src/HOL/Auth/OtwayRees_Bad.ML
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(*  Title:      HOL/Auth/OtwayRees_Bad
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    ID:         $Id$
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    Author:     Lawrence C Paulson, Cambridge University Computer Laboratory
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    Copyright   1996  University of Cambridge
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Inductive relation "otway" for the Otway-Rees protocol.
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The FAULTY version omitting encryption of Nonce NB, as suggested on page 247 of
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  Burrows, Abadi and Needham.  A Logic of Authentication.
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  Proc. Royal Soc. 426 (1989)
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This file illustrates the consequences of such errors.  We can still prove
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impressive-looking properties such as Spy_not_see_encrypted_key, yet the
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protocol is open to a middleperson attack.  Attempting to prove some key lemmas
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indicates the possibility of this attack.
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*)
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AddEs knows_Spy_partsEs;
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AddDs [impOfSubs analz_subset_parts];
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AddDs [impOfSubs Fake_parts_insert];
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(*A "possibility property": there are traces that reach the end*)
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Goal "[| A ~= B; B ~= Server |]   \
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\     ==> EX K. EX NA. EX evs: otway.          \
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\           Says B A {|Nonce NA, Crypt (shrK A) {|Nonce NA, Key K|}|} \
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\             : set evs";
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by (REPEAT (resolve_tac [exI,bexI] 1));
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by (rtac (otway.Nil RS 
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          otway.OR1 RS otway.Reception RS
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          otway.OR2 RS otway.Reception RS 
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          otway.OR3 RS otway.Reception RS otway.OR4) 2);
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by possibility_tac;
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result();
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Goal "[| Gets B X : set evs; evs : otway |] ==> EX A. Says A B X : set evs";
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by (etac rev_mp 1);
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by (etac otway.induct 1);
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by Auto_tac;
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qed"Gets_imp_Says";
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(*Must be proved separately for each protocol*)
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Goal "[| Gets B X : set evs; evs : otway |]  ==> X : knows Spy evs";
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by (blast_tac (claset() addSDs [Gets_imp_Says, Says_imp_knows_Spy]) 1);
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qed"Gets_imp_knows_Spy";
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AddDs [Gets_imp_knows_Spy RS parts.Inj];
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(**** Inductive proofs about otway ****)
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(** For reasoning about the encrypted portion of messages **)
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Goal "[| Gets B {|N, Agent A, Agent B, X|} : set evs;  evs : otway |] \
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\     ==> X : analz (knows Spy evs)";
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by (blast_tac (claset() addSDs [Gets_imp_knows_Spy RS analz.Inj]) 1);
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qed "OR2_analz_knows_Spy";
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Goal "[| Gets B {|N, X, Crypt (shrK B) X'|} : set evs;  evs : otway |] \
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\     ==> X : analz (knows Spy evs)";
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by (blast_tac (claset() addSDs [Gets_imp_knows_Spy RS analz.Inj]) 1);
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qed "OR4_analz_knows_Spy";
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Goal "Says Server B {|NA, X, Crypt K' {|NB,K|}|} : set evs \
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\     ==> K : parts (knows Spy evs)";
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by (Blast_tac 1);
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qed "Oops_parts_knows_Spy";
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bind_thm ("OR2_parts_knows_Spy",
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          OR2_analz_knows_Spy RS (impOfSubs analz_subset_parts));
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bind_thm ("OR4_parts_knows_Spy",
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          OR4_analz_knows_Spy RS (impOfSubs analz_subset_parts));
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(*For proving the easier theorems about X ~: parts (knows Spy evs).*)
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fun parts_induct_tac i = 
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    etac otway.induct i			THEN 
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    ftac Oops_parts_knows_Spy (i+7) THEN
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    ftac OR4_parts_knows_Spy (i+6) THEN
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    ftac OR2_parts_knows_Spy (i+4) THEN 
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    prove_simple_subgoals_tac  i;
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(** Theorems of the form X ~: parts (knows Spy evs) imply that NOBODY
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    sends messages containing X! **)
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(*Spy never sees a good agent's shared key!*)
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Goal "evs : otway ==> (Key (shrK A) : parts (knows Spy evs)) = (A : bad)";
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by (parts_induct_tac 1);
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by (ALLGOALS Blast_tac);
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qed "Spy_see_shrK";
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Addsimps [Spy_see_shrK];
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Goal "evs : otway ==> (Key (shrK A) : analz (knows Spy evs)) = (A : bad)";
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by (auto_tac(claset() addDs [impOfSubs analz_subset_parts], simpset()));
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qed "Spy_analz_shrK";
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Addsimps [Spy_analz_shrK];
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AddSDs [Spy_see_shrK RSN (2, rev_iffD1), 
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	Spy_analz_shrK RSN (2, rev_iffD1)];
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(*Nobody can have used non-existent keys!*)
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Goal "evs : otway ==> Key K ~: used evs --> K ~: keysFor (parts (knows Spy evs))";
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by (parts_induct_tac 1);
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(*Fake*)
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by (blast_tac (claset() addSDs [keysFor_parts_insert]) 1);
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(*OR2, OR3*)
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by (ALLGOALS Blast_tac);
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qed_spec_mp "new_keys_not_used";
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bind_thm ("new_keys_not_analzd",
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          [analz_subset_parts RS keysFor_mono,
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           new_keys_not_used] MRS contra_subsetD);
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Addsimps [new_keys_not_used, new_keys_not_analzd];
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(*** Proofs involving analz ***)
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(*Describes the form of K and NA when the Server sends this message.  Also
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  for Oops case.*)
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Goal "[| Says Server B {|NA, X, Crypt (shrK B) {|NB, Key K|}|} : set evs; \
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\        evs : otway |]                                           \
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\  ==> K ~: range shrK & (EX i. NA = Nonce i) & (EX j. NB = Nonce j)";
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by (etac rev_mp 1);
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by (etac otway.induct 1);
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by (ALLGOALS Simp_tac);
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by (ALLGOALS Blast_tac);
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qed "Says_Server_message_form";
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(*For proofs involving analz.*)
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val analz_knows_Spy_tac = 
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    dtac OR2_analz_knows_Spy 5 THEN assume_tac 5 THEN 
76f3865a2b1d Added Bella's "Gets" model for Otway_Rees. Also affects some other theories.
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    dtac OR4_analz_knows_Spy 7 THEN assume_tac 7 THEN
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   137
    ftac Says_Server_message_form 8 THEN assume_tac 8 THEN
6308
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    REPEAT ((eresolve_tac [exE, conjE] ORELSE' hyp_subst_tac) 8);
2002
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(****
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 The following is to prove theorems of the form
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  Key K : analz (insert (Key KAB) (knows Spy evs)) ==>
76f3865a2b1d Added Bella's "Gets" model for Otway_Rees. Also affects some other theories.
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  Key K : analz (knows Spy evs)
2002
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 A more general formula must be proved inductively.
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****)
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(** Session keys are not used to encrypt other session keys **)
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(*The equality makes the induction hypothesis easier to apply*)
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Goal "evs : otway ==>                                 \
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\  ALL K KK. KK <= - (range shrK) -->                 \
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\         (Key K : analz (Key``KK Un (knows Spy evs))) =  \
76f3865a2b1d Added Bella's "Gets" model for Otway_Rees. Also affects some other theories.
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\         (K : KK | Key K : analz (knows Spy evs))";
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1bbf1bdcaf56 Introduction of "lost" argument
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by (etac otway.induct 1);
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76f3865a2b1d Added Bella's "Gets" model for Otway_Rees. Also affects some other theories.
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by analz_knows_Spy_tac;
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   160
by (REPEAT_FIRST (resolve_tac [allI, impI]));
4d68fbe6378b Now with Andy Gordon's treatment of freshness to replace newN/K
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   161
by (REPEAT_FIRST (rtac analz_image_freshK_lemma ));
4d68fbe6378b Now with Andy Gordon's treatment of freshness to replace newN/K
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by (ALLGOALS (asm_simp_tac analz_image_freshK_ss));
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   163
(*Fake*) 
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by (spy_analz_tac 1);
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qed_spec_mp "analz_image_freshK";
2002
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Goal "[| evs : otway;  KAB ~: range shrK |] ==>       \
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\     Key K : analz (insert (Key KAB) (knows Spy evs)) =  \
76f3865a2b1d Added Bella's "Gets" model for Otway_Rees. Also affects some other theories.
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\     (K = KAB | Key K : analz (knows Spy evs))";
2516
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   171
by (asm_simp_tac (analz_image_freshK_ss addsimps [analz_image_freshK]) 1);
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qed "analz_insert_freshK";
2002
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(*** The Key K uniquely identifies the Server's  message. **)
2002
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Goal "evs : otway ==>                                                  \
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\     EX B' NA' NB' X'. ALL B NA NB X.                                    \
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\     Says Server B {|NA, X, Crypt (shrK B) {|NB, K|}|} : set evs -->     \
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\     B=B' & NA=NA' & NB=NB' & X=X'";
2032
1bbf1bdcaf56 Introduction of "lost" argument
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   181
by (etac otway.induct 1);
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by (ALLGOALS (asm_simp_tac (simpset() addsimps [all_conj_distrib])));
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by (ALLGOALS Clarify_tac);
2002
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(*Remaining cases: OR3 and OR4*)
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by (ex_strip_tac 2);
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   186
by (Best_tac 2);	(*Blast_tac's too slow (in reconstruction)*)
2107
23e8f15ec95f The new proof of the lemma for new_nonces_not_seen is faster
paulson
parents: 2052
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   187
by (expand_case_tac "K = ?y" 1);
23e8f15ec95f The new proof of the lemma for new_nonces_not_seen is faster
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   188
by (REPEAT (ares_tac [refl,exI,impI,conjI] 2));
2516
4d68fbe6378b Now with Andy Gordon's treatment of freshness to replace newN/K
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(*...we assume X is a recent message, and handle this case by contradiction*)
6308
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   190
by (blast_tac (claset() addSEs knows_Spy_partsEs) 1);
2002
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val lemma = result();
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Goal "[| Says Server B {|NA, X, Crypt (shrK B) {|NB, K|}|}   : set evs; \ 
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   194
\        Says Server B' {|NA',X',Crypt (shrK B') {|NB',K|}|} : set evs; \
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   195
\        evs : otway |] ==> X=X' & B=B' & NA=NA' & NB=NB'";
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   196
by (prove_unique_tac lemma 1);
2002
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qed "unique_session_keys";
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(** Crucial secrecy property: Spy does not see the keys sent in msg OR3
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   201
    Does not in itself guarantee security: an attack could violate 
4e835bd9fada Expressed most Oops rules using Notes instead of Says, and other tidying
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    the premises, e.g. by having A=Spy **)
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   203
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Goal "[| A ~: bad;  B ~: bad;  evs : otway |]                      \
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\     ==> Says Server B                                            \
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\           {|NA, Crypt (shrK A) {|NA, Key K|},                    \
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\             Crypt (shrK B) {|NB, Key K|}|} : set evs -->         \
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\         Notes Spy {|NA, NB, Key K|} ~: set evs -->               \
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\         Key K ~: analz (knows Spy evs)";
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by (etac otway.induct 1);
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76f3865a2b1d Added Bella's "Gets" model for Otway_Rees. Also affects some other theories.
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   211
by analz_knows_Spy_tac;
2131
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   212
by (ALLGOALS
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   213
    (asm_simp_tac (simpset() addcongs [conj_cong] 
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                             addsimps [analz_insert_eq, analz_insert_freshK]
5535
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   215
                                      @ pushes @ split_ifs)));
3451
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   216
(*Oops*)
4091
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   217
by (blast_tac (claset() addSDs [unique_session_keys]) 4);
3451
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   218
(*OR4*) 
d10f100676d8 Made proofs more concise by replacing calls to spy_analz_tac by uses of
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   219
by (Blast_tac 3);
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   220
(*OR3*)
4537
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parents: 4509
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   221
by (Blast_tac 2);
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parents: 3207
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   222
(*Fake*) 
d10f100676d8 Made proofs more concise by replacing calls to spy_analz_tac by uses of
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   223
by (spy_analz_tac 1);
2131
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   224
val lemma = result() RS mp RS mp RSN(2,rev_notE);
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   225
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Goal "[| Says Server B                                           \
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   227
\         {|NA, Crypt (shrK A) {|NA, Key K|},                    \
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   228
\               Crypt (shrK B) {|NB, Key K|}|} : set evs;        \
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   229
\        Notes Spy {|NA, NB, Key K|} ~: set evs;                 \
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   230
\        A ~: bad;  B ~: bad;  evs : otway |]                    \
6308
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   231
\     ==> Key K ~: analz (knows Spy evs)";
7499
23e090051cb8 isatool expandshort;
wenzelm
parents: 6308
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   232
by (ftac Says_Server_message_form 1 THEN assume_tac 1);
4091
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wenzelm
parents: 3961
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   233
by (blast_tac (claset() addSEs [lemma]) 1);
2131
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   234
qed "Spy_not_see_encrypted_key";
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   235
3106a99d30a5 Changing from the Reveal to the Oops rule
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   236
3106a99d30a5 Changing from the Reveal to the Oops rule
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   237
(*** Attempting to prove stronger properties ***)
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   238
2052
d9f7f4b2613e Working again with new theory Shared
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parents: 2032
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   239
(*Only OR1 can have caused such a part of a message to appear.
5434
9b4bed3f394c Got rid of not_Says_to_self and most uses of ~= in definitions and theorems
paulson
parents: 5421
diff changeset
   240
  The premise A ~= B prevents OR2's similar-looking cryptogram from being
9b4bed3f394c Got rid of not_Says_to_self and most uses of ~= in definitions and theorems
paulson
parents: 5421
diff changeset
   241
  picked up.  Original Otway-Rees doesn't need it.*)
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   242
Goal "[| A ~: bad;  A ~= B;  evs : otway |]                \
6308
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paulson
parents: 5535
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   243
\     ==> Crypt (shrK A) {|NA, Agent A, Agent B|} : parts (knows Spy evs) --> \
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   244
\         Says A B {|NA, Agent A, Agent B,                  \
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   245
\                    Crypt (shrK A) {|NA, Agent A, Agent B|}|}  : set evs";
3519
ab0a9fbed4c0 Changing "lost" from a parameter of protocol definitions to a constant.
paulson
parents: 3466
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   246
by (parts_induct_tac 1);
4537
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paulson
parents: 4509
diff changeset
   247
by (ALLGOALS Blast_tac);
2002
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paulson
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diff changeset
   248
qed_spec_mp "Crypt_imp_OR1";
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parents:
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   249
ed423882c6a9 Bad version of Otway-Rees and the new attack on it
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   250
2131
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parents: 2107
diff changeset
   251
(*Crucial property: If the encrypted message appears, and A has used NA
6308
76f3865a2b1d Added Bella's "Gets" model for Otway_Rees. Also affects some other theories.
paulson
parents: 5535
diff changeset
   252
  to start a run, then it originated with the Server!
76f3865a2b1d Added Bella's "Gets" model for Otway_Rees. Also affects some other theories.
paulson
parents: 5535
diff changeset
   253
  The premise A ~= B allows use of Crypt_imp_OR1*)
2131
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paulson
parents: 2107
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   254
(*Only it is FALSE.  Somebody could make a fake message to Server
2002
ed423882c6a9 Bad version of Otway-Rees and the new attack on it
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   255
          substituting some other nonce NA' for NB.*)
6308
76f3865a2b1d Added Bella's "Gets" model for Otway_Rees. Also affects some other theories.
paulson
parents: 5535
diff changeset
   256
Goal "[| A ~: bad;  A ~= B;  evs : otway |]                                \
76f3865a2b1d Added Bella's "Gets" model for Otway_Rees. Also affects some other theories.
paulson
parents: 5535
diff changeset
   257
\     ==> Crypt (shrK A) {|NA, Key K|} : parts (knows Spy evs) -->    \
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   258
\         Says A B {|NA, Agent A, Agent B,                        \
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   259
\                    Crypt (shrK A) {|NA, Agent A, Agent B|}|}    \
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   260
\          : set evs -->                                          \
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   261
\         (EX B NB. Says Server B                                 \
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   262
\              {|NA,                                              \
c729d4c299c1 Deleted leading parameters thanks to new Goal command
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   263
\                Crypt (shrK A) {|NA, Key K|},                    \
c729d4c299c1 Deleted leading parameters thanks to new Goal command
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parents: 5076
diff changeset
   264
\                Crypt (shrK B) {|NB, Key K|}|}  : set evs)";
3519
ab0a9fbed4c0 Changing "lost" from a parameter of protocol definitions to a constant.
paulson
parents: 3466
diff changeset
   265
by (parts_induct_tac 1);
4537
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paulson
parents: 4509
diff changeset
   266
(*Fake*)
4e835bd9fada Expressed most Oops rules using Notes instead of Says, and other tidying
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parents: 4509
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   267
by (Blast_tac 1);
2002
ed423882c6a9 Bad version of Otway-Rees and the new attack on it
paulson
parents:
diff changeset
   268
(*OR1: it cannot be a new Nonce, contradiction.*)
4537
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parents: 4509
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by (Blast_tac 1);
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(*OR3 and OR4*)
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by (ALLGOALS (asm_simp_tac (simpset() addsimps [ex_disj_distrib])));
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by (ALLGOALS Clarify_tac);
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(*OR4*)
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by (blast_tac (claset() addSIs [Crypt_imp_OR1]) 2);
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(*OR3*)  (** LEVEL 5 **)
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(*The hypotheses at this point suggest an attack in which nonce NB is used
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  in two different roles:
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          Gets Server
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           {|Nonce NA, Agent Aa, Agent A,
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             Crypt (shrK Aa) {|Nonce NA, Agent Aa, Agent A|}, Nonce NB,
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             Crypt (shrK A) {|Nonce NA, Agent Aa, Agent A|}|}
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          : set evs3;
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          Says A B
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           {|Nonce NB, Agent A, Agent B,
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             Crypt (shrK A) {|Nonce NB, Agent A, Agent B|}|}
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          : set evs3;
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*)
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writeln "GIVE UP! on NA_Crypt_imp_Server_msg";
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(*Thus the key property A_can_trust probably fails too.*)