzelm@25626
   726
wenzelm@25651
   727
* isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
wenzelm@25651
   728
"javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
wenzelm@25651
   729
wenzelm@27067
   730
* YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
wenzelm@27067
   731
standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
wenzelm@27067
   732
isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
wenzelm@25651
   733
wenzelm@25652
   734
* JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
wenzelm@25651
   735
provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
wenzelm@25651
   736
fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
wenzelm@25651
   737
wenzelm@25855
   738
* Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
wenzelm@25855
   739
based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
wenzelm@25855
   740
wenzelm@27067
   741
* Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
wenzelm@27067
   742
way of changing the user's settings is via
wenzelm@27067
   743
ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
wenzelm@27067
   744
script.
wenzelm@27067
   745
wenzelm@27067
   746
* Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
wenzelm@27067
   747
cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
wenzelm@27067
   748
optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
wenzelm@27067
   749
"max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
wenzelm@27067
   750
of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
wenzelm@27067
   751
wenzelm@27067
   752
* isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
wenzelm@27067
   753
adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
wenzelm@27067
   754
ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
wenzelm@27067
   755
wenzelm@25626
   756
wenzelm@25464
   757
wenzelm@25429
   758
New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
wenzelm@25429
   759
-----------------------------------
wenzelm@17754
   760
wenzelm@17754
   761
*** General ***
wenzelm@17754
   762
wenzelm@22826
   763
* More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
wenzelm@22826
   764
warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
wenzelm@23367
   765
tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
wenzelm@23367
   766
legacy features will disappear eventually.
wenzelm@22826
   767
wenzelm@17918
   768
* Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
wenzelm@17918
   769
discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
wenzelm@17918
   770
fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@17918
   771
wenzelm@17918
   772
* Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
wenzelm@17918
   773
discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
wenzelm@17918
   774
with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
wenzelm@17918
   775
function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@17918
   776
wenzelm@22871
   777
* Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
wenzelm@22871
   778
'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
wenzelm@22871
   779
quotes.
wenzelm@19814
   780
wenzelm@23888
   781
* Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
wenzelm@23888
   782
header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
wenzelm@24172
   783
accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
wenzelm@24172
   784
update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
wenzelm@24172
   785
use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
wenzelm@24172
   786
theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
wenzelm@24172
   787
specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
wenzelm@24172
   788
INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
wenzelm@24172
   789
ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
wenzelm@23888
   790
wenzelm@23888
   791
* Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
wenzelm@23888
   792
identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
wenzelm@23889
   793
path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
wenzelm@23888
   794
(cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
wenzelm@23888
   795
non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
wenzelm@23888
   796
files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
wenzelm@23888
   797
wenzelm@24187
   798
* Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
wenzelm@24187
   799
file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
wenzelm@24800
   800
feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
wenzelm@24800
   801
no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
wenzelm@24800
   802
wenzelm@24800
   803
* Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
wenzelm@24800
   804
now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
wenzelm@24234
   805
specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
wenzelm@24234
   806
syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
wenzelm@24234
   807
type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
wenzelm@24234
   808
'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
wenzelm@24234
   809
wenzelm@25034
   810
* Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
wenzelm@25034
   811
'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
wenzelm@25034
   812
``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
wenzelm@25034
   813
really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
wenzelm@25034
   814
ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
wenzelm@25034
   815
trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
wenzelm@25034
   816
translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
wenzelm@25034
   817
@{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
wenzelm@25034
   818
wenzelm@17981
   819
* Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
wenzelm@17981
   820
to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
wenzelm@17981
   821
functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
wenzelm@17981
   822
by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
wenzelm@17981
   823
Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
wenzelm@17981
   824
these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
wenzelm@17981
   825
used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
wenzelm@17918
   826
wenzelm@23379
   827
* Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
wenzelm@23379
   828
criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
wenzelm@23379
   829
support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
webertj@22965
   830
wenzelm@20370
   831
* The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
wenzelm@20370
   832
by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
wenzelm@20370
   833
suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
wenzelm@20370
   834
settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
wenzelm@20370
   835
older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
wenzelm@20370
   836
limit is imposed.
wenzelm@20370
   837
wenzelm@21308
   838
* Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
wenzelm@21308
   839
``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
wenzelm@21308
   840
contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
wenzelm@21308
   841
that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
wenzelm@21308
   842
generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
wenzelm@21308
   843
and scalability.
wenzelm@21308
   844
wenzelm@21960
   845
* Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
wenzelm@21960
   846
discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
wenzelm@21960
   847
wenzelm@17754
   848
wenzelm@17865
   849
*** Document preparation ***
wenzelm@17865
   850
wenzelm@21717
   851
* Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
wenzelm@21717
   852
after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
wenzelm@21717
   853
current context.
haftmann@21339
   854
wenzelm@17869
   855
* Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
wenzelm@17869
   856
check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
wenzelm@17865
   857
wenzelm@21717
   858
* Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
wenzelm@21717
   859
"c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
wenzelm@21735
   860
arguments may be given on the LHS.)
wenzelm@21717
   861
wenzelm@21717
   862
wenzelm@17779
   863
*** Pure ***
wenzelm@17779
   864
wenzelm@24800
   865
* The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
wenzelm@25129
   866
achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
wenzelm@25129
   867
theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
wenzelm@25129
   868
implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
wenzelm@25129
   869
constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
wenzelm@25129
   870
context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
wenzelm@25129
   871
syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
wenzelm@25129
   872
between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
wenzelm@25177
   873
See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
haftmann@25184
   874
"isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
wenzelm@20807
   875
haftmann@25199
   876
* Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
wenzelm@24800
   877
code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
wenzelm@24800
   878
sketch:
haftmann@20188
   879
haftmann@20188
   880
    internal compilation:
haftmann@25199
   881
        export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
haftmann@20453
   882
    writing SML code to a file:
haftmann@25199
   883
        export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
haftmann@22735
   884
    writing OCaml code to a file:
haftmann@25199
   885
        export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
haftmann@20188
   886
    writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
haftmann@25199
   887
        export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
haftmann@25199
   888
haftmann@25199
   889
    evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
haftmann@25184
   890
        method ``eval''
haftmann@25184
   891
haftmann@25184
   892
Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
haftmann@20453
   893
haftmann@20453
   894
Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
haftmann@20453
   895
haftmann@22845
   896
    [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
haftmann@22845
   897
    [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
haftmann@22845
   898
    [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
haftmann@22845
   899
    [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
haftmann@20453
   900
haftmann@22735
   901
User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
haftmann@20453
   902
haftmann@20453
   903
    code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
haftmann@20453
   904
      {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
haftmann@20453
   905
haftmann@20453
   906
    code_type <and-list of type constructors>
haftmann@20453
   907
      {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
haftmann@20453
   908
haftmann@20453
   909
    code_instance <and-list of instances>
haftmann@20453
   910
      {(target)}+
haftmann@20453
   911
        where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
haftmann@20453
   912
haftmann@20453
   913
    code_class <and_list of classes>
haftmann@20453
   914
      {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
haftmann@20453
   915
        where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
haftmann@20453
   916
haftmann@25199
   917
code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
haftmann@22735
   918
wenzelm@25177
   919
For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
wenzelm@25177
   920
src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
wenzelm@24800
   921
generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
wenzelm@24800
   922
codegen".
haftmann@20188
   923
wenzelm@25129
   924
* Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
wenzelm@25129
   925
referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
wenzelm@25129
   926
annotations).
wenzelm@25129
   927
wenzelm@19254
   928
* Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
wenzelm@19254
   929
syntax.
wenzelm@19254
   930
wenzelm@19625
   931
* Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
wenzelm@19714
   932
dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
wenzelm@19714
   933
that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
wenzelm@19714
   934
correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
wenzelm@19714
   935
INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
wenzelm@19714
   936
exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
wenzelm@19711
   937
wenzelm@19711
   938
Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
wenzelm@19711
   939
instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
wenzelm@19711
   940
declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
wenzelm@19711
   941
c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
wenzelm@19711
   942
as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
wenzelm@19711
   943
recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
wenzelm@19714
   944
impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
wenzelm@19715
   945
LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
wenzelm@19714
   946
Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
wenzelm@19714
   947
equations, see section "definitions".
wenzelm@19625
   948
wenzelm@24086
   949
* Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
wenzelm@24086
   950
context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
wenzelm@24086
   951
interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
wenzelm@24110
   952
declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
wenzelm@24110
   953
these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
wenzelm@24110
   954
associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
wenzelm@24110
   955
declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
wenzelm@24110
   956
'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
wenzelm@24110
   957
very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
wenzelm@24110
   958
toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
wenzelm@24086
   959
wenzelm@24172
   960
Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
wenzelm@24172
   961
configuration options:
wenzelm@24172
   962
wenzelm@24172
   963
  Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
wenzelm@24172
   964
  Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
wenzelm@24172
   965
  Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
wenzelm@24172
   966
  Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
wenzelm@24172
   967
  Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
wenzelm@24172
   968
  Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
wenzelm@24172
   969
  DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
wenzelm@24172
   970
  fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
wenzelm@24172
   971
  fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
wenzelm@24172
   972
wenzelm@24086
   973
* Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
wenzelm@24800
   974
data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
wenzelm@24086
   975
src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
wenzelm@24110
   976
attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
wenzelm@24110
   977
just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
wenzelm@24110
   978
for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
wenzelm@24110
   979
order.
wenzelm@24086
   980
wenzelm@24032
   981
* Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
wenzelm@24032
   982
declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
wenzelm@24032
   983
being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
wenzelm@24032
   984
difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
wenzelm@24032
   985
context encountered later on.
