NEWS
author wenzelm
Sat Dec 31 21:49:44 2005 +0100 (2005-12-31)
changeset 18536 ab3f32f86847
parent 18507 9b8b33098ced
child 18540 7b6f57406b1b
permissions -rw-r--r--
* Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format;
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Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
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==============================================
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New in this Isabelle release
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----------------------------
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*** General ***
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* Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
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discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
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fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
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discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
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with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
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function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
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to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
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functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
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by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
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Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
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these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
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used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
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* Command 'find_theorems': support "*" wildcard in "name:" criterion.
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*** Document preparation ***
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* Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
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check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
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*** Pure ***
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* Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
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the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
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  assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
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  then guess x and y by clarify
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This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
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proof tools being involved here.
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* Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
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propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
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named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
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methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
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according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
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provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
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theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
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`A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
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There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
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for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
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certain special cases of literal facts:
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  have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
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  have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
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  have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
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  have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
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* Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
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  def x == "t" and y == "u"
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* Provers/induct: improved internal context management to support
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local fixes and defines on-the-fly.  Thus explicit meta-level
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connectives !! and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
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(using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
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obsolete anyway).  The subsequent proof patterns illustrate advanced
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techniques of natural induction; general datatypes and inductive sets
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work analogously (see also src/HOL/Lambda for realistic examples).
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(1) This is how to ``strengthen'' an inductive goal wrt. certain
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parameters:
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  lemma
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    fixes n :: nat and x :: 'a
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    assumes a: "A n x"
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    shows "P n x"
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    using a                     -- {* make induct insert fact a *}
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  proof (induct n fixing: x)    -- {* generalize goal to "!!x. A n x ==> P n x" *}
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    case 0
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    show ?case sorry
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  next
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    case (Suc n)
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    note `!!x. A n x ==> P n x` -- {* induction hypothesis, according to induction rule *}
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    note `A (Suc n) x`          -- {* induction premise, stemming from fact a *}
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    show ?case sorry
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  qed
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(2) This is how to perform induction over ``expressions of a certain
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form'', using a locally defined inductive parameter n == "a x"
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together with strengthening (the latter is usually required to get
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sufficiently flexible induction hypotheses):
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  lemma
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    fixes a :: "'a => nat"
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    assumes a: "A (a x)"
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    shows "P (a x)"
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    using a
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  proof (induct n == "a x" fixing: x)
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    ...
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See also HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy for an application of the this
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particular technique.
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(3) This is how to perform existential reasoning ('obtain') by
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induction, while avoiding explicit object-logic encodings:
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  fix n :: nat
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  obtain x :: 'a where "P n x" and "Q n x"
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  proof (induct n fixing: thesis)
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    case 0
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    obtain x where "P 0 x" and "Q 0 x" sorry
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    then show thesis by (rule 0)
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  next
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    case (Suc n)
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    obtain x where "P n x" and "Q n x" by (rule Suc.hyps)
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    obtain x where "P (Suc n) x" and "Q (Suc n) x" sorry
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    then show thesis by (rule Suc.prems)
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  qed
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Here the 'fixing: thesis' specification essentially modifies the scope
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of the formal thesis parameter, in order to the get the whole
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existence statement through the induction as expected.
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* Provers/induct: mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
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of rule sharing the same induction cases.  HOL packages usually
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provide foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar
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(e.g. inductive sets or datatypes).  INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to
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specify mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
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  (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
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  (induct set: foo bar)
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  (induct type: foo bar)
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The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
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new format.
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* Provers/induct: improved handling of simultaneous goals.  Instead of
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introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
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several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are
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duplicated accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured
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explicitly, e.g. like this:
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  lemma
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    fixes n :: nat
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    shows "P n" and "Q n"
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  proof (induct n)
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    case 01
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    show "P 0" sorry
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  next
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    case 02
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    show "Q 0" sorry
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  next
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    case (Suc1 n)
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    note `P n` and `Q n`
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    show "P (Suc n)" sorry
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  next
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    case (Suc2 n)
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    note `P n` and `Q n`
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    show "Q (Suc n)" sorry
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  qed
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If simultaneous goals are to be used with mutual rules, the statement
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needs to be structured carefully as a two-level conjunction, using
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lists of propositions separated by 'and':
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  lemma
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    shows "a : A ==> P1 a"
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          "a : A ==> P2 a"
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      and "b : B ==> Q1 b"
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          "b : B ==> Q2 b"
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          "b : B ==> Q3 b"
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  proof (induct set: A B)
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* Provers/induct: support coinduction as well.  See
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src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
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* Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
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attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
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manipulating the claset.
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* Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
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where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
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patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
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"{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
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INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
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constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
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* Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
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parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
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for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
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*** HOL ***
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* Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
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25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
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"A = B" (with priority 50).
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* In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
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"t = s" to False (by simproc "neq_simproc").  For backward
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compatibility this can be disabled by ML "reset use_neq_simproc".
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* Tactics 'sat' and 'satx' reimplemented, several improvements: goals
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no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences (i.e.
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"=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form "lit_<n>"
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are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
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* inductive and datatype: provide projections of mutual rules, bundled
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as foo_bar.inducts;
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* Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
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as greatest fixed-point.
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*** ML ***
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* Pure/library:
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  val burrow: ('a list -> 'b list) -> 'a list list -> 'b list list
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  val burrow_split: ('a list -> 'c * 'b list) -> 'a list list -> 'c * 'b list list
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The semantics of "burrow" is: "take a function with *simulatanously* transforms
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a list of value, and apply it *simulatanously* to a list of list of values of the
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appropriate type". Confer this with "map" which would *not* apply its argument
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function simulatanously but in sequence. "burrow_split" allows the transformator
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function to yield an additional side result.
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Both actually avoid the usage of "unflat" since they hide away "unflat"
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from the user.
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* Pure/library: functions map2 and fold2 with curried syntax for
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simultanous mapping and folding:
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    val map2: ('a -> 'b -> 'c) -> 'a list -> 'b list -> 'c list
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    val fold2: ('a -> 'b -> 'c -> 'c) -> 'a list -> 'b list -> 'c -> 'c
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* Pure/library: indexed lists - some functions in the Isabelle library
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treating lists over 'a as finite mappings from [0...n] to 'a have been
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given more convenient names and signatures reminiscent of similar
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functions for alists, tables, etc:
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  val nth: 'a list -> int -> 'a 
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  val nth_update: int * 'a -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val nth_map: int -> ('a -> 'a) -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val fold_index: (int * 'a -> 'b -> 'b) -> 'a list -> 'b -> 'b
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Note that fold_index starts counting at index 0, not 1 like foldln
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used to.
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* Pure/General: name_mangler.ML provides a functor for generic name
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mangling (bijective mapping from any expression values to strings).
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* Pure/library:
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  val is_prefix: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list -> bool
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  replacing infix "prefix" and various individual isomorphic functions scattered
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  among an amount of ML modules.
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* Pure/General: rat.ML implements rational numbers.
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* Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
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have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
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allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
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fold_map combinators.
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* Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
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actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
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achieve the old behaviour.
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* Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
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slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
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statements.
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* Internal goals: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
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init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
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Tactic.prove).  Note that OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been
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obsolete, it is ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local
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fixes/assumes or in a locale context).
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* Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
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contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
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very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
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simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
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(solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
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* Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
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local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
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etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
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former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
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INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
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specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
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* Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
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change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
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theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
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INCOMPATIBILITY.
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New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
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----------------------------------
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*** General ***
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* Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
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  theory <name>
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  imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
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  uses <file1> ... <fileM>
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  begin
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where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
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  theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
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will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
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existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
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non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
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* Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
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relative and absolute paths.
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* Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
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list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
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simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
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theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
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match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
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name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
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lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
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all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
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'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
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  C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
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prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
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matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
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in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
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* Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
wenzelm@17408
   347
'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@17408
   348
wenzelm@17385
   349
* Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
wenzelm@17385
   350
Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
wenzelm@17408
   351
formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
wenzelm@17538
   352
General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
wenzelm@17538
   353
wenzelm@17538
   354
  http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
wenzelm@17538
   355
  http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
wenzelm@17385
   356
wenzelm@17425
   357
* Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
wenzelm@17425
   358
Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
wenzelm@17425
   359
faster.
wenzelm@17425
   360
wenzelm@15703
   361
wenzelm@15703
   362
*** Document preparation ***
wenzelm@15703
   363
wenzelm@16234
   364
* Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
wenzelm@16234
   365
of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
wenzelm@16234
   366
LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
wenzelm@16234
   367
displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
wenzelm@16234
   368
and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
wenzelm@16234
   369
DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
wenzelm@16234
   370
wenzelm@17047
   371
* Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
wenzelm@17047
   372
notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
wenzelm@17047
   373
theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
wenzelm@17047
   374
commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
wenzelm@17047
   375
"invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
wenzelm@17047
   376
specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
wenzelm@17047
   377
interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
wenzelm@17047
   378
preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
wenzelm@17047
   379
isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
wenzelm@17047
   380
\isadroptag.
wenzelm@17047
   381
wenzelm@17047
   382
Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
wenzelm@17047
   383
usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
wenzelm@17047
   384
specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
wenzelm@17047
   385
theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
wenzelm@17047
   386
proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
wenzelm@17047
   387
these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
wenzelm@17047
   388
default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
wenzelm@17047
   389
specified above.
wenzelm@16234
   390
haftmann@17402
   391
* Several new antiquotations:
wenzelm@15979
   392
wenzelm@15979
   393
  @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
wenzelm@15979
   394
wenzelm@15979
   395
  @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
wenzelm@15979
   396
wenzelm@16234
   397
  @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
wenzelm@16234
   398
  argument is a known logical constant;
wenzelm@15979
   399
wenzelm@15979
   400
  @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
wenzelm@16234
   401
  theorem applying a "style" to it
wenzelm@16234
   402
wenzelm@17117
   403
  @{ML text}
wenzelm@17117
   404
wenzelm@16234
   405
Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
wenzelm@16234
   406
definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
schirmer@17393
   407
conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
wenzelm@16234
   408
to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
wenzelm@16234
   409
interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
wenzelm@17117
   410
document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
wenzelm@17117
   411
type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
wenzelm@16234
   412
wenzelm@17259
   413
* Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
wenzelm@17259
   414
and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
wenzelm@17269
   415
specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
wenzelm@17269
   416
example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
wenzelm@17259
   417
wenzelm@17259
   418
* Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
wenzelm@17259
   419
context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
wenzelm@17269
   420
[locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.
wenzelm@17259
   421
wenzelm@17097
   422
* Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within
wenzelm@17097
   423
a proof context.
wenzelm@17097
   424
wenzelm@17097
   425
* Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a
wenzelm@17097
   426
proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').
wenzelm@17097
   427
wenzelm@17193
   428
* Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX
wenzelm@17193
   429
macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).
wenzelm@17193
   430
wenzelm@17193
   431
* isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option
wenzelm@17193
   432
-D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false
wenzelm@17193
   433
prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.
wenzelm@17193
   434
wenzelm@16234
   435
wenzelm@16234
   436
*** Pure ***
wenzelm@16234
   437
wenzelm@16234
   438
* Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command.  Now performs
wenzelm@16234
   439
automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for
wenzelm@16234
   440
local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also
wenzelm@16234
   441
isar-ref manual.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly
wenzelm@16234
   442
sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'
wenzelm@16234
   443
section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier.  If
wenzelm@16234
   444
all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.
wenzelm@16234
   445
wenzelm@16234
   446
* Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures.  First of all,
wenzelm@16234
   447
indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted
wenzelm@16234
   448
application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary
wenzelm@16234
   449
expressions.  Secondly, in a local context with structure
wenzelm@16234
   450
declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default
wenzelm@16234
   451
number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option
wenzelm@16234
   452
show_structs controls printing of implicit structures.  Typical
wenzelm@16234
   453
applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.
wenzelm@16234
   454
wenzelm@16234
   455
* New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and
wenzelm@16234
   456
translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is
wenzelm@16234
   457
interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.
wenzelm@16234
   458
wenzelm@16234
   459
* 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend
wenzelm@16234
   460
on the signature of the theory context being presently used for
wenzelm@16234
   461
parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.
wenzelm@16234
   462
wenzelm@16856
   463
* Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an
wenzelm@16856
   464
ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of
wenzelm@16856
   465
type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle
wenzelm@16856
   466
is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;
wenzelm@16856
   467
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@16856
   468
wenzelm@17275
   469
* axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"
wenzelm@17275
   470
before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.
wenzelm@17275
   471
INCOMPATIBILITY.  This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for
wenzelm@17275
   472
axclasses vs. locales.
wenzelm@17275
   473
wenzelm@16234
   474
* Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes
wenzelm@16234
   475
instead of base 26 numbers.
wenzelm@16234
   476
wenzelm@16234
   477
* New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question
wenzelm@16234
   478
marks in schematic variable names.
wenzelm@16234
   479
wenzelm@16234
   480
* In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or
wenzelm@16234
   481
\<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name.  For example, the
wenzelm@16234
   482
following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:
wenzelm@16234
   483
wenzelm@16234
   484
  lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"
wenzelm@16234
   485
    by simp
wenzelm@16234
   486
wenzelm@16234
   487
* Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).
wenzelm@16234
   488
wenzelm@17548
   489
* Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix
wenzelm@16234
   490
annotations as "(00...)".
wenzelm@16234
   491
wenzelm@16234
   492
* Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter
wenzelm@16234
   493
may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.
wenzelm@16234
   494
Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class
wenzelm@16234
   495
"logic" vs. "{}".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper
wenzelm@16234
   496
use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'.  Some very
wenzelm@16234
   497
exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption
wenzelm@17691
   498
(e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).
wenzelm@16234
   499
wenzelm@16234
   500
* Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.
wenzelm@16234
   501
Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'
wenzelm@16234
   502
rather than 'types'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic
wenzelm@16234
   503
specifications.
wenzelm@16234
   504
ballarin@17095
   505
* Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be
ballarin@17095
   506
locally fixed variables as well.
ballarin@17095
   507
wenzelm@16234
   508
* Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting
wenzelm@16234
   509
is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth
wenzelm@16234
   510
Limit.
wenzelm@16234
   511
wenzelm@16234
   512
* Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current
wenzelm@16234
   513
simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc
wenzelm@16234
   514
interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier
wenzelm@16234
   515
recursively.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs
wenzelm@16234
   516
is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead.  Moreover, the
wenzelm@16234
   517
low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to
wenzelm@16234
   518
allow for use in a context of fixed variables.
wenzelm@16234
   519
wenzelm@16234
   520
* thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!
wenzelm@16234
   521
or ==>.  More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of
wenzelm@16234
   522
the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.
wenzelm@16234
   523
wenzelm@17597
   524
* Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
nipkow@17590
   525
wenzelm@16234
   526
* Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived
wenzelm@16234
   527
from Pure, which contains all common declarations already.  Both
wenzelm@16234
   528
theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.
wenzelm@16234
   529
INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /
wenzelm@16234
   530
CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;
wenzelm@16234
   531
use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.
wenzelm@16234
   532
wenzelm@16234
   533
* New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific
wenzelm@16234
   534
selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.
wenzelm@16234
   535
wenzelm@17097
   536
* 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference
wenzelm@17097
   537
wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),
wenzelm@17097
   538
in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');
wenzelm@17097
   539
wenzelm@17397
   540
* 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.
wenzelm@17397
   541
wenzelm@17275
   542
* More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive
wenzelm@17275
   543
theory development.
wenzelm@17275
   544
berghofe@17663
   545
* Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code
wenzelm@17664
   546
generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures
wenzelm@17664
   547
for each theory).  INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'
wenzelm@17664
   548
must be quoted when used as identifiers.
wenzelm@17664
   549
wenzelm@17664
   550
* New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using
wenzelm@17664
   551
the code generator.  INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be
wenzelm@17664
   552
quoted when used as identifier.
