NEWS
author ballarin
Tue Sep 02 17:31:20 2008 +0200 (2008-09-02)
changeset 28085 914183e229e9
parent 28067 4b6783d3f0d9
child 28088 723735f2d73a
permissions -rw-r--r--
Interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation attributes.
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Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
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==============================================
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New in this Isabelle version
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----------------------------
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*** General ***
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* Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
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addressing etc.
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* Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
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Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
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makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
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* Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
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interface instead.
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*** Pure ***
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* Global versions of theorems stemming from classes do not carry
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a parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Dropped "locale (open)".  INCOMPATBILITY.
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* Interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
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INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
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methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
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* Interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation attributes.
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INCOMPATBILITY.
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* Command 'instance': attached definitions no longer accepted.
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INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target.
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* Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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*** Document preparation ***
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* Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
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demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
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syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
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*** HOL ***
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* HOL/Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit induction rule
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"less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of "wellorder" by means
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of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* HOL/Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
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INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
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etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
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preorder_class.*.
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* HOL/Ring_and_Field and HOL/Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
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moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
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dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
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of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
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semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
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renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
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    dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
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    zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
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    DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
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    DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
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    mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
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    mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
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* HOL/Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
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zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
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the HOL Distribution.  zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and ilcm;
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corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILY.  To
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recover tupled syntax, use syntax declarations like:
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    hide (open) const gcd
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    abbreviation gcd where
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      "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
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    notation (output)
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      GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
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(analogously for lcm, zgcd, zlcm).
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* HOL/Real/Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* New ML antiquotation @{code}: takes constant as argument, generates
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corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
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resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
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All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
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simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
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instrumentalizing code generation.  See HOL/ex/Code_Antiq for a toy
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example, or HOL/Complex/ex/ReflectedFerrack for a more ambitious
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application.  In future you ought refrain from ad-hoc compiling
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generated SML code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical
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reasons) @{code} cannot refer to constants for which user-defined
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serializations are set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart
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directly in that cases.
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* Integrated image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry points Main.thy and
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Complex_Main.thy remain as they are.
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* New image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
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tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  By convention
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the corresponding theory Plain should be ancestor of every further
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(library) theory.  Some library theories now have ancestor Plain
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(instead of Main), thus theory Main occasionally has to be imported
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explicitly.
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* Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
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as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
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corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
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are now presented as a list of individual projections
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(e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
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explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
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rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
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elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
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rule: prod.exhaust) here.
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* Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
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* Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
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* Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
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takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
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represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
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proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
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have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
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    unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
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    prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
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    sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
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    Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
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    Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
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* Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
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instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
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theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via PG's settings menu.
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*** HOL-Algebra ***
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* New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
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  is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and
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  lattice locales use a record structure with field eq for the
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  equivalence.
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* New theory of factorial domains.
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* Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simprules by default.
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INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
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and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
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* Renamed the following theorems.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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UpperD ~> Upper_memD
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LowerD ~> Lower_memD
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least_carrier ~> least_closed
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greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
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greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
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one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
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one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
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*** HOL-NSA ***
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* Created new image HOL-NSA, containing theories of nonstandard
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analysis which were previously part of HOL-Complex.  Entry point
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Hyperreal.thy remains valid, but theories formerly using
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Complex_Main.thy should now use new entry point Hypercomplex.thy.
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*** ZF ***
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* Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
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*** ML ***
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* Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
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res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
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context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
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the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
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thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
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Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
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Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
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use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
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Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
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resort for legacy applications.
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* Antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
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\<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
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  @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
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  @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
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  @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
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  @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
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  @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
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  @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
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  @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
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  @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
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  @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
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*** System ***
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* Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
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the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
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Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
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process wrapper has been discontinued.)
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* Status messages (with exact source position information) are
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emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
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user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
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prover operations.
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* Homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see Isabelle/lib/fonts.
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New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
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-------------------------------
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*** General ***
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* The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
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and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
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* Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
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implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
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conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
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provides a proper context already.
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* Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
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file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
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'use' within a theory file will do the job.
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* Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
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is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
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space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
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swap theory imports.
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* Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
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INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
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* Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
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which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
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white space without escapes.
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* Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
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specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
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"foo_bar".
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*** Pure ***
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* Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
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fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
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* Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
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There are three ways of invoking it:
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(1) unused_thms
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     Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
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(2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
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     Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
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     excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
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(3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
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     Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
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     their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
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     their ancestors.
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In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
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unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
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of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
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to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
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this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
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reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
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unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
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Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
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unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
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usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
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* Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
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theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
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duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
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that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
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PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
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* Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
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* Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
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clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
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update of theories within ML code.
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* Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
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INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
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additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
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depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
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* Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
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theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
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instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
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INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
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* Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
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instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
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Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
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See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
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src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
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* Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
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facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
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background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
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"fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
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situations.
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* Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
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"(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
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proof text.
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* Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
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INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
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* Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
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hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
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predicates.
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*** Document preparation ***
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* Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
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both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
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obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
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spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
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value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
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"a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
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* Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
wenzelm@27008
   349
method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
wenzelm@27008
   350
arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
haftmann@26762
   351
haftmann@26762
   352
wenzelm@25464
   353
*** HOL ***
wenzelm@25464
   354
wenzelm@27067
   355
* New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
wenzelm@27067
   356
definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
wenzelm@27067
   357
"primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
wenzelm@27067
   358
by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
wenzelm@27067
   359
When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
wenzelm@27067
   360
primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
wenzelm@27067
   361
wenzelm@27067
   362
* Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
wenzelm@27067
   363
with multithreading.
wenzelm@27067
   364
wenzelm@27067
   365
* Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
wenzelm@27067
   366
theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
wenzelm@27067
   367
exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
wenzelm@27067
   368
wenzelm@27067
   369
* Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
wenzelm@27067
   370
enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
wenzelm@27067
   371
reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
wenzelm@27067
   372
sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@27067
   373
haftmann@27104
   374
* Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
wenzelm@27067
   375
from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
wenzelm@27067
   376
out some operations that are done internally by the function package
wenzelm@27067
   377
and makes them available separately.  See
wenzelm@27067
   378
src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
wenzelm@27067
   379
wenzelm@27067
   380
* More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
wenzelm@27067
   381
proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
wenzelm@27067
   382
form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
wenzelm@27067
   383
The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
wenzelm@27067
   384
just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
wenzelm@27067
   385
termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
wenzelm@27067
   386
type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
wenzelm@27067
   387
the declared rules.
wenzelm@27067
   388
wenzelm@27067
   389
This setup also deals with rules like 
wenzelm@27067
   390
wenzelm@27067
   391
  "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
wenzelm@27067
   392
wenzelm@27067
   393
which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
wenzelm@27067
   394
Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
wenzelm@27067
   395
berghofe@26964
   396
* Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
berghofe@26964
   397
berghofe@26964
   398
  INCOMPATIBILITIES:
berghofe@26964
   399
wenzelm@27008
   400
  - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
wenzelm@27008
   401
    definitions on => and bool.
berghofe@26964
   402
berghofe@26964
   403
  - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
wenzelm@27008
   404
    using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
wenzelm@27008
   405
    the following theorems have been renamed:
berghofe@26964
   406
berghofe@26964
   407
      subset_def   -> subset_eq
berghofe@26964
   408
      psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
berghofe@26964
   409
      set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
berghofe@26964
   410
      Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
berghofe@26964
   411
      Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
berghofe@26964
   412
      Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
berghofe@26964
   413
      sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
berghofe@26964
   414
      inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
berghofe@26964
   415
berghofe@26964
   416
  - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
berghofe@26964
   417
    rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
berghofe@26964
   418
    the unknowns in the rule is a set.
berghofe@26964
   419
berghofe@26964
   420
  - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
berghofe@26964
   421
    The proof pattern
berghofe@26964
   422
berghofe@26964
   423
      have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
berghofe@26964
   424
      then have "EX S. P S" ..
berghofe@26964
   425
wenzelm@27008
   426
    no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
wenzelm@27008
   427
    algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
berghofe@26964
   428
berghofe@26964
   429
      have "EX S. P S"
berghofe@26964
   430
      proof
berghofe@26964
   431
        show "P S" <...>
berghofe@26964
   432
      qed
berghofe@26964
   433
berghofe@26964
   434
  - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
berghofe@26964
   435
    The proof pattern
berghofe@26964
   436
berghofe@26964
   437
      have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
berghofe@26964
   438
      also have "S = T" <...>
berghofe@26964
   439
      finally have "P T" .
berghofe@26964
   440
wenzelm@27008
   441
    no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
wenzelm@27008
   442
    must be replaced by something like
berghofe@26964
   443
berghofe@26964
   444
      have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
berghofe@26964
   445
      moreover have "S = T" <...>
berghofe@26964
   446
      ultimately have "P T" by simp
berghofe@26964
   447
berghofe@26964
   448
  - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
berghofe@26964
   449
    Code performing pattern matching on types via
berghofe@26964
   450
berghofe@26964
   451
      Type ("set", [T]) => ...
berghofe@26964
   452
wenzelm@27008
   453
    must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
wenzelm@27008
   454
    binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
wenzelm@27008
   455
    type of the form
berghofe@26964
   456
berghofe@26964
   457
      T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
berghofe@26964
   458
berghofe@26964
   459
    rather than
berghofe@26964
   460
berghofe@26964
   461
      T1 => ... => Tn => U set
berghofe@26964
   462
wenzelm@26874
   463
* Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
wenzelm@27067
   464
Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
krauss@26748
   465
haftmann@26513
   466
* Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@26513
   467
wenzelm@26874
   468
* Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
wenzelm@26874
   469
enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
haftmann@26445
   470
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@26445
   471
wenzelm@26874
   472
* Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
wenzelm@26874
   473
and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@26874
   474
wenzelm@26422
   475
* HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
wenzelm@26422
   476
Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@26422
   477
wenzelm@26874
   478
* Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
wenzelm@26874
   479
injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
wenzelm@26874
   480
Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@26355
   481
wenzelm@26335
   482
* Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
wenzelm@26335
   483
the same name in theory Orderings:
wenzelm@26335
   484
wenzelm@26335
   485
  less_trans
wenzelm@26335
   486
  less_linear
wenzelm@26335
   487
  le_imp_less_or_eq
wenzelm@26335
   488
  le_less_trans
wenzelm@26335
   489
  less_le_trans
wenzelm@26335
   490
  less_not_sym
wenzelm@26335
   491
  less_asym
wenzelm@26335
   492
wenzelm@26335
   493
Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
wenzelm@26335
   494
less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
wenzelm@26335
   495
and different variable names.
wenzelm@26315
   496
haftmann@26231
   497
* Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
haftmann@26231
   498
wenzelm@27008
   499
* Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
wenzelm@27008
   500
finite maps.
krauss@26197
   501
haftmann@26231
   502
* Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
haftmann@26231
   503
wenzelm@26180
   504
* Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
wenzelm@26180
   505
operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
wenzelm@26180
   506
disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
wenzelm@26180
   507
place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
wenzelm@26180
   508
involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
wenzelm@26180
   509
accordingly.
wenzelm@26180
   510
wenzelm@26180
   511
* Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
wenzelm@26180
   512
depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
wenzelm@26180
   513
le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
wenzelm@26180
   514
[symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
wenzelm@26180
   515
wenzelm@26180
   516
* Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
wenzelm@26180
   517
(whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
wenzelm@26874
   518
abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
wenzelm@26180
   519
ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
wenzelm@26180
   520
lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
haftmann@26139
   521
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@26041
   522
wenzelm@26180
   523
* Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
wenzelm@26180
   524
case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@26180
   525
wenzelm@26180
   526
* Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
wenzelm@26180
   527
lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
wenzelm@26180
   528
Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
haftmann@26013
   529
wenzelm@26874
   530
* Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
wenzelm@27067
   531
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@25961
   532
wenzelm@26180
   533
* Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
haftmann@25942
   534
with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
haftmann@25942
   535
wenzelm@26180
   536
* Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
wenzelm@26180
   537
Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@26180
   538
wenzelm@26180
   539
* Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
wenzelm@26180
   540
numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@26180
   541
wenzelm@26180
   542
* New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
wenzelm@26180
   543
"minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
haftmann@25919
   544
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@25919
   545
wenzelm@25522
   546
* Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
haftmann@25919
   547
syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@25522
   548
wenzelm@25522
   549
* Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
wenzelm@25522
   550
le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
wenzelm@25522
   551
sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
wenzelm@25522
   552
Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
wenzelm@25522
   553
Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
haftmann@25919
   554
equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@25464
   555
schirmer@25705
   556
* Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
wenzelm@25726
   557
%x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
schirmer@25705
   558
INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
wenzelm@25464
   559
wenzelm@27067
   560
* Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
wenzelm@27067
   561
wenzelm@27067
   562
* Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
wenzelm@27067
   563
wenzelm@27067
   564
* Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
wenzelm@27067
   565
pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
wenzelm@27067
   566
well-orders on sets and on types.