wenzelm@24032
   986
wenzelm@24032
   987
* Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
wenzelm@24032
   988
'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
wenzelm@24032
   989
text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
wenzelm@24032
   990
context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
wenzelm@24032
   991
wenzelm@24032
   992
* Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
wenzelm@24032
   993
abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
wenzelm@24032
   994
which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
wenzelm@24032
   995
the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
wenzelm@24032
   996
declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
wenzelm@24032
   997
'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
wenzelm@24032
   998
wenzelm@23369
   999
* Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
wenzelm@23369
  1000
takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
wenzelm@23369
  1001
an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
wenzelm@23369
  1002
assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
wenzelm@23369
  1003
goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
wenzelm@23369
  1004
without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
wenzelm@23369
  1005
Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
wenzelm@23369
  1006
more permissive.
wenzelm@23369
  1007
wenzelm@23369
  1008
* Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
wenzelm@23369
  1009
considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
wenzelm@23369
  1010
may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
wenzelm@23369
  1011
referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
wenzelm@23369
  1012
maintainability of proof texts.
wenzelm@23369
  1013
wenzelm@17865
  1014
* Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
wenzelm@17865
  1015
the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
wenzelm@17865
  1016
wenzelm@17865
  1017
  assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
wenzelm@17865
  1018
  then guess x and y by clarify
wenzelm@17865
  1019
wenzelm@17865
  1020
This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
wenzelm@17865
  1021
proof tools being involved here.
wenzelm@17865
  1022
wenzelm@18020
  1023
* Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
wenzelm@18020
  1024
propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
wenzelm@18020
  1025
named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
wenzelm@18020
  1026
methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
wenzelm@18020
  1027
according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
wenzelm@18020
  1028
provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
wenzelm@18020
  1029
theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
wenzelm@18020
  1030
`A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
wenzelm@18020
  1031
wenzelm@18020
  1032
There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
wenzelm@18044
  1033
for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
wenzelm@18044
  1034
certain special cases of literal facts:
wenzelm@18020
  1035
wenzelm@18020
  1036
  have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
wenzelm@18020
  1037
  have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
wenzelm@18020
  1038
  have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
wenzelm@18020
  1039
  have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
wenzelm@18020
  1040
wenzelm@20118
  1041
* Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
wenzelm@20118
  1042
outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
wenzelm@20118
  1043
additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
wenzelm@20118
  1044
wenzelm@20013
  1045
* Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
wenzelm@20013
  1046
both named and unnamed ones.
wenzelm@20013
  1047
wenzelm@18308
  1048
* Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
wenzelm@18308
  1049
wenzelm@18308
  1050
  def x == "t" and y == "u"
wenzelm@18308
  1051
wenzelm@18540
  1052
* Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
wenzelm@18540
  1053
'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
wenzelm@18815
  1054
rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
wenzelm@18540
  1055
'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
wenzelm@18540
  1056
wenzelm@18815
  1057
* Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
wenzelm@18815
  1058
and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
wenzelm@18815
  1059
(potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
wenzelm@18815
  1060
analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
wenzelm@18815
  1061
Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
wenzelm@18815
  1062
kleing@24238
  1063
* Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
kleing@24238
  1064
premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
kleing@24238
  1065
wenzelm@19220
  1066
* Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
wenzelm@19220
  1067
method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
wenzelm@19240
  1068
sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
wenzelm@19240
  1069
simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
wenzelm@19240
  1070
simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
wenzelm@19240
  1071
originally first one.
wenzelm@19220
  1072
wenzelm@19814
  1073
* Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
wenzelm@19814
  1074
patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
wenzelm@19814
  1075
expected.
wenzelm@19814
  1076
wenzelm@18901
  1077
* Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
wenzelm@18901
  1078
'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
wenzelm@18901
  1079
(essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
wenzelm@18901
  1080
assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
wenzelm@18910
  1081
adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
wenzelm@18901
  1082
wenzelm@18901
  1083
  lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
wenzelm@18901
  1084
    assumes "EX x. P x"
wenzelm@18901
  1085
    obtains x where "P x"
wenzelm@18901
  1086
wenzelm@18901
  1087
  lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
wenzelm@18901
  1088
    assumes "A & B"
wenzelm@18901
  1089
    obtains A and B
wenzelm@18901
  1090
wenzelm@18901
  1091
  lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
wenzelm@18901
  1092
    assumes "A | B"
wenzelm@18901
  1093
    obtains
wenzelm@18901
  1094
      A
wenzelm@18901
  1095
    | B
wenzelm@18901
  1096
wenzelm@18910
  1097
The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
wenzelm@18901
  1098
explicitly:
wenzelm@18901
  1099
wenzelm@18901
  1100
  lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
wenzelm@18901
  1101
    obtains "~ thesis"
wenzelm@18901
  1102
wenzelm@18910
  1103
  lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
wenzelm@18910
  1104
    obtains "thesis ==> something"
wenzelm@18901
  1105
wenzelm@18901
  1106
The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
wenzelm@18910
  1107
Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
wenzelm@18910
  1108
Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
wenzelm@18910
  1109
available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
wenzelm@18910
  1110
resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
wenzelm@18910
  1111
case_names).
wenzelm@18901
  1112
wenzelm@21447
  1113
* Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
wenzelm@21447
  1114
"assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
wenzelm@21447
  1115
(historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
wenzelm@21447
  1116
context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
wenzelm@21447
  1117
wenzelm@19263
  1118
* Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
wenzelm@19263
  1119
proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
wenzelm@19263
  1120
top-level lemma.
wenzelm@19263
  1121
wenzelm@18901
  1122
* Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
wenzelm@18901
  1123
introduction rule (default "that").
wenzelm@18901
  1124
wenzelm@19587
  1125
* Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
wenzelm@19587
  1126
explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
wenzelm@19587
  1127
to occur.
wenzelm@19587
  1128
wenzelm@19682
  1129
* Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
wenzelm@19682
  1130
according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
wenzelm@19682
  1131
syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
wenzelm@19682
  1132
representations independently of name spaces.
wenzelm@19682
  1133
wenzelm@21537
  1134
* Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
wenzelm@21537
  1135
instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
wenzelm@21537
  1136
in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@21537
  1137
wenzelm@21209
  1138
* Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
wenzelm@21209
  1139
primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
wenzelm@24950
  1140
fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
wenzelm@24950
  1141
of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
wenzelm@24950
  1142
'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
wenzelm@24950
  1143
current context.
wenzelm@19682
  1144
wenzelm@19665
  1145
* Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
wenzelm@19665
  1146
'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
wenzelm@19083
  1147
object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
wenzelm@19083
  1148
isar-ref manual.  Examples:
wenzelm@19081
  1149
wenzelm@19665
  1150
  axiomatization
wenzelm@21595
  1151
    eq  (infix "===" 50) where
wenzelm@21595
  1152
    eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
wenzelm@21595
  1153
wenzelm@21595
  1154
  definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
wenzelm@21595
  1155
  definition g where "g x = f x x"
wenzelm@19081
  1156
wenzelm@19363
  1157
  abbreviation
wenzelm@21595
  1158
    neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
wenzelm@19363
  1159
    "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
wenzelm@19081
  1160
wenzelm@19083
  1161
These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
wenzelm@19083
  1162
constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
wenzelm@19083
  1163
constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
wenzelm@19083
  1164
abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
wenzelm@19088
  1165
parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
wenzelm@25177
  1166
src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
wenzelm@19083
  1167
entities from a monomorphic theory.
wenzelm@19083
  1168
wenzelm@19083
  1169
Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
wenzelm@19363
  1170
not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
wenzelm@19363
  1171
'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
wenzelm@24735
  1172
'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
wenzelm@24735
  1173
prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
wenzelm@19084
  1174
wenzelm@19682
  1175
Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
wenzelm@19682
  1176
independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
wenzelm@21209
  1177
slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
wenzelm@19682
  1178
'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
wenzelm@19665
  1179
wenzelm@24800
  1180
* Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
wenzelm@24800
  1181
(e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
wenzelm@24800
  1182
full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
wenzelm@24735
  1183
wenzelm@24735
  1184
  definition "K x _ = x"
wenzelm@24735
  1185
wenzelm@24738
  1186
  inductive conj for A B
wenzelm@24738
  1187
  where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
wenzelm@24738
  1188
wenzelm@21735
  1189
* Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
wenzelm@21735
  1190
the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
wenzelm@21735
  1191
abbreviations on output.
wenzelm@21735
  1192
wenzelm@24800
  1193
* Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
wenzelm@24800
  1194
"struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
wenzelm@24800
  1195
required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
wenzelm@24800
  1196
endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
ballarin@19783
  1197
ballarin@19931
  1198
* Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
ballarin@19931
  1199
Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
wenzelm@22126
  1200
now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
wenzelm@22126
  1201
locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
wenzelm@22126
  1202
predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
wenzelm@22126
  1203
removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
wenzelm@22126
  1204
`unfold_locales'; see below.
wenzelm@22126
  1205
wenzelm@22126
  1206
* Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
wenzelm@22126
  1207
provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
wenzelm@22126
  1208
aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
wenzelm@22126
  1209
`intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
wenzelm@22126
  1210
unfold predicates to assumptions.
ballarin@19931
  1211
ballarin@19931
  1212
* Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
wenzelm@22126
  1213
has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
wenzelm@22126
  1214
to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
ballarin@19931
  1215
ballarin@23920
  1216
* Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
ballarin@23920
  1217
extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
ballarin@23920
  1218
unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
ballarin@23920
  1219
defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
ballarin@23920
  1220
concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
ballarin@23920
  1221
ballarin@23920
  1222
  interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
ballarin@23920
  1223
    where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
ballarin@23920
  1224
wenzelm@24800
  1225
Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
wenzelm@24800
  1226
definition specification element in the context of locale
wenzelm@24800
  1227
partial_order.