berghofe@17663
   553
wenzelm@16234
   554
wenzelm@16234
   555
*** Locales ***
ballarin@17095
   556
wenzelm@17385
   557
* New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in
wenzelm@17385
   558
theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3).  These generate
wenzelm@17385
   559
proof obligations from the expression specification.  After the
wenzelm@17385
   560
obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added
wenzelm@17385
   561
to the theory, target locale or proof context.  The synopsis of the
wenzelm@17385
   562
commands is a follows:
wenzelm@17385
   563
ballarin@17095
   564
  (1) interpretation expr inst
ballarin@17095
   565
  (2) interpretation target < expr
ballarin@17095
   566
  (3) interpret expr inst
wenzelm@17385
   567
ballarin@17095
   568
Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter
ballarin@17095
   569
instantiation of terms from the current context.  This is applied to
wenzelm@17385
   570
specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.
wenzelm@17385
   571
Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the
wenzelm@17385
   572
locale expression.  Interpretation is smart in that interpretations
wenzelm@17385
   573
that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are
wenzelm@17385
   574
instantiated theorems stored in duplicate.  Use 'print_interps' to
wenzelm@17385
   575
inspect active interpretations of a particular locale.  For details,
ballarin@17436
   576
see the Isar Reference manual.  Examples can be found in
ballarin@17436
   577
HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.
wenzelm@16234
   578
wenzelm@16234
   579
INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use
wenzelm@16234
   580
'interpret' instead.
wenzelm@16234
   581
wenzelm@17385
   582
* New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to
wenzelm@17385
   583
parameters.
wenzelm@17385
   584
wenzelm@17385
   585
* Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax
wenzelm@17385
   586
redeclaration.
ballarin@17095
   587
ballarin@17095
   588
* Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.
ballarin@17095
   589
wenzelm@16234
   590
* Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /
wenzelm@16234
   591
facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition
wenzelm@16234
   592
context, independently of the context of later invocations.  Moreover,
wenzelm@16234
   593
locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied
wenzelm@16234
   594
to attribute arguments as expected.
wenzelm@16234
   595
wenzelm@16234
   596
INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of
wenzelm@16234
   597
actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to
wenzelm@16234
   598
embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.
wenzelm@16234
   599
Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static
wenzelm@16234
   600
binding mechanism.  Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and
wenzelm@16234
   601
Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further
wenzelm@16234
   602
intervention.  Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"
wenzelm@16234
   603
(cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both
wenzelm@16234
   604
on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed
wenzelm@16234
   605
values to argument tokens explicitly.
wenzelm@16234
   606
wenzelm@16234
   607
* Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal
wenzelm@16234
   608
statements with 'includes'.  INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different
wenzelm@16234
   609
theorem statement in rare situations.
wenzelm@16234
   610
ballarin@17228
   611
* Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements.  Use
ballarin@17228
   612
'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.
ballarin@17228
   613
wenzelm@16234
   614
wenzelm@16234
   615
*** Provers ***
wenzelm@16234
   616
wenzelm@16234
   617
* Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for
wenzelm@16234
   618
single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is
wenzelm@16234
   619
'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may
wenzelm@16234
   620
rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is
wenzelm@16234
   621
still available as 'simplesubst'.
wenzelm@16234
   622
wenzelm@16234
   623
* Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only
wenzelm@16234
   624
and quasi orders.
wenzelm@16234
   625
wenzelm@16234
   626
* Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and
wenzelm@16234
   627
reflexive-transitive closure of relations.
wenzelm@16234
   628
wenzelm@16234
   629
* Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth
wenzelm@16234
   630
limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.
wenzelm@16234
   631
wenzelm@16234
   632
* Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup
wenzelm@16234
   633
is peformed already.  Object-logics merely need to finish their
wenzelm@16234
   634
initial simpset configuration as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@15703
   635
berghofe@15475
   636
schirmer@14700
   637
*** HOL ***
schirmer@14700
   638
wenzelm@16234
   639
* Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:
wenzelm@14878
   640
wenzelm@14878
   641
  syntax (epsilon)
wenzelm@14878
   642
    "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a"    ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)
wenzelm@14878
   643
wenzelm@16234
   644
The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX
wenzelm@16234
   645
and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.
wenzelm@16234
   646
Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>
wenzelm@16234
   647
becomes available as variable, constant etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
wenzelm@16234
   648
wenzelm@16234
   649
* "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".
wenzelm@16234
   650
Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc.  The x-symbol for >=
wenzelm@17371
   651
is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to
avigad@17016
   652
support corresponding Isar calculations.
wenzelm@16234
   653
wenzelm@16234
   654
* "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"
wenzelm@16234
   655
instead of ":".
wenzelm@16234
   656
wenzelm@16234
   657
* theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:
wenzelm@16234
   658
wenzelm@16234
   659
  Old       New
wenzelm@16234
   660
  {..n(}    {..<n}
wenzelm@16234
   661
  {)n..}    {n<..}
wenzelm@16234
   662
  {m..n(}   {m..<n}
wenzelm@16234
   663
  {)m..n}   {m<..n}
wenzelm@16234
   664
  {)m..n(}  {m<..<n}
wenzelm@16234
   665
wenzelm@16234
   666
The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next
wenzelm@16234
   667
release.  For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace
wenzelm@16234
   668
patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):
nipkow@15046
   669
nipkow@15046
   670
  {)\([^\.]*\)\.\.  ->  {\1<\.\.}
nipkow@15046
   671
  \.\.\([^(}]*\)(}  ->  \.\.<\1}
nipkow@15046
   672
wenzelm@17533
   673
* Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving
wenzelm@17533
   674
equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic
wenzelm@17533
   675
interface.
wenzelm@17389
   676
wenzelm@17389
   677
* Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over
wenzelm@16234
   678
finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is
wenzelm@17371
   679
now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can
paulson@17189
   680
be a tuple pattern.
wenzelm@16234
   681
wenzelm@16234
   682
Some new syntax forms are available:
wenzelm@16234
   683
wenzelm@16234
   684
  "\<Sum>x | P. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"
wenzelm@16234
   685
  "\<Sum>x = a..b. e"   for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"
wenzelm@16234
   686
  "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e"  for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"
wenzelm@16234
   687
  "\<Sum>x < k. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"
wenzelm@16234
   688
wenzelm@16234
   689
The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate
wenzelm@16234
   690
function "Summation", which has been discontinued.
wenzelm@16234
   691
wenzelm@16234
   692
* theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case
wenzelm@16234
   693
is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case
wenzelm@16234
   694
(insert F x)'.
wenzelm@16234
   695
wenzelm@16234
   696
* The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger
wenzelm@16234
   697
fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and
wenzelm@16234
   698
typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.
wenzelm@16234
   699
webertj@17700
   700
* New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.
webertj@17700
   701
Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed.  See
webertj@17700
   702
HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.
webertj@17619
   703
wenzelm@16234
   704
* Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the
wenzelm@16234
   705
induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by
wenzelm@16234
   706
induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather
wenzelm@16234
   707
than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
wenzelm@16234
   708
in unstructured proof scripts.
wenzelm@16234
   709
wenzelm@16234
   710
* Reworked implementation of records.  Improved scalability for
wenzelm@16234
   711
records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type
wenzelm@16234
   712
inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but
wenzelm@16234
   713
of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear
wenzelm@16234
   714
in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields.  The
wenzelm@16234
   715
top-level (users) view on records is preserved.  Potential
wenzelm@16234
   716
INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the
wenzelm@16234
   717
old record representation. The type generated for a record is called
wenzelm@16234
   718
<record_name>_ext_type.
wenzelm@16234
   719
wenzelm@16234
   720
Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the
wenzelm@16234
   721
proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if
wenzelm@16234
   722
quick_and_dirty is enabled).  Definitions of large records can take
wenzelm@16234
   723
quite long.
wenzelm@16234
   724
wenzelm@16234
   725
New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record
wenzelm@16234
   726
updates enabled by default.  Moreover, trivial updates are also
wenzelm@16234
   727
removed: r(|x := x r|) = r.  INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break
wenzelm@16234
   728
occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.
wenzelm@16234
   729
wenzelm@17275
   730
* typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra
wenzelm@17275
   731
type-variables in the term.
wenzelm@17275
   732
wenzelm@16234
   733
* Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains
wenzelm@16234
   734
involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics
wenzelm@16234
   735
provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
wenzelm@16234
   736
old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more
wenzelm@16234
   737
goals than previously.
wenzelm@16234
   738
wenzelm@16234
   739
* Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is
wenzelm@16234
   740
present.  Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular
wenzelm@16234
   741
numbers and sets.  For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y
wenzelm@16234
   742
just like y <= x.
wenzelm@16234
   743
wenzelm@16234
   744
* Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x".  If a is a free or
wenzelm@16234
   745
bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded.  Otherwise
wenzelm@16234
   746
first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If
wenzelm@16234
   747
possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",
wenzelm@16234
   748
otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g.  The simproc can be
wenzelm@16234
   749
enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc.  Potential
wenzelm@16234
   750
INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.
webertj@15776
   751
paulson@16563
   752
* Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.
paulson@16563
   753
paulson@17595
   754
* Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background
paulson@17595
   755
jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.
paulson@17595
   756
wenzelm@16891
   757
* Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and
wenzelm@16891
   758
improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and
wenzelm@16891
   759
inequalities.
wenzelm@16891
   760
wenzelm@16891
   761
The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
wenzelm@16891
   762
(INCOMPATIBILITY):
avigad@16888
   763
avigad@16888
   764
  abs_eq             now named abs_of_nonneg
wenzelm@17371
   765
  abs_of_ge_0        now named abs_of_nonneg
wenzelm@17371
   766
  abs_minus_eq       now named abs_of_nonpos
avigad@16888
   767
  imp_abs_id         now named abs_of_nonneg
avigad@16888
   768
  imp_abs_neg_id     now named abs_of_nonpos
avigad@16888
   769
  mult_pos           now named mult_pos_pos
avigad@16888
   770
  mult_pos_le        now named mult_nonneg_nonneg
avigad@16888
   771
  mult_pos_neg_le    now named mult_nonneg_nonpos
avigad@16888
   772
  mult_pos_neg2_le   now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2
avigad@16888
   773
  mult_neg           now named mult_neg_neg
avigad@16888
   774
  mult_neg_le        now named mult_nonpos_nonpos
avigad@16888
   775
wenzelm@16891
   776
* Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.
wenzelm@16891
   777
nipkow@17092
   778
* Theory List:
nipkow@17092
   779
nipkow@17092
   780
The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
nipkow@17092
   781
(INCOMPATIBILITY):
nipkow@17092
   782
nipkow@17092
   783
  list_all_Nil       now named list_all.simps(1)
nipkow@17092
   784
  list_all_Cons      now named list_all.simps(2)
nipkow@17092
   785
  list_all_conv      now named list_all_iff
nipkow@17092
   786
  set_mem_eq         now named mem_iff
nipkow@17092
   787
wenzelm@16929
   788
* Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support
wenzelm@16929
   789
asymptotic "big O" calculations.  See the notes in BigO.thy.
wenzelm@16929
   790
avigad@16888
   791
avigad@16888
   792
*** HOL-Complex ***
avigad@16888
   793
wenzelm@16891
   794
* Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and
wenzelm@16891
   795
integers in the reals.
wenzelm@16891
   796
wenzelm@16891
   797
The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
wenzelm@16891
   798
(INCOMPATIBILITY):
wenzelm@16891
   799
avigad@17016
   800
  exp_ge_add_one_self  now requires no hypotheses
avigad@17016
   801
  real_of_int_add      reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
avigad@17016
   802
  real_of_int_minus    reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
avigad@17016
   803
  real_of_int_diff     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
avigad@17016
   804
  real_of_int_mult     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
wenzelm@16891
   805
wenzelm@16891
   806
* Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.
avigad@16888
   807
avigad@16962
   808
* Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm
avigad@16962
   809
wenzelm@17423
   810
* Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making
wenzelm@17423
   811
nonstandard types.  The old type names are now type synonyms:
wenzelm@17423
   812
wenzelm@17423
   813
  hypreal = real star
wenzelm@17423
   814
  hypnat = nat star
wenzelm@17423
   815
  hcomplex = complex star
wenzelm@17423
   816
wenzelm@17423
   817
* Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been
huffman@17442
   818
replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
wenzelm@17423
   819
wenzelm@17423
   820
  star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex
wenzelm@17423
   821
wenzelm@17423
   822
  starset      <-- starsetNat, starsetC
wenzelm@17423
   823
  *s*          <-- *sNat*, *sc*
wenzelm@17423
   824
  starset_n    <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n
wenzelm@17423
   825
  *sn*         <-- *sNatn*, *scn*
wenzelm@17423
   826
  InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets
wenzelm@17423
   827
huffman@17442
   828
  starfun      <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
wenzelm@17423
   829
  *f*          <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*
huffman@17442
   830
  starfun_n    <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n
wenzelm@17423
   831
  *fn*         <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*
huffman@17442
   832
  InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs
wenzelm@17423
   833
wenzelm@17423
   834
* Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of
huffman@17442
   835
theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):
huffman@17442
   836
huffman@17442
   837
  add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute
huffman@17442
   838
  add_assoc   <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs
huffman@17442
   839
  OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left
huffman@17442
   840
  OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right
wenzelm@17423
   841
  right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus
huffman@17442
   842
  left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left
huffman@17442
   843
  mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute
huffman@17442
   844
  mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc
huffman@17442
   845
  mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left
wenzelm@17423
   846
  mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right
wenzelm@17423
   847
  mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left
huffman@17442
   848
  left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib
wenzelm@17423
   849
  right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2
huffman@17442
   850
  zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one
wenzelm@17423
   851
  right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse
wenzelm@17423
   852
  left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left
huffman@17442
   853
  order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl
huffman@17442
   854
  order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans
huffman@17442
   855
  order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym
huffman@17442
   856
  order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le
huffman@17442
   857
  linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear
huffman@17442
   858
  add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono
huffman@17442
   859
  mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2
wenzelm@17423
   860
  add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order
wenzelm@17423
   861
wenzelm@17423
   862
* Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific
wenzelm@17423
   863
versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the
huffman@17442
   864
new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):
huffman@17442
   865
huffman@17442
   866
  STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set
huffman@17442
   867
  STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set
huffman@17442
   868
  STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un
huffman@17442
   869
  STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int
huffman@17442
   870
  STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl
huffman@17442
   871
  STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset
huffman@17442
   872
  STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem
huffman@17442
   873
  STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl
huffman@17442
   874
  STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff
huffman@17442
   875
  STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,
huffman@17442
   876
    STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset
huffman@17442
   877
  starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un
huffman@17442
   878
  starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int
huffman@17442
   879
  starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl
huffman@17442
   880
  starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff
huffman@17442
   881
  InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un
huffman@17442
   882
  InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int
huffman@17442
   883
  InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl
huffman@17442
   884
  InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff
huffman@17442
   885
  InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff
huffman@17442
   886
  InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n
huffman@17442
   887
  starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq
huffman@17442
   888
  starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}
huffman@17442
   889
  starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
huffman@17442
   890
  starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
huffman@17442
   891
  starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult
huffman@17442
   892
  starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add
huffman@17442
   893
  starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus
huffman@17442
   894
  starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff
huffman@17442
   895
  starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o
huffman@17442
   896
  starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2
huffman@17442
   897
  starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun
huffman@17442
   898
  starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse
huffman@17442
   899
  starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq
huffman@17442
   900
  starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff
wenzelm@17423
   901
  starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id
huffman@17442
   902
  starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx
huffman@17442
   903
  starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox
wenzelm@17423
   904
  starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs
huffman@17442
   905
  starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel
huffman@17442
   906
  starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2
wenzelm@17423
   907
  starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox
huffman@17442
   908
  starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox
huffman@17442
   909
  starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox
wenzelm@17423
   910
  starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx
wenzelm@17423
   911
  starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse
huffman@17442
   912
  starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide
huffman@17442
   913
  starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n
huffman@17442
   914
  starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult
huffman@17442
   915
  starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add
wenzelm@17423
   916
  starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus
huffman@17442
   917
  starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun
huffman@17442
   918
  starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus
huffman@17442
   919
  starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq
huffman@17442
   920
huffman@17442
   921
  star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add
huffman@17442
   922
  star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus
huffman@17442
   923
  star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff
huffman@17442
   924
  star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult
huffman@17442
   925
  star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse
huffman@17442
   926
  star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le
huffman@17442
   927
  star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less
huffman@17442
   928
  star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num
huffman@17442
   929
  star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num
wenzelm@17423
   930
  star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs
wenzelm@17423
   931
  star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide
wenzelm@17423
   932
huffman@17442
   933
  star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add
huffman@17442
   934
  star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus
wenzelm@17423
   935
  star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff
huffman@17442
   936
  star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult
huffman@17442
   937
  star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one
huffman@17442
   938
  star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero
huffman@17442
   939
  star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff
huffman@17442
   940
  star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff
huffman@17442
   941
  star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff
huffman@17442
   942
  star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse
huffman@17442
   943
  star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide
huffman@17442
   944
  star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat
huffman@17442
   945
  star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int
huffman@17442
   946
  star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of
wenzelm@17423
   947
  star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff
wenzelm@17423
   948
  star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff
wenzelm@17423
   949
  star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff
wenzelm@17423
   950
  star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff
wenzelm@17423
   951
  star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff
wenzelm@17423
   952
  star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power
wenzelm@17423
   953
  star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff
wenzelm@17423
   954
huffman@17442
   955
* Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer
huffman@17442
   956
principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions
huffman@17442
   957
nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"
huffman@17442
   958
replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.