krauss@26877
   567
wenzelm@25726
   568
krauss@26197
   569
*** ZF ***
krauss@26197
   570
wenzelm@26874
   571
* Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
wenzelm@26874
   572
same session:
wenzelm@26874
   573
wenzelm@26874
   574
  Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
wenzelm@26874
   575
  Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
wenzelm@26874
   576
  Int       -> Int_ZF
wenzelm@26874
   577
  IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
wenzelm@26874
   578
  Nat       -> Nat_ZF
wenzelm@26874
   579
  List      -> List_ZF
wenzelm@26874
   580
  Main      -> Main_ZF
wenzelm@26874
   581
wenzelm@26874
   582
INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
wenzelm@26874
   583
Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
wenzelm@26874
   584
available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
krauss@26197
   585
krauss@26197
   586
wenzelm@25737
   587
*** ML ***
wenzelm@25737
   588
wenzelm@27067
   589
* ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
wenzelm@27067
   590
name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
wenzelm@27067
   591
wenzelm@26401
   592
* Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
wenzelm@26724
   593
(of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
wenzelm@26401
   594
wenzelm@27067
   595
* Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
wenzelm@26188
   596
wenzelm@25737
   597
* The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
wenzelm@25737
   598
template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
wenzelm@25737
   599
non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
wenzelm@25737
   600
management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
wenzelm@25737
   601
print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@25737
   602
wenzelm@26874
   603
* Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
wenzelm@27008
   604
shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML 5.2).
wenzelm@26874
   605
Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
wenzelm@26222
   606
wenzelm@25737
   607
wenzelm@25626
   608
*** System ***
wenzelm@25626
   609
wenzelm@25971
   610
* Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
wenzelm@25971
   611
in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
wenzelm@25970
   612
wenzelm@25626
   613
* isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
wenzelm@25626
   614
optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
wenzelm@25626
   615
setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
wenzelm@25626
   616
wenzelm@25651
   617
* isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
wenzelm@25651
   618
"javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
wenzelm@25651
   619
wenzelm@27067
   620
* YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
wenzelm@27067
   621
standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
wenzelm@27067
   622
isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
wenzelm@25651
   623
wenzelm@25652
   624
* JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
wenzelm@25651
   625
provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
wenzelm@25651
   626
fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
wenzelm@25651
   627
wenzelm@25855
   628
* Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
wenzelm@25855
   629
based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
wenzelm@25855
   630
wenzelm@27067
   631
* Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
wenzelm@27067
   632
way of changing the user's settings is via
wenzelm@27067
   633
ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
wenzelm@27067
   634
script.
wenzelm@27067
   635
wenzelm@27067
   636
* Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
wenzelm@27067
   637
cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
wenzelm@27067
   638
optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
wenzelm@27067
   639
"max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
wenzelm@27067
   640
of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
wenzelm@27067
   641
wenzelm@27067
   642
* isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
wenzelm@27067
   643
adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
wenzelm@27067
   644
ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
wenzelm@27067
   645
wenzelm@25626
   646
wenzelm@25464
   647
wenzelm@25429
   648
New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
wenzelm@25429
   649
-----------------------------------
wenzelm@17754
   650
wenzelm@17754
   651
*** General ***
wenzelm@17754
   652
wenzelm@22826
   653
* More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
wenzelm@22826
   654
warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
wenzelm@23367
   655
tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
wenzelm@23367
   656
legacy features will disappear eventually.
wenzelm@22826
   657
wenzelm@17918
   658
* Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
wenzelm@17918
   659
discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
wenzelm@17918
   660
fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@17918
   661
wenzelm@17918
   662
* Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
wenzelm@17918
   663
discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
wenzelm@17918
   664
with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
wenzelm@17918
   665
function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@17918
   666
wenzelm@22871
   667
* Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
wenzelm@22871
   668
'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
wenzelm@22871
   669
quotes.
wenzelm@19814
   670
wenzelm@23888
   671
* Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
wenzelm@23888
   672
header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
wenzelm@24172
   673
accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
wenzelm@24172
   674
update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
wenzelm@24172
   675
use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
wenzelm@24172
   676
theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
wenzelm@24172
   677
specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
wenzelm@24172
   678
INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
wenzelm@24172
   679
ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
wenzelm@23888
   680
wenzelm@23888
   681
* Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
wenzelm@23888
   682
identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
wenzelm@23889
   683
path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
wenzelm@23888
   684
(cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
wenzelm@23888
   685
non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
wenzelm@23888
   686
files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
wenzelm@23888
   687
wenzelm@24187
   688
* Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
wenzelm@24187
   689
file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
wenzelm@24800
   690
feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
wenzelm@24800
   691
no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
wenzelm@24800
   692
wenzelm@24800
   693
* Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
wenzelm@24800
   694
now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
wenzelm@24234
   695
specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
wenzelm@24234
   696
syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
wenzelm@24234
   697
type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
wenzelm@24234
   698
'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
wenzelm@24234
   699
wenzelm@25034
   700
* Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
wenzelm@25034
   701
'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
wenzelm@25034
   702
``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
wenzelm@25034
   703
really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
wenzelm@25034
   704
ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
wenzelm@25034
   705
trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
wenzelm@25034
   706
translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
wenzelm@25034
   707
@{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
wenzelm@25034
   708
wenzelm@17981
   709
* Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
wenzelm@17981
   710
to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
wenzelm@17981
   711
functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
wenzelm@17981
   712
by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
wenzelm@17981
   713
Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
wenzelm@17981
   714
these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
wenzelm@17981
   715
used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
wenzelm@17918
   716
wenzelm@23379
   717
* Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
wenzelm@23379
   718
criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
wenzelm@23379
   719
support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
webertj@22965
   720
wenzelm@20370
   721
* The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
wenzelm@20370
   722
by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
wenzelm@20370
   723
suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
wenzelm@20370
   724
settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
wenzelm@20370
   725
older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
wenzelm@20370
   726
limit is imposed.
wenzelm@20370
   727
wenzelm@21308
   728
* Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
wenzelm@21308
   729
``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
wenzelm@21308
   730
contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
wenzelm@21308
   731
that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
wenzelm@21308
   732
generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
wenzelm@21308
   733
and scalability.
wenzelm@21308
   734
wenzelm@21960
   735
* Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
wenzelm@21960
   736
discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
wenzelm@21960
   737
wenzelm@17754
   738
wenzelm@17865
   739
*** Document preparation ***
wenzelm@17865
   740
wenzelm@21717
   741
* Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
wenzelm@21717
   742
after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
wenzelm@21717
   743
current context.
haftmann@21339
   744
wenzelm@17869
   745
* Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
wenzelm@17869
   746
check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
wenzelm@17865
   747
wenzelm@21717
   748
* Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
wenzelm@21717
   749
"c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
wenzelm@21735
   750
arguments may be given on the LHS.)
wenzelm@21717
   751
wenzelm@21717
   752
wenzelm@17779
   753
*** Pure ***
wenzelm@17779
   754
wenzelm@24800
   755
* The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
wenzelm@25129
   756
achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
wenzelm@25129
   757
theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
wenzelm@25129
   758
implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
wenzelm@25129
   759
constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
wenzelm@25129
   760
context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
wenzelm@25129
   761
syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
wenzelm@25129
   762
between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
wenzelm@25177
   763
See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
haftmann@25184
   764
"isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
wenzelm@20807
   765
haftmann@25199
   766
* Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
wenzelm@24800
   767
code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
wenzelm@24800
   768
sketch:
haftmann@20188
   769
haftmann@20188
   770
    internal compilation:
haftmann@25199
   771
        export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
haftmann@20453
   772
    writing SML code to a file:
haftmann@25199
   773
        export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
haftmann@22735
   774
    writing OCaml code to a file:
haftmann@25199
   775
        export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
haftmann@20188
   776
    writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
haftmann@25199
   777
        export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
haftmann@25199
   778
haftmann@25199
   779
    evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
haftmann@25184
   780
        method ``eval''
haftmann@25184
   781
haftmann@25184
   782
Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
haftmann@20453
   783
haftmann@20453
   784
Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
haftmann@20453
   785
haftmann@22845
   786
    [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
haftmann@22845
   787
    [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
haftmann@22845
   788
    [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
haftmann@22845
   789
    [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
haftmann@20453
   790
haftmann@22735
   791
User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
haftmann@20453
   792
haftmann@20453
   793
    code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
haftmann@20453
   794
      {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
haftmann@20453
   795
haftmann@20453
   796
    code_type <and-list of type constructors>
haftmann@20453
   797
      {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
haftmann@20453
   798
haftmann@20453
   799
    code_instance <and-list of instances>
haftmann@20453
   800
      {(target)}+
haftmann@20453
   801
        where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
haftmann@20453
   802
haftmann@20453
   803
    code_class <and_list of classes>
haftmann@20453
   804
      {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
haftmann@20453
   805
        where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
haftmann@20453
   806
haftmann@25199
   807
code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
haftmann@22735
   808
wenzelm@25177
   809
For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
wenzelm@25177
   810
src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
wenzelm@24800
   811
generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
wenzelm@24800
   812
codegen".
haftmann@20188
   813
wenzelm@25129
   814
* Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
wenzelm@25129
   815
referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
wenzelm@25129
   816
annotations).
wenzelm@25129
   817
wenzelm@19254
   818
* Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
wenzelm@19254
   819
syntax.
wenzelm@19254
   820
wenzelm@19625
   821
* Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
wenzelm@19714
   822
dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
wenzelm@19714
   823
that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
wenzelm@19714
   824
correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
wenzelm@19714
   825
INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
wenzelm@19714
   826
exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
wenzelm@19711
   827
wenzelm@19711
   828
Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
wenzelm@19711
   829
instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
wenzelm@19711
   830
declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
wenzelm@19711
   831
c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
wenzelm@19711
   832
as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
wenzelm@19711
   833
recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
wenzelm@19714
   834
impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
wenzelm@19715
   835
LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
wenzelm@19714
   836
Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
wenzelm@19714
   837
equations, see section "definitions".
wenzelm@19625
   838
wenzelm@24086
   839
* Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
wenzelm@24086
   840
context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
wenzelm@24086
   841
interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
wenzelm@24110
   842
declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
wenzelm@24110
   843
these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
wenzelm@24110
   844
associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
wenzelm@24110
   845
declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
wenzelm@24110
   846
'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
wenzelm@24110
   847
very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
wenzelm@24110
   848
toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
wenzelm@24086
   849
wenzelm@24172
   850
Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
wenzelm@24172
   851
configuration options:
wenzelm@24172
   852
wenzelm@24172
   853
  Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
wenzelm@24172
   854
  Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
wenzelm@24172
   855
  Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
wenzelm@24172
   856
  Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
wenzelm@24172
   857
  Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
wenzelm@24172
   858
  Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
wenzelm@24172
   859
  DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
wenzelm@24172
   860
  fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
wenzelm@24172
   861
  fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
wenzelm@24172
   862
wenzelm@24086
   863
* Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
wenzelm@24800
   864
data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
wenzelm@24086
   865
src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
wenzelm@24110
   866
attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
wenzelm@24110
   867
just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
wenzelm@24110
   868
for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
wenzelm@24110
   869
order.