wenzelm@24800
  1228
wenzelm@24859
  1229
* Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
wenzelm@24800
  1230
local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
wenzelm@24800
  1231
connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
wenzelm@24800
  1232
(using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
wenzelm@24800
  1233
obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
wenzelm@25177
  1234
src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
wenzelm@25177
  1235
src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
wenzelm@25177
  1236
examples.
wenzelm@24606
  1237
wenzelm@24859
  1238
* Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
wenzelm@24606
  1239
introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
wenzelm@24606
  1240
several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
wenzelm@24606
  1241
accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
wenzelm@25177
  1242
see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
wenzelm@24606
  1243
wenzelm@24859
  1244
* Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
wenzelm@24800
  1245
of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
wenzelm@24606
  1246
foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
wenzelm@24859
  1247
predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
wenzelm@24859
  1248
mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
wenzelm@18506
  1249
wenzelm@18506
  1250
  (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
wenzelm@18506
  1251
  (induct set: foo bar)
wenzelm@24859
  1252
  (induct pred: foo bar)
wenzelm@18506
  1253
  (induct type: foo bar)
wenzelm@18506
  1254
wenzelm@18506
  1255
The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
wenzelm@18506
  1256
new format.
wenzelm@18506
  1257
wenzelm@24859
  1258
* Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
wenzelm@18399
  1259
src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
wenzelm@18399
  1260
wenzelm@24859
  1261
* Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
wenzelm@24859
  1262
considered a legacy feature.
wenzelm@24859
  1263
wenzelm@20919
  1264
* Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
wenzelm@20919
  1265
variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@20919
  1266
wenzelm@22126
  1267
* Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
wenzelm@22126
  1268
rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
wenzelm@22126
  1269
default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
wenzelm@22126
  1270
trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
nipkow@18674
  1271
  
wenzelm@18536
  1272
* Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
wenzelm@18536
  1273
attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
wenzelm@18536
  1274
manipulating the claset.
wenzelm@18536
  1275
wenzelm@18694
  1276
* Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
wenzelm@18694
  1277
dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
wenzelm@18694
  1278
least one premise.
wenzelm@18694
  1279
wenzelm@18694
  1280
* Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
wenzelm@18695
  1281
weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
wenzelm@18696
  1282
ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
wenzelm@18694
  1283
rule steps.
paulson@18557
  1284
wenzelm@18536
  1285
* Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
wenzelm@18536
  1286
where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
wenzelm@18536
  1287
patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
wenzelm@18536
  1288
"{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
wenzelm@18536
  1289
INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
wenzelm@18536
  1290
constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
wenzelm@18536
  1291
wenzelm@18536
  1292
* Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
wenzelm@18536
  1293
parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
wenzelm@18536
  1294
for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
wenzelm@17779
  1295
wenzelm@20582
  1296
* Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
wenzelm@20582
  1297
the graph browser tool.
wenzelm@20582
  1298
wenzelm@24800
  1299
* Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
wenzelm@24800
  1300
default; use '!' option for full details.
wenzelm@20620
  1301
wenzelm@17865
  1302
nipkow@17806
  1303
*** HOL ***
nipkow@17806
  1304
wenzelm@25129
  1305
* Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
wenzelm@25129
  1306
resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
wenzelm@25129
  1307
Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
wenzelm@25129
  1308
Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
wenzelm@25129
  1309
multi-threading.
wenzelm@25129
  1310
  
wenzelm@25129
  1311
* Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
wenzelm@25129
  1312
background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
wenzelm@25129
  1313
successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
wenzelm@25129
  1314
wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
wenzelm@25129
  1315
work with multi-threading.
wenzelm@25129
  1316
wenzelm@24804
  1317
* New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
wenzelm@24804
  1318
potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
wenzelm@24804
  1319
auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
wenzelm@25129
  1320
5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
wenzelm@25129
  1321
executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
wenzelm@24804
  1322
haftmann@25184
  1323
* New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
haftmann@25184
  1324
haftmann@25184
  1325
* Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
haftmann@25184
  1326
equality.
haftmann@25184
  1327
haftmann@25184
  1328
* Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
haftmann@25184
  1329
the new 'class' package:
haftmann@25184
  1330
haftmann@25184
  1331
    HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
haftmann@25184
  1332
    HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
haftmann@25184
  1333
    0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
haftmann@25184
  1334
    1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
haftmann@25184
  1335
    op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
haftmann@25184
  1336
    op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
haftmann@25184
  1337
    uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
haftmann@25184
  1338
    op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
haftmann@25184
  1339
    op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
haftmann@25184
  1340
    op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
haftmann@25184
  1341
    Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
haftmann@25184
  1342
    Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
haftmann@25184
  1343
    Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
haftmann@25184
  1344
    FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
haftmann@25184
  1345
    FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
haftmann@25184
  1346
    Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
haftmann@25184
  1347
    Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
haftmann@25184
  1348
    Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
haftmann@25184
  1349
    Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
haftmann@25184
  1350
    Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
haftmann@25184
  1351
haftmann@25184
  1352
INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
haftmann@25184
  1353
haftmann@25184
  1354
a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
haftmann@25184
  1355
"times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
haftmann@25184
  1356
"+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
haftmann@25184
  1357
names.
haftmann@25184
  1358
haftmann@25184
  1359
b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
haftmann@25184
  1360
INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
haftmann@25184
  1361
haftmann@25184
  1362
c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
haftmann@25184
  1363
Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
haftmann@25184
  1364
rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
haftmann@25184
  1365
that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
haftmann@25184
  1366
distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
haftmann@25184
  1367
haftmann@25184
  1368
d) ML code directly refering to constant names
haftmann@25184
  1369
This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
haftmann@25184
  1370
so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
haftmann@25184
  1371
Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
haftmann@25184
  1372
haftmann@25184
  1373
* New class "default" with associated constant "default".
haftmann@25184
  1374
haftmann@25184
  1375
* Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
haftmann@25184
  1376
(and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
haftmann@25184
  1377
sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
haftmann@25184
  1378
sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
haftmann@25184
  1379
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@25184
  1380
haftmann@25184
  1381
* Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
haftmann@25184
  1382
Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@25184
  1383
haftmann@25184
  1384
* Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
haftmann@25184
  1385
"cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
haftmann@25184
  1386
clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@25184
  1387
haftmann@25184
  1388
* Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
haftmann@25184
  1389
changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
haftmann@25184
  1390
haftmann@25184
  1391
* The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
haftmann@25184
  1392
for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
haftmann@25184
  1393
in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
haftmann@25184
  1394
Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
haftmann@25184
  1395
is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
haftmann@25184
  1396
command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
haftmann@25184
  1397
in the current context.
haftmann@25184
  1398
haftmann@25184
  1399
* Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
haftmann@25184
  1400
lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
haftmann@25184
  1401
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@25184
  1402
haftmann@25184
  1403
* Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
haftmann@25184
  1404
with new class dense_linear_order.