huffman@17442
   959
To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-
huffman@17442
   960
standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.
huffman@17442
   961
wenzelm@17641
   962
* Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.
wenzelm@17641
   963
wenzelm@14655
   964
wenzelm@14682
   965
*** HOLCF ***
wenzelm@14682
   966
wenzelm@17533
   967
* Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support
wenzelm@17533
   968
continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full
wenzelm@17533
   969
type-inference.
wenzelm@17533
   970
wenzelm@17533
   971
* New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it
wenzelm@17533
   972
is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic
huffman@17442
   973
instead of exponential time).
huffman@17442
   974
wenzelm@17533
   975
* New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.
huffman@17442
   976
Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:
huffman@17442
   977
huffman@17442
   978
  domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")
huffman@17442
   979
wenzelm@17533
   980
* New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern
wenzelm@17533
   981
matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also
wenzelm@17533
   982
supported.  Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,
wenzelm@17533
   983
sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given
wenzelm@17533
   984
equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
wenzelm@17533
   985
syntax and examples.
wenzelm@17533
   986
wenzelm@17533
   987
* New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes
wenzelm@17533
   988
of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,
wenzelm@17533
   989
but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility
wenzelm@17533
   990
requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,
wenzelm@17533
   991
with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.
huffman@17442
   992
huffman@17584
   993
* HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming
huffman@17584
   994
scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):
huffman@17584
   995
huffman@17584
   996
  foo_inject:  "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"
huffman@17584
   997
  foo_eq:      "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"
huffman@17584
   998
  foo_less:    "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"
huffman@17584
   999
  foo_strict:  "foo$UU = UU"
huffman@17584
  1000
  foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"
huffman@17584
  1001
  foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"
huffman@17584
  1002
wenzelm@14682
  1003
paulson@14885
  1004
*** ZF ***
paulson@14885
  1005
wenzelm@16234
  1006
* ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,
wenzelm@16234
  1007
including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel
wenzelm@16234
  1008
of a homomorphism).
wenzelm@15089
  1009
wenzelm@15089
  1010
* ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually
wenzelm@16234
  1011
makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);
wenzelm@16234
  1012
the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.
wenzelm@15703
  1013
wenzelm@15703
  1014
wenzelm@17445
  1015
*** Cube ***
wenzelm@17445
  1016
wenzelm@17445
  1017
* Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic
wenzelm@17445
  1018
theories.
wenzelm@17445
  1019
wenzelm@17445
  1020
wenzelm@15703
  1021
*** ML ***
wenzelm@15703
  1022
wenzelm@15973
  1023
* Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses
wenzelm@16234
  1024
that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of
wenzelm@16234
  1025
None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.
wenzelm@16234
  1026
The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted
wenzelm@16234
  1027
accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.
wenzelm@15973
  1028
wenzelm@16860
  1029
* Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of
wenzelm@16860
  1030
the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as
wenzelm@16860
  1031
Library.UnequalLengths.  Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are
wenzelm@16860
  1032
superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.
wenzelm@16860
  1033
wenzelm@16860
  1034
A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML
wenzelm@16860
  1035
toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions.  The following
wenzelm@16234
  1036
suggests how one can translate existing code:
wenzelm@15973
  1037
wenzelm@15973
  1038
    rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)
wenzelm@15973
  1039
    nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)
wenzelm@15973
  1040
    last_elem xs = List.last xs
wenzelm@15973
  1041
    flat xss = List.concat xss
wenzelm@16234
  1042
    seq fs = List.app fs
wenzelm@15973
  1043
    partition P xs = List.partition P xs
wenzelm@15973
  1044
    mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs
wenzelm@15973
  1045
wenzelm@16860
  1046
* Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional
wenzelm@16860
  1047
transformations, notably reverse application and composition:
wenzelm@16860
  1048
wenzelm@17371
  1049
  x |> f                f #> g
wenzelm@17371
  1050
  (x, y) |-> f          f #-> g
wenzelm@16860
  1051
haftmann@17495
  1052
* Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:
haftmann@17495
  1053
haftmann@17495
  1054
  infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;
haftmann@17495
  1055
  infix 2 ?;
haftmann@17495
  1056
  infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;
haftmann@17495
  1057
  infix 4 ~~ upto downto;
haftmann@17495
  1058
haftmann@17495
  1059
Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other
haftmann@17495
  1060
infix operators.
haftmann@17495
  1061
wenzelm@17408
  1062
* Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and
haftmann@16869
  1063
fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting.  For
wenzelm@16860
  1064
example:
wenzelm@16860
  1065
wenzelm@16860
  1066
  fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =
wenzelm@16860
  1067
    y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN
wenzelm@16860
  1068
wenzelm@16860
  1069
  (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =
wenzelm@16860
  1070
    y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN
wenzelm@16860
  1071
wenzelm@16860
  1072
  fold f [x1, ..., xN] =
wenzelm@16860
  1073
    f x1 #> ... #> f xN
wenzelm@16860
  1074
wenzelm@16860
  1075
  (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =
wenzelm@16860
  1076
    fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN
wenzelm@16860
  1077
wenzelm@17408
  1078
* Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are
wenzelm@17408
  1079
available:
wenzelm@17408
  1080
wenzelm@17408
  1081
  the:               'a option -> 'a  (*partial*)
wenzelm@17408
  1082
  these:             'a option -> 'a  where 'a = 'b list
haftmann@17402
  1083
  the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a
haftmann@17402
  1084
  the_list:          'a option -> 'a list
haftmann@17402
  1085
wenzelm@17408
  1086
* Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
wenzelm@17408
  1087
basic operations for association lists, following natural argument
haftmann@17564
  1088
order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids
haftmann@17495
  1089
potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.
haftmann@17495
  1090
The old functions may be expressed as follows:
wenzelm@17408
  1091
wenzelm@17408
  1092
  assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))
wenzelm@17408
  1093
  assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)
wenzelm@17408
  1094
  overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap
wenzelm@17408
  1095
haftmann@17564
  1096
* Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
haftmann@17564
  1097
haftmann@17564
  1098
  val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list
haftmann@17564
  1099
  val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list
haftmann@17564
  1100
haftmann@17564
  1101
replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)
haftmann@17564
  1102
Naive rewrites:
haftmann@17564
  1103
haftmann@17564
  1104
  make_keylist = AList.make
haftmann@17564
  1105
  keyfilter = AList.find (op =)
haftmann@17564
  1106
haftmann@17564
  1107
* eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus
haftmann@17564
  1108
  avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:
haftmann@17564
  1109
haftmann@17564
  1110
    eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)
haftmann@17564
  1111
    eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)
haftmann@17564
  1112
haftmann@17564
  1113
* Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).
haftmann@17564
  1114
  Naive rewrites:
haftmann@17564
  1115
haftmann@17564
  1116
    apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n
haftmann@17564
  1117
    apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)
haftmann@17564
  1118
wenzelm@17408
  1119
* Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)
wenzelm@17408
  1120
provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as
wenzelm@17408
  1121
lists.
wenzelm@17408
  1122
wenzelm@17408
  1123
* Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a
wenzelm@17408
  1124
few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to
wenzelm@17408
  1125
follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);
wenzelm@17408
  1126
INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.
wenzelm@17408
  1127
wenzelm@17408
  1128
* Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of
wenzelm@17408
  1129
writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a
wenzelm@17408
  1130
hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode
wenzelm@17408
  1131
(cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output
wenzelm@17408
  1132
function wins).  Already formatted output may be embedded into further
wenzelm@17408
  1133
text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived
wenzelm@17408
  1134
functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to
wenzelm@17408
  1135
accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc.  Programmers
wenzelm@17408
  1136
rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with
wenzelm@17408
  1137
some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the
wenzelm@17408
  1138
standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce
wenzelm@17408
  1139
properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing
wenzelm@17408
  1140
already output material that will eventually be presented to the user
wenzelm@17408
  1141
a second time.  For the default print mode, both Output.output and
wenzelm@17408
  1142
Output.raw have no effect.
wenzelm@17408
  1143
wenzelm@17408
  1144
* Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a
wenzelm@17408
  1145
-> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the
wenzelm@17408
  1146
cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.
wenzelm@17408
  1147
wenzelm@17408
  1148
* Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been
wenzelm@17408
  1149
replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate
wenzelm@17408
  1150
hooks).  This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the
wenzelm@17408
  1151
internal and external process view of file names are different.
wenzelm@17408
  1152
wenzelm@16689
  1153
* Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added
wenzelm@16689
  1154
fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord
wenzelm@16689
  1155
and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is
wenzelm@16689
  1156
NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast
wenzelm@16689
  1157
orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a
wenzelm@16689
  1158
particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using
wenzelm@16689
  1159
Library.sort_strings on result).
wenzelm@16689
  1160
wenzelm@17408
  1161
* Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,
wenzelm@17408
  1162
fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural
wenzelm@17408
  1163
argument order.  Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,
wenzelm@17408
  1164
add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@17408
  1165
wenzelm@16151
  1166
* Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the
wenzelm@16234
  1167
internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY.  Renamed cond_extern(_table)
wenzelm@16234
  1168
to extern(_table).  The plain name entry path is superceded by a
wenzelm@16234
  1169
general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce
wenzelm@16234
  1170
a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified
wenzelm@16234
  1171
name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent
wenzelm@16234
  1172
Sign.declare_name.  Several theory and proof context operations modify
wenzelm@16234
  1173
the naming context.  Especially note Theory.restore_naming and
wenzelm@16234
  1174
ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that
wenzelm@16234
  1175
Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from
wenzelm@16234
  1176
Theory.absolute_path in particular.
wenzelm@16234
  1177
wenzelm@16234
  1178
* Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names
wenzelm@16234
  1179
(default true) for controlling output of qualified names.  If
wenzelm@16234
  1180
short_names is set, names are printed unqualified.  If unique_names is
wenzelm@16234
  1181
reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve
wenzelm@16234
  1182
the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap
wenzelm@16234
  1183
with earlier declarations.
wenzelm@16151
  1184
wenzelm@16456
  1185
* Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is
wenzelm@16456
  1186
now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument
wenzelm@16456
  1187
(useful for printing error messages).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@16456
  1188
wenzelm@16456
  1189
* Pure: major reorganization of the theory context.  Type Sign.sg and
wenzelm@16456
  1190
Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal
wenzelm@16456
  1191
Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML).  Actual signature and theory
wenzelm@16456
  1192
content is managed as theory data.  The old code and interfaces were
wenzelm@16456
  1193
spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces
wenzelm@16456
  1194
considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:
wenzelm@16456
  1195
wenzelm@16456
  1196
  Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,
wenzelm@16456
  1197
    parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;
wenzelm@16456
  1198
wenzelm@16456
  1199
  Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,
wenzelm@16456
  1200
    types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;
wenzelm@16456
  1201
wenzelm@16456
  1202
  Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,
wenzelm@16456
  1203
    oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,
wenzelm@16456
  1204
    types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,
wenzelm@16456
  1205
    Theory.merge, etc.)
wenzelm@16456
  1206
wenzelm@16456
  1207
The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm
wenzelm@16456
  1208
etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained
wenzelm@16456
  1209
for convenience -- they merely return the theory.
wenzelm@16456
  1210
wenzelm@17193
  1211
* Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.
wenzelm@17193
  1212
wenzelm@16547
  1213
* Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure
wenzelm@16547
  1214
as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are
wenzelm@16547
  1215
aliases, where the latter is the preferred name).  This enables other
wenzelm@16547
  1216
Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.
wenzelm@16547
  1217
wenzelm@16373
  1218
* Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,
wenzelm@16373
  1219
typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for
wenzelm@16373
  1220
any of these kinds.  For example, Sign.intern typeK is now
wenzelm@16373
  1221
Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now
wenzelm@16373
  1222
Theory.hide_types.  Also note that former
wenzelm@16373
  1223
Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now
wenzelm@16373
  1224
Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions
wenzelm@16373
  1225
internalize their arguments!  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@16373
  1226
wenzelm@16506
  1227
* Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects
wenzelm@16506
  1228
datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of
wenzelm@16506
  1229
plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;
wenzelm@16506
  1230
wenzelm@16151
  1231
* Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE
wenzelm@16234
  1232
means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in
wenzelm@16234
  1233
(RAW_)METHOD_CASES.
wenzelm@16151
  1234
wenzelm@16373
  1235
* Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a
wenzelm@16373
  1236
theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:
wenzelm@16373
  1237
wenzelm@16373
  1238
  Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
wenzelm@16373
  1239
  Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
wenzelm@16373
  1240
  PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
wenzelm@16373
  1241
  PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
wenzelm@16373
  1242
wenzelm@16718
  1243
* Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.
wenzelm@16718
  1244
wenzelm@17408
  1245
* Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.
wenzelm@17408
  1246
Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing
wenzelm@17408
  1247
and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)
wenzelm@17408
  1248
controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space
wenzelm@17408
  1249
(both increase the runtime).
wenzelm@17408
  1250
wenzelm@17408
  1251
* Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,
wenzelm@17408
  1252
i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the
wenzelm@17408
  1253
elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.
wenzelm@17408
  1254
wenzelm@17408
  1255
* Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless
wenzelm@16997
  1256
representation, avoid allocating new strings).  Simprocs that invoke
wenzelm@16997
  1257
the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to
wenzelm@17720
  1258
avoid local name clashes.  Failure to do so produces warnings
wenzelm@17720
  1259
"Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds
wenzelm@17720
  1260
for further details.
wenzelm@16234
  1261
wenzelm@17166
  1262
* ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact
wenzelm@17166
  1263
bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help
wenzelm@17166
  1264
in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof
wenzelm@17166
  1265
scripts for the time being.
wenzelm@17166
  1266
wenzelm@17457
  1267
* ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for
wenzelm@17457
  1268
generated HTML files.  For example:
wenzelm@17457
  1269
wenzelm@17457
  1270
  HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";
wenzelm@17538
  1271
  HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";
wenzelm@17457
  1272
wenzelm@16234
  1273
wenzelm@16234
  1274
*** System ***
wenzelm@16234
  1275
wenzelm@16234
  1276
* Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,
wenzelm@16234
  1277
isabelle, isatool etc.).