wenzelm@24086
   870
wenzelm@24032
   871
* Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
wenzelm@24032
   872
declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
wenzelm@24032
   873
being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
wenzelm@24032
   874
difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
wenzelm@24032
   875
context encountered later on.
wenzelm@24032
   876
wenzelm@24032
   877
* Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
wenzelm@24032
   878
'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
wenzelm@24032
   879
text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
wenzelm@24032
   880
context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
wenzelm@24032
   881
wenzelm@24032
   882
* Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
wenzelm@24032
   883
abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
wenzelm@24032
   884
which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
wenzelm@24032
   885
the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
wenzelm@24032
   886
declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
wenzelm@24032
   887
'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
wenzelm@24032
   888
wenzelm@23369
   889
* Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
wenzelm@23369
   890
takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
wenzelm@23369
   891
an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
wenzelm@23369
   892
assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
wenzelm@23369
   893
goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
wenzelm@23369
   894
without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
wenzelm@23369
   895
Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
wenzelm@23369
   896
more permissive.
wenzelm@23369
   897
wenzelm@23369
   898
* Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
wenzelm@23369
   899
considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
wenzelm@23369
   900
may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
wenzelm@23369
   901
referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
wenzelm@23369
   902
maintainability of proof texts.
wenzelm@23369
   903
wenzelm@17865
   904
* Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
wenzelm@17865
   905
the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
wenzelm@17865
   906
wenzelm@17865
   907
  assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
wenzelm@17865
   908
  then guess x and y by clarify
wenzelm@17865
   909
wenzelm@17865
   910
This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
wenzelm@17865
   911
proof tools being involved here.
wenzelm@17865
   912
wenzelm@18020
   913
* Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
wenzelm@18020
   914
propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
wenzelm@18020
   915
named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
wenzelm@18020
   916
methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
wenzelm@18020
   917
according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
wenzelm@18020
   918
provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
wenzelm@18020
   919
theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
wenzelm@18020
   920
`A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
wenzelm@18020
   921
wenzelm@18020
   922
There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
wenzelm@18044
   923
for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
wenzelm@18044
   924
certain special cases of literal facts:
wenzelm@18020
   925
wenzelm@18020
   926
  have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
wenzelm@18020
   927
  have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
wenzelm@18020
   928
  have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
wenzelm@18020
   929
  have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
wenzelm@18020
   930
wenzelm@20118
   931
* Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
wenzelm@20118
   932
outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
wenzelm@20118
   933
additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
wenzelm@20118
   934
wenzelm@20013
   935
* Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
wenzelm@20013
   936
both named and unnamed ones.
wenzelm@20013
   937
wenzelm@18308
   938
* Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
wenzelm@18308
   939
wenzelm@18308
   940
  def x == "t" and y == "u"
wenzelm@18308
   941
wenzelm@18540
   942
* Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
wenzelm@18540
   943
'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
wenzelm@18815
   944
rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
wenzelm@18540
   945
'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
wenzelm@18540
   946
wenzelm@18815
   947
* Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
wenzelm@18815
   948
and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
wenzelm@18815
   949
(potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
wenzelm@18815
   950
analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
wenzelm@18815
   951
Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
wenzelm@18815
   952
kleing@24238
   953
* Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
kleing@24238
   954
premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
kleing@24238
   955
wenzelm@19220
   956
* Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
wenzelm@19220
   957
method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
wenzelm@19240
   958
sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
wenzelm@19240
   959
simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
wenzelm@19240
   960
simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
wenzelm@19240
   961
originally first one.
wenzelm@19220
   962
wenzelm@19814
   963
* Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
wenzelm@19814
   964
patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
wenzelm@19814
   965
expected.
wenzelm@19814
   966
wenzelm@18901
   967
* Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
wenzelm@18901
   968
'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
wenzelm@18901
   969
(essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
wenzelm@18901
   970
assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
wenzelm@18910
   971
adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
wenzelm@18901
   972
wenzelm@18901
   973
  lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
wenzelm@18901
   974
    assumes "EX x. P x"
wenzelm@18901
   975
    obtains x where "P x"
wenzelm@18901
   976
wenzelm@18901
   977
  lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
wenzelm@18901
   978
    assumes "A & B"
wenzelm@18901
   979
    obtains A and B
wenzelm@18901
   980
wenzelm@18901
   981
  lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
wenzelm@18901
   982
    assumes "A | B"
wenzelm@18901
   983
    obtains
wenzelm@18901
   984
      A
wenzelm@18901
   985
    | B
wenzelm@18901
   986
wenzelm@18910
   987
The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
wenzelm@18901
   988
explicitly:
wenzelm@18901
   989
wenzelm@18901
   990
  lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
wenzelm@18901
   991
    obtains "~ thesis"
wenzelm@18901
   992
wenzelm@18910
   993
  lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
wenzelm@18910
   994
    obtains "thesis ==> something"
wenzelm@18901
   995
wenzelm@18901
   996
The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
wenzelm@18910
   997
Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
wenzelm@18910
   998
Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
wenzelm@18910
   999
available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
wenzelm@18910
  1000
resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
wenzelm@18910
  1001
case_names).
wenzelm@18901
  1002
wenzelm@21447
  1003
* Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
wenzelm@21447
  1004
"assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
wenzelm@21447
  1005
(historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
wenzelm@21447
  1006
context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
wenzelm@21447
  1007
wenzelm@19263
  1008
* Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
wenzelm@19263
  1009
proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
wenzelm@19263
  1010
top-level lemma.
wenzelm@19263
  1011
wenzelm@18901
  1012
* Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
wenzelm@18901
  1013
introduction rule (default "that").
wenzelm@18901
  1014
wenzelm@19587
  1015
* Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
wenzelm@19587
  1016
explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
wenzelm@19587
  1017
to occur.
wenzelm@19587
  1018
wenzelm@19682
  1019
* Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
wenzelm@19682
  1020
according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
wenzelm@19682
  1021
syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
wenzelm@19682
  1022
representations independently of name spaces.
wenzelm@19682
  1023
wenzelm@21537
  1024
* Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
wenzelm@21537
  1025
instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
wenzelm@21537
  1026
in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@21537
  1027
wenzelm@21209
  1028
* Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
wenzelm@21209
  1029
primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
wenzelm@24950
  1030
fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
wenzelm@24950
  1031
of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
wenzelm@24950
  1032
'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
wenzelm@24950
  1033
current context.
wenzelm@19682
  1034
wenzelm@19665
  1035
* Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
wenzelm@19665
  1036
'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
wenzelm@19083
  1037
object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
wenzelm@19083
  1038
isar-ref manual.  Examples:
wenzelm@19081
  1039
wenzelm@19665
  1040
  axiomatization
wenzelm@21595
  1041
    eq  (infix "===" 50) where
wenzelm@21595
  1042
    eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
wenzelm@21595
  1043
wenzelm@21595
  1044
  definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
wenzelm@21595
  1045
  definition g where "g x = f x x"
wenzelm@19081
  1046
wenzelm@19363
  1047
  abbreviation
wenzelm@21595
  1048
    neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
wenzelm@19363
  1049
    "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
wenzelm@19081
  1050
wenzelm@19083
  1051
These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
wenzelm@19083
  1052
constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
wenzelm@19083
  1053
constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
wenzelm@19083
  1054
abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
wenzelm@19088
  1055
parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
wenzelm@25177
  1056
src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
wenzelm@19083
  1057
entities from a monomorphic theory.
wenzelm@19083
  1058
wenzelm@19083
  1059
Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
wenzelm@19363
  1060
not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
wenzelm@19363
  1061
'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
wenzelm@24735
  1062
'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
wenzelm@24735
  1063
prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
wenzelm@19084
  1064
wenzelm@19682
  1065
Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
wenzelm@19682
  1066
independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
wenzelm@21209
  1067
slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
wenzelm@19682
  1068
'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
wenzelm@19665
  1069
wenzelm@24800
  1070
* Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
wenzelm@24800
  1071
(e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
wenzelm@24800
  1072
full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
wenzelm@24735
  1073
wenzelm@24735
  1074
  definition "K x _ = x"
wenzelm@24735
  1075
wenzelm@24738
  1076
  inductive conj for A B
wenzelm@24738
  1077
  where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
wenzelm@24738
  1078
wenzelm@21735
  1079
* Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
wenzelm@21735
  1080
the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
wenzelm@21735
  1081
abbreviations on output.
wenzelm@21735
  1082
wenzelm@24800
  1083
* Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
wenzelm@24800
  1084
"struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
wenzelm@24800
  1085
required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
wenzelm@24800
  1086
endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
ballarin@19783
  1087
ballarin@19931
  1088
* Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
ballarin@19931
  1089
Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
wenzelm@22126
  1090
now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
wenzelm@22126
  1091
locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
wenzelm@22126
  1092
predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
wenzelm@22126
  1093
removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
wenzelm@22126
  1094
`unfold_locales'; see below.
wenzelm@22126
  1095
wenzelm@22126
  1096
* Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
wenzelm@22126
  1097
provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
wenzelm@22126
  1098
aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
wenzelm@22126
  1099
`intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
wenzelm@22126
  1100
unfold predicates to assumptions.
ballarin@19931
  1101
ballarin@19931
  1102
* Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
wenzelm@22126
  1103
has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
wenzelm@22126
  1104
to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
ballarin@19931
  1105
ballarin@23920
  1106
* Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
ballarin@23920
  1107
extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
ballarin@23920
  1108
unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
ballarin@23920
  1109
defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
ballarin@23920
  1110
concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
ballarin@23920
  1111
ballarin@23920
  1112
  interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
ballarin@23920
  1113
    where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
ballarin@23920
  1114
wenzelm@24800
  1115
Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
wenzelm@24800
  1116
definition specification element in the context of locale
wenzelm@24800
  1117
partial_order.
wenzelm@24800
  1118
wenzelm@24859
  1119
* Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
wenzelm@24800
  1120
local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
wenzelm@24800
  1121
connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
wenzelm@24800
  1122
(using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
wenzelm@24800
  1123
obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
wenzelm@25177
  1124
src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
wenzelm@25177
  1125
src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
wenzelm@25177
  1126
examples.
wenzelm@24606
  1127
wenzelm@24859
  1128
* Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
wenzelm@24606
  1129
introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
wenzelm@24606
  1130
several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
wenzelm@24606
  1131
accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
wenzelm@25177
  1132
see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
wenzelm@24606
  1133
wenzelm@24859
  1134
* Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
wenzelm@24800
  1135
of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
wenzelm@24606
  1136
foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
wenzelm@24859
  1137
predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
wenzelm@24859
  1138
mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
wenzelm@18506
  1139
wenzelm@18506
  1140
  (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
wenzelm@18506
  1141
  (induct set: foo bar)
wenzelm@24859
  1142
  (induct pred: foo bar)
wenzelm@18506
  1143
  (induct type: foo bar)
wenzelm@18506
  1144
wenzelm@18506
  1145
The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
wenzelm@18506
  1146
new format.
wenzelm@18506
  1147
wenzelm@24859
  1148
* Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
wenzelm@18399
  1149
src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
wenzelm@18399
  1150
wenzelm@24859
  1151
* Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
wenzelm@24859
  1152
considered a legacy feature.
wenzelm@24859
  1153
wenzelm@20919
  1154
* Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
wenzelm@20919
  1155
variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@20919
  1156
wenzelm@22126
  1157
* Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
wenzelm@22126
  1158
rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
wenzelm@22126
  1159
default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
wenzelm@22126
  1160
trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
nipkow@18674
  1161
  
wenzelm@18536
  1162
* Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
wenzelm@18536
  1163
attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
wenzelm@18536
  1164
manipulating the claset.
wenzelm@18536
  1165
wenzelm@18694
  1166
* Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
wenzelm@18694
  1167
dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
wenzelm@18694
  1168
least one premise.
wenzelm@18694
  1169
wenzelm@18694
  1170
* Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
wenzelm@18695
  1171
weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
wenzelm@18696
  1172
ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
wenzelm@18694
  1173
rule steps.