haftmann@25184
  1405
haftmann@25184
  1406
* Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
haftmann@25184
  1407
haftmann@25184
  1408
    constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
haftmann@25184
  1409
    constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
haftmann@25184
  1410
haftmann@25184
  1411
    classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
haftmann@25184
  1412
      "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
haftmann@25184
  1413
    class "lorder" now named "lattice"
haftmann@25184
  1414
    class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
haftmann@25184
  1415
haftmann@25184
  1416
    Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
haftmann@25184
  1417
    for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
haftmann@25184
  1418
haftmann@25184
  1419
  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
haftmann@25184
  1420
haftmann@25184
  1421
    meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
haftmann@25184
  1422
    meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
haftmann@25184
  1423
    join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
haftmann@25184
  1424
    join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
haftmann@25184
  1425
    meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
haftmann@25184
  1426
    le_meetI                ~> le_infI
haftmann@25184
  1427
    join_leI                ~> le_supI
haftmann@25184
  1428
    le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
haftmann@25184
  1429
    le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
haftmann@25184
  1430
    meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
haftmann@25184
  1431
    join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
haftmann@25184
  1432
    meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
haftmann@25184
  1433
    join_comm               ~> sup_commute
haftmann@25184
  1434
    meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
haftmann@25184
  1435
    meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
haftmann@25184
  1436
    le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
haftmann@25184
  1437
    le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
haftmann@25184
  1438
    meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
haftmann@25184
  1439
    join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
haftmann@25184
  1440
    meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
haftmann@25184
  1441
    meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
haftmann@25184
  1442
    join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
haftmann@25184
  1443
    join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
haftmann@25184
  1444
    meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
haftmann@25184
  1445
    join_aci                ~> sup_aci
haftmann@25184
  1446
    le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
haftmann@25184
  1447
    le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
haftmann@25184
  1448
    join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
haftmann@25184
  1449
    join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
haftmann@25184
  1450
    meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
haftmann@25184
  1451
    meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
haftmann@25184
  1452
    meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
haftmann@25184
  1453
    join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
haftmann@25184
  1454
    distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
haftmann@25184
  1455
    distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
haftmann@25184
  1456
haftmann@25184
  1457
    add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
haftmann@25184
  1458
    add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
haftmann@25184
  1459
    is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
haftmann@25184
  1460
    is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
haftmann@25184
  1461
    add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
haftmann@25184
  1462
    add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
haftmann@25184
  1463
    add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
haftmann@25184
  1464
    join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
haftmann@25184
  1465
    meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
haftmann@25184
  1466
    add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
haftmann@25184
  1467
    meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
haftmann@25184
  1468
    join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
haftmann@25184
  1469
    meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
haftmann@25184
  1470
    join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
haftmann@25184
  1471
    neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
haftmann@25184
  1472
    neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
haftmann@25184
  1473
    join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
haftmann@25184
  1474
haftmann@25184
  1475
    mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
haftmann@25184
  1476
    mono_join               ~> mono_sup
haftmann@25184
  1477
    meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
haftmann@25184
  1478
    join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
haftmann@25184
  1479
    meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
haftmann@25184
  1480
    join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
haftmann@25184
  1481
    meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
haftmann@25184
  1482
    join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
haftmann@25184
  1483
    meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
haftmann@25184
  1484
    meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
haftmann@25184
  1485
    meet1I                  ~> inf1I
haftmann@25184
  1486
    meet2I                  ~> inf2I
haftmann@25184
  1487
    meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
haftmann@25184
  1488
    meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
haftmann@25184
  1489
    meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
haftmann@25184
  1490
    meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
haftmann@25184
  1491
    meet1E                  ~> inf1E
haftmann@25184
  1492
    meet2E                  ~> inf2E
haftmann@25184
  1493
    join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
haftmann@25184
  1494
    join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
haftmann@25184
  1495
    join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
haftmann@25184
  1496
    join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
haftmann@25184
  1497
    join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
haftmann@25184
  1498
    join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
haftmann@25184
  1499
    join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
haftmann@25184
  1500
    join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
haftmann@25184
  1501
    join1E                  ~> sup1E
haftmann@25184
  1502
    join2E                  ~> sup2E
haftmann@25184
  1503
haftmann@25184
  1504
    is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
haftmann@25184
  1505
    Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
haftmann@25184
  1506
    Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
haftmann@25184
  1507
    Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
haftmann@25184
  1508
    Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
haftmann@25184
  1509
    Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
haftmann@25184
  1510
haftmann@25184
  1511
    Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
haftmann@25184
  1512
    Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
haftmann@25184
  1513
    Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
haftmann@25184
  1514
    Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
haftmann@25184
  1515
haftmann@25184
  1516
    listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
haftmann@25184
  1517
    listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
haftmann@25184
  1518
haftmann@25184
  1519
    meet_min                ~> inf_min
haftmann@25184
  1520
    join_max                ~> sup_max
haftmann@25184
  1521
haftmann@25184
  1522
* Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
haftmann@25184
  1523
type "'a::size ==> bool"
haftmann@25184
  1524
wenzelm@24800
  1525
* Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
wenzelm@24800
  1526
"foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
wenzelm@24800
  1527
simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
haftmann@25184
  1528
"*.size".
haftmann@25184
  1529
haftmann@25184
  1530
* Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
haftmann@25184
  1531
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
  1532
wenzelm@24800
  1533
* HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
wenzelm@24800
  1534
Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
wenzelm@24800
  1535
fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
  1536
wenzelm@25129
  1537
* HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@25129
  1538
wenzelm@24800
  1539
* HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
wenzelm@24800
  1540
machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
wenzelm@24800
  1541
operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
wenzelm@24800
  1542
linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
wenzelm@24800
  1543
lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
wenzelm@24800
  1544
arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
wenzelm@24800
  1545
numerals on all operations.
kleing@24333
  1546
kleing@24333
  1547
* Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
kleing@24333
  1548
kleing@24333
  1549
* Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
kleing@24333
  1550
haftmann@23850
  1551
* Code generator library theories:
haftmann@24993
  1552
  - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
haftmann@23850
  1553
    languages.
haftmann@24993
  1554
  - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
haftmann@23850
  1555
    languages.
haftmann@24993
  1556
  - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
haftmann@24993
  1557
    codes; includes Code_Integer.
wenzelm@24800
  1558
  - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
wenzelm@24800
  1559
  - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
haftmann@23850
  1560
    denominator).
wenzelm@24800
  1561
  - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
haftmann@23850
  1562
    representable by rational numbers.
wenzelm@24800
  1563
  - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
haftmann@23850
  1564
    result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
haftmann@24993
  1565
    includes Code_Integer.
haftmann@24993
  1566
  - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
haftmann@24993
  1567
    target-language built-in integers.
haftmann@26355
  1568
  - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
haftmann@24993
  1569
    strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
haftmann@23850
  1570
berghofe@23783
  1571
* New package for inductive predicates
berghofe@23783
  1572
berghofe@23783
  1573
  An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
berghofe@23783
  1574
berghofe@23783
  1575
    inductive
berghofe@23783
  1576
      p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
berghofe@23783
  1577
      for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
berghofe@23783
  1578
    where
berghofe@23783
  1579
      rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
berghofe@23783
  1580
    | ...
berghofe@23783
  1581
wenzelm@24800
  1582
  with full support for type-inference, rather than
berghofe@23783
  1583
berghofe@23783
  1584
    consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
berghofe@23783
  1585
berghofe@23783
  1586
    abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
berghofe@23783
  1587
    where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
berghofe@23783
  1588
berghofe@23783
  1589
    inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
berghofe@23783
  1590
    intros
berghofe@23783
  1591
      rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
berghofe@23783
  1592
      ...
berghofe@23783
  1593
berghofe@23783
  1594
  For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
berghofe@23783
  1595
  sets to be defined with the new package via
berghofe@23783
  1596
berghofe@23783
  1597
    inductive_set
berghofe@23783
  1598
      s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
berghofe@23783
  1599
      for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
berghofe@23783
  1600
    where
berghofe@23783
  1601
      rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
berghofe@23783
  1602
    | ...
berghofe@23783
  1603
berghofe@23783
  1604
  or
berghofe@23783
  1605
berghofe@23783
  1606
    inductive_set
berghofe@23783
  1607
      s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
berghofe@23783
  1608
      and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
berghofe@23783
  1609
      for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
berghofe@23783
  1610
    where
berghofe@23783
  1611
      "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
berghofe@23783
  1612
    | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
berghofe@23783
  1613
    | ...
berghofe@23783
  1614
berghofe@23783
  1615
  if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
berghofe@23783
  1616
wenzelm@25177
  1617
  Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
wenzelm@25177
  1618
  src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
berghofe@23783
  1619
berghofe@23783
  1620
  INCOMPATIBILITIES:
berghofe@23783
  1621
berghofe@23783
  1622
  - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
wenzelm@24800
  1623
    is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
wenzelm@24800
  1624
    introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
wenzelm@24800
  1625
    introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
wenzelm@24800
  1626
    than before the actual inductive definition.
wenzelm@24800
  1627
wenzelm@24800
  1628
  - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
wenzelm@24800
  1629
    quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
wenzelm@24800
  1630
    rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
wenzelm@24800
  1631
    some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
wenzelm@24800
  1632
    reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
wenzelm@24800
  1633
    statements of the form
berghofe@23783
  1634
berghofe@23783
  1635
      case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
berghofe@23783
  1636
berghofe@23783
  1637
    or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
berghofe@23783
  1638
    meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
berghofe@23783
  1639
berghofe@23783
  1640
      | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
berghofe@23783
  1641
berghofe@23783
  1642
  - The format of the elimination rules is now
berghofe@23783
  1643
berghofe@23783
  1644
      p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
berghofe@23783
  1645
        (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
berghofe@23783
  1646
        ==> ... ==> P
berghofe@23783
  1647
berghofe@23783
  1648
    for predicates and
berghofe@23783
  1649
berghofe@23783
  1650
      (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
berghofe@23783
  1651
        (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
berghofe@23783
  1652
        ==> ... ==> P
berghofe@23783
  1653
berghofe@23783
  1654
    for sets rather than
berghofe@23783
  1655
berghofe@23783
  1656
      x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
berghofe@23783
  1657
        (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
berghofe@23783
  1658
        ==> ... ==> P
berghofe@23783
  1659
wenzelm@24800
  1660
    This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
wenzelm@24800
  1661
    (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
wenzelm@24800
  1662
    rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
wenzelm@24800
  1663
wenzelm@24800
  1664
  - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
wenzelm@24800
  1665
    sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
wenzelm@24800
  1666
    list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
berghofe@23783
  1667
krauss@25198
  1668
* New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
krauss@25198
  1669
supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
krauss@25198
  1670
more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
krauss@25198
  1671
for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
krauss@25198
  1672
package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
krauss@25198
  1673
users are encouraged to use the new package.
krauss@25198
  1674
krauss@25198
  1675
* Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
krauss@25198
  1676
relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
krauss@25198
  1677
wenzelm@24800
  1678
* Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
wenzelm@24800
  1679
"_") and take their order into account, like in functional
wenzelm@24800
  1680
programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
wenzelm@24800
  1681
case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
wenzelm@24800
  1682
constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
wenzelm@24800
  1683
the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
wenzelm@24800
  1684
the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
wenzelm@24800
  1685
abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
wenzelm@24800
  1686
variable.
nipkow@23564
  1687
huffman@23468
  1688
* IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
wenzelm@24800
  1689
is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
wenzelm@24800
  1690
rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
wenzelm@24800
  1691
previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
huffman@23468
  1692
  - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
huffman@23468
  1693
  - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
huffman@23377
  1694
chaieb@23295
  1695
* Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
wenzelm@24800
  1696
Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
wenzelm@24800
  1697
tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
wenzelm@24800
  1698
a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
wenzelm@24800
  1699
declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
wenzelm@24800
  1700
already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
wenzelm@24800
  1701
of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
wenzelm@24800
  1702
CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
wenzelm@24800
  1703
architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
wenzelm@24800
  1704
wenzelm@25033
  1705
* Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
wenzelm@25033
  1706
special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
wenzelm@25033
  1707
"algebra"). The method is already installed for class
wenzelm@25033
  1708
{ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
wenzelm@25033
  1709
rat, etc.