wenzelm@16234
  1278
wenzelm@16234
  1279
* ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for
wenzelm@16234
  1280
isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).
wenzelm@16234
  1281
wenzelm@16234
  1282
* isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be
wenzelm@16234
  1283
used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.
wenzelm@16234
  1284
wenzelm@16251
  1285
* New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle
wenzelm@16251
  1286
distribution being used.
wenzelm@16251
  1287
wenzelm@16251
  1288
* HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format
wenzelm@16234
  1289
(containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL
wenzelm@16234
  1290
theories.
wenzelm@15703
  1291
wenzelm@15703
  1292
wenzelm@14655
  1293
wenzelm@14606
  1294
New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)
wenzelm@14606
  1295
--------------------------------
wenzelm@13280
  1296
skalberg@14171
  1297
*** General ***
skalberg@14171
  1298
ballarin@14398
  1299
* Provers/order.ML:  new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.
ballarin@14398
  1300
  Replaces linorder.ML.
ballarin@14398
  1301
wenzelm@14606
  1302
* Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic
wenzelm@14606
  1303
  (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler
skalberg@14173
  1304
  (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore
skalberg@14173
  1305
  be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until
skalberg@14173
  1306
  now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some
skalberg@14173
  1307
  terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say
skalberg@14173
  1308
  '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed
skalberg@14173
  1309
  as an identifier.  Fix it by inserting a space around former
skalberg@14173
  1310
  symbols.  Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in
skalberg@14173
  1311
  existing theory and ML files.
skalberg@14171
  1312
paulson@14237
  1313
* Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.
paulson@14237
  1314
wenzelm@14731
  1315
* Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now
wenzelm@14731
  1316
  allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered
wenzelm@14731
  1317
  a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat
wenzelm@14731
  1318
  \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.
kleing@14233
  1319
kleing@14333
  1320
* Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one
kleing@14333
  1321
  character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in
wenzelm@14606
  1322
  ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in
wenzelm@14606
  1323
  superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.
kleing@14333
  1324
schirmer@14561
  1325
* Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the
wenzelm@14606
  1326
  content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."
wenzelm@14606
  1327
  may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.
schirmer@14361
  1328
paulson@14237
  1329
* Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions
paulson@14237
  1330
  Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to
paulson@14237
  1331
  declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition
paulson@14237
  1332
  later.  It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically
skalberg@14224
  1333
  rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.
skalberg@14224
  1334
wenzelm@14606
  1335
* Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts
wenzelm@14606
  1336
  (i.e. intersections of classes),
skalberg@14503
  1337
kleing@14547
  1338
* Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout
wenzelm@14731
  1339
  (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.
kleing@14547
  1340
  It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.
kleing@14547
  1341
wenzelm@14556
  1342
ballarin@14175
  1343
*** Isar ***
ballarin@14175
  1344
ballarin@14508
  1345
* Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,
ballarin@14508
  1346
  cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:
ballarin@14175
  1347
  - Now understand static (Isar) contexts.  As a consequence, users of Isar
ballarin@14175
  1348
    locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.
ballarin@14175
  1349
    For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic
ballarin@14175
  1350
    emulations.
ballarin@14175
  1351
  - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no
ballarin@14211
  1352
    longer be enclosed in quotes.  Instead, precede variable name with `?'.
ballarin@14211
  1353
    This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".
ballarin@14211
  1354
ballarin@14257
  1355
* Attributes "where" and "of":
ballarin@14285
  1356
  - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading
ballarin@14285
  1357
    the instantiation string.  This fixes a bug that caused instantiated
ballarin@14285
  1358
    theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.
ballarin@14285
  1359
  - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.
ballarin@14257
  1360
wenzelm@14556
  1361
* Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with
wenzelm@14556
  1362
  current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"
wenzelm@14556
  1363
  and derived forms.
kleing@14283
  1364
ballarin@14211
  1365
* Locales:
ballarin@14211
  1366
  - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer
ballarin@14211
  1367
    generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on
ballarin@14211
  1368
    "_axioms") in the premise.
ballarin@14211
  1369
    Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.
ballarin@14211
  1370
  - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target
ballarin@14211
  1371
    specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.
ballarin@14254
  1372
  - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as
ballarin@14254
  1373
    [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.
ballarin@14508
  1374
  - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:
ballarin@14551
  1375
        instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>
ballarin@14508
  1376
    Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context
ballarin@14551
  1377
    taking into account their attributes.  Label and attrs are optional
ballarin@14551
  1378
    modifiers, like in theorem declarations.  If present, names of
ballarin@14551
  1379
    instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes
ballarin@14551
  1380
    <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.
ballarin@14551
  1381
      If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form
ballarin@14508
  1382
    "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters
ballarin@14551
  1383
    are derived.  The command does not support old-style locales declared
ballarin@14551
  1384
    with "locale (open)".
ballarin@14551
  1385
      A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.
ballarin@14175
  1386
ballarin@14175
  1387
* HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static
ballarin@14175
  1388
  (Isar) contexts.
ballarin@14175
  1389
wenzelm@14556
  1390
kleing@14136
  1391
*** HOL ***
kleing@14136
  1392
kleing@14624
  1393
* Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from
kleing@14624
  1394
  the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by
kleing@14624
  1395
  replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image
kleing@14624
  1396
  can be used like any other Isabelle image.  See
kleing@14624
  1397
  HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.
kleing@14624
  1398
ballarin@14398
  1399
* Simplifier:
ballarin@14398
  1400
  - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.
ballarin@14398
  1401
    Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes
ballarin@14398
  1402
    "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset
ballarin@14398
  1403
    as solvers.  This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains
ballarin@14398
  1404
    to solve goals from the assumptions.
ballarin@14398
  1405
  - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally.  Typically, applications
ballarin@14398
  1406
    of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal
ballarin@14398
  1407
    is solved by simplification already.
ballarin@14398
  1408
wenzelm@14731
  1409
* Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,
paulson@14389
  1410
    all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.
paulson@14389
  1411
paulson@14389
  1412
* Numerics:
paulson@14389
  1413
  - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are
wenzelm@14731
  1414
    now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.
paulson@14389
  1415
  - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently
paulson@14389
  1416
    than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.
wenzelm@14731
  1417
  - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.
paulson@14480
  1418
    Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern
paulson@14480
  1419
    exponentiation).
paulson@14389
  1420
paulson@14401
  1421
* Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.
paulson@14389
  1422
schirmer@14255
  1423
* Records:
schirmer@14255
  1424
  - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation
schirmer@14255
  1425
    instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via
schirmer@14255
  1426
    the reference "print_record_type_abbr".
wenzelm@14731
  1427
  - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added
schirmer@14255
  1428
    (not enabled by default).
schirmer@14427
  1429
  - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.
schirmer@14427
  1430
    EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).
schirmer@14255
  1431
  - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.
wenzelm@14731
  1432
kleing@14136
  1433
* 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by
skalberg@14224
  1434
  specification.  There is also an 'ax_specification' command that
skalberg@14224
  1435
  introduces the new constants axiomatically.
kleing@14136
  1436
nipkow@14375
  1437
* arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.
nipkow@14375
  1438
ballarin@14399
  1439
* HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.
ballarin@14399
  1440
paulson@14243
  1441
* HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function
kleing@14610
  1442
  definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.
kleing@14610
  1443
wenzelm@14731
  1444
* HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of
kleing@14610
  1445
  matrix theory to linear programming.
kleing@14136
  1446
nipkow@14380
  1447
* Unions and Intersections:
nipkow@15119
  1448
  The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed
nipkow@15119
  1449
  from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"
nipkow@15119
  1450
  i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.
nipkow@15119
  1451
  Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.
nipkow@14380
  1452
kleing@14418
  1453
* Unions and Intersections over Intervals:
wenzelm@14731
  1454
  There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is
wenzelm@14731
  1455
  also an x-symbol version with subscripts "\<Union>\<^bsub>i <= n\<^esub>. A"
kleing@14418
  1456
  like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.
kleing@14418
  1457
nipkow@15677
  1458
* HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard
nipkow@15677
  1459
  lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".
nipkow@15677
  1460
paulson@14401
  1461
* ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had
paulson@14401
  1462
  conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.
nipkow@14380
  1463
webertj@14464
  1464
* 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels.  Only works
webertj@14464
  1465
  for a fragment of HOL.  The installation of an external SAT solver is
webertj@14464
  1466
  highly recommended.  See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.
webertj@14464
  1467
berghofe@14602
  1468
* 'quickcheck' command: Allows to find counterexamples by evaluating
berghofe@14602
  1469
  formulae under an assignment of free variables to random values.
berghofe@14602
  1470
  In contrast to 'refute', it can deal with inductive datatypes,
berghofe@14602
  1471
  but cannot handle quantifiers. See "HOL/ex/Quickcheck_Examples.thy"
berghofe@14602
  1472
  for examples.
webertj@14464
  1473
wenzelm@14606
  1474
oheimb@14536
  1475
*** HOLCF ***
oheimb@14536
  1476
oheimb@14536
  1477
* Streams now come with concatenation and are part of the HOLCF image
oheimb@14536
  1478
wenzelm@14572
  1479
wenzelm@14572
  1480
kleing@14136
  1481
New in Isabelle2003 (May 2003)
wenzelm@14606
  1482
------------------------------
kleing@14136
  1483
wenzelm@13280
  1484
*** General ***
wenzelm@13280
  1485
berghofe@13618
  1486
* Provers/simplifier:
berghofe@13618
  1487
nipkow@13781
  1488
  - Completely reimplemented method simp (ML: Asm_full_simp_tac):
berghofe@13618
  1489
    Assumptions are now subject to complete mutual simplification,
berghofe@13618
  1490
    not just from left to right. The simplifier now preserves
berghofe@13618
  1491
    the order of assumptions.
berghofe@13618
  1492
berghofe@13618
  1493
    Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
berghofe@13618
  1494
nipkow@13781
  1495
    -- simp sometimes diverges where the old version did
nipkow@13781
  1496
       not, e.g. invoking simp on the goal
berghofe@13618
  1497
berghofe@13618
  1498
        [| P (f x); y = x; f x = f y |] ==> Q
berghofe@13618
  1499
nipkow@13781
  1500
       now gives rise to the infinite reduction sequence
nipkow@13781
  1501
nipkow@13781
  1502
        P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> P(f y) --(y = x)--> P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> ...
nipkow@13781
  1503
nipkow@13781
  1504
       Using "simp (asm_lr)" (ML: Asm_lr_simp_tac) instead often solves this
nipkow@13781
  1505
       kind of problem.
nipkow@13781
  1506
nipkow@13781
  1507
    -- Tactics combining classical reasoner and simplification (such as auto)
nipkow@13781
  1508
       are also affected by this change, because many of them rely on
nipkow@13781
  1509
       simp. They may sometimes diverge as well or yield a different numbers
nipkow@13781
  1510
       of subgoals. Try to use e.g. force, fastsimp, or safe instead of auto
nipkow@13781
  1511
       in case of problems. Sometimes subsequent calls to the classical
nipkow@13781
  1512
       reasoner will fail because a preceeding call to the simplifier too
nipkow@13781
  1513
       eagerly simplified the goal, e.g. deleted redundant premises.
berghofe@13618
  1514
berghofe@13618
  1515
  - The simplifier trace now shows the names of the applied rewrite rules
berghofe@13618
  1516
nipkow@13829
  1517
  - You can limit the number of recursive invocations of the simplifier
nipkow@13829
  1518
    during conditional rewriting (where the simplifie tries to solve the
nipkow@13829
  1519
    conditions before applying the rewrite rule):
nipkow@13829
  1520
    ML "simp_depth_limit := n"
nipkow@13829
  1521
    where n is an integer. Thus you can force termination where previously
nipkow@13829
  1522
    the simplifier would diverge.
nipkow@13829
  1523
ballarin@13835
  1524
  - Accepts free variables as head terms in congruence rules.  Useful in Isar.
nipkow@13829
  1525
ballarin@13938
  1526
  - No longer aborts on failed congruence proof.  Instead, the
ballarin@13938
  1527
    congruence is ignored.
ballarin@13938
  1528
berghofe@14008
  1529
* Pure: New generic framework for extracting programs from constructive
berghofe@14008
  1530
  proofs. See HOL/Extraction.thy for an example instantiation, as well
berghofe@14008
  1531
  as HOL/Extraction for some case studies.
berghofe@14008
  1532
nipkow@13868
  1533
* Pure: The main goal of the proof state is no longer shown by default, only
nipkow@13868
  1534
the subgoals. This behaviour is controlled by a new flag.
ballarin@13835
  1535
   PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Settings -> Show Main Goal
nipkow@13815
  1536
(ML: Proof.show_main_goal).
nipkow@13815
  1537
nipkow@13815
  1538
* Pure: You can find all matching introduction rules for subgoal 1, i.e. all
nipkow@13815
  1539
rules whose conclusion matches subgoal 1:
nipkow@13815
  1540
      PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Show me -> matching rules
nipkow@13815
  1541
The rules are ordered by how closely they match the subgoal.
nipkow@13815
  1542
In particular, rules that solve a subgoal outright are displayed first
nipkow@13815
  1543
(or rather last, the way they are printed).
nipkow@13815
  1544
(ML: ProofGeneral.print_intros())
nipkow@13815
  1545
nipkow@13815
  1546
* Pure: New flag trace_unify_fail causes unification to print
nipkow@13781
  1547
diagnostic information (PG: in trace buffer) when it fails. This is
nipkow@13781
  1548
useful for figuring out why single step proofs like rule, erule or
nipkow@13781
  1549
assumption failed.
nipkow@13781
  1550
nipkow@13815
  1551
* Pure: Locale specifications now produce predicate definitions
wenzelm@13410
  1552
according to the body of text (covering assumptions modulo local
wenzelm@13410
  1553
definitions); predicate "loc_axioms" covers newly introduced text,
wenzelm@13410
  1554
while "loc" is cumulative wrt. all included locale expressions; the
wenzelm@13410
  1555
latter view is presented only on export into the global theory
wenzelm@13410
  1556
context; potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use "(open)" option to fall back
wenzelm@13410
  1557
on the old view without predicates;
wenzelm@13410
  1558
wenzelm@13459
  1559
* Pure: predefined locales "var" and "struct" are useful for sharing
wenzelm@13459
  1560
parameters (as in CASL, for example); just specify something like
wenzelm@13459
  1561
``var x + var y + struct M'' as import;
wenzelm@13459
  1562
wenzelm@13463
  1563
* Pure: improved thms_containing: proper indexing of facts instead of
wenzelm@13463
  1564
raw theorems; check validity of results wrt. current name space;
wenzelm@13463
  1565
include local facts of proof configuration (also covers active
wenzelm@13541
  1566
locales), cover fixed variables in index; may use "_" in term
wenzelm@13541
  1567
specification; an optional limit for the number of printed facts may
wenzelm@13541
  1568
be given (the default is 40);
wenzelm@13541
  1569
wenzelm@13541
  1570
* Pure: disallow duplicate fact bindings within new-style theory files
wenzelm@13541
  1571
(batch-mode only);
wenzelm@13540
  1572
wenzelm@13463
  1573
* Provers: improved induct method: assumptions introduced by case
wenzelm@13463
  1574
"foo" are split into "foo.hyps" (from the rule) and "foo.prems" (from
wenzelm@13463
  1575
the goal statement); "foo" still refers to all facts collectively;
wenzelm@13463
  1576
paulson@13550
  1577
* Provers: the function blast.overloaded has been removed: all constants
paulson@13550
  1578
are regarded as potentially overloaded, which improves robustness in exchange
paulson@13550
  1579
for slight decrease in efficiency;
paulson@13550
  1580
nipkow@13781
  1581
* Provers/linorder: New generic prover for transitivity reasoning over
nipkow@13781
  1582
linear orders.  Note: this prover is not efficient!
nipkow@13781
  1583
wenzelm@13522
  1584
* Isar: preview of problems to finish 'show' now produce an error
wenzelm@13522
  1585
rather than just a warning (in interactive mode);
wenzelm@13522
  1586
wenzelm@13280
  1587
nipkow@13158
  1588
*** HOL ***
nipkow@13158
  1589
nipkow@13899
  1590
* arith(_tac)
nipkow@13899
  1591
nipkow@13899
  1592
 - Produces a counter example if it cannot prove a goal.
nipkow@13899
  1593
   Note that the counter example may be spurious if the goal is not a formula
nipkow@13899
  1594
   of quantifier-free linear arithmetic.
nipkow@13899
  1595
   In ProofGeneral the counter example appears in the trace buffer.
nipkow@13899
  1596
nipkow@13899
  1597
 - Knows about div k and mod k where k is a numeral of type nat or int.
nipkow@13899
  1598
nipkow@13899
  1599
 - Calls full Presburger arithmetic (by Amine Chaieb) if quantifier-free
nipkow@13899
  1600
   linear arithmetic fails. This takes account of quantifiers and divisibility.
wenzelm@14731
  1601
   Presburger arithmetic can also be called explicitly via presburger(_tac).
nipkow@13899
  1602
nipkow@13899
  1603
* simp's arithmetic capabilities have been enhanced a bit: it now
nipkow@13899
  1604
takes ~= in premises into account (by performing a case split);
nipkow@13899
  1605
nipkow@13899
  1606
* simp reduces "m*(n div m) + n mod m" to n, even if the two summands
nipkow@13899
  1607
are distributed over a sum of terms;
nipkow@13899
  1608
ballarin@13735
  1609
* New tactic "trans_tac" and method "trans" instantiate
ballarin@13735
  1610
Provers/linorder.ML for axclasses "order" and "linorder" (predicates
wenzelm@14731
  1611
"<=", "<" and "=").
wenzelm@14731
  1612
wenzelm@14731
  1613
* function INCOMPATIBILITIES: Pi-sets have been redefined and moved from main
paulson@13587
  1614
HOL to Library/FuncSet; constant "Fun.op o" is now called "Fun.comp";
paulson@13587
  1615
wenzelm@13443
  1616
* 'typedef' command has new option "open" to suppress the set
wenzelm@13443
  1617
definition;
wenzelm@13443
  1618
wenzelm@13522
  1619
* functions Min and Max on finite sets have been introduced (theory
wenzelm@13522
  1620
Finite_Set);
nipkow@13492
  1621
wenzelm@13443
  1622
* attribute [symmetric] now works for relations as well; it turns
wenzelm@13443
  1623
(x,y) : R^-1 into (y,x) : R, and vice versa;
wenzelm@13443
  1624
nipkow@13613
  1625
* induct over a !!-quantified statement (say !!x1..xn):
nipkow@13613
  1626
  each "case" automatically performs "fix x1 .. xn" with exactly those names.
nipkow@13613
  1627
nipkow@13899
  1628
* Map: `empty' is no longer a constant but a syntactic abbreviation for
nipkow@13899
  1629
%x. None. Warning: empty_def now refers to the previously hidden definition
nipkow@13899
  1630
of the empty set.
nipkow@13899
  1631
ballarin@14018
  1632
* Algebra: formalization of classical algebra.  Intended as base for
ballarin@14018
  1633
any algebraic development in Isabelle.  Currently covers group theory
ballarin@14018
  1634
(up to Sylow's theorem) and ring theory (Universal Property of
ballarin@14018
  1635
Univariate Polynomials).  Contributions welcome;
paulson@13960
  1636
paulson@13960
  1637
* GroupTheory: deleted, since its material has been moved to Algebra;
paulson@13960
  1638
wenzelm@14731
  1639
* Complex: new directory of the complex numbers with numeric constants,
wenzelm@14731
  1640
nonstandard complex numbers, and some complex analysis, standard and
paulson@13966
  1641
nonstandard (Jacques Fleuriot);
paulson@13966
  1642
paulson@13966
  1643
* HOL-Complex: new image for analysis, replacing HOL-Real and HOL-Hyperreal;
paulson@13966
  1644
wenzelm@14731
  1645
* Hyperreal: introduced Gauge integration and hyperreal logarithms (Jacques
paulson@13966
  1646
Fleuriot);
paulson@13960
  1647
wenzelm@13549
  1648
* Real/HahnBanach: updated and adapted to locales;
wenzelm@13549
  1649
ballarin@13995
  1650
* NumberTheory: added Gauss's law of quadratic reciprocity (by Avigad,
ballarin@13995
  1651
Gray and Kramer);
paulson@13872
  1652
paulson@13872
  1653
* UNITY: added the Meier-Sanders theory of progress sets;
paulson@13872
  1654
kleing@14011
  1655
* MicroJava: bytecode verifier and lightweight bytecode verifier
kleing@14011
  1656
as abstract algorithms, instantiated to the JVM;
kleing@14011
  1657
schirmer@14010
  1658
* Bali: Java source language formalization. Type system, operational
schirmer@14010
  1659
semantics, axiomatic semantics. Supported language features:
schirmer@14010
  1660
classes, interfaces, objects,virtual methods, static methods,
schirmer@14010
  1661
static/instance fields, arrays, access modifiers, definite
schirmer@14010
  1662
assignment, exceptions.
wenzelm@13549
  1663
kleing@14011
  1664
wenzelm@13549
  1665
*** ZF ***
wenzelm@13549
  1666
webertj@15154
  1667
* ZF/Constructible: consistency proof for AC (Gdel's constructible
wenzelm@13549
  1668
universe, etc.);
wenzelm@13549
  1669
paulson@13872
  1670
* Main ZF: virtually all theories converted to new-style format;
nipkow@13518
  1671
wenzelm@13280
  1672
wenzelm@13478
  1673
*** ML ***
wenzelm@13478
  1674
wenzelm@13478
  1675
* Pure: Tactic.prove provides sane interface for internal proofs;
wenzelm@13478
  1676
omits the infamous "standard" operation, so this is more appropriate
wenzelm@13478
  1677
than prove_goalw_cterm in many situations (e.g. in simprocs);
wenzelm@13478
  1678
wenzelm@13478
  1679
* Pure: improved error reporting of simprocs;
wenzelm@13478
  1680
wenzelm@13478
  1681
* Provers: Simplifier.simproc(_i) provides sane interface for setting
wenzelm@13478
  1682
up simprocs;
wenzelm@13478
  1683
wenzelm@13478
  1684
kleing@13953
  1685
*** Document preparation ***
kleing@13953
  1686
kleing@13953
  1687
* uses \par instead of \\ for line breaks in theory text. This may
kleing@13953
  1688
shift some page breaks in large documents. To get the old behaviour
kleing@13953
  1689
use \renewcommand{\isanewline}{\mbox{}\\\mbox{}} in root.tex.
kleing@13953
  1690
wenzelm@14731
  1691
* minimized dependencies of isabelle.sty and isabellesym.sty on
kleing@13953
  1692
other packages
kleing@13953
  1693
kleing@13953
  1694
* \<euro> now needs package babel/greek instead of marvosym (which
kleing@13953
  1695
broke \Rightarrow)
kleing@13953
  1696
wenzelm@14731
  1697
* normal size for \<zero>...\<nine> (uses \mathbf instead of
kleing@13954
  1698
textcomp package)
kleing@13953
  1699
wenzelm@13280
  1700
wenzelm@14572
  1701
wenzelm@12984
  1702
New in Isabelle2002 (March 2002)
wenzelm@12984
  1703
--------------------------------
wenzelm@11474
  1704
wenzelm@11572
  1705
*** Document preparation ***
wenzelm@11572
  1706
wenzelm@11842
  1707
* greatly simplified document preparation setup, including more
wenzelm@11842
  1708
graceful interpretation of isatool usedir -i/-d/-D options, and more
wenzelm@11842
  1709
instructive isatool mkdir; users should basically be able to get
wenzelm@12899
  1710
started with "isatool mkdir HOL Test && isatool make"; alternatively,
wenzelm@12899
  1711
users may run a separate document processing stage manually like this:
wenzelm@12899
  1712
"isatool usedir -D output HOL Test && isatool document Test/output";
wenzelm@11842
  1713
wenzelm@11842
  1714
* theory dependency graph may now be incorporated into documents;
wenzelm@11842
  1715
isatool usedir -g true will produce session_graph.eps/.pdf for use
wenzelm@11842
  1716
with \includegraphics of LaTeX;
wenzelm@11842
  1717
wenzelm@11864
  1718
* proper spacing of consecutive markup elements, especially text
wenzelm@11864
  1719
blocks after section headings;
wenzelm@11864
  1720
wenzelm@11572
  1721
* support bold style (for single symbols only), input syntax is like
wenzelm@11572
  1722
this: "\<^bold>\<alpha>" or "\<^bold>A";
wenzelm@11572
  1723
wenzelm@11814
  1724
* \<bullet> is now output as bold \cdot by default, which looks much
wenzelm@11572
  1725
better in printed text;
wenzelm@11572
  1726
wenzelm@11712
  1727
* added default LaTeX bindings for \<tturnstile> and \<TTurnstile>;
wenzelm@11712
  1728
note that these symbols are currently unavailable in Proof General /
wenzelm@12769
  1729
X-Symbol; new symbols \<zero>, \<one>, ..., \<nine>, and \<euro>;
wenzelm@12690
  1730
wenzelm@12690
  1731
* isatool latex no longer depends on changed TEXINPUTS, instead
wenzelm@12690
  1732
isatool document copies the Isabelle style files to the target
wenzelm@12690
  1733
location;
wenzelm@11712
  1734
wenzelm@11572
  1735
wenzelm@11633
  1736
*** Isar ***
wenzelm@11633
  1737
wenzelm@12312
  1738
* Pure/Provers: improved proof by cases and induction;
wenzelm@12280
  1739
  - 'case' command admits impromptu naming of parameters (such as
wenzelm@12280
  1740
    "case (Suc n)");
wenzelm@12280
  1741
  - 'induct' method divinates rule instantiation from the inductive
wenzelm@12280
  1742
    claim; no longer requires excessive ?P bindings for proper
wenzelm@12280
  1743
    instantiation of cases;
wenzelm@12280
  1744
  - 'induct' method properly enumerates all possibilities of set/type
wenzelm@12280
  1745
    rules; as a consequence facts may be also passed through *type*
wenzelm@12280
  1746
    rules without further ado;
wenzelm@12280
  1747
  - 'induct' method now derives symbolic cases from the *rulified*
wenzelm@12280
  1748
    rule (before it used to rulify cases stemming from the internal
wenzelm@12280
  1749
    atomized version); this means that the context of a non-atomic
wenzelm@12280
  1750
    statement becomes is included in the hypothesis, avoiding the
wenzelm@12280
  1751
    slightly cumbersome show "PROP ?case" form;
wenzelm@12280
  1752
  - 'induct' may now use elim-style induction rules without chaining
wenzelm@12280
  1753
    facts, using ``missing'' premises from the goal state; this allows
wenzelm@12280
  1754
    rules stemming from inductive sets to be applied in unstructured
wenzelm@12280
  1755
    scripts, while still benefitting from proper handling of non-atomic
wenzelm@12280
  1756
    statements; NB: major inductive premises need to be put first, all
wenzelm@12280
  1757
    the rest of the goal is passed through the induction;
wenzelm@12280
  1758
  - 'induct' proper support for mutual induction involving non-atomic
wenzelm@12280
  1759
    rule statements (uses the new concept of simultaneous goals, see
wenzelm@12280
  1760
    below);
wenzelm@12853
  1761
  - append all possible rule selections, but only use the first
wenzelm@12853
  1762
    success (no backtracking);
wenzelm@11995
  1763
  - removed obsolete "(simplified)" and "(stripped)" options of methods;
wenzelm@12754
  1764
  - undeclared rule case names default to numbers 1, 2, 3, ...;
wenzelm@12754
  1765
  - added 'print_induct_rules' (covered by help item in recent Proof
wenzelm@12754
  1766
    General versions);
wenzelm@11995
  1767
  - moved induct/cases attributes to Pure, methods to Provers;
wenzelm@11995
  1768
  - generic method setup instantiated for FOL and HOL;
wenzelm@11986
  1769
wenzelm@12163
  1770
* Pure: support multiple simultaneous goal statements, for example
wenzelm@12163
  1771
"have a: A and b: B" (same for 'theorem' etc.); being a pure
wenzelm@12163
  1772
meta-level mechanism, this acts as if several individual goals had
wenzelm@12163
  1773
been stated separately; in particular common proof methods need to be
wenzelm@12163
  1774
repeated in order to cover all claims; note that a single elimination
wenzelm@12163
  1775
step is *not* sufficient to establish the two conjunctions, so this
wenzelm@12163
  1776
fails:
wenzelm@12163
  1777
wenzelm@12163
  1778
  assume "A & B" then have A and B ..   (*".." fails*)
wenzelm@12163
  1779
wenzelm@12163
  1780
better use "obtain" in situations as above; alternative refer to
wenzelm@12163
  1781
multi-step methods like 'auto', 'simp_all', 'blast+' etc.;
wenzelm@12163
  1782
wenzelm@12078
  1783
* Pure: proper integration with ``locales''; unlike the original
webertj@15154
  1784
version by Florian Kammller, Isar locales package high-level proof
wenzelm@12078
  1785
contexts rather than raw logical ones (e.g. we admit to include
wenzelm@12280
  1786
attributes everywhere); operations on locales include merge and
wenzelm@12964
  1787
rename; support for implicit arguments (``structures''); simultaneous
wenzelm@12964
  1788
type-inference over imports and text; see also HOL/ex/Locales.thy for
wenzelm@12964
  1789
some examples;
wenzelm@12078
  1790
wenzelm@12707
  1791
* Pure: the following commands have been ``localized'', supporting a
wenzelm@12707
  1792
target locale specification "(in name)": 'lemma', 'theorem',
wenzelm@12707
  1793
'corollary', 'lemmas', 'theorems', 'declare'; the results will be
wenzelm@12707
  1794
stored both within the locale and at the theory level (exported and
wenzelm@12707
  1795
qualified by the locale name);
wenzelm@12707
  1796
wenzelm@12964
  1797
* Pure: theory goals may now be specified in ``long'' form, with
wenzelm@12964
  1798
ad-hoc contexts consisting of arbitrary locale elements. for example
wenzelm@12964
  1799
``lemma foo: fixes x assumes "A x" shows "B x"'' (local syntax and
wenzelm@12964
  1800
definitions may be given, too); the result is a meta-level rule with
wenzelm@12964
  1801
the context elements being discharged in the obvious way;
wenzelm@12964
  1802
wenzelm@12964
  1803
* Pure: new proof command 'using' allows to augment currently used
wenzelm@12964
  1804
facts after a goal statement ('using' is syntactically analogous to
wenzelm@12964
  1805
'apply', but acts on the goal's facts only); this allows chained facts
wenzelm@12964
  1806
to be separated into parts given before and after a claim, as in
wenzelm@12964
  1807
``from a and b have C using d and e <proof>'';
wenzelm@12078
  1808
wenzelm@11722
  1809
* Pure: renamed "antecedent" case to "rule_context";
wenzelm@11722
  1810
wenzelm@12964
  1811
* Pure: new 'judgment' command records explicit information about the
wenzelm@12964
  1812
object-logic embedding (used by several tools internally); no longer
wenzelm@12964
  1813
use hard-wired "Trueprop";
wenzelm@12964
  1814
wenzelm@11738
  1815
* Pure: added 'corollary' command;
wenzelm@11738
  1816
wenzelm@11722
  1817
* Pure: fixed 'token_translation' command;
wenzelm@11722
  1818
wenzelm@11899
  1819
* Pure: removed obsolete 'exported' attribute;
wenzelm@11899
  1820
wenzelm@11933
  1821
* Pure: dummy pattern "_" in is/let is now automatically lifted over
wenzelm@11933
  1822
bound variables: "ALL x. P x --> Q x" (is "ALL x. _ --> ?C x")
wenzelm@11899
  1823
supersedes more cumbersome ... (is "ALL x. _ x --> ?C x");
wenzelm@11899
  1824
wenzelm@11952
  1825
* Pure: method 'atomize' presents local goal premises as object-level
wenzelm@11952
  1826
statements (atomic meta-level propositions); setup controlled via
wenzelm@11952
  1827
rewrite rules declarations of 'atomize' attribute; example
wenzelm@11952
  1828
application: 'induct' method with proper rule statements in improper
wenzelm@11952
  1829
proof *scripts*;
wenzelm@11952
  1830
wenzelm@12106
  1831
* Pure: emulation of instantiation tactics (rule_tac, cut_tac, etc.)
wenzelm@12106
  1832
now consider the syntactic context of assumptions, giving a better
wenzelm@12106
  1833
chance to get type-inference of the arguments right (this is
wenzelm@12106
  1834
especially important for locales);
wenzelm@12106
  1835
wenzelm@12312
  1836
* Pure: "sorry" no longer requires quick_and_dirty in interactive
wenzelm@12312
  1837
mode;
wenzelm@12312
  1838
wenzelm@12405
  1839
* Pure/obtain: the formal conclusion "thesis", being marked as
wenzelm@12405
  1840
``internal'', may no longer be reference directly in the text;
wenzelm@12405
  1841
potential INCOMPATIBILITY, may need to use "?thesis" in rare
wenzelm@12405
  1842
situations;
wenzelm@12405
  1843
wenzelm@12405
  1844
* Pure: generic 'sym' attribute which declares a rule both as pure
wenzelm@12405
  1845
'elim?' and for the 'symmetric' operation;
wenzelm@12405
  1846
wenzelm@12877
  1847
* Pure: marginal comments ``--'' may now occur just anywhere in the
wenzelm@12877
  1848
text; the fixed correlation with particular command syntax has been
wenzelm@12877
  1849
discontinued;
wenzelm@12877
  1850
berghofe@13023
  1851
* Pure: new method 'rules' is particularly well-suited for proof
berghofe@13023
  1852
search in intuitionistic logic; a bit slower than 'blast' or 'fast',
berghofe@13023
  1853
but often produces more compact proof terms with less detours;
berghofe@13023
  1854
wenzelm@12364
  1855
* Pure/Provers/classical: simplified integration with pure rule
wenzelm@12364
  1856
attributes and methods; the classical "intro?/elim?/dest?"
wenzelm@12364
  1857
declarations coincide with the pure ones; the "rule" method no longer
wenzelm@12364
  1858
includes classically swapped intros; "intro" and "elim" methods no
wenzelm@12364
  1859
longer pick rules from the context; also got rid of ML declarations
wenzelm@12364
  1860
AddXIs/AddXEs/AddXDs; all of this has some potential for
wenzelm@12364
  1861
INCOMPATIBILITY;
wenzelm@12364
  1862
wenzelm@12405
  1863
* Provers/classical: attribute 'swapped' produces classical inversions
wenzelm@12405
  1864
of introduction rules;
wenzelm@12405
  1865
wenzelm@12364
  1866
* Provers/simplifier: 'simplified' attribute may refer to explicit
wenzelm@12364
  1867
rules instead of full simplifier context; 'iff' attribute handles
wenzelm@12364
  1868
conditional rules;
wenzelm@11936
  1869
wenzelm@11745
  1870
* HOL: 'typedef' now allows alternative names for Rep/Abs morphisms;
wenzelm@11745
  1871
wenzelm@11690
  1872
* HOL: 'recdef' now fails on unfinished automated proofs, use
wenzelm@11633
  1873
"(permissive)" option to recover old behavior;
wenzelm@11633
  1874
wenzelm@11933
  1875
* HOL: 'inductive' no longer features separate (collective) attributes
wenzelm@11933
  1876
for 'intros' (was found too confusing);
wenzelm@11933
  1877
wenzelm@12405
  1878
* HOL: properly declared induction rules less_induct and
wenzelm@12405
  1879
wf_induct_rule;
wenzelm@12405
  1880
kleing@11788
  1881
wenzelm@11474
  1882
*** HOL ***
wenzelm@11474
  1883
wenzelm@11702
  1884
* HOL: moved over to sane numeral syntax; the new policy is as
wenzelm@11702
  1885
follows:
wenzelm@11702
  1886
wenzelm@11702
  1887
  - 0 and 1 are polymorphic constants, which are defined on any
wenzelm@11702
  1888
  numeric type (nat, int, real etc.);
wenzelm@11702
  1889
wenzelm@11702
  1890
  - 2, 3, 4, ... and -1, -2, -3, ... are polymorphic numerals, based
wenzelm@11702
  1891
  binary representation internally;
wenzelm@11702
  1892
wenzelm@11702
  1893
  - type nat has special constructor Suc, and generally prefers Suc 0
wenzelm@11702
  1894
  over 1::nat and Suc (Suc 0) over 2::nat;
wenzelm@11702
  1895
wenzelm@12364
  1896
This change may cause significant problems of INCOMPATIBILITY; here
wenzelm@12364
  1897
are some hints on converting existing sources:
wenzelm@11702
  1898
wenzelm@11702
  1899
  - due to the new "num" token, "-0" and "-1" etc. are now atomic
wenzelm@11702
  1900
  entities, so expressions involving "-" (unary or binary minus) need
wenzelm@11702
  1901
  to be spaced properly;
wenzelm@11702
  1902
wenzelm@11702
  1903
  - existing occurrences of "1" may need to be constraint "1::nat" or
wenzelm@11702
  1904
  even replaced by Suc 0; similar for old "2";
wenzelm@11702
  1905
wenzelm@11702
  1906
  - replace "#nnn" by "nnn", and "#-nnn" by "-nnn";
wenzelm@11702
  1907
wenzelm@11702
  1908
  - remove all special provisions on numerals in proofs;
wenzelm@11702
  1909
wenzelm@13042
  1910
* HOL: simp rules nat_number expand numerals on nat to Suc/0
wenzelm@12837
  1911
representation (depends on bin_arith_simps in the default context);
wenzelm@12837
  1912
wenzelm@12736
  1913
* HOL: symbolic syntax for x^2 (numeral 2);
wenzelm@12736
  1914
wenzelm@12335
  1915
* HOL: the class of all HOL types is now called "type" rather than
wenzelm@12335
  1916
"term"; INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt references to this type class
wenzelm@12335
  1917
in axclass/classes, instance/arities, and (usually rare) occurrences
wenzelm@12335
  1918
in typings (of consts etc.); internally the class is called
wenzelm@12335
  1919
"HOL.type", ML programs should refer to HOLogic.typeS;
wenzelm@12335
  1920
wenzelm@12280
  1921
* HOL/record package improvements:
wenzelm@12280
  1922
  - new derived operations "fields" to build a partial record section,
wenzelm@12280
  1923
    "extend" to promote a fixed record to a record scheme, and
wenzelm@12280
  1924
    "truncate" for the reverse; cf. theorems "xxx.defs", which are *not*
wenzelm@12280
  1925
    declared as simp by default;
wenzelm@12587
  1926
  - shared operations ("more", "fields", etc.) now need to be always
wenzelm@12587
  1927
    qualified) --- potential INCOMPATIBILITY;
wenzelm@12280
  1928
  - removed "make_scheme" operations (use "make" with "extend") --
wenzelm@12280
  1929
    INCOMPATIBILITY;
wenzelm@11937
  1930
  - removed "more" class (simply use "term") -- INCOMPATIBILITY;
wenzelm@12253
  1931
  - provides cases/induct rules for use with corresponding Isar
wenzelm@12253
  1932
    methods (for concrete records, record schemes, concrete more
wenzelm@12280
  1933
    parts, and schematic more parts -- in that order);
wenzelm@11930
  1934
  - internal definitions directly based on a light-weight abstract
wenzelm@11930
  1935
    theory of product types over typedef rather than datatype;
wenzelm@11930
  1936
berghofe@13023
  1937
* HOL: generic code generator for generating executable ML code from
berghofe@13023
  1938
specifications; specific support for HOL constructs such as inductive
berghofe@13023
  1939
datatypes and sets, as well as recursive functions; can be invoked
berghofe@13023
  1940
via 'generate_code' theory section;
berghofe@13023
  1941
wenzelm@11933
  1942
* HOL: canonical cases/induct rules for n-tuples (n = 3..7);
wenzelm@11933
  1943
paulson@13824
  1944
* HOL: consolidated and renamed several theories.  In particular:
wenzelm@14731
  1945
        Ord.thy has been absorbed into HOL.thy
wenzelm@14731
  1946
        String.thy has been absorbed into List.thy
wenzelm@14731
  1947
wenzelm@11802
  1948
* HOL: concrete setsum syntax "\<Sum>i:A. b" == "setsum (%i. b) A"
wenzelm@11802
  1949
(beware of argument permutation!);
wenzelm@11802
  1950
wenzelm@11657
  1951
* HOL: linorder_less_split superseded by linorder_cases;
wenzelm@11657
  1952
wenzelm@12917
  1953
* HOL/List: "nodups" renamed to "distinct";
nipkow@12889
  1954
wenzelm@11633
  1955
* HOL: added "The" definite description operator; move Hilbert's "Eps"
paulson@13824
  1956
to peripheral theory "Hilbert_Choice"; some INCOMPATIBILITIES:
paulson@13824
  1957
  - Ex_def has changed, now need to use some_eq_ex
wenzelm@11437
  1958
wenzelm@11572
  1959
* HOL: made split_all_tac safe; EXISTING PROOFS MAY FAIL OR LOOP, so
wenzelm@11572
  1960
in this (rare) case use:
wenzelm@11572
  1961
wenzelm@11572
  1962
  delSWrapper "split_all_tac"
wenzelm@11572
  1963
  addSbefore ("unsafe_split_all_tac", unsafe_split_all_tac)
wenzelm@11572
  1964
wenzelm@11572
  1965
* HOL: added safe wrapper "split_conv_tac" to claset; EXISTING PROOFS
wenzelm@11474
  1966
MAY FAIL;
nipkow@11361
  1967
wenzelm@11572
  1968
* HOL: introduced f^n = f o ... o f; warning: due to the limits of
wenzelm@11572
  1969
Isabelle's type classes, ^ on functions and relations has too general
wenzelm@11572
  1970
a domain, namely ('a * 'b) set and 'a => 'b; this means that it may be
wenzelm@11572
  1971
necessary to attach explicit type constraints;
nipkow@11307
  1972
wenzelm@12917
  1973
* HOL/Relation: the prefix name of the infix "O" has been changed from
wenzelm@12917
  1974
"comp" to "rel_comp"; INCOMPATIBILITY: a few theorems have been
wenzelm@12917
  1975
renamed accordingly (eg "compI" -> "rel_compI").