paulson@18557
  1174
wenzelm@18536
  1175
* Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
wenzelm@18536
  1176
where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
wenzelm@18536
  1177
patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
wenzelm@18536
  1178
"{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
wenzelm@18536
  1179
INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
wenzelm@18536
  1180
constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
wenzelm@18536
  1181
wenzelm@18536
  1182
* Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
wenzelm@18536
  1183
parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
wenzelm@18536
  1184
for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
wenzelm@17779
  1185
wenzelm@20582
  1186
* Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
wenzelm@20582
  1187
the graph browser tool.
wenzelm@20582
  1188
wenzelm@24800
  1189
* Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
wenzelm@24800
  1190
default; use '!' option for full details.
wenzelm@20620
  1191
wenzelm@17865
  1192
nipkow@17806
  1193
*** HOL ***
nipkow@17806
  1194
wenzelm@25129
  1195
* Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
wenzelm@25129
  1196
resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
wenzelm@25129
  1197
Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
wenzelm@25129
  1198
Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
wenzelm@25129
  1199
multi-threading.
wenzelm@25129
  1200
  
wenzelm@25129
  1201
* Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
wenzelm@25129
  1202
background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
wenzelm@25129
  1203
successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
wenzelm@25129
  1204
wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
wenzelm@25129
  1205
work with multi-threading.
wenzelm@25129
  1206
wenzelm@24804
  1207
* New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
wenzelm@24804
  1208
potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
wenzelm@24804
  1209
auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
wenzelm@25129
  1210
5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
wenzelm@25129
  1211
executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
wenzelm@24804
  1212
haftmann@25184
  1213
* New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
haftmann@25184
  1214
haftmann@25184
  1215
* Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
haftmann@25184
  1216
equality.
haftmann@25184
  1217
haftmann@25184
  1218
* Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
haftmann@25184
  1219
the new 'class' package:
haftmann@25184
  1220
haftmann@25184
  1221
    HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
haftmann@25184
  1222
    HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
haftmann@25184
  1223
    0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
haftmann@25184
  1224
    1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
haftmann@25184
  1225
    op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
haftmann@25184
  1226
    op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
haftmann@25184
  1227
    uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
haftmann@25184
  1228
    op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
haftmann@25184
  1229
    op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
haftmann@25184
  1230
    op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
haftmann@25184
  1231
    Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
haftmann@25184
  1232
    Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
haftmann@25184
  1233
    Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
haftmann@25184
  1234
    FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
haftmann@25184
  1235
    FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
haftmann@25184
  1236
    Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
haftmann@25184
  1237
    Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
haftmann@25184
  1238
    Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
haftmann@25184
  1239
    Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
haftmann@25184
  1240
    Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
haftmann@25184
  1241
haftmann@25184
  1242
INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
haftmann@25184
  1243
haftmann@25184
  1244
a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
haftmann@25184
  1245
"times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
haftmann@25184
  1246
"+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
haftmann@25184
  1247
names.
haftmann@25184
  1248
haftmann@25184
  1249
b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
haftmann@25184
  1250
INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
haftmann@25184
  1251
haftmann@25184
  1252
c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
haftmann@25184
  1253
Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
haftmann@25184
  1254
rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
haftmann@25184
  1255
that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
haftmann@25184
  1256
distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
haftmann@25184
  1257
haftmann@25184
  1258
d) ML code directly refering to constant names
haftmann@25184
  1259
This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
haftmann@25184
  1260
so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
haftmann@25184
  1261
Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
haftmann@25184
  1262
haftmann@25184
  1263
* New class "default" with associated constant "default".
haftmann@25184
  1264
haftmann@25184
  1265
* Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
haftmann@25184
  1266
(and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
haftmann@25184
  1267
sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
haftmann@25184
  1268
sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
haftmann@25184
  1269
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@25184
  1270
haftmann@25184
  1271
* Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
haftmann@25184
  1272
Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@25184
  1273
haftmann@25184
  1274
* Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
haftmann@25184
  1275
"cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
haftmann@25184
  1276
clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@25184
  1277
haftmann@25184
  1278
* Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
haftmann@25184
  1279
changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
haftmann@25184
  1280
haftmann@25184
  1281
* The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
haftmann@25184
  1282
for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
haftmann@25184
  1283
in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
haftmann@25184
  1284
Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
haftmann@25184
  1285
is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
haftmann@25184
  1286
command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
haftmann@25184
  1287
in the current context.
haftmann@25184
  1288
haftmann@25184
  1289
* Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
haftmann@25184
  1290
lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
haftmann@25184
  1291
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@25184
  1292
haftmann@25184
  1293
* Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
haftmann@25184
  1294
with new class dense_linear_order.
haftmann@25184
  1295
haftmann@25184
  1296
* Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
haftmann@25184
  1297
haftmann@25184
  1298
    constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
haftmann@25184
  1299
    constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
haftmann@25184
  1300
haftmann@25184
  1301
    classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
haftmann@25184
  1302
      "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
haftmann@25184
  1303
    class "lorder" now named "lattice"
haftmann@25184
  1304
    class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
haftmann@25184
  1305
haftmann@25184
  1306
    Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
haftmann@25184
  1307
    for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
haftmann@25184
  1308
haftmann@25184
  1309
  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
haftmann@25184
  1310
haftmann@25184
  1311
    meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
haftmann@25184
  1312
    meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
haftmann@25184
  1313
    join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
haftmann@25184
  1314
    join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
haftmann@25184
  1315
    meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
haftmann@25184
  1316
    le_meetI                ~> le_infI
haftmann@25184
  1317
    join_leI                ~> le_supI
haftmann@25184
  1318
    le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
haftmann@25184
  1319
    le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
haftmann@25184
  1320
    meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
haftmann@25184
  1321
    join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
haftmann@25184
  1322
    meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
haftmann@25184
  1323
    join_comm               ~> sup_commute
haftmann@25184
  1324
    meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
haftmann@25184
  1325
    meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
haftmann@25184
  1326
    le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
haftmann@25184
  1327
    le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
haftmann@25184
  1328
    meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
haftmann@25184
  1329
    join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
haftmann@25184
  1330
    meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
haftmann@25184
  1331
    meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
haftmann@25184
  1332
    join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
haftmann@25184
  1333
    join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
haftmann@25184
  1334
    meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
haftmann@25184
  1335
    join_aci                ~> sup_aci
haftmann@25184
  1336
    le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
haftmann@25184
  1337
    le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
haftmann@25184
  1338
    join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
haftmann@25184
  1339
    join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
haftmann@25184
  1340
    meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
haftmann@25184
  1341
    meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
haftmann@25184
  1342
    meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
haftmann@25184
  1343
    join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
haftmann@25184
  1344
    distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
haftmann@25184
  1345
    distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
haftmann@25184
  1346
haftmann@25184
  1347
    add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
haftmann@25184
  1348
    add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
haftmann@25184
  1349
    is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
haftmann@25184
  1350
    is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
haftmann@25184
  1351
    add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
haftmann@25184
  1352
    add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
haftmann@25184
  1353
    add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
haftmann@25184
  1354
    join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
haftmann@25184
  1355
    meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
haftmann@25184
  1356
    add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
haftmann@25184
  1357
    meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
haftmann@25184
  1358
    join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
haftmann@25184
  1359
    meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
haftmann@25184
  1360
    join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
haftmann@25184
  1361
    neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
haftmann@25184
  1362
    neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
haftmann@25184
  1363
    join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
haftmann@25184
  1364
haftmann@25184
  1365
    mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
haftmann@25184
  1366
    mono_join               ~> mono_sup
haftmann@25184
  1367
    meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
haftmann@25184
  1368
    join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
haftmann@25184
  1369
    meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
haftmann@25184
  1370
    join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
haftmann@25184
  1371
    meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
haftmann@25184
  1372
    join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
haftmann@25184
  1373
    meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
haftmann@25184
  1374
    meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
haftmann@25184
  1375
    meet1I                  ~> inf1I
haftmann@25184
  1376
    meet2I                  ~> inf2I
haftmann@25184
  1377
    meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
haftmann@25184
  1378
    meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
haftmann@25184
  1379
    meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
haftmann@25184
  1380
    meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
haftmann@25184
  1381
    meet1E                  ~> inf1E
haftmann@25184
  1382
    meet2E                  ~> inf2E
haftmann@25184
  1383
    join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
haftmann@25184
  1384
    join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
haftmann@25184
  1385
    join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
haftmann@25184
  1386
    join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
haftmann@25184
  1387
    join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
haftmann@25184
  1388
    join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
haftmann@25184
  1389
    join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
haftmann@25184
  1390
    join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
haftmann@25184
  1391
    join1E                  ~> sup1E
haftmann@25184
  1392
    join2E                  ~> sup2E
haftmann@25184
  1393
haftmann@25184
  1394
    is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
haftmann@25184
  1395
    Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
haftmann@25184
  1396
    Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
haftmann@25184
  1397
    Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
haftmann@25184
  1398
    Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
haftmann@25184
  1399
    Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
haftmann@25184
  1400
haftmann@25184
  1401
    Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
haftmann@25184
  1402
    Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
haftmann@25184
  1403
    Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
haftmann@25184
  1404
    Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
haftmann@25184
  1405
haftmann@25184
  1406
    listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
haftmann@25184
  1407
    listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
haftmann@25184
  1408
haftmann@25184
  1409
    meet_min                ~> inf_min
haftmann@25184
  1410
    join_max                ~> sup_max
haftmann@25184
  1411
haftmann@25184
  1412
* Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
haftmann@25184
  1413
type "'a::size ==> bool"
haftmann@25184
  1414
wenzelm@24800
  1415
* Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
wenzelm@24800
  1416
"foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
wenzelm@24800
  1417
simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
haftmann@25184
  1418
"*.size".
haftmann@25184
  1419
haftmann@25184
  1420
* Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
haftmann@25184
  1421
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
  1422
wenzelm@24800
  1423
* HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
wenzelm@24800
  1424
Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
wenzelm@24800
  1425
fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
  1426
wenzelm@25129
  1427
* HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@25129
  1428
wenzelm@24800
  1429
* HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
wenzelm@24800
  1430
machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
wenzelm@24800
  1431
operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
wenzelm@24800
  1432
linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
wenzelm@24800
  1433
lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
wenzelm@24800
  1434
arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
wenzelm@24800
  1435
numerals on all operations.
kleing@24333
  1436
kleing@24333
  1437
* Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
kleing@24333
  1438
kleing@24333
  1439
* Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
kleing@24333
  1440
haftmann@23850
  1441
* Code generator library theories:
haftmann@24993
  1442
  - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
haftmann@23850
  1443
    languages.
haftmann@24993
  1444
  - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
haftmann@23850
  1445
    languages.
haftmann@24993
  1446
  - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
haftmann@24993
  1447
    codes; includes Code_Integer.
wenzelm@24800
  1448
  - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
wenzelm@24800
  1449
  - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
haftmann@23850
  1450
    denominator).
wenzelm@24800
  1451
  - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
haftmann@23850
  1452
    representable by rational numbers.
wenzelm@24800
  1453
  - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
haftmann@23850
  1454
    result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
haftmann@24993
  1455
    includes Code_Integer.
haftmann@24993
  1456
  - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
haftmann@24993
  1457
    target-language built-in integers.
haftmann@26355
  1458
  - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
haftmann@24993
  1459
    strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
haftmann@23850
  1460
berghofe@23783
  1461
* New package for inductive predicates
berghofe@23783
  1462
berghofe@23783
  1463
  An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
berghofe@23783
  1464
berghofe@23783
  1465
    inductive
berghofe@23783
  1466
      p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
berghofe@23783
  1467
      for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
berghofe@23783
  1468
    where
berghofe@23783
  1469
      rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
berghofe@23783
  1470
    | ...
berghofe@23783
  1471
wenzelm@24800
  1472
  with full support for type-inference, rather than
berghofe@23783
  1473
berghofe@23783
  1474
    consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
berghofe@23783
  1475
berghofe@23783
  1476
    abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
berghofe@23783
  1477
    where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
berghofe@23783
  1478
berghofe@23783
  1479
    inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
berghofe@23783
  1480
    intros
berghofe@23783
  1481
      rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
berghofe@23783
  1482
      ...