wenzelm@25033
  1710
wenzelm@24800
  1711
* Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
wenzelm@24800
  1712
antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
wenzelm@24800
  1713
circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
wenzelm@24800
  1714
haftmann@24996
  1715
* primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
haftmann@22845
  1716
wenzelm@24800
  1717
* New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
wenzelm@24800
  1718
Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
wenzelm@24800
  1719
wenzelm@24800
  1720
* New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
wenzelm@25177
  1721
[(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
wenzelm@24800
  1722
wenzelm@24800
  1723
* The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
wenzelm@24800
  1724
xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
wenzelm@24800
  1725
comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
  1726
wenzelm@24800
  1727
* [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
wenzelm@24800
  1728
defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
wenzelm@24800
  1729
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
  1730
wenzelm@24800
  1731
* Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
wenzelm@24800
  1732
wenzelm@25177
  1733
* New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
wenzelm@24800
  1734
wenzelm@24800
  1735
* New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
wenzelm@24800
  1736
manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
wenzelm@24800
  1737
denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
wenzelm@24800
  1738
positive/negative (in inequations).
nipkow@23480
  1739
nipkow@23480
  1740
* Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
wenzelm@24800
  1741
have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
wenzelm@24800
  1742
ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
wenzelm@24800
  1743
because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
  1744
wenzelm@25177
  1745
* Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
wenzelm@24800
  1746
package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
wenzelm@24800
  1747
algebraic operations.
haftmann@22735
  1748
wenzelm@24800
  1749
* Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
haftmann@22218
  1750
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@22218
  1751
wenzelm@24800
  1752
* Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
haftmann@22218
  1753
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@22218
  1754
wenzelm@22126
  1755
* HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
wenzelm@22126
  1756
field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
wenzelm@22126
  1757
(K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
schirmer@21226
  1758
INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
schirmer@21226
  1759
adapted.
schirmer@21226
  1760
 
wenzelm@24800
  1761
* Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
wenzelm@24800
  1762
* x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
wenzelm@24800
  1763
inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
wenzelm@24800
  1764
there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
wenzelm@24800
  1765
there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
wenzelm@24800
  1766
wenzelm@24800
  1767
* Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
wenzelm@24800
  1768
commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
haftmann@25163
  1769
commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
haftmann@21215
  1770
haftmann@21099
  1771
* Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
wenzelm@24800
  1772
INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
wenzelm@24800
  1773
better use 'abbreviation'.
wenzelm@24800
  1774
wenzelm@24800
  1775
* Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
  1776
wenzelm@22126
  1777
* Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
wenzelm@24800
  1778
been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
wenzelm@22126
  1779
significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
wenzelm@24800
  1780
  - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
haftmann@20485
  1781
      of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
haftmann@20485
  1782
  - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
haftmann@20485
  1783
  - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
haftmann@20485
  1784
  - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
haftmann@20485
  1785
wenzelm@25177
  1786
See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
wenzelm@25177
  1787
wenzelm@25177
  1788
* Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
wenzelm@25177
  1789
contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
wenzelm@25177
  1790
produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
wenzelm@25177
  1791
heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
wenzelm@25177
  1792
first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
wenzelm@25177
  1793
further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
nipkow@19895
  1794
wenzelm@17996
  1795
* Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
wenzelm@17996
  1796
25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
wenzelm@17996
  1797
"A = B" (with priority 50).
wenzelm@17996
  1798
wenzelm@21265
  1799
* Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
wenzelm@21265
  1800
Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
wenzelm@24800
  1801
e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
wenzelm@24800
  1802
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@21265
  1803
nipkow@18674
  1804
* "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
nipkow@18674
  1805
krauss@20716
  1806
* Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
krauss@20716
  1807
stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
krauss@20716
  1808
wenzelm@22126
  1809
* The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
wenzelm@22126
  1810
removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
nipkow@19377
  1811
wenzelm@17865
  1812
* In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
wenzelm@24800
  1813
"t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
wenzelm@24800
  1814
``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
wenzelm@24800
  1815
wenzelm@24800
  1816
* Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
wenzelm@24800
  1817
True/False.
wenzelm@24800
  1818
wenzelm@24800
  1819
* Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
nipkow@19211
  1820
ballarin@19279
  1821
* Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
ballarin@19279
  1822
nipkow@19211
  1823
* Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
wenzelm@22126
  1824
``rule'' method.
wenzelm@22126
  1825
wenzelm@24800
  1826
* Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
wenzelm@24800
  1827
goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
wenzelm@24800
  1828
(i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
wenzelm@24800
  1829
"lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
wenzelm@24800
  1830
wenzelm@24800
  1831
* Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
wenzelm@22126
  1832
zChaff is still supported as well.
wenzelm@22126
  1833
wenzelm@22126
  1834
* 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
wenzelm@22126
  1835
bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
wenzelm@22126
  1836
wenzelm@22126
  1837
* Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
wenzelm@22126
  1838
Library.
wenzelm@21256
  1839
wenzelm@21256
  1840
* Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
wenzelm@19572
  1841
wenzelm@18446
  1842
* Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
wenzelm@18446
  1843
as greatest fixed-point.
wenzelm@18399
  1844
wenzelm@19254
  1845
* Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
schirmer@19252
  1846
association lists.
webertj@17809
  1847
wenzelm@24800
  1848
* Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
wenzelm@24800
  1849
efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
wenzelm@24800
  1850
oracle) if it evaluates to True.
wenzelm@20807
  1851
wenzelm@20807
  1852
* Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
wenzelm@24800
  1853
also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
wenzelm@24800
  1854
being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
  1855
Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
wenzelm@24800
  1856
behavior.
webertj@20217
  1857
wenzelm@22126
  1858
* Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
wenzelm@19254
  1859
wenzelm@20807
  1860
* New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
wenzelm@20807
  1861
interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
wenzelm@20807
  1862
parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
wenzelm@20807
  1863
theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
wenzelm@20807
  1864
resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
wenzelm@20807
  1865
s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
wenzelm@20807
  1866
wenzelm@20807
  1867
* New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
wenzelm@20807
  1868
are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
wenzelm@20807
  1869
where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
wenzelm@20807
  1870
generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
wenzelm@20807
  1871
applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
wenzelm@20807
  1872
r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
wenzelm@25177
  1873
subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
wenzelm@25177
  1874
wenzelm@25177
  1875
* Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
wenzelm@25177
  1876
available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
wenzelm@20807
  1877
wenzelm@25397
  1878
* HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
schirmer@25409
  1879
command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
wenzelm@25397
  1880
abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
wenzelm@25397
  1881
HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
wenzelm@25397
  1882
in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
wenzelm@25397
  1883
wenzelm@25397
  1884
wenzelm@19653
  1885
*** HOL-Complex ***
wenzelm@19653
  1886
huffman@22971
  1887
* Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
huffman@22971
  1888
inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
huffman@22971
  1889
Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
huffman@22971
  1890
that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
huffman@22971
  1891
INCOMPATIBILITY.
huffman@22971
  1892
wenzelm@24800
  1893
* Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
huffman@21791
  1894
algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
huffman@21791
  1895
and norm :: 'a => real.
huffman@21791
  1896
wenzelm@24800
  1897
* Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
wenzelm@24800
  1898
reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
wenzelm@24800
  1899
defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
  1900
wenzelm@24800
  1901
* Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
nipkow@23013
  1902
Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
nipkow@23013
  1903
wenzelm@22126
  1904
* Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
wenzelm@22126
  1905
reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
wenzelm@22126
  1906
spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
wenzelm@22126
  1907
INCOMPATIBILITY.
huffman@21791
  1908
huffman@22972
  1909
  Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
huffman@22972
  1910
  HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
huffman@22972
  1911
  HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
huffman@21791
  1912
  approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
huffman@21791
  1913
  monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
huffman@21791
  1914
  galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
huffman@22972
  1915
  (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
huffman@21791
  1916
  (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
huffman@21791
  1917
  (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
huffman@21791
  1918
  (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
huffman@21791
  1919
  (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
huffman@21791
  1920
  is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
huffman@21791
  1921
  deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
huffman@22972
  1922
  sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
huffman@23116
  1923
  exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
huffman@21791
  1924
huffman@21791
  1925
* Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
wenzelm@22126
  1926
overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
wenzelm@22126
  1927
hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
wenzelm@22126
  1928
polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
huffman@21791
  1929
huffman@21791
  1930
  approx        <-- capprox
huffman@21791
  1931
  HFinite       <-- CFinite
huffman@21791
  1932
  HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
huffman@21791
  1933
  Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
huffman@21791
  1934
  monad         <-- cmonad
huffman@21791
  1935
  galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
huffman@21791
  1936
  (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
huffman@21791
  1937
  is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
huffman@21791
  1938
  (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
huffman@21791
  1939
wenzelm@19653
  1940
wenzelm@24801
  1941
*** HOL-Algebra ***
wenzelm@24801
  1942
wenzelm@24801
  1943
* Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
wenzelm@24801
  1944
wenzelm@24801
  1945
* Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
wenzelm@24801
  1946
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24801
  1947
wenzelm@24801
  1948
* Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
wenzelm@24801
  1949
greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24801
  1950
wenzelm@24801
  1951
* Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
wenzelm@24801
  1952
Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
wenzelm@24801
  1953
of algebraic structures.