nipkow@12489
  1976
wenzelm@11487
  1977
* HOL: syntax translations now work properly with numerals and records
wenzelm@11487
  1978
expressions;
wenzelm@11474
  1979
wenzelm@12457
  1980
* HOL: bounded abstraction now uses syntax "%" / "\<lambda>" instead
wenzelm@12457
  1981
of "lam" -- INCOMPATIBILITY;
wenzelm@11474
  1982
wenzelm@11933
  1983
* HOL: got rid of some global declarations (potential INCOMPATIBILITY
wenzelm@11933
  1984
for ML tools): const "()" renamed "Product_Type.Unity", type "unit"
wenzelm@11933
  1985
renamed "Product_Type.unit";
wenzelm@11611
  1986
nipkow@12564
  1987
* HOL: renamed rtrancl_into_rtrancl2 to converse_rtrancl_into_rtrancl
nipkow@12564
  1988
wenzelm@12924
  1989
* HOL: removed obsolete theorem "optionE" (use "option.exhaust", or
wenzelm@12924
  1990
the "cases" method);
wenzelm@12924
  1991
wenzelm@12597
  1992
* HOL/GroupTheory: group theory examples including Sylow's theorem (by
webertj@15154
  1993
Florian Kammller);
wenzelm@12597
  1994
wenzelm@12608
  1995
* HOL/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory format; several
wenzelm@12608
  1996
parts turned into readable document, with proper Isar proof texts and
wenzelm@12608
  1997
some explanations (by Gerwin Klein);
wenzelm@12597
  1998
wenzelm@12734
  1999
* HOL-Real: added Complex_Numbers (by Gertrud Bauer);
wenzelm@12734
  2000
wenzelm@12690
  2001
* HOL-Hyperreal is now a logic image;
wenzelm@12690
  2002
wenzelm@11611
  2003
wenzelm@12022
  2004
*** HOLCF ***
wenzelm@12022
  2005
wenzelm@12622
  2006
* Isar: consts/constdefs supports mixfix syntax for continuous
wenzelm@12622
  2007
operations;
wenzelm@12622
  2008
wenzelm@12622
  2009
* Isar: domain package adapted to new-style theory format, e.g. see
wenzelm@12622
  2010
HOLCF/ex/Dnat.thy;
wenzelm@12622
  2011
wenzelm@12622
  2012
* theory Lift: proper use of rep_datatype lift instead of ML hacks --
wenzelm@12280
  2013
potential INCOMPATIBILITY; now use plain induct_tac instead of former
wenzelm@12280
  2014
lift.induct_tac, always use UU instead of Undef;
wenzelm@12022
  2015
wenzelm@12597
  2016
* HOLCF/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory;
wenzelm@12597
  2017
wenzelm@12022
  2018
wenzelm@11474
  2019
*** ZF ***
wenzelm@11474
  2020
wenzelm@12622
  2021
* Isar: proper integration of logic-specific tools and packages,
wenzelm@12622
  2022
including theory commands '(co)inductive', '(co)datatype',
wenzelm@12622
  2023
'rep_datatype', 'inductive_cases', as well as methods 'ind_cases',
wenzelm@12622
  2024
'induct_tac', 'case_tac', and 'typecheck' (with attribute 'TC');
wenzelm@12622
  2025
wenzelm@12622
  2026
* theory Main no longer includes AC; for the Axiom of Choice, base
wenzelm@12622
  2027
your theory on Main_ZFC;
wenzelm@12622
  2028
wenzelm@12622
  2029
* the integer library now covers quotients and remainders, with many
wenzelm@12622
  2030
laws relating division to addition, multiplication, etc.;
paulson@12563
  2031
wenzelm@12280
  2032
* ZF/UNITY: Chandy and Misra's UNITY is now available in ZF, giving a
wenzelm@12280
  2033
typeless version of the formalism;
wenzelm@12280
  2034
wenzelm@13025
  2035
* ZF/AC, Coind, IMP, Resid: updated and converted to new-style theory
wenzelm@13025
  2036
format;
wenzelm@12608
  2037
wenzelm@12280
  2038
* ZF/Induct: new directory for examples of inductive definitions,
wenzelm@12608
  2039
including theory Multiset for multiset orderings; converted to
wenzelm@12608
  2040
new-style theory format;
wenzelm@12177
  2041
wenzelm@13025
  2042
* ZF: many new theorems about lists, ordinals, etc.;
paulson@12850
  2043
wenzelm@11474
  2044
wenzelm@11474
  2045
*** General ***
wenzelm@11474
  2046
wenzelm@12280
  2047
* Pure/kernel: meta-level proof terms (by Stefan Berghofer); reference
wenzelm@12280
  2048
variable proof controls level of detail: 0 = no proofs (only oracle
wenzelm@12280
  2049
dependencies), 1 = lemma dependencies, 2 = compact proof terms; see
wenzelm@12280
  2050
also ref manual for further ML interfaces;
wenzelm@12280
  2051
wenzelm@12280
  2052
* Pure/axclass: removed obsolete ML interface
wenzelm@12280
  2053
goal_subclass/goal_arity;
wenzelm@12280
  2054
wenzelm@12280
  2055
* Pure/syntax: new token syntax "num" for plain numerals (without "#"
wenzelm@12280
  2056
of "xnum"); potential INCOMPATIBILITY, since -0, -1 etc. are now
wenzelm@12280
  2057
separate tokens, so expressions involving minus need to be spaced
wenzelm@12280
  2058
properly;
wenzelm@12280
  2059
wenzelm@12312
  2060
* Pure/syntax: support non-oriented infixes, using keyword "infix"
wenzelm@12312
  2061
rather than "infixl" or "infixr";
wenzelm@12312
  2062
wenzelm@12312
  2063
* Pure/syntax: concrete syntax for dummy type variables admits genuine
wenzelm@12312
  2064
sort constraint specifications in type inference; e.g. "x::_::foo"
wenzelm@12312
  2065
ensures that the type of "x" is of sort "foo" (but not necessarily a
wenzelm@12312
  2066
type variable);
wenzelm@12280
  2067
wenzelm@12280
  2068
* Pure/syntax: print modes "type_brackets" and "no_type_brackets"
wenzelm@12280
  2069
control output of nested => (types); the default behavior is
wenzelm@12280
  2070
"type_brackets";
wenzelm@12280
  2071
wenzelm@12280
  2072
* Pure/syntax: builtin parse translation for "_constify" turns valued
wenzelm@11817
  2073
tokens into AST constants;
wenzelm@11474
  2074
wenzelm@12280
  2075
* Pure/syntax: prefer later declarations of translations and print
wenzelm@12280
  2076
translation functions; potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to reverse
wenzelm@12280
  2077
multiple declarations for same syntax element constant;
wenzelm@12280
  2078
wenzelm@12832
  2079
* Pure/show_hyps reset by default (in accordance to existing Isar
wenzelm@12832
  2080
practice);
wenzelm@12832
  2081
wenzelm@12280
  2082
* Provers/classical: renamed addaltern to addafter, addSaltern to
wenzelm@12280
  2083
addSafter;
wenzelm@12280
  2084
wenzelm@12280
  2085
* Provers/clasimp: ``iff'' declarations now handle conditional rules
wenzelm@12280
  2086
as well;
wenzelm@12253
  2087
wenzelm@12538
  2088
* system: tested support for MacOS X; should be able to get Isabelle +
wenzelm@12538
  2089
Proof General to work in a plain Terminal after installing Poly/ML
wenzelm@12538
  2090
(e.g. from the Isabelle distribution area) and GNU bash alone
wenzelm@12538
  2091
(e.g. from http://www.apple.com); full X11, XEmacs and X-Symbol
wenzelm@12538
  2092
support requires further installations, e.g. from
wenzelm@12538
  2093
http://fink.sourceforge.net/);
wenzelm@12538
  2094
wenzelm@12280
  2095
* system: support Poly/ML 4.1.1 (able to manage larger heaps);
wenzelm@11551
  2096
wenzelm@12753
  2097
* system: reduced base memory usage by Poly/ML (approx. 20 MB instead
wenzelm@12753
  2098
of 40 MB), cf. ML_OPTIONS;
wenzelm@12753
  2099
wenzelm@11633
  2100
* system: Proof General keywords specification is now part of the
wenzelm@11633
  2101
Isabelle distribution (see etc/isar-keywords.el);
wenzelm@11633
  2102
wenzelm@12728
  2103
* system: support for persistent Proof General sessions (refrain from
wenzelm@12728
  2104
outdating all loaded theories on startup); user may create writable
wenzelm@12728
  2105
logic images like this: ``isabelle -q HOL Test'';
wenzelm@12597
  2106
wenzelm@11551
  2107
* system: smart selection of Isabelle process versus Isabelle
wenzelm@11572
  2108
interface, accommodates case-insensitive file systems (e.g. HFS+); may
wenzelm@11572
  2109
run both "isabelle" and "Isabelle" even if file names are badly
wenzelm@11572
  2110
damaged (executable inspects the case of the first letter of its own
wenzelm@11572
  2111
name); added separate "isabelle-process" and "isabelle-interface";
wenzelm@11551
  2112
wenzelm@12472
  2113
* system: refrain from any attempt at filtering input streams; no
wenzelm@12472
  2114
longer support ``8bit'' encoding of old isabelle font, instead proper
wenzelm@12472
  2115
iso-latin characters may now be used; the related isatools
wenzelm@12472
  2116
"symbolinput" and "nonascii" have disappeared as well;
wenzelm@12472
  2117
wenzelm@12472
  2118
* system: removed old "xterm" interface (the print modes "xterm" and
wenzelm@12472
  2119
"xterm_color" are still available for direct use in a suitable
wenzelm@12472
  2120
terminal);
wenzelm@12472
  2121
paulson@11314
  2122
oheimb@11169
  2123
wenzelm@11062
  2124
New in Isabelle99-2 (February 2001)
wenzelm@11062
  2125
-----------------------------------
wenzelm@11062
  2126
nipkow@10224
  2127
*** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***
nipkow@10224
  2128
paulson@11241
  2129
* HOL: please note that theories in the Library and elsewhere often use the
paulson@11241
  2130
new-style (Isar) format; to refer to their theorems in an ML script you must
wenzelm@12622
  2131
bind them to ML identifers by e.g.      val thm_name = thm "thm_name";
paulson@11241
  2132
wenzelm@11043
  2133
* HOL: inductive package no longer splits induction rule aggressively,
wenzelm@11043
  2134
but only as far as specified by the introductions given; the old
oheimb@11130
  2135
format may be recovered via ML function complete_split_rule or attribute
wenzelm@11043
  2136
'split_rule (complete)';
wenzelm@11043
  2137
wenzelm@10998
  2138
* HOL: induct renamed to lfp_induct, lfp_Tarski to lfp_unfold,
wenzelm@10998
  2139
gfp_Tarski to gfp_unfold;
nipkow@10224
  2140
paulson@10288
  2141
* HOL: contrapos, contrapos2 renamed to contrapos_nn, contrapos_pp;
paulson@10288
  2142
wenzelm@10858
  2143
* HOL: infix "dvd" now has priority 50 rather than 70 (because it is a
wenzelm@10858
  2144
relation); infix "^^" has been renamed "``"; infix "``" has been
wenzelm@10858
  2145
renamed "`"; "univalent" has been renamed "single_valued";
nipkow@10793
  2146
wenzelm@10998
  2147
* HOL/Real: "rinv" and "hrinv" replaced by overloaded "inverse"
wenzelm@10998
  2148
operation;
wenzelm@10998
  2149
nipkow@10868
  2150
* HOLCF: infix "`" has been renamed "$"; the symbol syntax is \<cdot>;
nipkow@10856
  2151
wenzelm@10391
  2152
* Isar: 'obtain' no longer declares "that" fact as simp/intro;
wenzelm@10391
  2153
wenzelm@10401
  2154
* Isar/HOL: method 'induct' now handles non-atomic goals; as a
wenzelm@10401
  2155
consequence, it is no longer monotonic wrt. the local goal context
wenzelm@10401
  2156
(which is now passed through the inductive cases);
wenzelm@10401
  2157
wenzelm@10976
  2158
* Document preparation: renamed standard symbols \<ll> to \<lless> and
wenzelm@10976
  2159
\<gg> to \<ggreater>;
wenzelm@10976
  2160
nipkow@10224
  2161
wenzelm@10245
  2162
*** Document preparation ***
wenzelm@10245
  2163
wenzelm@10858
  2164
* \isabellestyle{NAME} selects version of Isabelle output (currently
wenzelm@10858
  2165
available: are "it" for near math-mode best-style output, "sl" for
wenzelm@10858
  2166
slanted text style, and "tt" for plain type-writer; if no
wenzelm@10858
  2167
\isabellestyle command is given, output is according to slanted
wenzelm@10858
  2168
type-writer);
wenzelm@10858
  2169
wenzelm@10322
  2170
* support sub/super scripts (for single symbols only), input syntax is
wenzelm@10322
  2171
like this: "A\<^sup>*" or "A\<^sup>\<star>";
wenzelm@10322
  2172
wenzelm@10858
  2173
* some more standard symbols; see Appendix A of the system manual for
wenzelm@11062
  2174
the complete list of symbols defined in isabellesym.sty;
wenzelm@10858
  2175
wenzelm@10998
  2176
* improved isabelle style files; more abstract symbol implementation
wenzelm@10998
  2177
(should now use \isamath{...} and \isatext{...} in custom symbol
wenzelm@10998
  2178
definitions);
wenzelm@10998
  2179
wenzelm@10634
  2180
* antiquotation @{goals} and @{subgoals} for output of *dynamic* goals
wenzelm@10634
  2181
state; Note that presentation of goal states does not conform to
wenzelm@10634
  2182
actual human-readable proof documents.  Please do not include goal
wenzelm@10634
  2183
states into document output unless you really know what you are doing!
wenzelm@10322
  2184
wenzelm@11062
  2185
* proper indentation of antiquoted output with proportional LaTeX
wenzelm@11062
  2186
fonts;
wenzelm@10862
  2187
wenzelm@11050
  2188
* no_document ML operator temporarily disables LaTeX document
wenzelm@11050
  2189
generation;
wenzelm@11050
  2190
wenzelm@11062
  2191
* isatool unsymbolize tunes sources for plain ASCII communication;
wenzelm@11062
  2192
wenzelm@10322
  2193
wenzelm@10306
  2194
*** Isar ***
wenzelm@10306
  2195
wenzelm@10547
  2196
* Pure: Isar now suffers initial goal statements to contain unbound
wenzelm@10547
  2197
schematic variables (this does not conform to actual readable proof
wenzelm@10547
  2198
documents, due to unpredictable outcome and non-compositional proof
wenzelm@10547
  2199
checking); users who know what they are doing may use schematic goals
wenzelm@10547
  2200
for Prolog-style synthesis of proven results;
wenzelm@10547
  2201
wenzelm@10391
  2202
* Pure: assumption method (an implicit finishing) now handles actual
wenzelm@10391
  2203
rules as well;
wenzelm@10391
  2204
wenzelm@10391
  2205
* Pure: improved 'obtain' --- moved to Pure, insert "that" into
wenzelm@10391
  2206
initial goal, declare "that" only as Pure intro (only for single
wenzelm@10391
  2207
steps); the "that" rule assumption may now be involved in implicit
wenzelm@10391
  2208
finishing, thus ".." becomes a feasible for trivial obtains;
wenzelm@10391
  2209
wenzelm@10391
  2210
* Pure: default proof step now includes 'intro_classes'; thus trivial
wenzelm@10391
  2211
instance proofs may be performed by "..";
wenzelm@10391
  2212
wenzelm@10391
  2213
* Pure: ?thesis / ?this / "..." now work for pure meta-level
wenzelm@10391
  2214
statements as well;
wenzelm@10306
  2215
wenzelm@11097
  2216
* Pure: more robust selection of calculational rules;
wenzelm@11097
  2217
wenzelm@10858
  2218
* Pure: the builtin notion of 'finished' goal now includes the ==-refl
wenzelm@10858
  2219
rule (as well as the assumption rule);
wenzelm@10858
  2220
wenzelm@10858
  2221
* Pure: 'thm_deps' command visualizes dependencies of theorems and
wenzelm@10858
  2222
lemmas, using the graph browser tool;
wenzelm@10858
  2223
wenzelm@10944
  2224
* Pure: predict failure of "show" in interactive mode;
wenzelm@10944
  2225
wenzelm@11016
  2226
* Pure: 'thms_containing' now takes actual terms as arguments;
wenzelm@11016
  2227
wenzelm@10401
  2228
* HOL: improved method 'induct' --- now handles non-atomic goals
wenzelm@10401
  2229
(potential INCOMPATIBILITY); tuned error handling;
wenzelm@10401
  2230
wenzelm@10557
  2231
* HOL: cases and induct rules now provide explicit hints about the
wenzelm@10547
  2232
number of facts to be consumed (0 for "type" and 1 for "set" rules);
wenzelm@10547
  2233
any remaining facts are inserted into the goal verbatim;
wenzelm@10547
  2234
wenzelm@10858
  2235
* HOL: local contexts (aka cases) may now contain term bindings as
wenzelm@10858
  2236
well; the 'cases' and 'induct' methods new provide a ?case binding for
wenzelm@10858
  2237
the result to be shown in each case;
wenzelm@10858
  2238
wenzelm@10770
  2239
* HOL: added 'recdef_tc' command;
wenzelm@10770
  2240
wenzelm@11016
  2241
* isatool convert assists in eliminating legacy ML scripts;
wenzelm@11016
  2242
wenzelm@10306
  2243
wenzelm@10245
  2244
*** HOL ***
wenzelm@10245
  2245
wenzelm@10245
  2246
* HOL/Library: a collection of generic theories to be used together
wenzelm@10245
  2247
with main HOL; the theory loader path already includes this directory
wenzelm@10245
  2248
by default; the following existing theories have been moved here:
wenzelm@10245
  2249
HOL/Induct/Multiset, HOL/Induct/Acc (as Accessible_Part), HOL/While
wenzelm@10337
  2250
(as While_Combinator), HOL/Lex/Prefix (as List_Prefix);
wenzelm@10245
  2251
wenzelm@10966
  2252
* HOL/Unix: "Some aspects of Unix file-system security", a typical
wenzelm@10966
  2253
modelling and verification task performed in Isabelle/HOL +
wenzelm@10966
  2254
Isabelle/Isar + Isabelle document preparation (by Markus Wenzel).
wenzelm@10966
  2255
wenzelm@11094
  2256
* HOL/Algebra: special summation operator SUM no longer exists, it has
wenzelm@11094
  2257
been replaced by setsum; infix 'assoc' now has priority 50 (like
wenzelm@11094
  2258
'dvd'); axiom 'one_not_zero' has been moved from axclass 'ring' to
wenzelm@11094
  2259
'domain', this makes the theory consistent with mathematical
wenzelm@11094
  2260
literature;
wenzelm@11094
  2261
wenzelm@10514
  2262
* HOL basics: added overloaded operations "inverse" and "divide"
wenzelm@10726
  2263
(infix "/"), syntax for generic "abs" operation, generic summation
wenzelm@11094
  2264
operator \<Sum>;
wenzelm@10452
  2265
wenzelm@10391
  2266
* HOL/typedef: simplified package, provide more useful rules (see also
wenzelm@10391
  2267
HOL/subset.thy);
wenzelm@10391
  2268
wenzelm@10915
  2269
* HOL/datatype: induction rule for arbitrarily branching datatypes is
wenzelm@10915
  2270
now expressed as a proper nested rule (old-style tactic scripts may
wenzelm@10915
  2271
require atomize_strip_tac to cope with non-atomic premises);
wenzelm@10915
  2272
wenzelm@10915
  2273
* HOL: renamed theory "Prod" to "Product_Type", renamed "split" rule
wenzelm@10915
  2274
to "split_conv" (old name still available for compatibility);
wenzelm@10915
  2275
wenzelm@10915
  2276
* HOL: improved concrete syntax for strings (e.g. allows translation
wenzelm@10915
  2277
rules with string literals);
wenzelm@10915
  2278
paulson@12245
  2279
* HOL-Real-Hyperreal: this extends HOL-Real with the hyperreals
paulson@12245
  2280
 and Fleuriot's mechanization of analysis, including the transcendental
paulson@12245
  2281
 functions for the reals;
paulson@10756
  2282
wenzelm@11094
  2283
* HOL/Real, HOL/Hyperreal: improved arithmetic simplification;
wenzelm@10391
  2284
wenzelm@10858
  2285
paulson@10474
  2286
*** CTT ***
paulson@10474
  2287
wenzelm@10547
  2288
* CTT: x-symbol support for Pi, Sigma, -->, : (membership); note that
wenzelm@10547
  2289
"lam" is displayed as TWO lambda-symbols
paulson@10474
  2290
wenzelm@10547
  2291
* CTT: theory Main now available, containing everything (that is, Bool
wenzelm@10547
  2292
and Arith);
wenzelm@10547
  2293
paulson@10474
  2294
wenzelm@10391
  2295
*** General ***
wenzelm@10391
  2296
wenzelm@10547
  2297
* Pure: the Simplifier has been implemented properly as a derived rule
wenzelm@10547
  2298
outside of the actual kernel (at last!); the overall performance
wenzelm@10547
  2299
penalty in practical applications is about 50%, while reliability of
wenzelm@10547
  2300
the Isabelle inference kernel has been greatly improved;
wenzelm@10547
  2301
wenzelm@11112
  2302
* print modes "brackets" and "no_brackets" control output of nested =>
wenzelm@11112
  2303
(types) and ==> (props); the default behaviour is "brackets";
wenzelm@11112
  2304
wenzelm@10391
  2305
* Provers: fast_tac (and friends) now handle actual object-logic rules
wenzelm@10391
  2306
as assumptions as well;
wenzelm@10391
  2307
wenzelm@11124
  2308
* system: support Poly/ML 4.0;
wenzelm@11124
  2309
wenzelm@11124
  2310
* system: isatool install handles KDE version 1 or 2;
wenzelm@11124
  2311
wenzelm@10391
  2312
wenzelm@10245
  2313
wenzelm@10103
  2314
New in Isabelle99-1 (October 2000)
wenzelm@10103
  2315
----------------------------------
wenzelm@8015
  2316
wenzelm@10003
  2317
*** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***
paulson@8014
  2318
wenzelm@8848
  2319
* HOL: simplification of natural numbers is much changed; to partly
wenzelm@8848
  2320
recover the old behaviour (e.g. to prevent n+n rewriting to #2*n)
wenzelm@8848
  2321
issue the following ML commands:
wenzelm@8848
  2322
wenzelm@8848
  2323
  Delsimprocs Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.cancel_numerals;
wenzelm@8848
  2324
  Delsimprocs [Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.combine_numerals];
paulson@8788
  2325
wenzelm@10129
  2326
* HOL: simplification no longer dives into case-expressions; this is
wenzelm@10129
  2327
controlled by "t.weak_case_cong" for each datatype t;
wenzelm@10003
  2328
wenzelm@10003
  2329
* HOL: nat_less_induct renamed to less_induct;
wenzelm@10003
  2330
wenzelm@10003
  2331
* HOL: systematic renaming of the SOME (Eps) rules, may use isatool
wenzelm@10003
  2332
fixsome to patch .thy and .ML sources automatically;
paulson@8967
  2333
wenzelm@10003
  2334
  select_equality  -> some_equality
wenzelm@10003
  2335
  select_eq_Ex     -> some_eq_ex
wenzelm@10003
  2336
  selectI2EX       -> someI2_ex
wenzelm@10003
  2337
  selectI2         -> someI2
wenzelm@10003
  2338
  selectI          -> someI
wenzelm@10003
  2339
  select1_equality -> some1_equality
wenzelm@10003
  2340
  Eps_sym_eq       -> some_sym_eq_trivial
wenzelm@10003
  2341
  Eps_eq           -> some_eq_trivial
wenzelm@10003
  2342
wenzelm@10003
  2343
* HOL: exhaust_tac on datatypes superceded by new generic case_tac;
wenzelm@10003
  2344
wenzelm@10003
  2345
* HOL: removed obsolete theorem binding expand_if (refer to split_if
wenzelm@10003
  2346
instead);
wenzelm@10003
  2347
wenzelm@10003
  2348
* HOL: the recursion equations generated by 'recdef' are now called
wenzelm@10003
  2349
f.simps instead of f.rules;
wenzelm@10003
  2350
wenzelm@10003
  2351
* HOL: qed_spec_mp now also handles bounded ALL as well;
wenzelm@10003
  2352
wenzelm@10003
  2353
* HOL: 0 is now overloaded, so the type constraint ":: nat" may
wenzelm@10003
  2354
sometimes be needed;
wenzelm@10003
  2355
wenzelm@10003
  2356
* HOL: the constant for "f``x" is now "image" rather than "op ``";
paulson@8014
  2357
paulson@10065
  2358
* HOL: the constant for "f-``x" is now "vimage" rather than "op -``";
paulson@10065
  2359
wenzelm@9330
  2360
* HOL: the disjoint sum is now "<+>" instead of "Plus"; the cartesian
wenzelm@9330
  2361
product is now "<*>" instead of "Times"; the lexicographic product is
wenzelm@9330
  2362
now "<*lex*>" instead of "**";
nipkow@8705
  2363
wenzelm@10003
  2364
* HOL: theory Sexp is now in HOL/Induct examples (it used to be part
wenzelm@10003
  2365
of main HOL, but was unused); better use HOL's datatype package;
paulson@9971
  2366
wenzelm@10137
  2367
* HOL: removed "symbols" syntax for constant "override" of theory Map;
wenzelm@10137
  2368
the old syntax may be recovered as follows:
wenzelm@10137
  2369
wenzelm@10137
  2370
  syntax (symbols)
wenzelm@10137
  2371
    override  :: "('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b)"
wenzelm@10137
  2372
      (infixl "\\<oplus>" 100)
wenzelm@10137
  2373
wenzelm@8848
  2374
* HOL/Real: "rabs" replaced by overloaded "abs" function;
wenzelm@8848
  2375
wenzelm@8887
  2376
* HOL/ML: even fewer consts are declared as global (see theories Ord,
wenzelm@8887
  2377
Lfp, Gfp, WF); this only affects ML packages that refer to const names
wenzelm@8887
  2378
internally;
wenzelm@8887
  2379
wenzelm@10003
  2380
* HOL and ZF: syntax for quotienting wrt an equivalence relation
wenzelm@10003
  2381
changed from A/r to A//r;
wenzelm@9908
  2382
wenzelm@10003
  2383
* ZF: new treatment of arithmetic (nat & int) may break some old
wenzelm@10003
  2384
proofs;
wenzelm@8921
  2385
wenzelm@10003
  2386
* Isar: renamed some attributes (RS -> THEN, simplify -> simplified,
wenzelm@10003
  2387
rulify -> rule_format, elimify -> elim_format, ...);
paulson@9542
  2388
wenzelm@9941
  2389
* Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed
wenzelm@9941
  2390
intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (in most cases, one
wenzelm@9937
  2391
should have to change intro!! to intro? only); replaced "delrule" by
wenzelm@9937
  2392
"rule del";
wenzelm@9437
  2393
wenzelm@9612
  2394
* Isar/HOL: renamed "intrs" to "intros" in inductive definitions;
wenzelm@9612
  2395
wenzelm@9437
  2396
* Provers: strengthened force_tac by using new first_best_tac;
oheimb@9402
  2397
wenzelm@10003
  2398
* LaTeX document preparation: several changes of isabelle.sty (see
wenzelm@10003
  2399
lib/texinputs);
wenzelm@8729
  2400
paulson@8014
  2401
wenzelm@8487
  2402
*** Document preparation ***
wenzelm@8358
  2403
wenzelm@9198
  2404
* formal comments (text blocks etc.) in new-style theories may now
wenzelm@9753
  2405
contain antiquotations of thm/prop/term/typ/text to be presented
wenzelm@9753
  2406
according to latex print mode; concrete syntax is like this:
wenzelm@9753
  2407
@{term[show_types] "f(x) = a + x"};
wenzelm@9198
  2408
wenzelm@8358
  2409
* isatool mkdir provides easy setup of Isabelle session directories,
wenzelm@8518
  2410
including proper document sources;
wenzelm@8358
  2411
wenzelm@8358
  2412
* generated LaTeX sources are now deleted after successful run
wenzelm@8358
  2413
(isatool document -c); may retain a copy somewhere else via -D option
wenzelm@8358
  2414
of isatool usedir;
wenzelm@8358
  2415
wenzelm@8566
  2416
* isatool usedir -D now lets isatool latex -o sty update the Isabelle
wenzelm@10003
  2417
style files, achieving self-contained LaTeX sources and simplifying
wenzelm@10003
  2418
LaTeX debugging;
wenzelm@8566
  2419
wenzelm@8518
  2420
* old-style theories now produce (crude) LaTeX output as well;
wenzelm@8358
  2421
wenzelm@9057
  2422
* browser info session directories are now self-contained (may be put
wenzelm@9437
  2423
on WWW server seperately); improved graphs of nested sessions; removed
wenzelm@9437
  2424
graph for 'all sessions';
wenzelm@9057
  2425
wenzelm@10003
  2426
* several improvements in isabelle style files; \isabellestyle{it}
wenzelm@10003
  2427
produces fake math mode output; \isamarkupheader is now \section by
wenzelm@10003
  2428
default; see lib/texinputs/isabelle.sty etc.;
wenzelm@9489
  2429
wenzelm@8358
  2430
wenzelm@8184
  2431
*** Isar ***
wenzelm@8184
  2432
wenzelm@10003
  2433
* Isar/Pure: local results and corresponding term bindings are now
wenzelm@10003
  2434
subject to Hindley-Milner polymorphism (similar to ML); this
wenzelm@10003
  2435
accommodates incremental type-inference very nicely;
wenzelm@8283
  2436
wenzelm@10003
  2437
* Isar/Pure: new derived language element 'obtain' supports
wenzelm@10003
  2438
generalized existence reasoning;
wenzelm@8621
  2439
wenzelm@10003
  2440
* Isar/Pure: new calculational elements 'moreover' and 'ultimately'
wenzelm@10003
  2441
support accumulation of results, without applying any rules yet;
wenzelm@10003
  2442
useful to collect intermediate results without explicit name
wenzelm@10003
  2443
references, and for use with transitivity rules with more than 2
wenzelm@10003
  2444
premises;
wenzelm@8184
  2445
wenzelm@10003
  2446
* Isar/Pure: scalable support for case-analysis type proofs: new
wenzelm@10003
  2447
'case' language element refers to local contexts symbolically, as
wenzelm@10003
  2448
produced by certain proof methods; internally, case names are attached
wenzelm@10003
  2449
to theorems as "tags";
wenzelm@8440
  2450
wenzelm@10003
  2451
* Isar/Pure: theory command 'hide' removes declarations from
wenzelm@9330
  2452
class/type/const name spaces;
wenzelm@9330
  2453
wenzelm@10003
  2454
* Isar/Pure: theory command 'defs' supports option "(overloaded)" to
wenzelm@9330
  2455
indicate potential overloading;
wenzelm@9330
  2456
wenzelm@10003
  2457
* Isar/Pure: changed syntax of local blocks from {{ }} to { };
wenzelm@8621
  2458
wenzelm@10003
  2459
* Isar/Pure: syntax of sorts made 'inner', i.e. have to write
wenzelm@10003
  2460
"{a,b,c}" instead of {a,b,c};
wenzelm@9011
  2461
wenzelm@10003
  2462
* Isar/Pure now provides its own version of intro/elim/dest
wenzelm@10003
  2463
attributes; useful for building new logics, but beware of confusion
wenzelm@10003
  2464
with the version in Provers/classical;
wenzelm@9612
  2465
wenzelm@10003
  2466
* Isar/Pure: the local context of (non-atomic) goals is provided via
wenzelm@10003
  2467
case name 'antecedent';
wenzelm@8440
  2468
wenzelm@10003
  2469
* Isar/Pure: removed obsolete 'transfer' attribute (transfer of thms
wenzelm@10003
  2470
to the current context is now done automatically);
wenzelm@9383
  2471
wenzelm@10003
  2472
* Isar/Pure: theory command 'method_setup' provides a simple interface
wenzelm@10003
  2473
for definining proof methods in ML;
wenzelm@9612
  2474
wenzelm@10003
  2475
* Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed
wenzelm@9941
  2476
intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (INCOMPATIBILITY, in
wenzelm@9941
  2477
most cases, one should have to change intro!! to intro? only);
wenzelm@9941
  2478
replaced "delrule" by "rule del";
wenzelm@8283
  2479
wenzelm@10003
  2480
* Isar/Provers: new 'hypsubst' method, plain 'subst' method and
wenzelm@10003
  2481
'symmetric' attribute (the latter supercedes [RS sym]);
wenzelm@10003
  2482
wenzelm@10003
  2483
* Isar/Provers: splitter support (via 'split' attribute and 'simp'
wenzelm@10003
  2484
method modifier); 'simp' method: 'only:' modifier removes loopers as
wenzelm@10003
  2485
well (including splits);
wenzelm@10003
  2486
wenzelm@10003
  2487
* Isar/Provers: Simplifier and Classical methods now support all kind
wenzelm@10003
  2488
of modifiers used in the past, including 'cong', 'iff', etc.
wenzelm@10003
  2489
wenzelm@10003
  2490
* Isar/Provers: added 'fastsimp' and 'clarsimp' methods (combination
wenzelm@10003
  2491
of Simplifier and Classical reasoner);
wenzelm@10003
  2492
wenzelm@10003
  2493
* Isar/HOL: new proof method 'cases' and improved version of 'induct'
wenzelm@10003
  2494
now support named cases; major packages (inductive, datatype, primrec,
wenzelm@10003
  2495
recdef) support case names and properly name parameters;
wenzelm@9612
  2496
wenzelm@10003
  2497
* Isar/HOL: new transitivity rules for substitution in inequalities --
wenzelm@10003
  2498
monotonicity conditions are extracted to be proven at end of
wenzelm@10003
  2499
calculations;
wenzelm@10003
  2500
wenzelm@10003
  2501
* Isar/HOL: removed 'case_split' thm binding, should use 'cases' proof
wenzelm@10003
  2502
method anyway;
wenzelm@10003
  2503
wenzelm@10003
  2504
* Isar/HOL: removed old expand_if = split_if; theorems if_splits =
wenzelm@10003
  2505
split_if split_if_asm; datatype package provides theorems foo.splits =
wenzelm@10003
  2506
foo.split foo.split_asm for each datatype;
wenzelm@10003
  2507
wenzelm@10003
  2508
* Isar/HOL: tuned inductive package, rename "intrs" to "intros"
wenzelm@10003
  2509
(potential INCOMPATIBILITY), emulation of mk_cases feature for proof
wenzelm@10003
  2510
scripts: new 'inductive_cases' command and 'ind_cases' method; (Note:
wenzelm@10003
  2511
use "(cases (simplified))" method in proper proof texts);
wenzelm@10003
  2512
wenzelm@10003
  2513
* Isar/HOL: added global 'arith_split' attribute for 'arith' method;
wenzelm@10003
  2514
wenzelm@10003
  2515
* Isar: names of theorems etc. may be natural numbers as well;
wenzelm@10003
  2516
wenzelm@10003
  2517
* Isar: 'pr' command: optional arguments for goals_limit and
wenzelm@9724
  2518
ProofContext.prems_limit; no longer prints theory contexts, but only
wenzelm@9724
  2519
proof states;
wenzelm@8487
  2520
wenzelm@10003
  2521
* Isar: diagnostic commands 'pr', 'thm', 'prop', 'term', 'typ' admit
wenzelm@8518
  2522
additional print modes to be specified; e.g. "pr(latex)" will print
wenzelm@8518
  2523
proof state according to the Isabelle LaTeX style;
wenzelm@8487
  2524
wenzelm@10003
  2525
* Isar: improved support for emulating tactic scripts, including proof
wenzelm@9612
  2526
methods 'rule_tac' etc., 'cut_tac', 'thin_tac', 'subgoal_tac',
wenzelm@9612
  2527
'rename_tac', 'rotate_tac', 'tactic', and 'case_tac' / 'induct_tac'
wenzelm@9612