doc-src/Intro/intro.tex
author paulson
Thu Nov 20 10:50:51 1997 +0100 (1997-11-20)
changeset 4239 8c98484ef66f
parent 3285 9a3fe25f30bb
child 5165 ac83801ab294
permissions -rw-r--r--
No more makeatletter/other
berghofe@3096
     1
\documentclass[12pt]{article}
paulson@4239
     2
\usepackage{a4,../iman,../extra,../proof}
wenzelm@2656
     3
lcp@105
     4
%% $Id$
lcp@105
     5
%% run    bibtex intro         to prepare bibliography
lcp@105
     6
%% run    ../sedindex intro    to prepare index file
lcp@105
     7
%prth *(\(.*\));          \1;      
lcp@105
     8
%{\\out \(.*\)}          {\\out val it = "\1" : thm}
lcp@105
     9
lcp@105
    10
\title{Introduction to Isabelle}   
lcp@105
    11
\author{{\em Lawrence C. Paulson}\\
paulson@3127
    12
        Computer Laboratory \\ University of Cambridge \\
paulson@3127
    13
        \texttt{lcp@cl.cam.ac.uk}\\[3ex] 
paulson@3127
    14
        With Contributions by Tobias Nipkow and Markus Wenzel
lcp@105
    15
}
lcp@105
    16
\makeindex
lcp@105
    17
lcp@105
    18
\underscoreoff
lcp@105
    19
lcp@105
    20
\setcounter{secnumdepth}{2} \setcounter{tocdepth}{2}
lcp@105
    21
lcp@105
    22
\sloppy
lcp@105
    23
\binperiod     %%%treat . like a binary operator
lcp@105
    24
lcp@105
    25
\newcommand\qeq{\stackrel{?}{\equiv}}  %for disagreement pairs in unification
lcp@105
    26
\newcommand{\nand}{\mathbin{\lnot\&}} 
lcp@105
    27
\newcommand{\xor}{\mathbin{\#}}
lcp@105
    28
lcp@105
    29
\pagenumbering{roman} 
lcp@105
    30
\begin{document}
lcp@105
    31
\pagestyle{empty}
lcp@105
    32
\begin{titlepage}
lcp@105
    33
\maketitle 
lcp@105
    34
\thispagestyle{empty}
lcp@105
    35
\vfill
lcp@105
    36
{\small Copyright \copyright{} \number\year{} by Lawrence C. Paulson}
lcp@105
    37
\end{titlepage}
lcp@105
    38
lcp@105
    39
\pagestyle{headings}
lcp@105
    40
\part*{Preface}
paulson@1878
    41
\index{Isabelle!overview} \index{Isabelle!object-logics supported}
paulson@1878
    42
Isabelle~\cite{paulson-natural,paulson-found,paulson700} is a generic theorem
paulson@1878
    43
prover.  It has been instantiated to support reasoning in several
paulson@1878
    44
object-logics:
lcp@105
    45
\begin{itemize}
lcp@105
    46
\item first-order logic, constructive and classical versions
lcp@105
    47
\item higher-order logic, similar to that of Gordon's {\sc
lcp@348
    48
hol}~\cite{mgordon-hol}
lcp@105
    49
\item Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory~\cite{suppes72}
lcp@105
    50
\item an extensional version of Martin-L\"of's Type Theory~\cite{nordstrom90}
lcp@105
    51
\item the classical first-order sequent calculus, {\sc lk}
lcp@105
    52
\item the modal logics $T$, $S4$, and $S43$
lcp@105
    53
\item the Logic for Computable Functions~\cite{paulson87}
lcp@105
    54
\end{itemize}
lcp@105
    55
A logic's syntax and inference rules are specified declaratively; this
lcp@105
    56
allows single-step proof construction.  Isabelle provides control
lcp@105
    57
structures for expressing search procedures.  Isabelle also provides
lcp@105
    58
several generic tools, such as simplifiers and classical theorem provers,
lcp@105
    59
which can be applied to object-logics.
lcp@105
    60
lcp@105
    61
\index{ML}
lcp@105
    62
Isabelle is a large system, but beginners can get by with a small
lcp@105
    63
repertoire of commands and a basic knowledge of how Isabelle works.  Some
lcp@105
    64
knowledge of Standard~\ML{} is essential, because \ML{} is Isabelle's user
lcp@105
    65
interface.  Advanced Isabelle theorem proving can involve writing \ML{}
lcp@105
    66
code, possibly with Isabelle's sources at hand.  My book
lcp@105
    67
on~\ML{}~\cite{paulson91} covers much material connected with Isabelle,
lcp@105
    68
including a simple theorem prover.  Users must be familiar with logic as
lcp@105
    69
used in computer science; there are many good
lcp@105
    70
texts~\cite{galton90,reeves90}.