wenzelm@24801
  1954
wenzelm@24801
  1955
* Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
wenzelm@24801
  1956
wenzelm@24801
  1957
wenzelm@24801
  1958
*** HOL-Nominal ***
wenzelm@24801
  1959
wenzelm@25148
  1960
* Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
wenzelm@25177
  1961
structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
wenzelm@25177
  1962
src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
wenzelm@25148
  1963
http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
wenzelm@25148
  1964
wenzelm@24801
  1965
wenzelm@17878
  1966
*** ML ***
wenzelm@17878
  1967
wenzelm@24643
  1968
* ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
wenzelm@24643
  1969
(even on SML/NJ).
wenzelm@24643
  1970
wenzelm@22138
  1971
* ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
wenzelm@22138
  1972
formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
wenzelm@22138
  1973
compile-time.  For example:
wenzelm@22138
  1974
wenzelm@25142
  1975
ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1976
ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1977
ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1978
ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1979
ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1980
ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1981
ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1982
ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1983
ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
wenzelm@24692
  1984
ML {* @{type_name c} *}
wenzelm@25142
  1985
ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
wenzelm@22376
  1986
ML {* @{const_name c} *}
wenzelm@22376
  1987
ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1988
ML {* @{context} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1989
ML {* @{theory} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1990
ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
wenzelm@24692
  1991
ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
wenzelm@24692
  1992
ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1993
ML {* @{simpset} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1994
ML {* @{claset} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1995
ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1996
wenzelm@22151
  1997
The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
wenzelm@22151
  1998
wenzelm@22152
  1999
* ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
wenzelm@24706
  2000
ML_Context.trace enabled.
wenzelm@22152
  2001
wenzelm@19032
  2002
* Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
wenzelm@24706
  2003
DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
wenzelm@19081
  2004
admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
wenzelm@18446
  2005
wenzelm@24800
  2006
* Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
wenzelm@24800
  2007
use Context.generic instead of just theory.
wenzelm@24800
  2008
wenzelm@18642
  2009
* Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
wenzelm@18644
  2010
provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
wenzelm@18642
  2011
context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
wenzelm@18642
  2012
wenzelm@18737
  2013
* Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
wenzelm@24706
  2014
Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
wenzelm@24706
  2015
local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
wenzelm@24706
  2016
minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
wenzelm@24706
  2017
Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
wenzelm@24706
  2018
Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
wenzelm@24706
  2019
GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
wenzelm@19006
  2020
declarations and definitions.
wenzelm@19006
  2021
wenzelm@24800
  2022
* Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
wenzelm@24800
  2023
name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
wenzelm@24800
  2024
init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
wenzelm@24800
  2025
to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
wenzelm@24800
  2026
wenzelm@19508
  2027
* Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
wenzelm@24800
  2028
signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
wenzelm@24800
  2029
logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
wenzelm@24800
  2030
potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@19508
  2031
wenzelm@19508
  2032
* Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
wenzelm@19508
  2033
explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
wenzelm@24706
  2034
internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
wenzelm@19508
  2035
notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
wenzelm@24706
  2036
AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
wenzelm@19508
  2037
Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
wenzelm@19508
  2038
wenzelm@19006
  2039
* Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
wenzelm@19006
  2040
global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
wenzelm@19006
  2041
discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
wenzelm@19006
  2042
accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
wenzelm@19006
  2043
attributes, methods, etc.
wenzelm@18642
  2044
wenzelm@18446
  2045
* Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
wenzelm@18446
  2046
have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
wenzelm@18446
  2047
allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
wenzelm@18446
  2048
fold_map combinators.
haftmann@18051
  2049
wenzelm@21647
  2050
* Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
wenzelm@21647
  2051
comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
wenzelm@21647
  2052
maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
wenzelm@21647
  2053
derivation.
wenzelm@21647
  2054
wenzelm@18020
  2055
* Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
wenzelm@18145
  2056
actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
wenzelm@18020
  2057
achieve the old behaviour.
wenzelm@18020
  2058
wenzelm@18020
  2059
* Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
wenzelm@18020
  2060
slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
wenzelm@18020
  2061
statements.
wenzelm@18020
  2062
wenzelm@20040
  2063
* Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
wenzelm@20040
  2064
enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
wenzelm@20040
  2065
Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
wenzelm@20040
  2066
wenzelm@20090
  2067
* Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
wenzelm@20090
  2068
internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
wenzelm@20090
  2069
some popular functions from term.ML:
wenzelm@20090
  2070
wenzelm@20090
  2071
  Term.variant		->  Name.variant
wenzelm@24800
  2072
  Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
wenzelm@20090
  2073
  Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
wenzelm@20090
  2074
wenzelm@20090
  2075
Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
wenzelm@20090
  2076
from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
wenzelm@20090
  2077
wenzelm@20040
  2078
* Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
wenzelm@20040
  2079
treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
wenzelm@20040
  2080
Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
wenzelm@20040
  2081
Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
wenzelm@20040
  2082
various freeze_thaw operations.
wenzelm@20040
  2083
wenzelm@18567
  2084
* Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
wenzelm@17981
  2085
init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
wenzelm@20040
  2086
Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
wenzelm@20040
  2087
within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
wenzelm@20040
  2088
theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
wenzelm@20040
  2089
OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
wenzelm@20040
  2090
ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
wenzelm@20040
  2091
in a locale context).
wenzelm@17981
  2092
wenzelm@24706
  2093
* Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
wenzelm@24706
  2094
and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
wenzelm@24706
  2095
(Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
wenzelm@24706
  2096
which are considered legacy and await removal.
wenzelm@24706
  2097
wenzelm@24920
  2098
* Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
wenzelm@24920
  2099
(Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
wenzelm@24920
  2100
with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
wenzelm@24920
  2101
etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
wenzelm@24924
  2102
available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
wenzelm@24924
  2103
a mere theory instead of a full context.
wenzelm@24920
  2104
wenzelm@18815
  2105
* Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
wenzelm@18687
  2106
ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
wenzelm@18686
  2107
without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
wenzelm@18686
  2108
care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
wenzelm@18686
  2109
handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
wenzelm@18686
  2110
wenzelm@18686
  2111
  ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
wenzelm@18686
  2112
wenzelm@18686
  2113
Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
wenzelm@18687
  2114
embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
wenzelm@18687
  2115
this:
wenzelm@18686
  2116
wenzelm@18686
  2117
  Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
wenzelm@18686
  2118
wenzelm@18686
  2119
INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
wenzelm@18686
  2120
obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
wenzelm@18686
  2121
Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
wenzelm@18686
  2122
-- use plain ERROR instead.
wenzelm@18686
  2123
wenzelm@18815
  2124
* Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
wenzelm@18722
  2125
list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
wenzelm@18722
  2126
wenzelm@24706
  2127
* Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
wenzelm@24706
  2128
ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
wenzelm@18815
  2129
wenzelm@18815
  2130
* Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
wenzelm@18815
  2131
theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
wenzelm@18815
  2132
quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
wenzelm@18590
  2133
batch mode.
wenzelm@18567
  2134
wenzelm@24867
  2135
* Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
wenzelm@24867
  2136
OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
wenzelm@24867
  2137
OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
wenzelm@24867
  2138
OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24867
  2139
wenzelm@17878
  2140
* Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
wenzelm@17878
  2141
contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
wenzelm@17878
  2142
very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
wenzelm@17890
  2143
simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
wenzelm@17878
  2144
(solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
wenzelm@17878
  2145
wenzelm@17878
  2146
* Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
wenzelm@17878
  2147
local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
wenzelm@17878
  2148
etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
wenzelm@17878
  2149
former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
wenzelm@17890
  2150
INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
wenzelm@17890
  2151
specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
wenzelm@17878
  2152
wenzelm@17878
  2153
* Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
wenzelm@17878
  2154
change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
wenzelm@17878
  2155
theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
wenzelm@17878
  2156
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@17878
  2157
wenzelm@18540
  2158
* Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
wenzelm@18540
  2159
"Trueprop" etc.
wenzelm@18540
  2160
wenzelm@17878
  2161
wenzelm@20988
  2162
*** System ***
wenzelm@20988
  2163
wenzelm@25433
  2164
* settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
wenzelm@25433
  2165
includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
wenzelm@25433
  2166
Isabelle installations.
wenzelm@21471
  2167
wenzelm@20988
  2168
* isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
wenzelm@20988
  2169
operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
wenzelm@20988
  2170
code.
wenzelm@20988
  2171
wenzelm@24891
  2172
* Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
wenzelm@24891
  2173
wenzelm@24801
  2174
* Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
wenzelm@24800
  2175
Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
wenzelm@24800
  2176
independent theories, according to the given theory header
wenzelm@24800
  2177
specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
wenzelm@24800
  2178
usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
wenzelm@24800
  2179
speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
wenzelm@24800
  2180
to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
wenzelm@24800
  2181
guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
wenzelm@24800
  2182
Implementation manual.
wenzelm@24210
  2183
wenzelm@17754
  2184
wenzelm@25448
  2185
wenzelm@17720
  2186
New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
wenzelm@17720
  2187
----------------------------------
wenzelm@14655
  2188
wenzelm@14655
  2189
*** General ***
wenzelm@14655
  2190
nipkow@15130
  2191
* Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
nipkow@15130
  2192
nipkow@15130
  2193
  theory <name>
wenzelm@16234
  2194
  imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
wenzelm@16234
  2195
  uses <file1> ... <fileM>
nipkow@15130
  2196
  begin
nipkow@15130
  2197
wenzelm@16234
  2198
where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
wenzelm@16234
  2199
wenzelm@16234
  2200
  theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
wenzelm@16234
  2201
wenzelm@16717
  2202
will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
wenzelm@16717
  2203
existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
wenzelm@17371
  2204
non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
nipkow@15130
  2205
berghofe@15475
  2206
* Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
wenzelm@16234
  2207
relative and absolute paths.
