src/Pure/Tools/rail.ML
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prefer user-space tool within Pure.thy;
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(*  Title:      Pure/Tools/rail.ML
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    Author:     Michael Kerscher, TU M√ľnchen
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    Author:     Makarius
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Railroad diagrams in LaTeX.
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*)
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structure Rail: sig end =
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struct
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(** lexical syntax **)
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(* datatype token *)
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datatype kind =
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  Keyword | Ident | String | Antiq of Symbol_Pos.T list * Position.range | EOF;
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datatype token = Token of Position.range * (kind * string);
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fun pos_of (Token ((pos, _), _)) = pos;
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fun end_pos_of (Token ((_, pos), _)) = pos;
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fun kind_of (Token (_, (k, _))) = k;
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fun content_of (Token (_, (_, x))) = x;
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(* diagnostics *)
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val print_kind =
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 fn Keyword => "rail keyword"
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  | Ident => "identifier"
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  | String => "single-quoted string"
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  | Antiq _ => "antiquotation"
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  | EOF => "end-of-input";
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fun print (Token ((pos, _), (k, x))) =
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  (if k = EOF then print_kind k else print_kind k ^ " " ^ quote x) ^
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  Position.here pos;
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fun print_keyword x = print_kind Keyword ^ " " ^ quote x;
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(* stopper *)
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fun mk_eof pos = Token ((pos, Position.none), (EOF, ""));
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val eof = mk_eof Position.none;
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fun is_eof (Token (_, (EOF, _))) = true
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  | is_eof _ = false;
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val stopper =
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  Scan.stopper (fn [] => eof | toks => mk_eof (end_pos_of (List.last toks))) is_eof;
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(* tokenize *)
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local
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fun token k ss = [Token (Symbol_Pos.range ss, (k, Symbol_Pos.content ss))];
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val scan_space = Scan.many1 (Symbol.is_blank o Symbol_Pos.symbol);
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val scan_keyword =
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  Scan.one
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    (member (op =) ["|", "*", "+", "?", "(", ")", "\<newline>", ";", ":", "@"] o Symbol_Pos.symbol);
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val err_prefix = "Rail lexical error: ";
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val scan_token =
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  scan_space >> K [] ||
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  Antiquote.scan_antiq >> (fn antiq as (ss, _) => token (Antiq antiq) ss) ||
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  scan_keyword >> (token Keyword o single) ||
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  Lexicon.scan_id >> token Ident ||
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  Symbol_Pos.scan_string_q err_prefix >> (token String o #1 o #2);
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val scan =
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  (Scan.repeat scan_token >> flat) --|
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    Symbol_Pos.!!! (fn () => err_prefix ^ "bad input")
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      (Scan.ahead (Scan.one Symbol_Pos.is_eof));
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in
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val tokenize = #1 o Scan.error (Scan.finite Symbol_Pos.stopper scan) o Symbol_Pos.explode;
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end;
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(** parsing **)
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fun !!! scan =
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  let
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    val prefix = "Rail syntax error";
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    fun get_pos [] = " (end-of-input)"
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      | get_pos (tok :: _) = Position.here (pos_of tok);
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    fun err (toks, NONE) = (fn () => prefix ^ get_pos toks)
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      | err (toks, SOME msg) =
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          (fn () =>
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            let val s = msg () in
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              if String.isPrefix prefix s then s
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              else prefix ^ get_pos toks ^ ": " ^ s
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            end);
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  in Scan.!! err scan end;
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fun $$$ x =
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  Scan.one (fn tok => kind_of tok = Keyword andalso content_of tok = x) ||
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  Scan.fail_with
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    (fn [] => (fn () => print_keyword x ^ " expected,\nbut end-of-input was found")
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      | tok :: _ => (fn () => print_keyword x ^ " expected,\nbut " ^ print tok ^ " was found"));
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fun enum1 sep scan = scan ::: Scan.repeat ($$$ sep |-- !!! scan);
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fun enum sep scan = enum1 sep scan || Scan.succeed [];
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val ident = Scan.some (fn tok => if kind_of tok = Ident then SOME (content_of tok) else NONE);
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val string = Scan.some (fn tok => if kind_of tok = String then SOME (content_of tok) else NONE);
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val antiq = Scan.some (fn tok => (case kind_of tok of Antiq a => SOME a | _ => NONE));
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(** rail expressions **)
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(* datatype *)
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datatype rails =
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  Cat of int * rail list
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and rail =
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  Bar of rails list |
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  Plus of rails * rails |
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  Newline of int |
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  Nonterminal of string |
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  Terminal of bool * string |
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  Antiquote of bool * (Symbol_Pos.T list * Position.range);
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fun reverse_cat (Cat (y, rails)) = Cat (y, rev (map reverse rails))
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and reverse (Bar cats) = Bar (map reverse_cat cats)
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  | reverse (Plus (cat1, cat2)) = Plus (reverse_cat cat1, reverse_cat cat2)
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  | reverse x = x;
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fun cat rails = Cat (0, rails);
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val empty = cat [];
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fun is_empty (Cat (_, [])) = true | is_empty _ = false;
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fun is_newline (Newline _) = true | is_newline _ = false;
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fun bar [Cat (_, [rail])] = rail
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  | bar cats = Bar cats;