lcp@105
    71
lcp@105
    72
\index{LCF}
lcp@348
    73
{\sc lcf}, developed by Robin Milner and colleagues~\cite{mgordon79}, is an
lcp@105
    74
ancestor of {\sc hol}, Nuprl, and several other systems.  Isabelle borrows
lcp@105
    75
ideas from {\sc lcf}: formulae are~\ML{} values; theorems belong to an
lcp@105
    76
abstract type; tactics and tacticals support backward proof.  But {\sc lcf}
lcp@105
    77
represents object-level rules by functions, while Isabelle represents them
lcp@105
    78
by terms.  You may find my other writings~\cite{paulson87,paulson-handbook}
lcp@105
    79
helpful in understanding the relationship between {\sc lcf} and Isabelle.
lcp@105
    80
lcp@105
    81
\index{Isabelle!release history} Isabelle was first distributed in 1986.
lcp@105
    82
The 1987 version introduced a higher-order meta-logic with an improved
lcp@105
    83
treatment of quantifiers.  The 1988 version added limited polymorphism and
lcp@105
    84
support for natural deduction.  The 1989 version included a parser and
lcp@105
    85
pretty printer generator.  The 1992 version introduced type classes, to
lcp@105
    86
support many-sorted and higher-order logics.  The current version provides
lcp@105
    87
greater support for theories and is much faster.  Isabelle is still under
lcp@105
    88
development and will continue to change.
lcp@105
    89
lcp@105
    90
\subsubsection*{Overview} 
lcp@296
    91
This manual consists of three parts.  Part~I discusses the Isabelle's
lcp@296
    92
foundations.  Part~II, presents simple on-line sessions, starting with
lcp@296
    93
forward proof.  It also covers basic tactics and tacticals, and some
lcp@296
    94
commands for invoking them.  Part~III contains further examples for users
lcp@296
    95
with a bit of experience.  It explains how to derive rules define theories,
lcp@296
    96
and concludes with an extended example: a Prolog interpreter.
lcp@105
    97
lcp@105
    98
Isabelle's Reference Manual and Object-Logics manual contain more details.
lcp@105
    99
They assume familiarity with the concepts presented here.
lcp@105
   100
lcp@105
   101
lcp@105
   102
\subsubsection*{Acknowledgements} 
lcp@311
   103
Tobias Nipkow contributed most of the section on defining theories.
paulson@3127
   104
Stefan Berghofer and Sara Kalvala suggested improvements.
lcp@105
   105
lcp@105
   106
Tobias Nipkow has made immense contributions to Isabelle, including the
lcp@184
   107
parser generator, type classes, and the simplifier.  Carsten Clasohm and
lcp@184
   108
Markus Wenzel made major contributions; Sonia Mahjoub and Karin Nimmermann
lcp@184
   109
also helped.  Isabelle was developed using Dave Matthews's Standard~{\sc
lcp@184
   110
  ml} compiler, Poly/{\sc ml}.  Many people have contributed to Isabelle's
lcp@184
   111
standard object-logics, including Martin Coen, Philippe de Groote, Philippe
paulson@3127
   112
No\"el.  The research has been funded by the EPSRC (grants
paulson@3127
   113
GR/G53279, GR/H40570, GR/K57381, GR/K77051)
paulson@3127
   114
and by ESPRIT (projects 3245: Logical Frameworks, and 6453: Types).
lcp@105
   115
lcp@105
   116
\newpage
lcp@105
   117
\pagestyle{plain} \tableofcontents 
lcp@105
   118
\newpage
lcp@105
   119
lcp@105
   120
\newfont{\sanssi}{cmssi12}
lcp@105
   121
\vspace*{2.5cm}
lcp@105
   122
\begin{quote}
lcp@105
   123
\raggedleft
lcp@105
   124
{\sanssi
lcp@105
   125
You can only find truth with logic\\
lcp@105
   126
if you have already found truth without it.}\\
lcp@105
   127
\bigskip
lcp@105
   128
lcp@105
   129
G.K. Chesterton, {\em The Man who was Orthodox}
lcp@105
   130
\end{quote}
lcp@105
   131
lcp@105
   132
\clearfirst  \pagestyle{headings}
lcp@105
   133
\include{foundations}
lcp@105
   134
\include{getting}
lcp@105
   135
\include{advanced}
lcp@105
   136
lcp@105
   137
\bibliographystyle{plain} \small\raggedright\frenchspacing
lcp@873
   138
\bibliography{string,atp,funprog,general,logicprog,isabelle,theory,crossref}
lcp@105
   139
lcp@105
   140
\input{intro.ind}
lcp@105
   141
\end{document}