wenzelm@16234
  2208
wenzelm@17408
  2209
* Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
wenzelm@17408
  2210
list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
wenzelm@17408
  2211
simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
wenzelm@17408
  2212
theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
wenzelm@17408
  2213
match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
wenzelm@17408
  2214
name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
wenzelm@17408
  2215
lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
wenzelm@17408
  2216
all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
wenzelm@17408
  2217
'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
wenzelm@16234
  2218
wenzelm@17275
  2219
  C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
wenzelm@16234
  2220
wenzelm@16234
  2221
prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
wenzelm@16234
  2222
matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
wenzelm@16234
  2223
in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
wenzelm@16013
  2224
wenzelm@17408
  2225
* Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
wenzelm@17408
  2226
'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@17408
  2227
wenzelm@17385
  2228
* Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
wenzelm@17385
  2229
Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
wenzelm@17408
  2230
formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
wenzelm@17538
  2231
General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
wenzelm@17538
  2232
wenzelm@17538
  2233
  http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
wenzelm@17538
  2234
  http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
wenzelm@17385
  2235
wenzelm@17425
  2236
* Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
wenzelm@17425
  2237
Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
wenzelm@17425
  2238
faster.
wenzelm@17425
  2239
wenzelm@15703
  2240
wenzelm@15703
  2241
*** Document preparation ***
wenzelm@15703
  2242
wenzelm@16234
  2243
* Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
wenzelm@16234
  2244
of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
wenzelm@16234
  2245
LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
wenzelm@16234
  2246
displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
wenzelm@16234
  2247
and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
wenzelm@16234
  2248
DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
wenzelm@16234
  2249
wenzelm@17047
  2250
* Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
wenzelm@17047
  2251
notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
wenzelm@17047
  2252
theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
wenzelm@17047
  2253
commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
wenzelm@17047
  2254
"invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
wenzelm@17047
  2255
specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
wenzelm@17047
  2256
interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
wenzelm@17047
  2257
preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
wenzelm@17047
  2258
isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
wenzelm@17047
  2259
\isadroptag.
wenzelm@17047
  2260
wenzelm@17047
  2261
Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
wenzelm@17047
  2262
usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
wenzelm@17047
  2263
specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
wenzelm@17047
  2264
theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
wenzelm@17047
  2265
proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
wenzelm@17047
  2266
these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
wenzelm@17047
  2267
default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
wenzelm@17047
  2268
specified above.
wenzelm@16234
  2269
haftmann@17402
  2270
* Several new antiquotations:
wenzelm@15979
  2271
wenzelm@15979
  2272
  @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
wenzelm@15979
  2273
wenzelm@15979
  2274
  @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
wenzelm@15979
  2275
wenzelm@16234
  2276
  @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
wenzelm@16234
  2277
  argument is a known logical constant;
wenzelm@15979
  2278
wenzelm@15979
  2279
  @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
wenzelm@16234
  2280
  theorem applying a "style" to it
wenzelm@16234
  2281
wenzelm@17117
  2282
  @{ML text}
wenzelm@17117
  2283
wenzelm@16234
  2284
Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
wenzelm@16234
  2285
definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
schirmer@17393
  2286
conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
wenzelm@16234
  2287
to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
wenzelm@16234
  2288
interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
wenzelm@17117
  2289
document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
wenzelm@17117
  2290
type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
wenzelm@16234
  2291
wenzelm@17259
  2292
* Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
wenzelm@17259
  2293
and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
wenzelm@17269
  2294
specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
wenzelm@17269
  2295
example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
wenzelm@17259
  2296
wenzelm@17259
  2297
* Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
wenzelm@17259
  2298
context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
wenzelm@17269
  2299
[locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.
wenzelm@17259
  2300
wenzelm@17097
  2301
* Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within
wenzelm@17097
  2302
a proof context.
wenzelm@17097
  2303
wenzelm@17097
  2304
* Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a
wenzelm@17097
  2305
proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').
wenzelm@17097
  2306
wenzelm@17193
  2307
* Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX
wenzelm@17193
  2308
macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).
wenzelm@17193
  2309
wenzelm@17193
  2310
* isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option
wenzelm@17193
  2311
-D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false
wenzelm@17193
  2312
prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.
wenzelm@17193
  2313
wenzelm@16234
  2314
wenzelm@16234
  2315
*** Pure ***
wenzelm@16234
  2316
wenzelm@16234
  2317
* Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command.  Now performs
wenzelm@16234
  2318
automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for
wenzelm@16234
  2319
local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also
wenzelm@16234
  2320
isar-ref manual.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly
wenzelm@16234
  2321
sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'
wenzelm@16234
  2322
section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier.  If
wenzelm@16234
  2323
all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.
wenzelm@16234
  2324
wenzelm@16234
  2325
* Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures.  First of all,
wenzelm@16234
  2326
indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted
wenzelm@16234
  2327
application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary
wenzelm@16234
  2328
expressions.  Secondly, in a local context with structure
wenzelm@16234
  2329
declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default
wenzelm@16234
  2330
number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option
wenzelm@16234
  2331
show_structs controls printing of implicit structures.  Typical
wenzelm@16234
  2332
applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.
wenzelm@16234
  2333
wenzelm@16234
  2334
* New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and
wenzelm@16234
  2335
translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is
wenzelm@16234
  2336
interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.
wenzelm@16234
  2337
wenzelm@16234
  2338
* 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend
wenzelm@16234
  2339
on the signature of the theory context being presently used for
wenzelm@16234
  2340
parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.
wenzelm@16234
  2341
wenzelm@16856
  2342
* Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an
wenzelm@16856
  2343
ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of
wenzelm@16856
  2344
type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle
wenzelm@16856
  2345
is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;
wenzelm@16856
  2346
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@16856
  2347
wenzelm@17275
  2348
* axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"
wenzelm@17275
  2349
before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.
wenzelm@17275
  2350
INCOMPATIBILITY.  This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for
wenzelm@17275
  2351
axclasses vs. locales.
wenzelm@17275
  2352
wenzelm@16234
  2353
* Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes
wenzelm@16234
  2354
instead of base 26 numbers.
wenzelm@16234
  2355
wenzelm@16234
  2356
* New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question
wenzelm@16234
  2357
marks in schematic variable names.
wenzelm@16234
  2358
wenzelm@16234
  2359
* In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or
wenzelm@16234
  2360
\<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name.  For example, the
wenzelm@16234
  2361
following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:
wenzelm@16234
  2362
wenzelm@16234
  2363
  lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"
wenzelm@16234
  2364
    by simp
wenzelm@16234
  2365
wenzelm@16234
  2366
* Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).
wenzelm@16234
  2367
wenzelm@17548
  2368
* Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix
wenzelm@16234
  2369
annotations as "(00...)".
wenzelm@16234
  2370
wenzelm@16234
  2371
* Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter
wenzelm@16234
  2372
may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.
wenzelm@16234
  2373
Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class
wenzelm@16234
  2374
"logic" vs. "{}".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper
wenzelm@16234
  2375
use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'.  Some very
wenzelm@16234
  2376
exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption
wenzelm@17691
  2377
(e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).
wenzelm@16234
  2378
wenzelm@16234
  2379
* Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.
wenzelm@16234
  2380
Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'
wenzelm@16234
  2381
rather than 'types'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic
wenzelm@16234
  2382
specifications.
wenzelm@16234
  2383
ballarin@17095
  2384
* Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be
ballarin@17095
  2385
locally fixed variables as well.
ballarin@17095
  2386
wenzelm@16234
  2387
* Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting
wenzelm@16234
  2388
is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth
wenzelm@16234
  2389
Limit.
wenzelm@16234
  2390
wenzelm@16234
  2391
* Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current
wenzelm@16234
  2392
simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc
wenzelm@16234
  2393
interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier
wenzelm@16234
  2394
recursively.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs
wenzelm@16234
  2395
is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead.  Moreover, the
wenzelm@16234
  2396
low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to
wenzelm@16234
  2397
allow for use in a context of fixed variables.
wenzelm@16234
  2398
wenzelm@16234
  2399
* thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!
wenzelm@16234
  2400
or ==>.  More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of
wenzelm@16234
  2401
the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.
wenzelm@16234
  2402
wenzelm@17597
  2403
* Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
nipkow@17590
  2404
wenzelm@16234
  2405
* Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived
wenzelm@16234
  2406
from Pure, which contains all common declarations already.  Both
wenzelm@16234
  2407
theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.
wenzelm@16234
  2408
INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /
wenzelm@16234
  2409
CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;
wenzelm@16234
  2410
use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.
wenzelm@16234
  2411
wenzelm@16234
  2412
* New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific
wenzelm@16234
  2413
selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.
wenzelm@16234
  2414
wenzelm@17097
  2415
* 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference
wenzelm@17097
  2416
wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),
wenzelm@17097
  2417
in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');
wenzelm@17097
  2418
wenzelm@17397
  2419
* 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.
wenzelm@17397
  2420
wenzelm@17275
  2421
* More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive
wenzelm@17275
  2422
theory development.
wenzelm@17275
  2423
berghofe@17663
  2424
* Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code
wenzelm@17664
  2425
generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures
wenzelm@17664
  2426
for each theory).  INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'
wenzelm@17664
  2427
must be quoted when used as identifiers.
wenzelm@17664
  2428
wenzelm@17664
  2429
* New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using
wenzelm@17664
  2430
the code generator.  INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be
wenzelm@17664
  2431
quoted when used as identifier.