berghofe@23783
  1483
berghofe@23783
  1484
  For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
berghofe@23783
  1485
  sets to be defined with the new package via
berghofe@23783
  1486
berghofe@23783
  1487
    inductive_set
berghofe@23783
  1488
      s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
berghofe@23783
  1489
      for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
berghofe@23783
  1490
    where
berghofe@23783
  1491
      rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
berghofe@23783
  1492
    | ...
berghofe@23783
  1493
berghofe@23783
  1494
  or
berghofe@23783
  1495
berghofe@23783
  1496
    inductive_set
berghofe@23783
  1497
      s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
berghofe@23783
  1498
      and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
berghofe@23783
  1499
      for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
berghofe@23783
  1500
    where
berghofe@23783
  1501
      "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
berghofe@23783
  1502
    | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
berghofe@23783
  1503
    | ...
berghofe@23783
  1504
berghofe@23783
  1505
  if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
berghofe@23783
  1506
wenzelm@25177
  1507
  Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
wenzelm@25177
  1508
  src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
berghofe@23783
  1509
berghofe@23783
  1510
  INCOMPATIBILITIES:
berghofe@23783
  1511
berghofe@23783
  1512
  - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
wenzelm@24800
  1513
    is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
wenzelm@24800
  1514
    introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
wenzelm@24800
  1515
    introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
wenzelm@24800
  1516
    than before the actual inductive definition.
wenzelm@24800
  1517
wenzelm@24800
  1518
  - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
wenzelm@24800
  1519
    quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
wenzelm@24800
  1520
    rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
wenzelm@24800
  1521
    some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
wenzelm@24800
  1522
    reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
wenzelm@24800
  1523
    statements of the form
berghofe@23783
  1524
berghofe@23783
  1525
      case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
berghofe@23783
  1526
berghofe@23783
  1527
    or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
berghofe@23783
  1528
    meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
berghofe@23783
  1529
berghofe@23783
  1530
      | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
berghofe@23783
  1531
berghofe@23783
  1532
  - The format of the elimination rules is now
berghofe@23783
  1533
berghofe@23783
  1534
      p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
berghofe@23783
  1535
        (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
berghofe@23783
  1536
        ==> ... ==> P
berghofe@23783
  1537
berghofe@23783
  1538
    for predicates and
berghofe@23783
  1539
berghofe@23783
  1540
      (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
berghofe@23783
  1541
        (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
berghofe@23783
  1542
        ==> ... ==> P
berghofe@23783
  1543
berghofe@23783
  1544
    for sets rather than
berghofe@23783
  1545
berghofe@23783
  1546
      x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
berghofe@23783
  1547
        (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
berghofe@23783
  1548
        ==> ... ==> P
berghofe@23783
  1549
wenzelm@24800
  1550
    This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
wenzelm@24800
  1551
    (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
wenzelm@24800
  1552
    rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
wenzelm@24800
  1553
wenzelm@24800
  1554
  - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
wenzelm@24800
  1555
    sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
wenzelm@24800
  1556
    list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
berghofe@23783
  1557
krauss@25198
  1558
* New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
krauss@25198
  1559
supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
krauss@25198
  1560
more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
krauss@25198
  1561
for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
krauss@25198
  1562
package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
krauss@25198
  1563
users are encouraged to use the new package.
krauss@25198
  1564
krauss@25198
  1565
* Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
krauss@25198
  1566
relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
krauss@25198
  1567
wenzelm@24800
  1568
* Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
wenzelm@24800
  1569
"_") and take their order into account, like in functional
wenzelm@24800
  1570
programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
wenzelm@24800
  1571
case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
wenzelm@24800
  1572
constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
wenzelm@24800
  1573
the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
wenzelm@24800
  1574
the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
wenzelm@24800
  1575
abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
wenzelm@24800
  1576
variable.
nipkow@23564
  1577
huffman@23468
  1578
* IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
wenzelm@24800
  1579
is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
wenzelm@24800
  1580
rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
wenzelm@24800
  1581
previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
huffman@23468
  1582
  - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
huffman@23468
  1583
  - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
huffman@23377
  1584
chaieb@23295
  1585
* Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
wenzelm@24800
  1586
Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
wenzelm@24800
  1587
tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
wenzelm@24800
  1588
a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
wenzelm@24800
  1589
declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
wenzelm@24800
  1590
already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
wenzelm@24800
  1591
of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
wenzelm@24800
  1592
CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
wenzelm@24800
  1593
architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
wenzelm@24800
  1594
wenzelm@25033
  1595
* Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
wenzelm@25033
  1596
special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
wenzelm@25033
  1597
"algebra"). The method is already installed for class
wenzelm@25033
  1598
{ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
wenzelm@25033
  1599
rat, etc.
wenzelm@25033
  1600
wenzelm@24800
  1601
* Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
wenzelm@24800
  1602
antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
wenzelm@24800
  1603
circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
wenzelm@24800
  1604
haftmann@24996
  1605
* primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
haftmann@22845
  1606
wenzelm@24800
  1607
* New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
wenzelm@24800
  1608
Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
wenzelm@24800
  1609
wenzelm@24800
  1610
* New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
wenzelm@25177
  1611
[(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
wenzelm@24800
  1612
wenzelm@24800
  1613
* The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
wenzelm@24800
  1614
xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
wenzelm@24800
  1615
comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
  1616
wenzelm@24800
  1617
* [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
wenzelm@24800
  1618
defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
wenzelm@24800
  1619
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
  1620
wenzelm@24800
  1621
* Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
wenzelm@24800
  1622
wenzelm@25177
  1623
* New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
wenzelm@24800
  1624
wenzelm@24800
  1625
* New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
wenzelm@24800
  1626
manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
wenzelm@24800
  1627
denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
wenzelm@24800
  1628
positive/negative (in inequations).
nipkow@23480
  1629
nipkow@23480
  1630
* Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
wenzelm@24800
  1631
have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
wenzelm@24800
  1632
ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
wenzelm@24800
  1633
because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
  1634
wenzelm@25177
  1635
* Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
wenzelm@24800
  1636
package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
wenzelm@24800
  1637
algebraic operations.
haftmann@22735
  1638
wenzelm@24800
  1639
* Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
haftmann@22218
  1640
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@22218
  1641
wenzelm@24800
  1642
* Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
haftmann@22218
  1643
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@22218
  1644
wenzelm@22126
  1645
* HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
wenzelm@22126
  1646
field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
wenzelm@22126
  1647
(K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
schirmer@21226
  1648
INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
schirmer@21226
  1649
adapted.
schirmer@21226
  1650
 
wenzelm@24800
  1651
* Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
wenzelm@24800
  1652
* x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
wenzelm@24800
  1653
inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
wenzelm@24800
  1654
there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
wenzelm@24800
  1655
there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
wenzelm@24800
  1656
wenzelm@24800
  1657
* Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
wenzelm@24800
  1658
commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
haftmann@25163
  1659
commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
haftmann@21215
  1660
haftmann@21099
  1661
* Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
wenzelm@24800
  1662
INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
wenzelm@24800
  1663
better use 'abbreviation'.
wenzelm@24800
  1664
wenzelm@24800
  1665
* Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
  1666
wenzelm@22126
  1667
* Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
wenzelm@24800
  1668
been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
wenzelm@22126
  1669
significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
wenzelm@24800
  1670
  - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
haftmann@20485
  1671
      of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
haftmann@20485
  1672
  - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
haftmann@20485
  1673
  - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
haftmann@20485
  1674
  - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
haftmann@20485
  1675
wenzelm@25177
  1676
See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
wenzelm@25177
  1677
wenzelm@25177
  1678
* Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
wenzelm@25177
  1679
contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
wenzelm@25177
  1680
produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
wenzelm@25177
  1681
heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
wenzelm@25177
  1682
first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
wenzelm@25177
  1683
further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
nipkow@19895
  1684
wenzelm@17996
  1685
* Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
wenzelm@17996
  1686
25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
wenzelm@17996
  1687
"A = B" (with priority 50).
wenzelm@17996
  1688
wenzelm@21265
  1689
* Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
wenzelm@21265
  1690
Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
wenzelm@24800
  1691
e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
wenzelm@24800
  1692
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@21265
  1693
nipkow@18674
  1694
* "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
nipkow@18674
  1695
krauss@20716
  1696
* Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
krauss@20716
  1697
stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
krauss@20716
  1698
wenzelm@22126
  1699
* The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
wenzelm@22126
  1700
removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
nipkow@19377
  1701
wenzelm@17865
  1702
* In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
wenzelm@24800
  1703
"t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
wenzelm@24800
  1704
``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
wenzelm@24800
  1705
wenzelm@24800
  1706
* Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
wenzelm@24800
  1707
True/False.
wenzelm@24800
  1708
wenzelm@24800
  1709
* Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
nipkow@19211
  1710
ballarin@19279
  1711
* Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
ballarin@19279
  1712
nipkow@19211
  1713
* Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
wenzelm@22126
  1714
``rule'' method.
wenzelm@22126
  1715
wenzelm@24800
  1716
* Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
wenzelm@24800
  1717
goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
wenzelm@24800
  1718
(i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
wenzelm@24800
  1719
"lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
wenzelm@24800
  1720
wenzelm@24800
  1721
* Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
wenzelm@22126
  1722
zChaff is still supported as well.
wenzelm@22126
  1723
wenzelm@22126
  1724
* 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
wenzelm@22126
  1725
bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
wenzelm@22126
  1726
wenzelm@22126
  1727
* Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
wenzelm@22126
  1728
Library.
wenzelm@21256
  1729
wenzelm@21256
  1730
* Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
wenzelm@19572
  1731
wenzelm@18446
  1732
* Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
wenzelm@18446
  1733
as greatest fixed-point.
wenzelm@18399
  1734
wenzelm@19254
  1735
* Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
schirmer@19252
  1736
association lists.
webertj@17809
  1737
wenzelm@24800
  1738
* Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
wenzelm@24800
  1739
efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
wenzelm@24800
  1740
oracle) if it evaluates to True.
wenzelm@20807
  1741
wenzelm@20807
  1742
* Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
wenzelm@24800
  1743
also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
wenzelm@24800
  1744
being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
  1745
Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
wenzelm@24800
  1746
behavior.
webertj@20217
  1747
wenzelm@22126
  1748
* Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
wenzelm@19254
  1749
wenzelm@20807
  1750
* New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
wenzelm@20807
  1751
interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
wenzelm@20807
  1752
parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
wenzelm@20807
  1753
theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
wenzelm@20807
  1754
resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
wenzelm@20807
  1755
s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
wenzelm@20807
  1756
wenzelm@20807
  1757
* New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
wenzelm@20807
  1758
are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
wenzelm@20807
  1759
where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
wenzelm@20807
  1760
generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
wenzelm@20807
  1761
applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
wenzelm@20807
  1762
r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
wenzelm@25177
  1763
subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
wenzelm@25177
  1764
wenzelm@25177
  1765
* Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
wenzelm@25177
  1766
available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
wenzelm@20807
  1767
wenzelm@25397
  1768
* HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
schirmer@25409
  1769
command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
wenzelm@25397
  1770
abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
wenzelm@25397
  1771
HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
wenzelm@25397
  1772
in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
wenzelm@25397
  1773
wenzelm@25397
  1774
wenzelm@19653
  1775
*** HOL-Complex ***
wenzelm@19653
  1776
huffman@22971
  1777
* Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
huffman@22971
  1778
inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
huffman@22971
  1779
Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
huffman@22971
  1780
that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
huffman@22971
  1781
INCOMPATIBILITY.
huffman@22971
  1782
wenzelm@24800
  1783
* Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
huffman@21791
  1784
algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
huffman@21791
  1785
and norm :: 'a => real.
huffman@21791
  1786
wenzelm@24800
  1787
* Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
wenzelm@24800
  1788
reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
wenzelm@24800
  1789
defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
  1790
wenzelm@24800
  1791
* Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
nipkow@23013
  1792
Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
nipkow@23013
  1793
wenzelm@22126
  1794
* Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
wenzelm@22126
  1795
reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
wenzelm@22126
  1796
spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
wenzelm@22126
  1797
INCOMPATIBILITY.