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fun plus cat1 cat2 = Plus (cat1, reverse_cat cat2);
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fun star cat1 cat2 =
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  if is_empty cat2 then plus empty cat1
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  else bar [empty, cat [plus cat1 cat2]];
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fun maybe rail = bar [empty, cat [rail]];
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(* read *)
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local
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val at_mode = Scan.option ($$$ "@") >> (fn NONE => false | _ => true);
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fun body x = (enum1 "|" body1 >> bar) x
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and body0 x = (enum "|" body1 >> bar) x
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and body1 x =
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 (body2 :|-- (fn a =>
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   $$$ "*" |-- !!! body4e >> (cat o single o star a) ||
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   $$$ "+" |-- !!! body4e >> (cat o single o plus a) ||
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   Scan.succeed a)) x
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and body2 x = (Scan.repeat1 body3 >> cat) x
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and body3 x = (body4 :|-- (fn a => $$$ "?" >> K (maybe a) || Scan.succeed a)) x
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and body4 x =
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 ($$$ "(" |-- !!! (body0 --| $$$ ")") ||
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  $$$ "\<newline>" >> K (Newline 0) ||
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  ident >> Nonterminal ||
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  at_mode -- string >> Terminal ||
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  at_mode -- antiq >> Antiquote) x
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and body4e x = (Scan.option body4 >> (cat o the_list)) x;
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val rule_name = ident >> Antiquote.Text || antiq >> Antiquote.Antiq;
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val rule = rule_name -- ($$$ ":" |-- !!! body) || body >> pair (Antiquote.Text "");
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val rules = enum1 ";" (Scan.option rule) >> map_filter I;
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in
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val read =
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  #1 o Scan.error (Scan.finite stopper (rules --| !!! (Scan.ahead (Scan.one is_eof)))) o tokenize;
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end;
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(* latex output *)
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local
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fun vertical_range_cat (Cat (_, rails)) y =
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  let val (rails', (_, y')) =
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    fold_map (fn rail => fn (y0, y') =>
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      if is_newline rail then (Newline (y' + 1), (y' + 1, y' + 2))
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      else
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        let val (rail', y0') = vertical_range rail y0;
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        in (rail', (y0, Int.max (y0', y'))) end) rails (y, y + 1)
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  in (Cat (y, rails'), y') end
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and vertical_range (Bar cats) y =
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      let val (cats', y') = fold_map vertical_range_cat cats y
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      in (Bar cats', Int.max (y + 1, y')) end
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  | vertical_range (Plus (cat1, cat2)) y =
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      let val ([cat1', cat2'], y') = fold_map vertical_range_cat [cat1, cat2] y;
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      in (Plus (cat1', cat2'), Int.max (y + 1, y')) end
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  | vertical_range (Newline _) y = (Newline (y + 2), y + 3)
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  | vertical_range atom y = (atom, y + 1);
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fun output_rules state rules =
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  let
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    val output_antiq = Thy_Output.eval_antiq (#1 (Keyword.get_lexicons ())) state;
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    fun output_text b s =
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      Output.output s
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      |> b ? enclose "\\isakeyword{" "}"
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      |> enclose "\\isa{" "}";
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    fun output_cat c (Cat (_, rails)) = outputs c rails
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    and outputs c [rail] = output c rail
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      | outputs _ rails = implode (map (output "") rails)
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    and output _ (Bar []) = ""
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      | output c (Bar [cat]) = output_cat c cat
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      | output _ (Bar (cat :: cats)) =
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          "\\rail@bar\n" ^ output_cat "" cat ^
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          implode (map (fn Cat (y, rails) =>
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              "\\rail@nextbar{" ^ string_of_int y ^ "}\n" ^ outputs "" rails) cats) ^
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          "\\rail@endbar\n"
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      | output c (Plus (cat, Cat (y, rails))) =
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          "\\rail@plus\n" ^ output_cat c cat ^
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          "\\rail@nextplus{" ^ string_of_int y ^ "}\n" ^ outputs "c" rails ^
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          "\\rail@endplus\n"
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      | output _ (Newline y) = "\\rail@cr{" ^ string_of_int y ^ "}\n"
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      | output c (Nonterminal s) = "\\rail@" ^ c ^ "nont{" ^ output_text false s ^ "}[]\n"
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      | output c (Terminal (b, s)) = "\\rail@" ^ c ^ "term{" ^ output_text b s ^ "}[]\n"
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      | output c (Antiquote (b, a)) =
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          "\\rail@" ^ c ^ (if b then "term{" else "nont{") ^ output_antiq a ^ "}[]\n";
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    fun output_rule (name, rail) =
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      let
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        val (rail', y') = vertical_range rail 0;
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        val out_name =
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          (case name of
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            Antiquote.Text "" => ""
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          | Antiquote.Text s => output_text false s
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          | Antiquote.Antiq a => output_antiq a);
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      in
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        "\\rail@begin{" ^ string_of_int y' ^ "}{" ^ out_name ^ "}\n" ^
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        output "" rail' ^
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        "\\rail@end\n"
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      end;
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  in
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    "\\begin{railoutput}\n" ^
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    implode (map output_rule rules) ^
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    "\\end{railoutput}\n"
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  end;
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in
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val _ = Theory.setup
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  (Thy_Output.antiquotation @{binding rail}
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    (Scan.lift (Parse.source_position Parse.string))
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    (fn {state, ...} => output_rules state o read));
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end;
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end;
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