berghofe@17663
  2432
wenzelm@16234
  2433
wenzelm@16234
  2434
*** Locales ***
ballarin@17095
  2435
wenzelm@17385
  2436
* New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in
wenzelm@17385
  2437
theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3).  These generate
wenzelm@17385
  2438
proof obligations from the expression specification.  After the
wenzelm@17385
  2439
obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added
wenzelm@17385
  2440
to the theory, target locale or proof context.  The synopsis of the
wenzelm@17385
  2441
commands is a follows:
wenzelm@17385
  2442
ballarin@17095
  2443
  (1) interpretation expr inst
ballarin@17095
  2444
  (2) interpretation target < expr
ballarin@17095
  2445
  (3) interpret expr inst
wenzelm@17385
  2446
ballarin@17095
  2447
Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter
ballarin@17095
  2448
instantiation of terms from the current context.  This is applied to
wenzelm@17385
  2449
specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.
wenzelm@17385
  2450
Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the
wenzelm@17385
  2451
locale expression.  Interpretation is smart in that interpretations
wenzelm@17385
  2452
that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are
wenzelm@17385
  2453
instantiated theorems stored in duplicate.  Use 'print_interps' to
wenzelm@17385
  2454
inspect active interpretations of a particular locale.  For details,
ballarin@17436
  2455
see the Isar Reference manual.  Examples can be found in
ballarin@17436
  2456
HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.
wenzelm@16234
  2457
wenzelm@16234
  2458
INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use
wenzelm@16234
  2459
'interpret' instead.
wenzelm@16234
  2460
wenzelm@17385
  2461
* New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to
wenzelm@17385
  2462
parameters.
wenzelm@17385
  2463
wenzelm@17385
  2464
* Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax
wenzelm@17385
  2465
redeclaration.
ballarin@17095
  2466
ballarin@17095
  2467
* Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.
ballarin@17095
  2468
wenzelm@16234
  2469
* Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /
wenzelm@16234
  2470
facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition
wenzelm@16234
  2471
context, independently of the context of later invocations.  Moreover,
wenzelm@16234
  2472
locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied
wenzelm@16234
  2473
to attribute arguments as expected.
wenzelm@16234
  2474
wenzelm@16234
  2475
INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of
wenzelm@16234
  2476
actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to
wenzelm@16234
  2477
embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.
wenzelm@16234
  2478
Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static
wenzelm@16234
  2479
binding mechanism.  Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and
wenzelm@16234
  2480
Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further
wenzelm@16234
  2481
intervention.  Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"
wenzelm@16234
  2482
(cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both
wenzelm@16234
  2483
on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed
wenzelm@16234
  2484
values to argument tokens explicitly.
wenzelm@16234
  2485
wenzelm@16234
  2486
* Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal
wenzelm@16234
  2487
statements with 'includes'.  INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different
wenzelm@16234
  2488
theorem statement in rare situations.
wenzelm@16234
  2489
ballarin@17228
  2490
* Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements.  Use
ballarin@17228
  2491
'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.
ballarin@17228
  2492
wenzelm@16234
  2493
wenzelm@16234
  2494
*** Provers ***
wenzelm@16234
  2495
wenzelm@16234
  2496
* Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for
wenzelm@16234
  2497
single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is
wenzelm@16234
  2498
'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may
wenzelm@16234
  2499
rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is
wenzelm@16234
  2500
still available as 'simplesubst'.
wenzelm@16234
  2501
wenzelm@16234
  2502
* Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only
wenzelm@16234
  2503
and quasi orders.
wenzelm@16234
  2504
wenzelm@16234
  2505
* Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and
wenzelm@16234
  2506
reflexive-transitive closure of relations.
wenzelm@16234
  2507
wenzelm@16234
  2508
* Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth
wenzelm@16234
  2509
limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.
wenzelm@16234
  2510
wenzelm@16234
  2511
* Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup
wenzelm@16234
  2512
is peformed already.  Object-logics merely need to finish their
wenzelm@16234
  2513
initial simpset configuration as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@15703
  2514
berghofe@15475
  2515
schirmer@14700
  2516
*** HOL ***
schirmer@14700
  2517
wenzelm@16234
  2518
* Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:
wenzelm@14878
  2519
wenzelm@14878
  2520
  syntax (epsilon)
wenzelm@14878
  2521
    "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a"    ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)
wenzelm@14878
  2522
wenzelm@16234
  2523
The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX
wenzelm@16234
  2524
and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.
wenzelm@16234
  2525
Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>
wenzelm@16234
  2526
becomes available as variable, constant etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
wenzelm@16234
  2527
wenzelm@16234
  2528
* "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".
wenzelm@16234
  2529
Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc.  The x-symbol for >=
wenzelm@17371
  2530
is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to
avigad@17016
  2531
support corresponding Isar calculations.
wenzelm@16234
  2532
wenzelm@16234
  2533
* "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"
wenzelm@16234
  2534
instead of ":".
wenzelm@16234
  2535
wenzelm@16234
  2536
* theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:
wenzelm@16234
  2537
wenzelm@16234
  2538
  Old       New
wenzelm@16234
  2539
  {..n(}    {..<n}
wenzelm@16234
  2540
  {)n..}    {n<..}
wenzelm@16234
  2541
  {m..n(}   {m..<n}
wenzelm@16234
  2542
  {)m..n}   {m<..n}
wenzelm@16234
  2543
  {)m..n(}  {m<..<n}
wenzelm@16234
  2544
wenzelm@16234
  2545
The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next
wenzelm@16234
  2546
release.  For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace
wenzelm@16234
  2547
patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):
nipkow@15046
  2548
nipkow@15046
  2549
  {)\([^\.]*\)\.\.  ->  {\1<\.\.}
nipkow@15046
  2550
  \.\.\([^(}]*\)(}  ->  \.\.<\1}
nipkow@15046
  2551
wenzelm@17533
  2552
* Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving
wenzelm@17533
  2553
equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic
wenzelm@17533
  2554
interface.
wenzelm@17389
  2555
wenzelm@17389
  2556
* Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over
wenzelm@16234
  2557
finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is
wenzelm@17371
  2558
now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can
paulson@17189
  2559
be a tuple pattern.
wenzelm@16234
  2560
wenzelm@16234
  2561
Some new syntax forms are available:
wenzelm@16234
  2562
wenzelm@16234
  2563
  "\<Sum>x | P. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"
wenzelm@16234
  2564
  "\<Sum>x = a..b. e"   for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"
wenzelm@16234
  2565
  "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e"  for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"
wenzelm@16234
  2566
  "\<Sum>x < k. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"
wenzelm@16234
  2567
wenzelm@16234
  2568
The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate
wenzelm@16234
  2569
function "Summation", which has been discontinued.
wenzelm@16234
  2570
wenzelm@16234
  2571
* theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case
wenzelm@16234
  2572
is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case
wenzelm@16234
  2573
(insert F x)'.
wenzelm@16234
  2574
wenzelm@16234
  2575
* The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger
wenzelm@16234
  2576
fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and
wenzelm@16234
  2577
typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.
wenzelm@16234
  2578
webertj@17700
  2579
* New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.
webertj@17700
  2580
Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed.  See
webertj@17700
  2581
HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.
webertj@17619
  2582
wenzelm@16234
  2583
* Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the
wenzelm@16234
  2584
induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by
wenzelm@16234
  2585
induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather
wenzelm@16234
  2586
than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
wenzelm@16234
  2587
in unstructured proof scripts.
wenzelm@16234
  2588
wenzelm@16234
  2589
* Reworked implementation of records.  Improved scalability for
wenzelm@16234
  2590
records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type
wenzelm@16234
  2591
inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but
wenzelm@16234
  2592
of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear
wenzelm@16234
  2593
in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields.  The
wenzelm@16234
  2594
top-level (users) view on records is preserved.  Potential
wenzelm@16234
  2595
INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the
wenzelm@16234
  2596
old record representation. The type generated for a record is called
wenzelm@16234
  2597
<record_name>_ext_type.
wenzelm@16234
  2598
wenzelm@16234
  2599
Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the
wenzelm@16234
  2600
proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if
wenzelm@16234
  2601
quick_and_dirty is enabled).  Definitions of large records can take
wenzelm@16234
  2602
quite long.
wenzelm@16234
  2603
wenzelm@16234
  2604
New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record
wenzelm@16234
  2605
updates enabled by default.  Moreover, trivial updates are also
wenzelm@16234
  2606
removed: r(|x := x r|) = r.  INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break
wenzelm@16234
  2607
occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.
wenzelm@16234
  2608
wenzelm@17275
  2609
* typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra
wenzelm@17275
  2610
type-variables in the term.
wenzelm@17275
  2611
wenzelm@16234
  2612
* Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains
wenzelm@16234
  2613
involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics
wenzelm@16234
  2614
provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
wenzelm@16234
  2615
old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more
wenzelm@16234
  2616
goals than previously.
wenzelm@16234
  2617
wenzelm@16234
  2618
* Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is
wenzelm@16234
  2619
present.  Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular
wenzelm@16234
  2620
numbers and sets.  For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y
wenzelm@16234
  2621
just like y <= x.
wenzelm@16234
  2622
wenzelm@16234
  2623
* Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x".  If a is a free or
wenzelm@16234
  2624
bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded.  Otherwise
wenzelm@16234
  2625
first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If
wenzelm@16234
  2626
possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",
wenzelm@16234
  2627
otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g.  The simproc can be
wenzelm@16234
  2628
enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc.  Potential
wenzelm@16234
  2629
INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.
webertj@15776
  2630
paulson@16563
  2631
* Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.
paulson@16563
  2632
paulson@17595
  2633
* Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background
paulson@17595
  2634
jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.
paulson@17595 <