huffman@21791
  1798
huffman@22972
  1799
  Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
huffman@22972
  1800
  HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
huffman@22972
  1801
  HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
huffman@21791
  1802
  approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
huffman@21791
  1803
  monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
huffman@21791
  1804
  galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
huffman@22972
  1805
  (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
huffman@21791
  1806
  (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
huffman@21791
  1807
  (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
huffman@21791
  1808
  (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
huffman@21791
  1809
  (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
huffman@21791
  1810
  is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
huffman@21791
  1811
  deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
huffman@22972
  1812
  sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
huffman@23116
  1813
  exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
huffman@21791
  1814
huffman@21791
  1815
* Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
wenzelm@22126
  1816
overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
wenzelm@22126
  1817
hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
wenzelm@22126
  1818
polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
huffman@21791
  1819
huffman@21791
  1820
  approx        <-- capprox
huffman@21791
  1821
  HFinite       <-- CFinite
huffman@21791
  1822
  HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
huffman@21791
  1823
  Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
huffman@21791
  1824
  monad         <-- cmonad
huffman@21791
  1825
  galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
huffman@21791
  1826
  (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
huffman@21791
  1827
  is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
huffman@21791
  1828
  (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
huffman@21791
  1829
wenzelm@19653
  1830
wenzelm@24801
  1831
*** HOL-Algebra ***
wenzelm@24801
  1832
wenzelm@24801
  1833
* Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
wenzelm@24801
  1834
wenzelm@24801
  1835
* Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
wenzelm@24801
  1836
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24801
  1837
wenzelm@24801
  1838
* Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
wenzelm@24801
  1839
greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24801
  1840
wenzelm@24801
  1841
* Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
wenzelm@24801
  1842
Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
wenzelm@24801
  1843
of algebraic structures.
wenzelm@24801
  1844
wenzelm@24801
  1845
* Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
wenzelm@24801
  1846
wenzelm@24801
  1847
wenzelm@24801
  1848
*** HOL-Nominal ***
wenzelm@24801
  1849
wenzelm@25148
  1850
* Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
wenzelm@25177
  1851
structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
wenzelm@25177
  1852
src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
wenzelm@25148
  1853
http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
wenzelm@25148
  1854
wenzelm@24801
  1855
wenzelm@17878
  1856
*** ML ***
wenzelm@17878
  1857
wenzelm@24643
  1858
* ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
wenzelm@24643
  1859
(even on SML/NJ).
wenzelm@24643
  1860
wenzelm@22138
  1861
* ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
wenzelm@22138
  1862
formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
wenzelm@22138
  1863
compile-time.  For example:
wenzelm@22138
  1864
wenzelm@25142
  1865
ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1866
ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1867
ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1868
ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1869
ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1870
ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1871
ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1872
ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1873
ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
wenzelm@24692
  1874
ML {* @{type_name c} *}
wenzelm@25142
  1875
ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
wenzelm@22376
  1876
ML {* @{const_name c} *}
wenzelm@22376
  1877
ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1878
ML {* @{context} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1879
ML {* @{theory} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1880
ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
wenzelm@24692
  1881
ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
wenzelm@24692
  1882
ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1883
ML {* @{simpset} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1884
ML {* @{claset} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1885
ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1886
wenzelm@22151
  1887
The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
wenzelm@22151
  1888
wenzelm@22152
  1889
* ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
wenzelm@24706
  1890
ML_Context.trace enabled.
wenzelm@22152
  1891
wenzelm@19032
  1892
* Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
wenzelm@24706
  1893
DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
wenzelm@19081
  1894
admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
wenzelm@18446
  1895
wenzelm@24800
  1896
* Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
wenzelm@24800
  1897
use Context.generic instead of just theory.
wenzelm@24800
  1898
wenzelm@18642
  1899
* Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
wenzelm@18644
  1900
provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
wenzelm@18642
  1901
context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
wenzelm@18642
  1902
wenzelm@18737
  1903
* Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
wenzelm@24706
  1904
Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
wenzelm@24706
  1905
local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
wenzelm@24706
  1906
minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
wenzelm@24706
  1907
Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
wenzelm@24706
  1908
Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
wenzelm@24706
  1909
GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
wenzelm@19006
  1910
declarations and definitions.
wenzelm@19006
  1911
wenzelm@24800
  1912
* Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
wenzelm@24800
  1913
name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
wenzelm@24800
  1914
init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
wenzelm@24800
  1915
to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
wenzelm@24800
  1916
wenzelm@19508
  1917
* Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
wenzelm@24800
  1918
signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
wenzelm@24800
  1919
logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
wenzelm@24800
  1920
potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@19508
  1921
wenzelm@19508
  1922
* Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
wenzelm@19508
  1923
explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
wenzelm@24706
  1924
internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
wenzelm@19508
  1925
notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
wenzelm@24706
  1926
AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
wenzelm@19508
  1927
Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
wenzelm@19508
  1928
wenzelm@19006
  1929
* Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
wenzelm@19006
  1930
global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
wenzelm@19006
  1931
discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
wenzelm@19006
  1932
accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
wenzelm@19006
  1933
attributes, methods, etc.
wenzelm@18642
  1934
wenzelm@18446
  1935
* Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
wenzelm@18446
  1936
have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
wenzelm@18446
  1937
allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
wenzelm@18446
  1938
fold_map combinators.
haftmann@18051
  1939
wenzelm@21647
  1940
* Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
wenzelm@21647
  1941
comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
wenzelm@21647
  1942
maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
wenzelm@21647
  1943
derivation.
wenzelm@21647
  1944
wenzelm@18020
  1945
* Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
wenzelm@18145
  1946
actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
wenzelm@18020
  1947
achieve the old behaviour.
wenzelm@18020
  1948
wenzelm@18020
  1949
* Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
wenzelm@18020
  1950
slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
wenzelm@18020
  1951
statements.
wenzelm@18020
  1952
wenzelm@20040
  1953
* Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
wenzelm@20040
  1954
enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
wenzelm@20040
  1955
Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
wenzelm@20040
  1956
wenzelm@20090
  1957
* Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
wenzelm@20090
  1958
internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
wenzelm@20090
  1959
some popular functions from term.ML:
wenzelm@20090
  1960
wenzelm@20090
  1961
  Term.variant		->  Name.variant
wenzelm@24800
  1962
  Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
wenzelm@20090
  1963
  Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
wenzelm@20090
  1964
wenzelm@20090
  1965
Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
wenzelm@20090
  1966
from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
wenzelm@20090
  1967
wenzelm@20040
  1968
* Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
wenzelm@20040
  1969
treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
wenzelm@20040
  1970
Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
wenzelm@20040
  1971
Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
wenzelm@20040
  1972
various freeze_thaw operations.
wenzelm@20040
  1973
wenzelm@18567
  1974
* Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
wenzelm@17981
  1975
init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
wenzelm@20040
  1976
Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
wenzelm@20040
  1977
within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
wenzelm@20040
  1978
theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
wenzelm@20040
  1979
OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
wenzelm@20040
  1980
ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
wenzelm@20040
  1981
in a locale context).
wenzelm@17981
  1982
wenzelm@24706
  1983
* Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
wenzelm@24706
  1984
and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
wenzelm@24706
  1985
(Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
wenzelm@24706
  1986
which are considered legacy and await removal.
wenzelm@24706
  1987
wenzelm@24920
  1988
* Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
wenzelm@24920
  1989
(Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
wenzelm@24920
  1990
with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
wenzelm@24920
  1991
etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
wenzelm@24924
  1992
available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
wenzelm@24924
  1993
a mere theory instead of a full context.
wenzelm@24920
  1994
wenzelm@18815
  1995
* Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
wenzelm@18687
  1996
ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
wenzelm@18686
  1997
without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
wenzelm@18686
  1998
care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
wenzelm@18686
  1999
handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
wenzelm@18686
  2000
wenzelm@18686
  2001
  ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
wenzelm@18686
  2002
wenzelm@18686
  2003
Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
wenzelm@18687
  2004
embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
wenzelm@18687
  2005
this:
wenzelm@18686
  2006
wenzelm@18686
  2007
  Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
wenzelm@18686
  2008
wenzelm@18686
  2009
INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
wenzelm@18686
  2010
obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
wenzelm@18686
  2011
Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
wenzelm@18686
  2012
-- use plain ERROR instead.
wenzelm@18686
  2013
wenzelm@18815
  2014
* Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
wenzelm@18722
  2015
list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
wenzelm@18722
  2016
wenzelm@24706
  2017
* Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
wenzelm@24706
  2018
ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
wenzelm@18815
  2019
wenzelm@18815
  2020
* Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
wenzelm@18815
  2021
theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
wenzelm@18815
  2022
quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
wenzelm@18590
  2023
batch mode.
wenzelm@18567
  2024
wenzelm@24867
  2025
* Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
wenzelm@24867
  2026
OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
wenzelm@24867
  2027
OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
wenzelm@24867
  2028
OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24867
  2029
wenzelm@17878
  2030
* Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
wenzelm@17878
  2031
contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
wenzelm@17878
  2032
very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
wenzelm@17890
  2033
simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
wenzelm@17878
  2034
(solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
wenzelm@17878
  2035
wenzelm@17878
  2036
* Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
wenzelm@17878
  2037
local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
wenzelm@17878
  2038
etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
wenzelm@17878
  2039
former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
wenzelm@17890
  2040
INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
wenzelm@17890
  2041
specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
wenzelm@17878
  2042
wenzelm@17878
  2043
* Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
wenzelm@17878
  2044
change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
wenzelm@17878
  2045
theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
wenzelm@17878
  2046
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@17878
  2047
wenzelm@18540
  2048
* Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
wenzelm@18540
  2049
"Trueprop" etc.
wenzelm@18540
  2050
wenzelm@17878
  2051
wenzelm@20988
  2052
*** System ***
wenzelm@20988
  2053
wenzelm@25433
  2054
* settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
wenzelm@25433
  2055
includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
wenzelm@25433
  2056
Isabelle installations.
wenzelm@21471
  2057
wenzelm@20988
  2058
* isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
wenzelm@20988
  2059
operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
wenzelm@20988
  2060
code.
wenzelm@20988
  2061
wenzelm@24891
  2062
* Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
wenzelm@24891
  2063
wenzelm@24801
  2064
* Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
wenzelm@24800
  2065
Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
wenzelm@24800
  2066
independent theories, according to the given theory header
wenzelm@24800
  2067
specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
wenzelm@24800
  2068
usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
wenzelm@24800
  2069
speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
wenzelm@24800
  2070
to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
wenzelm@24800
  2071
guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
wenzelm@24800
  2072
Implementation manual.
wenzelm@24210
  2073
wenzelm@17754
  2074
wenzelm@25448
  2075
wenzelm@17720
  2076
New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
wenzelm@17720
  2077
----------------------------------
wenzelm@14655
  2078
wenzelm@14655
  2079
*** General ***
wenzelm@14655
  2080
nipkow@15130
  2081
* Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
nipkow@15130
  2082
nipkow@15130
  2083
  theory <name>
wenzelm@16234
  2084
  imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
wenzelm@16234
  2085
  uses <file1> ... <fileM>
nipkow@15130
  2086
  begin
nipkow@15130
  2087
wenzelm@16234
  2088
where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
wenzelm@16234
  2089
wenzelm@16234
  2090
  theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
wenzelm@16234
  2091
wenzelm@16717
  2092
will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
wenzelm@16717
  2093
existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
wenzelm@17371
  2094
non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
nipkow@15130
  2095
berghofe@15475
  2096
* Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
wenzelm@16234
  2097
relative and absolute paths.
wenzelm@16234
  2098
wenzelm@17408
  2099
* Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
wenzelm@17408
  2100
list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
wenzelm@17408
  2101
simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
wenzelm@17408
  2102
theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
wenzelm@17408
  2103
match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
wenzelm@17408
  2104
name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
wenzelm@17408
  2105
lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
wenzelm@17408
  2106
all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
wenzelm@17408
  2107
'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
wenzelm@16234
  2108
wenzelm@17275
  2109
  C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
wenzelm@16234
  2110
wenzelm@16234
  2111
prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
wenzelm@16234
  2112
matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
wenzelm@16234
  2113
in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
wenzelm@16013
  2114
wenzelm@17408
  2115
* Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
wenzelm@17408
  2116
'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@17408
  2117
wenzelm@17385
  2118
* Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
wenzelm@17385
  2119
Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
wenzelm@17408
  2120
formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
wenzelm@17538
  2121
General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
wenzelm@17538
  2122
wenzelm@17538
  2123
  http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
wenzelm@17538
  2124
  http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
wenzelm@17385
  2125
wenzelm@17425
  2126
* Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
wenzelm@17425
  2127
Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
wenzelm@17425
  2128
faster.
wenzelm@17425
  2129
wenzelm@15703
  2130
wenzelm@15703
  2131
*** Document preparation ***
wenzelm@15703
  2132
wenzelm@16234
  2133
* Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
wenzelm@16234
  2134
of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
wenzelm@16234
  2135
LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
wenzelm@16234
  2136
displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
wenzelm@16234
  2137
and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
wenzelm@16234
  2138
DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
wenzelm@16234
  2139
wenzelm@17047
  2140
* Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
wenzelm@17047
  2141
notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
wenzelm@17047
  2142
theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
wenzelm@17047
  2143
commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
wenzelm@17047
  2144
"invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
wenzelm@17047
  2145
specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
wenzelm@17047
  2146
interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
wenzelm@17047
  2147
preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
wenzelm@17047
  2148
isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
wenzelm@17047
  2149
\isadroptag.
wenzelm@17047
  2150
wenzelm@17047
  2151
Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
wenzelm@17047
  2152
usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
wenzelm@17047
  2153
specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
wenzelm@17047
  2154
theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
wenzelm@17047
  2155
proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
wenzelm@17047
  2156
these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
wenzelm@17047
  2157
default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
wenzelm@17047
  2158
specified above.
wenzelm@16234
  2159
haftmann@17402
  2160
* Several new antiquotations:
wenzelm@15979
  2161
wenzelm@15979
  2162
  @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
wenzelm@15979
  2163
wenzelm@15979
  2164
  @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
wenzelm@15979
  2165
wenzelm@16234
  2166
  @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
wenzelm@16234
  2167
  argument is a known logical constant;
wenzelm@15979
  2168
wenzelm@15979
  2169
  @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
wenzelm@16234
  2170
  theorem applying a "style" to it
wenzelm@16234
  2171
wenzelm@17117
  2172
  @{ML text}
wenzelm@17117
  2173
wenzelm@16234
  2174
Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
wenzelm@16234
  2175
definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
schirmer@17393
  2176
conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
wenzelm@16234
  2177
to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
wenzelm@16234
  2178
interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
wenzelm@17117
  2179
document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
wenzelm@17117
  2180
type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
wenzelm@16234
  2181
wenzelm@17259
  2182
* Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
wenzelm@17259
  2183
and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
wenzelm@17269
  2184
specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
wenzelm@17269
  2185
example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
wenzelm@17259
  2186
wenzelm@17259
  2187
* Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
wenzelm@17259
  2188
context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
wenzelm@17269
  2189
[locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.
wenzelm@17259
  2190
wenzelm@17097
  2191
* Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within
wenzelm@17097
  2192
a proof context.
wenzelm@17097
  2193
wenzelm@17097
  2194
* Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a
wenzelm@17097
  2195
proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').
wenzelm@17097
  2196
wenzelm@17193
  2197
* Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX
wenzelm@17193
  2198
macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).
wenzelm@17193
  2199
wenzelm@17193
  2200
* isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option
wenzelm@17193
  2201
-D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false
wenzelm@17193
  2202
prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.
wenzelm@17193
  2203
wenzelm@16234
  2204
wenzelm@16234
  2205
*** Pure ***
wenzelm@16234
  2206
wenzelm@16234
  2207
* Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command.  Now performs
wenzelm@16234
  2208
automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for
wenzelm@16234
  2209
local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also
wenzelm@16234
  2210
isar-ref manual.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly
wenzelm@16234
  2211
sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'
wenzelm@16234
  2212
section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier.  If
wenzelm@16234
  2213
all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.
wenzelm@16234
  2214
wenzelm@16234
  2215
* Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures.  First of all,
wenzelm@16234
  2216
indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted
wenzelm@16234
  2217
application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary
wenzelm@16234
  2218
expressions.  Secondly, in a local context with structure
wenzelm@16234
  2219
declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default
wenzelm@16234
  2220
number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option
wenzelm@16234
  2221
show_structs controls printing of implicit structures.  Typical
wenzelm@16234
  2222
applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.
wenzelm@16234
  2223
wenzelm@16234
  2224
* New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and
wenzelm@16234
  2225
translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is
wenzelm@16234
  2226
interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.
wenzelm@16234
  2227
wenzelm@16234
  2228
* 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend
wenzelm@16234
  2229
on the signature of the theory context being presently used for
wenzelm@16234
  2230
parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.
wenzelm@16234
  2231
wenzelm@16856
  2232
* Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an
wenzelm@16856
  2233
ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of
wenzelm@16856
  2234
type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle
wenzelm@16856
  2235
is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;
wenzelm@16856
  2236
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@16856
  2237
wenzelm@17275
  2238
* axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"
wenzelm@17275
  2239
before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.
wenzelm@17275
  2240
INCOMPATIBILITY.  This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for
wenzelm@17275
  2241
axclasses vs. locales.
wenzelm@17275
  2242
wenzelm@16234
  2243
* Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes
wenzelm@16234
  2244
instead of base 26 numbers.
wenzelm@16234
  2245
wenzelm@16234
  2246
* New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question
wenzelm@16234
  2247
marks in schematic variable names.
wenzelm@16234
  2248
wenzelm@16234
  2249
* In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or
wenzelm@16234
  2250
\<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name.  For example, the
wenzelm@16234
  2251
following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:
wenzelm@16234
  2252
wenzelm@16234
  2253
  lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"
wenzelm@16234
  2254
    by simp
wenzelm@16234
  2255
wenzelm@16234
  2256
* Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).
wenzelm@16234
  2257
wenzelm@17548
  2258
* Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix
wenzelm@16234
  2259
annotations as "(00...)".
wenzelm@16234
  2260
wenzelm@16234
  2261
* Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter
wenzelm@16234
  2262
may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.
wenzelm@16234
  2263
Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class
wenzelm@16234
  2264
"logic" vs. "{}".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper
wenzelm@16234
  2265
use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'.  Some very
wenzelm@16234
  2266
exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption
wenzelm@17691
  2267
(e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).
wenzelm@16234
  2268
wenzelm@16234
  2269
* Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.
wenzelm@16234
  2270
Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'
wenzelm@16234
  2271
rather than 'types'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic
wenzelm@16234
  2272
specifications.
wenzelm@16234
  2273
ballarin@17095
  2274
* Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be
ballarin@17095
  2275
locally fixed variables as well.
ballarin@17095
  2276
wenzelm@16234
  2277
* Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting
wenzelm@16234
  2278
is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth
wenzelm@16234
  2279
Limit.
wenzelm@16234
  2280
wenzelm@16234
  2281
* Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current
wenzelm@16234
  2282
simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc
wenzelm@16234
  2283
interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier
wenzelm@16234
  2284
recursively.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs
wenzelm@16234
  2285
is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead.  Moreover, the
wenzelm@16234
  2286
low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to
wenzelm@16234
  2287
allow for use in a context of fixed variables.
wenzelm@16234
  2288
wenzelm@16234
  2289
* thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!
wenzelm@16234
  2290
or ==>.  More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of
wenzelm@16234
  2291
the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.
wenzelm@16234
  2292
wenzelm@17597
  2293
* Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
nipkow@17590
  2294
wenzelm@16234
  2295
* Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived
wenzelm@16234
  2296
from Pure, which contains all common declarations already.  Both
wenzelm@16234
  2297
theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.
wenzelm@16234
  2298
INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /
wenzelm@16234
  2299
CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;
wenzelm@16234
  2300
use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.
wenzelm@16234
  2301
wenzelm@16234
  2302
* New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific
wenzelm@16234
  2303
selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.
wenzelm@16234
  2304
wenzelm@17097
  2305
* 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference
wenzelm@17097
  2306
wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),
wenzelm@17097
  2307
in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');
wenzelm@17097
  2308
wenzelm@17397
  2309
* 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.
wenzelm@17397
  2310
wenzelm@17275
  2311
* More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive
wenzelm@17275
  2312
theory development.
wenzelm@17275
  2313
berghofe@17663
  2314
* Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code
wenzelm@17664
  2315
generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures
wenzelm@17664
  2316
for each theory).  INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'
wenzelm@17664
  2317
must be quoted when used as identifiers.
wenzelm@17664
  2318
wenzelm@17664
  2319
* New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using
wenzelm@17664
  2320
the code generator.  INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be
wenzelm@17664
  2321
quoted when used as identifier.
berghofe@17663
  2322
wenzelm@16234
  2323
wenzelm@16234
  2324
*** Locales ***
ballarin@17095
  2325
wenzelm@17385
  2326
* New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in
wenzelm@17385
  2327
theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3).  These generate
wenzelm@17385
  2328
proof obligations from the expression specification.  After the
wenzelm@17385
  2329
obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added
wenzelm@17385
  2330
to the theory, target locale or proof context.  The synopsis of the
wenzelm@17385
  2331
commands is a follows:
wenzelm@17385
  2332
ballarin@17095
  2333
  (1) interpretation expr inst
ballarin@17095
  2334
  (2) interpretation target < expr
ballarin@17095
  2335
  (3) interpret expr inst
wenzelm@17385
  2336
ballarin@17095
  2337
Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter
ballarin@17095
  2338
instantiation of terms from the current context.  This is applied to
wenzelm@17385
  2339
specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.
wenzelm@17385
  2340
Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the
wenzelm@17385
  2341
locale expression.  Interpretation is smart in that interpretations
wenzelm@17385
  2342
that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are
wenzelm@17385
  2343
instantiated theorems stored in duplicate.  Use 'print_interps' to
wenzelm@17385
  2344
inspect active interpretations of a particular locale.  For details,
ballarin@17436
  2345
see the Isar Reference manual.  Examples can be found in
ballarin@17436
  2346
HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.
wenzelm@16234
  2347
wenzelm@16234
  2348
INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use
wenzelm@16234
  2349
'interpret' instead.
wenzelm@16234
  2350
wenzelm@17385
  2351
* New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to
wenzelm@17385
  2352
parameters.
wenzelm@17385
  2353
wenzelm@17385
  2354
* Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax
wenzelm@17385
  2355
redeclaration.
ballarin@17095
  2356
ballarin@17095
  2357
* Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.
ballarin@17095
  2358
wenzelm@16234
  2359
* Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /
wenzelm@16234
  2360
facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition
wenzelm@16234
  2361
context, independently of the context of later invocations.  Moreover,
wenzelm@16234
  2362
locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied
wenzelm@16234
  2363
to attribute arguments as expected.
wenzelm@16234
  2364
wenzelm@16234
  2365
INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of
wenzelm@16234
  2366
actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to
wenzelm@16234
  2367
embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.
wenzelm@16234
  2368
Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static
wenzelm@16234
  2369
binding mechanism.  Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and
wenzelm@16234
  2370
Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further
wenzelm@16234
  2371
intervention.  Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"
wenzelm@16234
  2372
(cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both
wenzelm@16234
  2373
on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed
wenzelm@16234
  2374
values to argument tokens explicitly.
wenzelm@16234
  2375
wenzelm@16234
  2376
* Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal
wenzelm@16234
  2377
statements with 'includes'.  INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different
wenzelm@16234
  2378
theorem statement in rare situations.
wenzelm@16234
  2379
ballarin@17228
  2380
* Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements.  Use
ballarin@17228
  2381
'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.
ballarin@17228
  2382
wenzelm@16234
  2383
wenzelm@16234
  2384
*** Provers ***
wenzelm@16234
  2385
wenzelm@16234
  2386
* Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for
wenzelm@16234
  2387
single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is
wenzelm@16234
  2388
'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may
wenzelm@16234
  2389
rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is
wenzelm@16234
  2390
still available as 'simplesubst'.
wenzelm@16234
  2391
wenzelm@16234
  2392
* Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only
wenzelm@16234
  2393
and quasi orders.
wenzelm@16234
  2394
wenzelm@16234
  2395
* Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and
wenzelm@16234
  2396
reflexive-transitive closure of relations.
wenzelm@16234
  2397
wenzelm@16234
  2398
* Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth
wenzelm@16234
  2399
limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.
wenzelm@16234
  2400
wenzelm@16234
  2401
* Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup
wenzelm@16234
  2402
is peformed already.  Object-logics merely need to finish their
wenzelm@16234
  2403
initial simpset configuration as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@15703
  2404
berghofe@15475
  2405
schirmer@14700
  2406
*** HOL ***
schirmer@14700
  2407
wenzelm@16234
  2408
* Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:
wenzelm@14878
  2409
wenzelm@14878
  2410
  syntax (epsilon)
wenzelm@14878
  2411
    "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a"    ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)
wenzelm@14878
  2412
wenzelm@16234
  2413
The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX
wenzelm@16234
  2414
and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.
wenzelm@16234
  2415
Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>
wenzelm@16234
  2416
becomes available as variable, constant etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
wenzelm@16234
  2417
wenzelm@16234
  2418
* "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".
wenzelm@16234
  2419
Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc.  The x-symbol for >=
wenzelm@17371
  2420
is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to
avigad@17016
  2421
support corresponding Isar calculations.
wenzelm@16234
  2422
wenzelm@16234
  2423
* "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"
wenzelm@16234
  2424
instead of ":".
wenzelm@16234
  2425
wenzelm@16234
  2426
* theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:
wenzelm@16234
  2427
wenzelm@16234
  2428
  Old       New
wenzelm@16234
  2429
  {..n(}    {..<n}
wenzelm@16234
  2430
  {)n..}    {n<..}
wenzelm@16234
  2431
  {m..n(}   {m..<n}
wenzelm@16234
  2432
  {)m..n}   {m<..n}
wenzelm@16234
  2433
  {)m..n(}  {m<..<n}
wenzelm@16234
  2434
wenzelm@16234
  2435
The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next
wenzelm@16234
  2436
release.  For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace
wenzelm@16234
  2437
patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):
nipkow@15046
  2438
nipkow@15046
  2439
  {)\([^\.]*\)\.\.  ->  {\1<\.\.}
nipkow@15046
  2440
  \.\.\([^(}]*\)(}  ->  \.\.<\1}
nipkow@15046
  2441
wenzelm@17533
  2442
* Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving
wenzelm@17533
  2443
equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic
wenzelm@17533
  2444
interface.
wenzelm@17389
  2445
wenzelm@17389
  2446
* Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over
wenzelm@16234
  2447
finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is
wenzelm@17371
  2448
now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can
paulson@17189
  2449
be a tuple pattern.
wenzelm@16234
  2450
wenzelm@16234
  2451
Some new syntax forms are available:
wenzelm@16234
  2452
wenzelm@16234
  2453
  "\<Sum>x | P. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"
wenzelm@16234
  2454
  "\<Sum>x = a..b. e"   for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"
wenzelm@16234
  2455
  "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e"  for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"
wenzelm@16234
  2456
  "\<Sum>x < k. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"
wenzelm@16234
  2457
wenzelm@16234
  2458
The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate
wenzelm@16234
  2459
function "Summation", which has been discontinued.
wenzelm@16234
  2460
wenzelm@16234
  2461
* theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case
wenzelm@16234
  2462
is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case
wenzelm@16234
  2463
(insert F x)'.
wenzelm@16234
  2464
wenzelm@16234
  2465
* The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger
wenzelm@16234
  2466
fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and
wenzelm@16234
  2467
typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.
wenzelm@16234
  2468
webertj@17700
  2469
* New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.
webertj@17700
  2470
Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed.  See
webertj@17700
  2471
HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.
webertj@17619
  2472
wenzelm@16234
  2473
* Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the
wenzelm@16234
  2474
induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by
wenzelm@16234
  2475
induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather
wenzelm@16234
  2476
than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
wenzelm@16234
  2477
in unstructured proof scripts.
wenzelm@16234
  2478
wenzelm@16234
  2479
* Reworked implementation of records.  Improved scalability for
wenzelm@16234
  2480
records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type
wenzelm@16234
  2481
inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but
wenzelm@16234
  2482
of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear
wenzelm@16234
  2483
in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields.  The
wenzelm@16234
  2484
top-level (users) view on records is preserved.  Potential
wenzelm@16234
  2485
INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the
wenzelm@16234
  2486
old record representation. The type generated for a record is called
wenzelm@16234
  2487
<record_name>_ext_type.
wenzelm@16234
  2488
wenzelm@16234
  2489
Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the
wenzelm@16234
  2490
proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if
wenzelm@16234
  2491
quick_and_dirty is enabled).  Definitions of large records can take
wenzelm@16234
  2492
quite long.
wenzelm@16234
  2493
wenzelm@16234
  2494
New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record
wenzelm@16234
  2495
updates enabled by default.  Moreover, trivial updates are also
wenzelm@16234
  2496
removed: r(|x := x r|) = r.  INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break
wenzelm@16234
  2497
occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.
wenzelm@16234
  2498
wenzelm@17275
  2499
* typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra
wenzelm@17275
  2500
type-variables in the term.
wenzelm@17275
  2501
wenzelm@16234
  2502
* Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains
wenzelm@16234
  2503
involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics
wenzelm@16234
  2504
provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
wenzelm@16234
  2505
old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more
wenzelm@16234
  2506
goals than previously.
wenzelm@16234
  2507
wenzelm@16234
  2508
* Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is
wenzelm@16234
  2509
present.  Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular
wenzelm@16234
  2510
numbers and sets.  For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y
wenzelm@16234
  2511
just like y <= x.
wenzelm@16234
  2512
wenzelm@16234
  2513
* Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x".  If a is a free or
wenzelm@16234
  2514
bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded.  Otherwise
wenzelm@16234
  2515
first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If
wenzelm@16234
  2516
possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",
wenzelm@16234
  2517
otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g.  The simproc can be
wenzelm@16234
  2518
enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc.  Potential
wenzelm@16234
  2519
INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.
webertj@15776
  2520
paulson@16563
  2521
* Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.
paulson@16563
  2522
paulson@17595
  2523
* Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background
paulson@17595
  2524
jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.
paulson@17595
  2525
wenzelm@16891
  2526
* Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and
wenzelm@16891
  2527
improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and
wenzelm@16891
  2528
inequalities.
wenzelm@16891
  2529
wenzelm@16891
  2530
The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
wenzelm@16891
  2531
(INCOMPATIBILITY):
avigad@16888
  2532
avigad@16888
  2533
  abs_eq             now named abs_of_nonneg
wenzelm@17371
  2534
  abs_of_ge_0        now named abs_of_nonneg
wenzelm@17371
  2535
  abs_minus_eq       now named abs_of_nonpos
avigad@16888
  2536
  imp_abs_id         now named abs_of_nonneg
avigad@16888
  2537
  imp_abs_neg_id     now named abs_of_nonpos
avigad@16888
  2538
  mult_pos           now named mult_pos_pos
avigad@16888
  2539
  mult_pos_le        now named mult_nonneg_nonneg
avigad@16888
  2540
  mult_pos_neg_le    now named mult_nonneg_nonpos
avigad@16888
  2541
  mult_pos_neg2_le   now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2
avigad@16888
  2542
  mult_neg           now named mult_neg_neg
avigad@16888
  2543
  mult_neg_le        now named mult_nonpos_nonpos
avigad@16888
  2544
obua@23495
  2545
* The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:
obua@23495
  2546
     
obua@23495
  2547
     zero_le_square
obua@23495
  2548
     not_square_less_zero 
obua@23495
  2549
obua@23495
  2550
  The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:
obua@23495
  2551
  
obua@23495
  2552
     realpow_zero_zero
obua@23495
  2553
     realpow_two
obua@23495
  2554
     realpow_less
obua@23495
  2555
     zero_le_power
obua@23495
  2556
     realpow_two_le
obua@23495
  2557
     abs_realpow_two
obua@23495
  2558
     realpow_two_abs     
obua@23495
  2559
wenzelm@16891
  2560
* Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.
wenzelm@16891
  2561
nipkow@17092
  2562
* Theory List:
nipkow@17092
  2563
nipkow@17092
  2564
The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
nipkow@17092
  2565
(INCOMPATIBILITY):
nipkow@17092
  2566
nipkow@17092
  2567
  list_all_Nil       now named list_all.simps(1)
nipkow@17092
  2568
  list_all_Cons      now named list_all.simps(2)
nipkow@17092
  2569
  list_all_conv      now named list_all_iff
nipkow@17092
  2570
  set_mem_eq         now named mem_iff
nipkow@17092
  2571
wenzelm@16929
  2572
* Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support
wenzelm@16929
  2573
asymptotic "big O" calculations.  See the notes in BigO.thy.
wenzelm@16929
  2574
avigad@16888
  2575
avigad@16888
  2576
*** HOL-Complex ***
avigad@16888
  2577
wenzelm@16891
  2578
* Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and
wenzelm@16891
  2579
integers in the reals.
wenzelm@16891
  2580
wenzelm@16891
  2581
The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
wenzelm@16891
  2582
(INCOMPATIBILITY):
wenzelm@16891
  2583
avigad@17016
  2584
  exp_ge_add_one_self  now requires no hypotheses
avigad@17016
  2585
  real_of_int_add      reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
avigad@17016
  2586
  real_of_int_minus    reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
avigad@17016
  2587
  real_of_int_diff     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
avigad@17016
  2588
  real_of_int_mult     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
wenzelm@16891
  2589
wenzelm@16891
  2590
* Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.
avigad@16888
  2591
avigad@16962
  2592
* Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm
avigad@16962
  2593
wenzelm@17423
  2594
* Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making
wenzelm@17423
  2595
nonstandard types.  The old type names are now type synonyms:
wenzelm@17423
  2596
wenzelm@17423
  2597
  hypreal = real star
wenzelm@17423
  2598
  hypnat = nat star
wenzelm@17423
  2599
  hcomplex = complex star
wenzelm@17423
  2600
wenzelm@17423
  2601
* Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been
huffman@17442
  2602
replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
wenzelm@17423
  2603
wenzelm@17423
  2604
  star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex
wenzelm@17423
  2605
wenzelm@17423
  2606
  starset      <-- starsetNat, starsetC
wenzelm@17423
  2607
  *s*          <-- *sNat*, *sc*
wenzelm@17423
  2608
  starset_n    <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n
wenzelm@17423
  2609
  *sn*         <-- *sNatn*, *scn*
wenzelm@17423
  2610
  InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets
wenzelm@17423
  2611
huffman@17442
  2612
  starfun      <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
wenzelm@17423
  2613
  *f*          <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*
huffman@17442
  2614
  starfun_n    <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n
wenzelm@17423
  2615
  *fn*         <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*
huffman@17442
  2616
  InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs
wenzelm@17423
  2617
wenzelm@17423
  2618
* Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of
huffman@17442
  2619
theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):
huffman@17442
  2620
huffman@17442
  2621
  add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute
huffman@17442
  2622
  add_assoc   <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs
huffman@17442
  2623
  OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left
huffman@17442
  2624
  OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right
wenzelm@17423
  2625
  right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus
huffman@17442
  2626
  left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left
huffman@17442
  2627
  mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute
huffman@17442
  2628
  mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc
huffman@17442
  2629
  mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left
wenzelm@17423
  2630
  mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right
wenzelm@17423
  2631
  mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left
huffman@17442
  2632
  left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib
wenzelm@17423
  2633
  right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2
huffman@17442
  2634
  zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one
wenzelm@17423
  2635
  right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse
wenzelm@17423
  2636
  left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left
huffman@17442
  2637
  order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl
huffman@17442
  2638
  order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans
huffman@17442
  2639
  order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym
huffman@17442
  2640
  order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le
huffman@17442
  2641
  linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear
huffman@17442
  2642
  add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono