src/HOL/ex/Dedekind_Real.thy
author wenzelm
Mon Aug 31 21:28:08 2015 +0200 (2015-08-31)
changeset 61070 b72a990adfe2
parent 60429 d3d1e185cd63
child 61076 bdc1e2f0a86a
permissions -rw-r--r--
prefer symbols;
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(*  Title:      HOL/ex/Dedekind_Real.thy
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    Author:     Jacques D. Fleuriot, University of Cambridge
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    Conversion to Isar and new proofs by Lawrence C Paulson, 2003/4
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The positive reals as Dedekind sections of positive
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rationals. Fundamentals of Abstract Analysis [Gleason- p. 121]
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provides some of the definitions.
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*)
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theory Dedekind_Real
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imports Complex_Main
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begin
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section {* Positive real numbers *}
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text{*Could be generalized and moved to @{text Groups}*}
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lemma add_eq_exists: "\<exists>x. a+x = (b::rat)"
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by (rule_tac x="b-a" in exI, simp)
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definition
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  cut :: "rat set => bool" where
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  "cut A = ({} \<subset> A &
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            A < {r. 0 < r} &
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            (\<forall>y \<in> A. ((\<forall>z. 0<z & z < y --> z \<in> A) & (\<exists>u \<in> A. y < u))))"
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lemma interval_empty_iff:
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  "{y. (x::'a::unbounded_dense_linorder) < y \<and> y < z} = {} \<longleftrightarrow> \<not> x < z"
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  by (auto dest: dense)
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lemma cut_of_rat: 
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  assumes q: "0 < q" shows "cut {r::rat. 0 < r & r < q}" (is "cut ?A")
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proof -
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  from q have pos: "?A < {r. 0 < r}" by force
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  have nonempty: "{} \<subset> ?A"
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  proof
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    show "{} \<subseteq> ?A" by simp
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    show "{} \<noteq> ?A"
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      by (force simp only: q eq_commute [of "{}"] interval_empty_iff)
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  qed
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  show ?thesis
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    by (simp add: cut_def pos nonempty,
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        blast dest: dense intro: order_less_trans)
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qed
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typedef preal = "Collect cut"
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  by (blast intro: cut_of_rat [OF zero_less_one])
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lemma Abs_preal_induct [induct type: preal]:
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  "(\<And>x. cut x \<Longrightarrow> P (Abs_preal x)) \<Longrightarrow> P x"
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  using Abs_preal_induct [of P x] by simp
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lemma Rep_preal:
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  "cut (Rep_preal x)"
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  using Rep_preal [of x] by simp
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definition
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  psup :: "preal set => preal" where
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  "psup P = Abs_preal (\<Union>X \<in> P. Rep_preal X)"
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definition
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  add_set :: "[rat set,rat set] => rat set" where
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  "add_set A B = {w. \<exists>x \<in> A. \<exists>y \<in> B. w = x + y}"
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definition
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  diff_set :: "[rat set,rat set] => rat set" where
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  "diff_set A B = {w. \<exists>x. 0 < w & 0 < x & x \<notin> B & x + w \<in> A}"
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definition
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  mult_set :: "[rat set,rat set] => rat set" where
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  "mult_set A B = {w. \<exists>x \<in> A. \<exists>y \<in> B. w = x * y}"
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definition
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  inverse_set :: "rat set => rat set" where
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  "inverse_set A = {x. \<exists>y. 0 < x & x < y & inverse y \<notin> A}"
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instantiation preal :: "{ord, plus, minus, times, inverse, one}"
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begin
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definition
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  preal_less_def:
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    "R < S == Rep_preal R < Rep_preal S"
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definition
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  preal_le_def:
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    "R \<le> S == Rep_preal R \<subseteq> Rep_preal S"
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definition
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  preal_add_def:
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    "R + S == Abs_preal (add_set (Rep_preal R) (Rep_preal S))"
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definition
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  preal_diff_def:
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    "R - S == Abs_preal (diff_set (Rep_preal R) (Rep_preal S))"
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definition
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  preal_mult_def:
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    "R * S == Abs_preal (mult_set (Rep_preal R) (Rep_preal S))"
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definition
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  preal_inverse_def:
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    "inverse R == Abs_preal (inverse_set (Rep_preal R))"
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definition "R div S = R * inverse (S\<Colon>preal)"
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definition
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  preal_one_def:
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    "1 == Abs_preal {x. 0 < x & x < 1}"
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instance ..
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end
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text{*Reduces equality on abstractions to equality on representatives*}
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declare Abs_preal_inject [simp]
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declare Abs_preal_inverse [simp]
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lemma rat_mem_preal: "0 < q ==> cut {r::rat. 0 < r & r < q}"
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by (simp add: cut_of_rat)
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lemma preal_nonempty: "cut A ==> \<exists>x\<in>A. 0 < x"
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  unfolding cut_def [abs_def] by blast
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lemma preal_Ex_mem: "cut A \<Longrightarrow> \<exists>x. x \<in> A"
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  apply (drule preal_nonempty)
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  apply fast
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  done
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lemma preal_imp_psubset_positives: "cut A ==> A < {r. 0 < r}"
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  by (force simp add: cut_def)
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lemma preal_exists_bound: "cut A ==> \<exists>x. 0 < x & x \<notin> A"
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  apply (drule preal_imp_psubset_positives)
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  apply auto
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  done
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lemma preal_exists_greater: "[| cut A; y \<in> A |] ==> \<exists>u \<in> A. y < u"
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  unfolding cut_def [abs_def] by blast
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lemma preal_downwards_closed: "[| cut A; y \<in> A; 0 < z; z < y |] ==> z \<in> A"
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  unfolding cut_def [abs_def] by blast
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text{*Relaxing the final premise*}
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lemma preal_downwards_closed':
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     "[| cut A; y \<in> A; 0 < z; z \<le> y |] ==> z \<in> A"
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apply (simp add: order_le_less)
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apply (blast intro: preal_downwards_closed)
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done
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text{*A positive fraction not in a positive real is an upper bound.
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 Gleason p. 122 - Remark (1)*}
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lemma not_in_preal_ub:
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  assumes A: "cut A"
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    and notx: "x \<notin> A"
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    and y: "y \<in> A"
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    and pos: "0 < x"
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  shows "y < x"
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proof (cases rule: linorder_cases)
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  assume "x<y"
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  with notx show ?thesis
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    by (simp add:  preal_downwards_closed [OF A y] pos)
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next
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  assume "x=y"
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  with notx and y show ?thesis by simp
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next
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  assume "y<x"
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  thus ?thesis .
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qed
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text {* preal lemmas instantiated to @{term "Rep_preal X"} *}
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lemma mem_Rep_preal_Ex: "\<exists>x. x \<in> Rep_preal X"
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thm preal_Ex_mem
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by (rule preal_Ex_mem [OF Rep_preal])
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lemma Rep_preal_exists_bound: "\<exists>x>0. x \<notin> Rep_preal X"
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by (rule preal_exists_bound [OF Rep_preal])
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lemmas not_in_Rep_preal_ub = not_in_preal_ub [OF Rep_preal]
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subsection{*Properties of Ordering*}
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instance preal :: order
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proof
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  fix w :: preal
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  show "w \<le> w" by (simp add: preal_le_def)
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next
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  fix i j k :: preal
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  assume "i \<le> j" and "j \<le> k"
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  then show "i \<le> k" by (simp add: preal_le_def)
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next
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  fix z w :: preal
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  assume "z \<le> w" and "w \<le> z"
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  then show "z = w" by (simp add: preal_le_def Rep_preal_inject)
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next
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  fix z w :: preal
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  show "z < w \<longleftrightarrow> z \<le> w \<and> \<not> w \<le> z"
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  by (auto simp add: preal_le_def preal_less_def Rep_preal_inject)
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qed  
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lemma preal_imp_pos: "[|cut A; r \<in> A|] ==> 0 < r"
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by (insert preal_imp_psubset_positives, blast)
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instance preal :: linorder
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proof
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  fix x y :: preal
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  show "x <= y | y <= x"
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    apply (auto simp add: preal_le_def)
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    apply (rule ccontr)
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    apply (blast dest: not_in_Rep_preal_ub intro: preal_imp_pos [OF Rep_preal]
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             elim: order_less_asym)
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    done
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qed
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instantiation preal :: distrib_lattice
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begin
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definition
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  "(inf \<Colon> preal \<Rightarrow> preal \<Rightarrow> preal) = min"
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definition
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  "(sup \<Colon> preal \<Rightarrow> preal \<Rightarrow> preal) = max"
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instance
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  by intro_classes
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    (auto simp add: inf_preal_def sup_preal_def max_min_distrib2)
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end
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subsection{*Properties of Addition*}
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lemma preal_add_commute: "(x::preal) + y = y + x"
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apply (unfold preal_add_def add_set_def)
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apply (rule_tac f = Abs_preal in arg_cong)
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apply (force simp add: add.commute)
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done
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text{*Lemmas for proving that addition of two positive reals gives
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 a positive real*}
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text{*Part 1 of Dedekind sections definition*}
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lemma add_set_not_empty:
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     "[|cut A; cut B|] ==> {} \<subset> add_set A B"
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apply (drule preal_nonempty)+
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apply (auto simp add: add_set_def)
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done
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text{*Part 2 of Dedekind sections definition.  A structured version of
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this proof is @{text preal_not_mem_mult_set_Ex} below.*}
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lemma preal_not_mem_add_set_Ex:
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     "[|cut A; cut B|] ==> \<exists>q>0. q \<notin> add_set A B"
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apply (insert preal_exists_bound [of A] preal_exists_bound [of B], auto) 
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apply (rule_tac x = "x+xa" in exI)
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apply (simp add: add_set_def, clarify)
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apply (drule (3) not_in_preal_ub)+
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apply (force dest: add_strict_mono)
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done
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lemma add_set_not_rat_set:
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   assumes A: "cut A" 
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       and B: "cut B"
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     shows "add_set A B < {r. 0 < r}"
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proof
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  from preal_imp_pos [OF A] preal_imp_pos [OF B]
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  show "add_set A B \<subseteq> {r. 0 < r}" by (force simp add: add_set_def) 
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next
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  show "add_set A B \<noteq> {r. 0 < r}"
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    by (insert preal_not_mem_add_set_Ex [OF A B], blast) 
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qed
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text{*Part 3 of Dedekind sections definition*}
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lemma add_set_lemma3:
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     "[|cut A; cut B; u \<in> add_set A B; 0 < z; z < u|] 
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      ==> z \<in> add_set A B"
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proof (unfold add_set_def, clarify)
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  fix x::rat and y::rat
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  assume A: "cut A" 
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    and B: "cut B"
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    and [simp]: "0 < z"
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    and zless: "z < x + y"
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    and x:  "x \<in> A"
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    and y:  "y \<in> B"
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  have xpos [simp]: "0<x" by (rule preal_imp_pos [OF A x])
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  have ypos [simp]: "0<y" by (rule preal_imp_pos [OF B y])
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  have xypos [simp]: "0 < x+y" by (simp add: pos_add_strict)
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  let ?f = "z/(x+y)"
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  have fless: "?f < 1" by (simp add: zless pos_divide_less_eq)
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  show "\<exists>x' \<in> A. \<exists>y'\<in>B. z = x' + y'"
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  proof (intro bexI)
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    show "z = x*?f + y*?f"
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      by (simp add: distrib_right [symmetric] divide_inverse ac_simps
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          order_less_imp_not_eq2)
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  next
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    show "y * ?f \<in> B"
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    proof (rule preal_downwards_closed [OF B y])
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      show "0 < y * ?f"
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        by (simp add: divide_inverse zero_less_mult_iff)
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    next
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      show "y * ?f < y"
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        by (insert mult_strict_left_mono [OF fless ypos], simp)
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    qed
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  next
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    show "x * ?f \<in> A"
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    proof (rule preal_downwards_closed [OF A x])
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      show "0 < x * ?f"
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        by (simp add: divide_inverse zero_less_mult_iff)
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    next
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      show "x * ?f < x"
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        by (insert mult_strict_left_mono [OF fless xpos], simp)
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    qed
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  qed
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qed
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text{*Part 4 of Dedekind sections definition*}
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lemma add_set_lemma4:
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     "[|cut A; cut B; y \<in> add_set A B|] ==> \<exists>u \<in> add_set A B. y < u"
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apply (auto simp add: add_set_def)
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apply (frule preal_exists_greater [of A], auto) 
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apply (rule_tac x="u + ya" in exI)
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apply (auto intro: add_strict_left_mono)
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done
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lemma mem_add_set:
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     "[|cut A; cut B|] ==> cut (add_set A B)"
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apply (simp (no_asm_simp) add: cut_def)
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apply (blast intro!: add_set_not_empty add_set_not_rat_set
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                     add_set_lemma3 add_set_lemma4)
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done
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lemma preal_add_assoc: "((x::preal) + y) + z = x + (y + z)"
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   335
apply (simp add: preal_add_def mem_add_set Rep_preal)
haftmann@57514
   336
apply (force simp add: add_set_def ac_simps)
huffman@36793
   337
done
huffman@36793
   338
huffman@36793
   339
instance preal :: ab_semigroup_add
huffman@36793
   340
proof
huffman@36793
   341
  fix a b c :: preal
huffman@36793
   342
  show "(a + b) + c = a + (b + c)" by (rule preal_add_assoc)
huffman@36793
   343
  show "a + b = b + a" by (rule preal_add_commute)
huffman@36793
   344
qed
huffman@36793
   345
huffman@36793
   346
huffman@36793
   347
subsection{*Properties of Multiplication*}
huffman@36793
   348
huffman@36793
   349
text{*Proofs essentially same as for addition*}
huffman@36793
   350
huffman@36793
   351
lemma preal_mult_commute: "(x::preal) * y = y * x"
huffman@36793
   352
apply (unfold preal_mult_def mult_set_def)
huffman@36793
   353
apply (rule_tac f = Abs_preal in arg_cong)
haftmann@57512
   354
apply (force simp add: mult.commute)
huffman@36793
   355
done
huffman@36793
   356
huffman@36793
   357
text{*Multiplication of two positive reals gives a positive real.*}
huffman@36793
   358
huffman@36793
   359
text{*Lemmas for proving positive reals multiplication set in @{typ preal}*}
huffman@36793
   360
huffman@36793
   361
text{*Part 1 of Dedekind sections definition*}
huffman@36793
   362
lemma mult_set_not_empty:
haftmann@59814
   363
     "[|cut A; cut B|] ==> {} \<subset> mult_set A B"
huffman@36793
   364
apply (insert preal_nonempty [of A] preal_nonempty [of B]) 
huffman@36793
   365
apply (auto simp add: mult_set_def)
huffman@36793
   366
done
huffman@36793
   367
huffman@36793
   368
text{*Part 2 of Dedekind sections definition*}
huffman@36793
   369
lemma preal_not_mem_mult_set_Ex:
haftmann@59814
   370
  assumes A: "cut A" 
haftmann@59814
   371
    and B: "cut B"
wenzelm@41541
   372
  shows "\<exists>q. 0 < q & q \<notin> mult_set A B"
huffman@36793
   373
proof -
wenzelm@41541
   374
  from preal_exists_bound [OF A] obtain x where 1 [simp]: "0 < x" "x \<notin> A" by blast
wenzelm@41541
   375
  from preal_exists_bound [OF B] obtain y where 2 [simp]: "0 < y" "y \<notin> B" by blast
huffman@36793
   376
  show ?thesis
huffman@36793
   377
  proof (intro exI conjI)
nipkow@56544
   378
    show "0 < x*y" by simp
huffman@36793
   379
    show "x * y \<notin> mult_set A B"
huffman@36793
   380
    proof -
wenzelm@41541
   381
      {
wenzelm@41541
   382
        fix u::rat and v::rat
wenzelm@41541
   383
        assume u: "u \<in> A" and v: "v \<in> B" and xy: "x*y = u*v"
wenzelm@41541
   384
        moreover from A B 1 2 u v have "u<x" and "v<y" by (blast dest: not_in_preal_ub)+
wenzelm@41541
   385
        moreover
wenzelm@41541
   386
        from A B 1 2 u v have "0\<le>v"
wenzelm@41541
   387
          by (blast intro: preal_imp_pos [OF B] order_less_imp_le)
wenzelm@41541
   388
        moreover
wenzelm@41541
   389
        from A B 1 `u < x` `v < y` `0 \<le> v`
wenzelm@41541
   390
        have "u*v < x*y" by (blast intro: mult_strict_mono)
wenzelm@41541
   391
        ultimately have False by force
wenzelm@41541
   392
      }
huffman@36793
   393
      thus ?thesis by (auto simp add: mult_set_def)
huffman@36793
   394
    qed
huffman@36793
   395
  qed
huffman@36793
   396
qed
huffman@36793
   397
huffman@36793
   398
lemma mult_set_not_rat_set:
haftmann@59814
   399
  assumes A: "cut A" 
haftmann@59814
   400
    and B: "cut B"
huffman@36793
   401
  shows "mult_set A B < {r. 0 < r}"
huffman@36793
   402
proof
huffman@36793
   403
  show "mult_set A B \<subseteq> {r. 0 < r}"
huffman@36793
   404
    by (force simp add: mult_set_def
huffman@36793
   405
      intro: preal_imp_pos [OF A] preal_imp_pos [OF B] mult_pos_pos)
huffman@36793
   406
  show "mult_set A B \<noteq> {r. 0 < r}"
huffman@36793
   407
    using preal_not_mem_mult_set_Ex [OF A B] by blast
huffman@36793
   408
qed
huffman@36793
   409
huffman@36793
   410
huffman@36793
   411
huffman@36793
   412
text{*Part 3 of Dedekind sections definition*}
huffman@36793
   413
lemma mult_set_lemma3:
haftmann@59814
   414
     "[|cut A; cut B; u \<in> mult_set A B; 0 < z; z < u|] 
huffman@36793
   415
      ==> z \<in> mult_set A B"
huffman@36793
   416
proof (unfold mult_set_def, clarify)
huffman@36793
   417
  fix x::rat and y::rat
haftmann@59814
   418
  assume A: "cut A" 
haftmann@59814
   419
    and B: "cut B"
huffman@36793
   420
    and [simp]: "0 < z"
huffman@36793
   421
    and zless: "z < x * y"
huffman@36793
   422
    and x:  "x \<in> A"
huffman@36793
   423
    and y:  "y \<in> B"
huffman@36793
   424
  have [simp]: "0<y" by (rule preal_imp_pos [OF B y])
huffman@36793
   425
  show "\<exists>x' \<in> A. \<exists>y' \<in> B. z = x' * y'"
huffman@36793
   426
  proof
huffman@36793
   427
    show "\<exists>y'\<in>B. z = (z/y) * y'"
huffman@36793
   428
    proof
huffman@36793
   429
      show "z = (z/y)*y"
haftmann@57512
   430
        by (simp add: divide_inverse mult.commute [of y] mult.assoc
huffman@36793
   431
                      order_less_imp_not_eq2)
huffman@36793
   432
      show "y \<in> B" by fact
huffman@36793
   433
    qed
huffman@36793
   434
  next
huffman@36793
   435
    show "z/y \<in> A"
huffman@36793
   436
    proof (rule preal_downwards_closed [OF A x])
huffman@36793
   437
      show "0 < z/y"
huffman@36793
   438
        by (simp add: zero_less_divide_iff)
huffman@36793
   439
      show "z/y < x" by (simp add: pos_divide_less_eq zless)
huffman@36793
   440
    qed
huffman@36793
   441
  qed
huffman@36793
   442
qed
huffman@36793
   443
huffman@36793
   444
text{*Part 4 of Dedekind sections definition*}
huffman@36793
   445
lemma mult_set_lemma4:
haftmann@59814
   446
     "[|cut A; cut B; y \<in> mult_set A B|] ==> \<exists>u \<in> mult_set A B. y < u"
huffman@36793
   447
apply (auto simp add: mult_set_def)
huffman@36793
   448
apply (frule preal_exists_greater [of A], auto) 
thomas@57492
   449
apply (rule_tac x="u * ya" in exI)
huffman@36793
   450
apply (auto intro: preal_imp_pos [of A] preal_imp_pos [of B] 
huffman@36793
   451
                   mult_strict_right_mono)
huffman@36793
   452
done
huffman@36793
   453
huffman@36793
   454
huffman@36793
   455
lemma mem_mult_set:
haftmann@59814
   456
     "[|cut A; cut B|] ==> cut (mult_set A B)"
haftmann@59814
   457
apply (simp (no_asm_simp) add: cut_def)
huffman@36793
   458
apply (blast intro!: mult_set_not_empty mult_set_not_rat_set
huffman@36793
   459
                     mult_set_lemma3 mult_set_lemma4)
huffman@36793
   460
done
huffman@36793
   461
huffman@36793
   462
lemma preal_mult_assoc: "((x::preal) * y) * z = x * (y * z)"
huffman@36793
   463
apply (simp add: preal_mult_def mem_mult_set Rep_preal)
haftmann@57514
   464
apply (force simp add: mult_set_def ac_simps)
huffman@36793
   465
done
huffman@36793
   466
huffman@36793
   467
instance preal :: ab_semigroup_mult
huffman@36793
   468
proof
huffman@36793
   469
  fix a b c :: preal
huffman@36793
   470
  show "(a * b) * c = a * (b * c)" by (rule preal_mult_assoc)
huffman@36793
   471
  show "a * b = b * a" by (rule preal_mult_commute)
huffman@36793
   472
qed
huffman@36793
   473
huffman@36793
   474
huffman@36793
   475
text{* Positive real 1 is the multiplicative identity element *}
huffman@36793
   476
huffman@36793
   477
lemma preal_mult_1: "(1::preal) * z = z"
huffman@36793
   478
proof (induct z)
huffman@36793
   479
  fix A :: "rat set"
haftmann@59814
   480
  assume A: "cut A"
huffman@36793
   481
  have "{w. \<exists>u. 0 < u \<and> u < 1 & (\<exists>v \<in> A. w = u * v)} = A" (is "?lhs = A")
huffman@36793
   482
  proof
huffman@36793
   483
    show "?lhs \<subseteq> A"
huffman@36793
   484
    proof clarify
huffman@36793
   485
      fix x::rat and u::rat and v::rat
huffman@36793
   486
      assume upos: "0<u" and "u<1" and v: "v \<in> A"
huffman@36793
   487
      have vpos: "0<v" by (rule preal_imp_pos [OF A v])
wenzelm@41541
   488
      hence "u*v < 1*v" by (simp only: mult_strict_right_mono upos `u < 1` v)
huffman@36793
   489
      thus "u * v \<in> A"
huffman@36793
   490
        by (force intro: preal_downwards_closed [OF A v] mult_pos_pos 
huffman@36793
   491
          upos vpos)
huffman@36793
   492
    qed
huffman@36793
   493
  next
huffman@36793
   494
    show "A \<subseteq> ?lhs"
huffman@36793
   495
    proof clarify
huffman@36793
   496
      fix x::rat
huffman@36793
   497
      assume x: "x \<in> A"
huffman@36793
   498
      have xpos: "0<x" by (rule preal_imp_pos [OF A x])
huffman@36793
   499
      from preal_exists_greater [OF A x]
huffman@36793
   500
      obtain v where v: "v \<in> A" and xlessv: "x < v" ..
huffman@36793
   501
      have vpos: "0<v" by (rule preal_imp_pos [OF A v])
huffman@36793
   502
      show "\<exists>u. 0 < u \<and> u < 1 \<and> (\<exists>v\<in>A. x = u * v)"
huffman@36793
   503
      proof (intro exI conjI)
huffman@36793
   504
        show "0 < x/v"
huffman@36793
   505
          by (simp add: zero_less_divide_iff xpos vpos)
huffman@36793
   506
        show "x / v < 1"
huffman@36793
   507
          by (simp add: pos_divide_less_eq vpos xlessv)
huffman@36793
   508
        show "\<exists>v'\<in>A. x = (x / v) * v'"
huffman@36793
   509
        proof
huffman@36793
   510
          show "x = (x/v)*v"
haftmann@57512
   511
            by (simp add: divide_inverse mult.assoc vpos
huffman@36793
   512
                          order_less_imp_not_eq2)
huffman@36793
   513
          show "v \<in> A" by fact
huffman@36793
   514
        qed
huffman@36793
   515
      qed
huffman@36793
   516
    qed
huffman@36793
   517
  qed
huffman@36793
   518
  thus "1 * Abs_preal A = Abs_preal A"
huffman@36793
   519
    by (simp add: preal_one_def preal_mult_def mult_set_def 
huffman@36793
   520
                  rat_mem_preal A)
huffman@36793
   521
qed
huffman@36793
   522
huffman@36793
   523
instance preal :: comm_monoid_mult
huffman@36793
   524
by intro_classes (rule preal_mult_1)
huffman@36793
   525
huffman@36793
   526
huffman@36793
   527
subsection{*Distribution of Multiplication across Addition*}
huffman@36793
   528
huffman@36793
   529
lemma mem_Rep_preal_add_iff:
huffman@36793
   530
      "(z \<in> Rep_preal(R+S)) = (\<exists>x \<in> Rep_preal R. \<exists>y \<in> Rep_preal S. z = x + y)"
huffman@36793
   531
apply (simp add: preal_add_def mem_add_set Rep_preal)
huffman@36793
   532
apply (simp add: add_set_def) 
huffman@36793
   533
done
huffman@36793
   534
huffman@36793
   535
lemma mem_Rep_preal_mult_iff:
huffman@36793
   536
      "(z \<in> Rep_preal(R*S)) = (\<exists>x \<in> Rep_preal R. \<exists>y \<in> Rep_preal S. z = x * y)"
huffman@36793
   537
apply (simp add: preal_mult_def mem_mult_set Rep_preal)
huffman@36793
   538
apply (simp add: mult_set_def) 
huffman@36793
   539
done
huffman@36793
   540
huffman@36793
   541
lemma distrib_subset1:
huffman@36793
   542
     "Rep_preal (w * (x + y)) \<subseteq> Rep_preal (w * x + w * y)"
huffman@36793
   543
apply (auto simp add: Bex_def mem_Rep_preal_add_iff mem_Rep_preal_mult_iff)
webertj@49962
   544
apply (force simp add: distrib_left)
huffman@36793
   545
done
huffman@36793
   546
huffman@36793
   547
lemma preal_add_mult_distrib_mean:
huffman@36793
   548
  assumes a: "a \<in> Rep_preal w"
huffman@36793
   549
    and b: "b \<in> Rep_preal w"
huffman@36793
   550
    and d: "d \<in> Rep_preal x"
huffman@36793
   551
    and e: "e \<in> Rep_preal y"
huffman@36793
   552
  shows "\<exists>c \<in> Rep_preal w. a * d + b * e = c * (d + e)"
huffman@36793
   553
proof
huffman@36793
   554
  let ?c = "(a*d + b*e)/(d+e)"
huffman@36793
   555
  have [simp]: "0<a" "0<b" "0<d" "0<e" "0<d+e"
huffman@36793
   556
    by (blast intro: preal_imp_pos [OF Rep_preal] a b d e pos_add_strict)+
huffman@36793
   557
  have cpos: "0 < ?c"
huffman@36793
   558
    by (simp add: zero_less_divide_iff zero_less_mult_iff pos_add_strict)
huffman@36793
   559
  show "a * d + b * e = ?c * (d + e)"
haftmann@57512
   560
    by (simp add: divide_inverse mult.assoc order_less_imp_not_eq2)
huffman@36793
   561
  show "?c \<in> Rep_preal w"
huffman@36793
   562
  proof (cases rule: linorder_le_cases)
huffman@36793
   563
    assume "a \<le> b"
huffman@36793
   564
    hence "?c \<le> b"
webertj@49962
   565
      by (simp add: pos_divide_le_eq distrib_left mult_right_mono
huffman@36793
   566
                    order_less_imp_le)
huffman@36793
   567
    thus ?thesis by (rule preal_downwards_closed' [OF Rep_preal b cpos])
huffman@36793
   568
  next
huffman@36793
   569
    assume "b \<le> a"
huffman@36793
   570
    hence "?c \<le> a"
webertj@49962
   571
      by (simp add: pos_divide_le_eq distrib_left mult_right_mono
huffman@36793
   572
                    order_less_imp_le)
huffman@36793
   573
    thus ?thesis by (rule preal_downwards_closed' [OF Rep_preal a cpos])
huffman@36793
   574
  qed
huffman@36793
   575
qed
huffman@36793
   576
huffman@36793
   577
lemma distrib_subset2:
huffman@36793
   578
     "Rep_preal (w * x + w * y) \<subseteq> Rep_preal (w * (x + y))"
huffman@36793
   579
apply (auto simp add: Bex_def mem_Rep_preal_add_iff mem_Rep_preal_mult_iff)
huffman@36793
   580
apply (drule_tac w=w and x=x and y=y in preal_add_mult_distrib_mean, auto)
huffman@36793
   581
done
huffman@36793
   582
huffman@36793
   583
lemma preal_add_mult_distrib2: "(w * ((x::preal) + y)) = (w * x) + (w * y)"
huffman@36793
   584
apply (rule Rep_preal_inject [THEN iffD1])
huffman@36793
   585
apply (rule equalityI [OF distrib_subset1 distrib_subset2])
huffman@36793
   586
done
huffman@36793
   587
huffman@36793
   588
lemma preal_add_mult_distrib: "(((x::preal) + y) * w) = (x * w) + (y * w)"
huffman@36793
   589
by (simp add: preal_mult_commute preal_add_mult_distrib2)
huffman@36793
   590
huffman@36793
   591
instance preal :: comm_semiring
huffman@36793
   592
by intro_classes (rule preal_add_mult_distrib)
huffman@36793
   593
huffman@36793
   594
huffman@36793
   595
subsection{*Existence of Inverse, a Positive Real*}
huffman@36793
   596
huffman@36793
   597
lemma mem_inv_set_ex:
haftmann@59814
   598
  assumes A: "cut A" shows "\<exists>x y. 0 < x & x < y & inverse y \<notin> A"
huffman@36793
   599
proof -
huffman@36793
   600
  from preal_exists_bound [OF A]
huffman@36793
   601
  obtain x where [simp]: "0<x" "x \<notin> A" by blast
huffman@36793
   602
  show ?thesis
huffman@36793
   603
  proof (intro exI conjI)
huffman@36793
   604
    show "0 < inverse (x+1)"
huffman@36793
   605
      by (simp add: order_less_trans [OF _ less_add_one]) 
huffman@36793
   606
    show "inverse(x+1) < inverse x"
huffman@36793
   607
      by (simp add: less_imp_inverse_less less_add_one)
huffman@36793
   608
    show "inverse (inverse x) \<notin> A"
huffman@36793
   609
      by (simp add: order_less_imp_not_eq2)
huffman@36793
   610
  qed
huffman@36793
   611
qed
huffman@36793
   612
huffman@36793
   613
text{*Part 1 of Dedekind sections definition*}
huffman@36793
   614
lemma inverse_set_not_empty:
haftmann@59814
   615
     "cut A ==> {} \<subset> inverse_set A"
huffman@36793
   616
apply (insert mem_inv_set_ex [of A])
huffman@36793
   617
apply (auto simp add: inverse_set_def)
huffman@36793
   618
done
huffman@36793
   619
huffman@36793
   620
text{*Part 2 of Dedekind sections definition*}
huffman@36793
   621
huffman@36793
   622
lemma preal_not_mem_inverse_set_Ex:
haftmann@59814
   623
   assumes A: "cut A"  shows "\<exists>q. 0 < q & q \<notin> inverse_set A"
huffman@36793
   624
proof -
huffman@36793
   625
  from preal_nonempty [OF A]
huffman@36793
   626
  obtain x where x: "x \<in> A" and  xpos [simp]: "0<x" ..
huffman@36793
   627
  show ?thesis
huffman@36793
   628
  proof (intro exI conjI)
huffman@36793
   629
    show "0 < inverse x" by simp
huffman@36793
   630
    show "inverse x \<notin> inverse_set A"
huffman@36793
   631
    proof -
huffman@36793
   632
      { fix y::rat 
huffman@36793
   633
        assume ygt: "inverse x < y"
huffman@36793
   634
        have [simp]: "0 < y" by (simp add: order_less_trans [OF _ ygt])
huffman@36793
   635
        have iyless: "inverse y < x" 
huffman@36793
   636
          by (simp add: inverse_less_imp_less [of x] ygt)
huffman@36793
   637
        have "inverse y \<in> A"
huffman@36793
   638
          by (simp add: preal_downwards_closed [OF A x] iyless)}
huffman@36793
   639
     thus ?thesis by (auto simp add: inverse_set_def)
huffman@36793
   640
    qed
huffman@36793
   641
  qed
huffman@36793
   642
qed
huffman@36793
   643
huffman@36793
   644
lemma inverse_set_not_rat_set:
haftmann@59814
   645
   assumes A: "cut A"  shows "inverse_set A < {r. 0 < r}"
huffman@36793
   646
proof
huffman@36793
   647
  show "inverse_set A \<subseteq> {r. 0 < r}"  by (force simp add: inverse_set_def)
huffman@36793
   648
next
huffman@36793
   649
  show "inverse_set A \<noteq> {r. 0 < r}"
huffman@36793
   650
    by (insert preal_not_mem_inverse_set_Ex [OF A], blast)
huffman@36793
   651
qed
huffman@36793
   652
huffman@36793
   653
text{*Part 3 of Dedekind sections definition*}
huffman@36793
   654
lemma inverse_set_lemma3:
haftmann@59814
   655
     "[|cut A; u \<in> inverse_set A; 0 < z; z < u|] 
huffman@36793
   656
      ==> z \<in> inverse_set A"
huffman@36793
   657
apply (auto simp add: inverse_set_def)
huffman@36793
   658
apply (auto intro: order_less_trans)
huffman@36793
   659
done
huffman@36793
   660
huffman@36793
   661
text{*Part 4 of Dedekind sections definition*}
huffman@36793
   662
lemma inverse_set_lemma4:
haftmann@59814
   663
     "[|cut A; y \<in> inverse_set A|] ==> \<exists>u \<in> inverse_set A. y < u"
huffman@36793
   664
apply (auto simp add: inverse_set_def)
huffman@36793
   665
apply (drule dense [of y]) 
huffman@36793
   666
apply (blast intro: order_less_trans)
huffman@36793
   667
done
huffman@36793
   668
huffman@36793
   669
huffman@36793
   670
lemma mem_inverse_set:
haftmann@59814
   671
     "cut A ==> cut (inverse_set A)"
haftmann@59814
   672
apply (simp (no_asm_simp) add: cut_def)
huffman@36793
   673
apply (blast intro!: inverse_set_not_empty inverse_set_not_rat_set
huffman@36793
   674
                     inverse_set_lemma3 inverse_set_lemma4)
huffman@36793
   675
done
huffman@36793
   676
huffman@36793
   677
huffman@36793
   678
subsection{*Gleason's Lemma 9-3.4, page 122*}
huffman@36793
   679
huffman@36793
   680
lemma Gleason9_34_exists:
haftmann@59814
   681
  assumes A: "cut A"
huffman@36793
   682
    and "\<forall>x\<in>A. x + u \<in> A"
huffman@36793
   683
    and "0 \<le> z"
huffman@36793
   684
  shows "\<exists>b\<in>A. b + (of_int z) * u \<in> A"
huffman@36793
   685
proof (cases z rule: int_cases)
huffman@36793
   686
  case (nonneg n)
huffman@36793
   687
  show ?thesis
wenzelm@41541
   688
  proof (simp add: nonneg, induct n)
huffman@36793
   689
    case 0
wenzelm@41541
   690
    from preal_nonempty [OF A]
wenzelm@41541
   691
    show ?case  by force 
wenzelm@41541
   692
  next
huffman@36793
   693
    case (Suc k)
wenzelm@41541
   694
    then obtain b where b: "b \<in> A" "b + of_nat k * u \<in> A" ..
wenzelm@41541
   695
    hence "b + of_int (int k)*u + u \<in> A" by (simp add: assms)
wenzelm@41541
   696
    thus ?case by (force simp add: algebra_simps b)
huffman@36793
   697
  qed
huffman@36793
   698
next
huffman@36793
   699
  case (neg n)
wenzelm@41541
   700
  with assms show ?thesis by simp
huffman@36793
   701
qed
huffman@36793
   702
huffman@36793
   703
lemma Gleason9_34_contra:
haftmann@59814
   704
  assumes A: "cut A"
huffman@36793
   705
    shows "[|\<forall>x\<in>A. x + u \<in> A; 0 < u; 0 < y; y \<notin> A|] ==> False"
huffman@36793
   706
proof (induct u, induct y)
huffman@36793
   707
  fix a::int and b::int
huffman@36793
   708
  fix c::int and d::int
huffman@36793
   709
  assume bpos [simp]: "0 < b"
huffman@36793
   710
    and dpos [simp]: "0 < d"
huffman@36793
   711
    and closed: "\<forall>x\<in>A. x + (Fract c d) \<in> A"
huffman@36793
   712
    and upos: "0 < Fract c d"
huffman@36793
   713
    and ypos: "0 < Fract a b"
huffman@36793
   714
    and notin: "Fract a b \<notin> A"
huffman@36793
   715
  have cpos [simp]: "0 < c" 
huffman@36793
   716
    by (simp add: zero_less_Fract_iff [OF dpos, symmetric] upos) 
huffman@36793
   717
  have apos [simp]: "0 < a" 
huffman@36793
   718
    by (simp add: zero_less_Fract_iff [OF bpos, symmetric] ypos) 
huffman@36793
   719
  let ?k = "a*d"
huffman@36793
   720
  have frle: "Fract a b \<le> Fract ?k 1 * (Fract c d)" 
huffman@36793
   721
  proof -
huffman@36793
   722
    have "?thesis = ((a * d * b * d) \<le> c * b * (a * d * b * d))"
haftmann@57514
   723
      by (simp add: order_less_imp_not_eq2 ac_simps) 
huffman@36793
   724
    moreover
huffman@36793
   725
    have "(1 * (a * d * b * d)) \<le> c * b * (a * d * b * d)"
huffman@36793
   726
      by (rule mult_mono, 
huffman@36793
   727
          simp_all add: int_one_le_iff_zero_less zero_less_mult_iff 
huffman@36793
   728
                        order_less_imp_le)
huffman@36793
   729
    ultimately
huffman@36793
   730
    show ?thesis by simp
huffman@36793
   731
  qed
huffman@36793
   732
  have k: "0 \<le> ?k" by (simp add: order_less_imp_le zero_less_mult_iff)  
huffman@36793
   733
  from Gleason9_34_exists [OF A closed k]
huffman@36793
   734
  obtain z where z: "z \<in> A" 
huffman@36793
   735
             and mem: "z + of_int ?k * Fract c d \<in> A" ..
huffman@36793
   736
  have less: "z + of_int ?k * Fract c d < Fract a b"
huffman@36793
   737
    by (rule not_in_preal_ub [OF A notin mem ypos])
huffman@36793
   738
  have "0<z" by (rule preal_imp_pos [OF A z])
huffman@36793
   739
  with frle and less show False by (simp add: Fract_of_int_eq) 
huffman@36793
   740
qed
huffman@36793
   741
huffman@36793
   742
huffman@36793
   743
lemma Gleason9_34:
haftmann@59814
   744
  assumes A: "cut A"
huffman@36793
   745
    and upos: "0 < u"
huffman@36793
   746
  shows "\<exists>r \<in> A. r + u \<notin> A"
huffman@36793
   747
proof (rule ccontr, simp)
huffman@36793
   748
  assume closed: "\<forall>r\<in>A. r + u \<in> A"
huffman@36793
   749
  from preal_exists_bound [OF A]
huffman@36793
   750
  obtain y where y: "y \<notin> A" and ypos: "0 < y" by blast
huffman@36793
   751
  show False
huffman@36793
   752
    by (rule Gleason9_34_contra [OF A closed upos ypos y])
huffman@36793
   753
qed
huffman@36793
   754
huffman@36793
   755
huffman@36793
   756
huffman@36793
   757
subsection{*Gleason's Lemma 9-3.6*}
huffman@36793
   758
huffman@36793
   759
lemma lemma_gleason9_36:
haftmann@59814
   760
  assumes A: "cut A"
huffman@36793
   761
    and x: "1 < x"
huffman@36793
   762
  shows "\<exists>r \<in> A. r*x \<notin> A"
huffman@36793
   763
proof -
huffman@36793
   764
  from preal_nonempty [OF A]
huffman@36793
   765
  obtain y where y: "y \<in> A" and  ypos: "0<y" ..
huffman@36793
   766
  show ?thesis 
huffman@36793
   767
  proof (rule classical)
huffman@36793
   768
    assume "~(\<exists>r\<in>A. r * x \<notin> A)"
huffman@36793
   769
    with y have ymem: "y * x \<in> A" by blast 
huffman@36793
   770
    from ypos mult_strict_left_mono [OF x]
huffman@36793
   771
    have yless: "y < y*x" by simp 
huffman@36793
   772
    let ?d = "y*x - y"
huffman@36793
   773
    from yless have dpos: "0 < ?d" and eq: "y + ?d = y*x" by auto
huffman@36793
   774
    from Gleason9_34 [OF A dpos]
huffman@36793
   775
    obtain r where r: "r\<in>A" and notin: "r + ?d \<notin> A" ..
huffman@36793
   776
    have rpos: "0<r" by (rule preal_imp_pos [OF A r])
huffman@36793
   777
    with dpos have rdpos: "0 < r + ?d" by arith
huffman@36793
   778
    have "~ (r + ?d \<le> y + ?d)"
huffman@36793
   779
    proof
huffman@36793
   780
      assume le: "r + ?d \<le> y + ?d" 
huffman@36793
   781
      from ymem have yd: "y + ?d \<in> A" by (simp add: eq)
huffman@36793
   782
      have "r + ?d \<in> A" by (rule preal_downwards_closed' [OF A yd rdpos le])
huffman@36793
   783
      with notin show False by simp
huffman@36793
   784
    qed
huffman@36793
   785
    hence "y < r" by simp
huffman@36793
   786
    with ypos have  dless: "?d < (r * ?d)/y"
haftmann@57512
   787
      by (simp add: pos_less_divide_eq mult.commute [of ?d]
huffman@36793
   788
                    mult_strict_right_mono dpos)
huffman@36793
   789
    have "r + ?d < r*x"
huffman@36793
   790
    proof -
huffman@36793
   791
      have "r + ?d < r + (r * ?d)/y" by (simp add: dless)
wenzelm@53373
   792
      also from ypos have "... = (r/y) * (y + ?d)"
huffman@36793
   793
        by (simp only: algebra_simps divide_inverse, simp)
huffman@36793
   794
      also have "... = r*x" using ypos
huffman@36793
   795
        by simp
huffman@36793
   796
      finally show "r + ?d < r*x" .
huffman@36793
   797
    qed
huffman@36793
   798
    with r notin rdpos
huffman@36793
   799
    show "\<exists>r\<in>A. r * x \<notin> A" by (blast dest:  preal_downwards_closed [OF A])
huffman@36793
   800
  qed  
huffman@36793
   801
qed
huffman@36793
   802
huffman@36793
   803
subsection{*Existence of Inverse: Part 2*}
huffman@36793
   804
huffman@36793
   805
lemma mem_Rep_preal_inverse_iff:
huffman@36793
   806
      "(z \<in> Rep_preal(inverse R)) = 
huffman@36793
   807
       (0 < z \<and> (\<exists>y. z < y \<and> inverse y \<notin> Rep_preal R))"
huffman@36793
   808
apply (simp add: preal_inverse_def mem_inverse_set Rep_preal)
huffman@36793
   809
apply (simp add: inverse_set_def) 
huffman@36793
   810
done
huffman@36793
   811
huffman@36793
   812
lemma Rep_preal_one:
huffman@36793
   813
     "Rep_preal 1 = {x. 0 < x \<and> x < 1}"
huffman@36793
   814
by (simp add: preal_one_def rat_mem_preal)
huffman@36793
   815
huffman@36793
   816
lemma subset_inverse_mult_lemma:
huffman@36793
   817
  assumes xpos: "0 < x" and xless: "x < 1"
huffman@36793
   818
  shows "\<exists>r u y. 0 < r & r < y & inverse y \<notin> Rep_preal R & 
huffman@36793
   819
    u \<in> Rep_preal R & x = r * u"
huffman@36793
   820
proof -
huffman@36793
   821
  from xpos and xless have "1 < inverse x" by (simp add: one_less_inverse_iff)
huffman@36793
   822
  from lemma_gleason9_36 [OF Rep_preal this]
huffman@36793
   823
  obtain r where r: "r \<in> Rep_preal R" 
huffman@36793
   824
             and notin: "r * (inverse x) \<notin> Rep_preal R" ..
huffman@36793
   825
  have rpos: "0<r" by (rule preal_imp_pos [OF Rep_preal r])
huffman@36793
   826
  from preal_exists_greater [OF Rep_preal r]
huffman@36793
   827
  obtain u where u: "u \<in> Rep_preal R" and rless: "r < u" ..
huffman@36793
   828
  have upos: "0<u" by (rule preal_imp_pos [OF Rep_preal u])
huffman@36793
   829
  show ?thesis
huffman@36793
   830
  proof (intro exI conjI)
huffman@36793
   831
    show "0 < x/u" using xpos upos
huffman@36793
   832
      by (simp add: zero_less_divide_iff)  
huffman@36793
   833
    show "x/u < x/r" using xpos upos rpos
huffman@36793
   834
      by (simp add: divide_inverse mult_less_cancel_left rless) 
huffman@36793
   835
    show "inverse (x / r) \<notin> Rep_preal R" using notin
haftmann@57512
   836
      by (simp add: divide_inverse mult.commute) 
huffman@36793
   837
    show "u \<in> Rep_preal R" by (rule u) 
huffman@36793
   838
    show "x = x / u * u" using upos 
haftmann@57512
   839
      by (simp add: divide_inverse mult.commute) 
huffman@36793
   840
  qed
huffman@36793
   841
qed
huffman@36793
   842
huffman@36793
   843
lemma subset_inverse_mult: 
huffman@36793
   844
     "Rep_preal 1 \<subseteq> Rep_preal(inverse R * R)"
huffman@36793
   845
apply (auto simp add: Bex_def Rep_preal_one mem_Rep_preal_inverse_iff 
huffman@36793
   846
                      mem_Rep_preal_mult_iff)
huffman@36793
   847
apply (blast dest: subset_inverse_mult_lemma) 
huffman@36793
   848
done
huffman@36793
   849
huffman@36793
   850
lemma inverse_mult_subset_lemma:
huffman@36793
   851
  assumes rpos: "0 < r" 
huffman@36793
   852
    and rless: "r < y"
huffman@36793
   853
    and notin: "inverse y \<notin> Rep_preal R"
huffman@36793
   854
    and q: "q \<in> Rep_preal R"
huffman@36793
   855
  shows "r*q < 1"
huffman@36793
   856
proof -
huffman@36793
   857
  have "q < inverse y" using rpos rless
huffman@36793
   858
    by (simp add: not_in_preal_ub [OF Rep_preal notin] q)
huffman@36793
   859
  hence "r * q < r/y" using rpos
huffman@36793
   860
    by (simp add: divide_inverse mult_less_cancel_left)
huffman@36793
   861
  also have "... \<le> 1" using rpos rless
huffman@36793
   862
    by (simp add: pos_divide_le_eq)
huffman@36793
   863
  finally show ?thesis .
huffman@36793
   864
qed
huffman@36793
   865
huffman@36793
   866
lemma inverse_mult_subset:
huffman@36793
   867
     "Rep_preal(inverse R * R) \<subseteq> Rep_preal 1"
huffman@36793
   868
apply (auto simp add: Bex_def Rep_preal_one mem_Rep_preal_inverse_iff
huffman@36793
   869
                      mem_Rep_preal_mult_iff)
huffman@36793
   870
apply (simp add: zero_less_mult_iff preal_imp_pos [OF Rep_preal]) 
huffman@36793
   871
apply (blast intro: inverse_mult_subset_lemma) 
huffman@36793
   872
done
huffman@36793
   873
huffman@36793
   874
lemma preal_mult_inverse: "inverse R * R = (1::preal)"
huffman@36793
   875
apply (rule Rep_preal_inject [THEN iffD1])
huffman@36793
   876
apply (rule equalityI [OF inverse_mult_subset subset_inverse_mult]) 
huffman@36793
   877
done
huffman@36793
   878
huffman@36793
   879
lemma preal_mult_inverse_right: "R * inverse R = (1::preal)"
huffman@36793
   880
apply (rule preal_mult_commute [THEN subst])
huffman@36793
   881
apply (rule preal_mult_inverse)
huffman@36793
   882
done
huffman@36793
   883
huffman@36793
   884
huffman@36793
   885
text{*Theorems needing @{text Gleason9_34}*}
huffman@36793
   886
huffman@36793
   887
lemma Rep_preal_self_subset: "Rep_preal (R) \<subseteq> Rep_preal(R + S)"
huffman@36793
   888
proof 
huffman@36793
   889
  fix r
huffman@36793
   890
  assume r: "r \<in> Rep_preal R"
huffman@36793
   891
  have rpos: "0<r" by (rule preal_imp_pos [OF Rep_preal r])
huffman@36793
   892
  from mem_Rep_preal_Ex 
huffman@36793
   893
  obtain y where y: "y \<in> Rep_preal S" ..
huffman@36793
   894
  have ypos: "0<y" by (rule preal_imp_pos [OF Rep_preal y])
huffman@36793
   895
  have ry: "r+y \<in> Rep_preal(R + S)" using r y
huffman@36793
   896
    by (auto simp add: mem_Rep_preal_add_iff)
huffman@36793
   897
  show "r \<in> Rep_preal(R + S)" using r ypos rpos 
huffman@36793
   898
    by (simp add:  preal_downwards_closed [OF Rep_preal ry]) 
huffman@36793
   899
qed
huffman@36793
   900
huffman@36793
   901
lemma Rep_preal_sum_not_subset: "~ Rep_preal (R + S) \<subseteq> Rep_preal(R)"
huffman@36793
   902
proof -
huffman@36793
   903
  from mem_Rep_preal_Ex 
huffman@36793
   904
  obtain y where y: "y \<in> Rep_preal S" ..
huffman@36793
   905
  have ypos: "0<y" by (rule preal_imp_pos [OF Rep_preal y])
huffman@36793
   906
  from  Gleason9_34 [OF Rep_preal ypos]
huffman@36793
   907
  obtain r where r: "r \<in> Rep_preal R" and notin: "r + y \<notin> Rep_preal R" ..
huffman@36793
   908
  have "r + y \<in> Rep_preal (R + S)" using r y
huffman@36793
   909
    by (auto simp add: mem_Rep_preal_add_iff)
huffman@36793
   910
  thus ?thesis using notin by blast
huffman@36793
   911
qed
huffman@36793
   912
huffman@36793
   913
lemma Rep_preal_sum_not_eq: "Rep_preal (R + S) \<noteq> Rep_preal(R)"
huffman@36793
   914
by (insert Rep_preal_sum_not_subset, blast)
huffman@36793
   915
huffman@36793
   916
text{*at last, Gleason prop. 9-3.5(iii) page 123*}
huffman@36793
   917
lemma preal_self_less_add_left: "(R::preal) < R + S"
huffman@36793
   918
apply (unfold preal_less_def less_le)
huffman@36793
   919
apply (simp add: Rep_preal_self_subset Rep_preal_sum_not_eq [THEN not_sym])
huffman@36793
   920
done
huffman@36793
   921
huffman@36793
   922
huffman@36793
   923
subsection{*Subtraction for Positive Reals*}
huffman@36793
   924
huffman@36793
   925
text{*Gleason prop. 9-3.5(iv), page 123: proving @{prop "A < B ==> \<exists>D. A + D =
huffman@36793
   926
B"}. We define the claimed @{term D} and show that it is a positive real*}
huffman@36793
   927
huffman@36793
   928
text{*Part 1 of Dedekind sections definition*}
huffman@36793
   929
lemma diff_set_not_empty:
huffman@36793
   930
     "R < S ==> {} \<subset> diff_set (Rep_preal S) (Rep_preal R)"
huffman@36793
   931
apply (auto simp add: preal_less_def diff_set_def elim!: equalityE) 
huffman@36793
   932
apply (frule_tac x1 = S in Rep_preal [THEN preal_exists_greater])
huffman@36793
   933
apply (drule preal_imp_pos [OF Rep_preal], clarify)
huffman@36793
   934
apply (cut_tac a=x and b=u in add_eq_exists, force) 
huffman@36793
   935
done
huffman@36793
   936
huffman@36793
   937
text{*Part 2 of Dedekind sections definition*}
huffman@36793
   938
lemma diff_set_nonempty:
huffman@36793
   939
     "\<exists>q. 0 < q & q \<notin> diff_set (Rep_preal S) (Rep_preal R)"
huffman@36793
   940
apply (cut_tac X = S in Rep_preal_exists_bound)
huffman@36793
   941
apply (erule exE)
huffman@36793
   942
apply (rule_tac x = x in exI, auto)
huffman@36793
   943
apply (simp add: diff_set_def) 
huffman@36793
   944
apply (auto dest: Rep_preal [THEN preal_downwards_closed])
huffman@36793
   945
done
huffman@36793
   946
huffman@36793
   947
lemma diff_set_not_rat_set:
huffman@36793
   948
  "diff_set (Rep_preal S) (Rep_preal R) < {r. 0 < r}" (is "?lhs < ?rhs")
huffman@36793
   949
proof
huffman@36793
   950
  show "?lhs \<subseteq> ?rhs" by (auto simp add: diff_set_def) 
huffman@36793
   951
  show "?lhs \<noteq> ?rhs" using diff_set_nonempty by blast
huffman@36793
   952
qed
huffman@36793
   953
huffman@36793
   954
text{*Part 3 of Dedekind sections definition*}
huffman@36793
   955
lemma diff_set_lemma3:
huffman@36793
   956
     "[|R < S; u \<in> diff_set (Rep_preal S) (Rep_preal R); 0 < z; z < u|] 
huffman@36793
   957
      ==> z \<in> diff_set (Rep_preal S) (Rep_preal R)"
huffman@36793
   958
apply (auto simp add: diff_set_def) 
huffman@36793
   959
apply (rule_tac x=x in exI) 
huffman@36793
   960
apply (drule Rep_preal [THEN preal_downwards_closed], auto)
huffman@36793
   961
done
huffman@36793
   962
huffman@36793
   963
text{*Part 4 of Dedekind sections definition*}
huffman@36793
   964
lemma diff_set_lemma4:
huffman@36793
   965
     "[|R < S; y \<in> diff_set (Rep_preal S) (Rep_preal R)|] 
huffman@36793
   966
      ==> \<exists>u \<in> diff_set (Rep_preal S) (Rep_preal R). y < u"
huffman@36793
   967
apply (auto simp add: diff_set_def) 
huffman@36793
   968
apply (drule Rep_preal [THEN preal_exists_greater], clarify) 
huffman@36793
   969
apply (cut_tac a="x+y" and b=u in add_eq_exists, clarify)  
huffman@36793
   970
apply (rule_tac x="y+xa" in exI) 
haftmann@57514
   971
apply (auto simp add: ac_simps)
huffman@36793
   972
done
huffman@36793
   973
huffman@36793
   974
lemma mem_diff_set:
haftmann@59814
   975
     "R < S ==> cut (diff_set (Rep_preal S) (Rep_preal R))"
haftmann@59814
   976
apply (unfold cut_def)
huffman@36793
   977
apply (blast intro!: diff_set_not_empty diff_set_not_rat_set
huffman@36793
   978
                     diff_set_lemma3 diff_set_lemma4)
huffman@36793
   979
done
huffman@36793
   980
huffman@36793
   981
lemma mem_Rep_preal_diff_iff:
huffman@36793
   982
      "R < S ==>
huffman@36793
   983
       (z \<in> Rep_preal(S-R)) = 
huffman@36793
   984
       (\<exists>x. 0 < x & 0 < z & x \<notin> Rep_preal R & x + z \<in> Rep_preal S)"
huffman@36793
   985
apply (simp add: preal_diff_def mem_diff_set Rep_preal)
huffman@36793
   986
apply (force simp add: diff_set_def) 
huffman@36793
   987
done
huffman@36793
   988
huffman@36793
   989
huffman@36793
   990
text{*proving that @{term "R + D \<le> S"}*}
huffman@36793
   991
huffman@36793
   992
lemma less_add_left_lemma:
huffman@36793
   993
  assumes Rless: "R < S"
huffman@36793
   994
    and a: "a \<in> Rep_preal R"
huffman@36793
   995
    and cb: "c + b \<in> Rep_preal S"
huffman@36793
   996
    and "c \<notin> Rep_preal R"
huffman@36793
   997
    and "0 < b"
huffman@36793
   998
    and "0 < c"
huffman@36793
   999
  shows "a + b \<in> Rep_preal S"
huffman@36793
  1000
proof -
huffman@36793
  1001
  have "0<a" by (rule preal_imp_pos [OF Rep_preal a])
huffman@36793
  1002
  moreover
wenzelm@41541
  1003
  have "a < c" using assms by (blast intro: not_in_Rep_preal_ub ) 
wenzelm@41541
  1004
  ultimately show ?thesis
wenzelm@41541
  1005
    using assms by (simp add: preal_downwards_closed [OF Rep_preal cb])
huffman@36793
  1006
qed
huffman@36793
  1007
huffman@36793
  1008
lemma less_add_left_le1:
huffman@36793
  1009
       "R < (S::preal) ==> R + (S-R) \<le> S"
huffman@36793
  1010
apply (auto simp add: Bex_def preal_le_def mem_Rep_preal_add_iff 
huffman@36793
  1011
                      mem_Rep_preal_diff_iff)
huffman@36793
  1012
apply (blast intro: less_add_left_lemma) 
huffman@36793
  1013
done
huffman@36793
  1014
huffman@36793
  1015
subsection{*proving that @{term "S \<le> R + D"} --- trickier*}
huffman@36793
  1016
huffman@36793
  1017
lemma lemma_sum_mem_Rep_preal_ex:
huffman@36793
  1018
     "x \<in> Rep_preal S ==> \<exists>e. 0 < e & x + e \<in> Rep_preal S"
huffman@36793
  1019
apply (drule Rep_preal [THEN preal_exists_greater], clarify) 
huffman@36793
  1020
apply (cut_tac a=x and b=u in add_eq_exists, auto) 
huffman@36793
  1021
done
huffman@36793
  1022
huffman@36793
  1023
lemma less_add_left_lemma2:
huffman@36793
  1024
  assumes Rless: "R < S"
huffman@36793
  1025
    and x:     "x \<in> Rep_preal S"
huffman@36793
  1026
    and xnot: "x \<notin>  Rep_preal R"
huffman@36793
  1027
  shows "\<exists>u v z. 0 < v & 0 < z & u \<in> Rep_preal R & z \<notin> Rep_preal R & 
huffman@36793
  1028
                     z + v \<in> Rep_preal S & x = u + v"
huffman@36793
  1029
proof -
huffman@36793
  1030
  have xpos: "0<x" by (rule preal_imp_pos [OF Rep_preal x])
huffman@36793
  1031
  from lemma_sum_mem_Rep_preal_ex [OF x]
huffman@36793
  1032
  obtain e where epos: "0 < e" and xe: "x + e \<in> Rep_preal S" by blast
huffman@36793
  1033
  from  Gleason9_34 [OF Rep_preal epos]
huffman@36793
  1034
  obtain r where r: "r \<in> Rep_preal R" and notin: "r + e \<notin> Rep_preal R" ..
huffman@36793
  1035
  with x xnot xpos have rless: "r < x" by (blast intro: not_in_Rep_preal_ub)
huffman@36793
  1036
  from add_eq_exists [of r x]
huffman@36793
  1037
  obtain y where eq: "x = r+y" by auto
huffman@36793
  1038
  show ?thesis 
huffman@36793
  1039
  proof (intro exI conjI)
huffman@36793
  1040
    show "r \<in> Rep_preal R" by (rule r)
huffman@36793
  1041
    show "r + e \<notin> Rep_preal R" by (rule notin)
haftmann@57514
  1042
    show "r + e + y \<in> Rep_preal S" using xe eq by (simp add: ac_simps)
huffman@36793
  1043
    show "x = r + y" by (simp add: eq)
huffman@36793
  1044
    show "0 < r + e" using epos preal_imp_pos [OF Rep_preal r]
huffman@36793
  1045
      by simp
huffman@36793
  1046
    show "0 < y" using rless eq by arith
huffman@36793
  1047
  qed
huffman@36793
  1048
qed
huffman@36793
  1049
huffman@36793
  1050
lemma less_add_left_le2: "R < (S::preal) ==> S \<le> R + (S-R)"
huffman@36793
  1051
apply (auto simp add: preal_le_def)
huffman@36793
  1052
apply (case_tac "x \<in> Rep_preal R")
huffman@36793
  1053
apply (cut_tac Rep_preal_self_subset [of R], force)
huffman@36793
  1054
apply (auto simp add: Bex_def mem_Rep_preal_add_iff mem_Rep_preal_diff_iff)
huffman@36793
  1055
apply (blast dest: less_add_left_lemma2)
huffman@36793
  1056
done
huffman@36793
  1057
huffman@36793
  1058
lemma less_add_left: "R < (S::preal) ==> R + (S-R) = S"
huffman@36793
  1059
by (blast intro: antisym [OF less_add_left_le1 less_add_left_le2])
huffman@36793
  1060
huffman@36793
  1061
lemma less_add_left_Ex: "R < (S::preal) ==> \<exists>D. R + D = S"
huffman@36793
  1062
by (fast dest: less_add_left)
huffman@36793
  1063
huffman@36793
  1064
lemma preal_add_less2_mono1: "R < (S::preal) ==> R + T < S + T"
huffman@36793
  1065
apply (auto dest!: less_add_left_Ex simp add: preal_add_assoc)
huffman@36793
  1066
apply (rule_tac y1 = D in preal_add_commute [THEN subst])
huffman@36793
  1067
apply (auto intro: preal_self_less_add_left simp add: preal_add_assoc [symmetric])
huffman@36793
  1068
done
huffman@36793
  1069
huffman@36793
  1070
lemma preal_add_less2_mono2: "R < (S::preal) ==> T + R < T + S"
huffman@36793
  1071
by (auto intro: preal_add_less2_mono1 simp add: preal_add_commute [of T])
huffman@36793
  1072
huffman@36793
  1073
lemma preal_add_right_less_cancel: "R + T < S + T ==> R < (S::preal)"
huffman@36793
  1074
apply (insert linorder_less_linear [of R S], auto)
huffman@36793
  1075
apply (drule_tac R = S and T = T in preal_add_less2_mono1)
huffman@36793
  1076
apply (blast dest: order_less_trans) 
huffman@36793
  1077
done
huffman@36793
  1078
huffman@36793
  1079
lemma preal_add_left_less_cancel: "T + R < T + S ==> R <  (S::preal)"
huffman@36793
  1080
by (auto elim: preal_add_right_less_cancel simp add: preal_add_commute [of T])
huffman@36793
  1081
haftmann@59815
  1082
lemma preal_add_less_cancel_left [simp]: "(T + (R::preal) < T + S) = (R < S)"
huffman@36793
  1083
by (blast intro: preal_add_less2_mono2 preal_add_left_less_cancel)
huffman@36793
  1084
haftmann@59815
  1085
lemma preal_add_less_cancel_right [simp]: "((R::preal) + T < S + T) = (R < S)"
haftmann@59815
  1086
  using preal_add_less_cancel_left [symmetric, of R S T] by (simp add: ac_simps)
haftmann@59815
  1087
haftmann@59815
  1088
lemma preal_add_le_cancel_left [simp]: "(T + (R::preal) \<le> T + S) = (R \<le> S)"
haftmann@59815
  1089
by (simp add: linorder_not_less [symmetric]) 
haftmann@59815
  1090
haftmann@59815
  1091
lemma preal_add_le_cancel_right [simp]: "((R::preal) + T \<le> S + T) = (R \<le> S)"
haftmann@59815
  1092
  using preal_add_le_cancel_left [symmetric, of R S T] by (simp add: ac_simps)
huffman@36793
  1093
huffman@36793
  1094
lemma preal_add_right_cancel: "(R::preal) + T = S + T ==> R = S"
huffman@36793
  1095
apply (insert linorder_less_linear [of R S], safe)
huffman@36793
  1096
apply (drule_tac [!] T = T in preal_add_less2_mono1, auto)
huffman@36793
  1097
done
huffman@36793
  1098
huffman@36793
  1099
lemma preal_add_left_cancel: "C + A = C + B ==> A = (B::preal)"
huffman@36793
  1100
by (auto intro: preal_add_right_cancel simp add: preal_add_commute)
huffman@36793
  1101
haftmann@59815
  1102
instance preal :: linordered_ab_semigroup_add
huffman@36793
  1103
proof
huffman@36793
  1104
  fix a b c :: preal
huffman@36793
  1105
  show "a \<le> b \<Longrightarrow> c + a \<le> c + b" by (simp only: preal_add_le_cancel_left)
huffman@36793
  1106
qed
huffman@36793
  1107
huffman@36793
  1108
huffman@36793
  1109
subsection{*Completeness of type @{typ preal}*}
huffman@36793
  1110
huffman@36793
  1111
text{*Prove that supremum is a cut*}
huffman@36793
  1112
huffman@36793
  1113
text{*Part 1 of Dedekind sections definition*}
huffman@36793
  1114
huffman@36793
  1115
lemma preal_sup_set_not_empty:
huffman@36793
  1116
     "P \<noteq> {} ==> {} \<subset> (\<Union>X \<in> P. Rep_preal(X))"
huffman@36793
  1117
apply auto
huffman@36793
  1118
apply (cut_tac X = x in mem_Rep_preal_Ex, auto)
huffman@36793
  1119
done
huffman@36793
  1120
huffman@36793
  1121
huffman@36793
  1122
text{*Part 2 of Dedekind sections definition*}
huffman@36793
  1123
huffman@36793
  1124
lemma preal_sup_not_exists:
huffman@36793
  1125
     "\<forall>X \<in> P. X \<le> Y ==> \<exists>q. 0 < q & q \<notin> (\<Union>X \<in> P. Rep_preal(X))"
huffman@36793
  1126
apply (cut_tac X = Y in Rep_preal_exists_bound)
huffman@36793
  1127
apply (auto simp add: preal_le_def)
huffman@36793
  1128
done
huffman@36793
  1129
huffman@36793
  1130
lemma preal_sup_set_not_rat_set:
huffman@36793
  1131
     "\<forall>X \<in> P. X \<le> Y ==> (\<Union>X \<in> P. Rep_preal(X)) < {r. 0 < r}"
huffman@36793
  1132
apply (drule preal_sup_not_exists)
huffman@36793
  1133
apply (blast intro: preal_imp_pos [OF Rep_preal])  
huffman@36793
  1134
done
huffman@36793
  1135
huffman@36793
  1136
text{*Part 3 of Dedekind sections definition*}
huffman@36793
  1137
lemma preal_sup_set_lemma3:
huffman@36793
  1138
     "[|P \<noteq> {}; \<forall>X \<in> P. X \<le> Y; u \<in> (\<Union>X \<in> P. Rep_preal(X)); 0 < z; z < u|]
huffman@36793
  1139
      ==> z \<in> (\<Union>X \<in> P. Rep_preal(X))"
huffman@36793
  1140
by (auto elim: Rep_preal [THEN preal_downwards_closed])
huffman@36793
  1141
huffman@36793
  1142
text{*Part 4 of Dedekind sections definition*}
huffman@36793
  1143
lemma preal_sup_set_lemma4:
huffman@36793
  1144
     "[|P \<noteq> {}; \<forall>X \<in> P. X \<le> Y; y \<in> (\<Union>X \<in> P. Rep_preal(X)) |]
huffman@36793
  1145
          ==> \<exists>u \<in> (\<Union>X \<in> P. Rep_preal(X)). y < u"
huffman@36793
  1146
by (blast dest: Rep_preal [THEN preal_exists_greater])
huffman@36793
  1147
huffman@36793
  1148
lemma preal_sup:
haftmann@59814
  1149
     "[|P \<noteq> {}; \<forall>X \<in> P. X \<le> Y|] ==> cut (\<Union>X \<in> P. Rep_preal(X))"
haftmann@59814
  1150
apply (unfold cut_def)
huffman@36793
  1151
apply (blast intro!: preal_sup_set_not_empty preal_sup_set_not_rat_set
huffman@36793
  1152
                     preal_sup_set_lemma3 preal_sup_set_lemma4)
huffman@36793
  1153
done
huffman@36793
  1154
huffman@36793
  1155
lemma preal_psup_le:
huffman@36793
  1156
     "[| \<forall>X \<in> P. X \<le> Y;  x \<in> P |] ==> x \<le> psup P"
huffman@36793
  1157
apply (simp (no_asm_simp) add: preal_le_def) 
huffman@36793
  1158
apply (subgoal_tac "P \<noteq> {}") 
huffman@36793
  1159
apply (auto simp add: psup_def preal_sup) 
huffman@36793
  1160
done
huffman@36793
  1161
huffman@36793
  1162
lemma psup_le_ub: "[| P \<noteq> {}; \<forall>X \<in> P. X \<le> Y |] ==> psup P \<le> Y"
huffman@36793
  1163
apply (simp (no_asm_simp) add: preal_le_def)
huffman@36793
  1164
apply (simp add: psup_def preal_sup) 
huffman@36793
  1165
apply (auto simp add: preal_le_def)
huffman@36793
  1166
done
huffman@36793
  1167
huffman@36793
  1168
text{*Supremum property*}
huffman@36793
  1169
lemma preal_complete:
huffman@36793
  1170
     "[| P \<noteq> {}; \<forall>X \<in> P. X \<le> Y |] ==> (\<exists>X \<in> P. Z < X) = (Z < psup P)"
huffman@36793
  1171
apply (simp add: preal_less_def psup_def preal_sup)
huffman@36793
  1172
apply (auto simp add: preal_le_def)
huffman@36793
  1173
apply (rename_tac U) 
huffman@36793
  1174
apply (cut_tac x = U and y = Z in linorder_less_linear)
huffman@36793
  1175
apply (auto simp add: preal_less_def)
huffman@36793
  1176
done
huffman@36793
  1177
huffman@36793
  1178
section {*Defining the Reals from the Positive Reals*}
huffman@36793
  1179
huffman@36793
  1180
definition
huffman@36793
  1181
  realrel   ::  "((preal * preal) * (preal * preal)) set" where
haftmann@37765
  1182
  "realrel = {p. \<exists>x1 y1 x2 y2. p = ((x1,y1),(x2,y2)) & x1+y2 = x2+y1}"
huffman@36793
  1183
wenzelm@45694
  1184
definition "Real = UNIV//realrel"
wenzelm@45694
  1185
wenzelm@49834
  1186
typedef real = Real
wenzelm@45694
  1187
  morphisms Rep_Real Abs_Real
wenzelm@45694
  1188
  unfolding Real_def by (auto simp add: quotient_def)
huffman@36793
  1189
huffman@36793
  1190
definition
huffman@36793
  1191
  (** these don't use the overloaded "real" function: users don't see them **)
huffman@36793
  1192
  real_of_preal :: "preal => real" where
haftmann@37765
  1193
  "real_of_preal m = Abs_Real (realrel `` {(m + 1, 1)})"
huffman@36793
  1194
huffman@36793
  1195
instantiation real :: "{zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, inverse, ord, abs, sgn}"
huffman@36793
  1196
begin
huffman@36793
  1197
huffman@36793
  1198
definition
haftmann@37765
  1199
  real_zero_def: "0 = Abs_Real(realrel``{(1, 1)})"
huffman@36793
  1200
huffman@36793
  1201
definition
haftmann@37765
  1202
  real_one_def: "1 = Abs_Real(realrel``{(1 + 1, 1)})"
huffman@36793
  1203
huffman@36793
  1204
definition
haftmann@37765
  1205
  real_add_def: "z + w =
haftmann@39910
  1206
       the_elem (\<Union>(x,y) \<in> Rep_Real(z). \<Union>(u,v) \<in> Rep_Real(w).
huffman@36793
  1207
                 { Abs_Real(realrel``{(x+u, y+v)}) })"
huffman@36793
  1208
huffman@36793
  1209
definition
haftmann@39910
  1210
  real_minus_def: "- r =  the_elem (\<Union>(x,y) \<in> Rep_Real(r). { Abs_Real(realrel``{(y,x)}) })"
huffman@36793
  1211
huffman@36793
  1212
definition
haftmann@37765
  1213
  real_diff_def: "r - (s::real) = r + - s"
huffman@36793
  1214
huffman@36793
  1215
definition
haftmann@37765
  1216
  real_mult_def:
huffman@36793
  1217
    "z * w =
haftmann@39910
  1218
       the_elem (\<Union>(x,y) \<in> Rep_Real(z). \<Union>(u,v) \<in> Rep_Real(w).
huffman@36793
  1219
                 { Abs_Real(realrel``{(x*u + y*v, x*v + y*u)}) })"
huffman@36793
  1220
huffman@36793
  1221
definition
haftmann@37765
  1222
  real_inverse_def: "inverse (R::real) = (THE S. (R = 0 & S = 0) | S * R = 1)"
huffman@36793
  1223
huffman@36793
  1224
definition
haftmann@60429
  1225
  real_divide_def: "R div (S::real) = R * inverse S"
huffman@36793
  1226
huffman@36793
  1227
definition
haftmann@37765
  1228
  real_le_def: "z \<le> (w::real) \<longleftrightarrow>
huffman@36793
  1229
    (\<exists>x y u v. x+v \<le> u+y & (x,y) \<in> Rep_Real z & (u,v) \<in> Rep_Real w)"
huffman@36793
  1230
huffman@36793
  1231
definition
haftmann@37765
  1232
  real_less_def: "x < (y\<Colon>real) \<longleftrightarrow> x \<le> y \<and> x \<noteq> y"
huffman@36793
  1233
huffman@36793
  1234
definition
huffman@36793
  1235
  real_abs_def:  "abs (r::real) = (if r < 0 then - r else r)"
huffman@36793
  1236
huffman@36793
  1237
definition
huffman@36793
  1238
  real_sgn_def: "sgn (x::real) = (if x=0 then 0 else if 0<x then 1 else - 1)"
huffman@36793
  1239
huffman@36793
  1240
instance ..
huffman@36793
  1241
huffman@36793
  1242
end
huffman@36793
  1243
huffman@36793
  1244
subsection {* Equivalence relation over positive reals *}
huffman@36793
  1245
huffman@36793
  1246
lemma preal_trans_lemma:
huffman@36793
  1247
  assumes "x + y1 = x1 + y"
wenzelm@41541
  1248
    and "x + y2 = x2 + y"
huffman@36793
  1249
  shows "x1 + y2 = x2 + (y1::preal)"
huffman@36793
  1250
proof -
haftmann@57514
  1251
  have "(x1 + y2) + x = (x + y2) + x1" by (simp add: ac_simps)
wenzelm@41541
  1252
  also have "... = (x2 + y) + x1"  by (simp add: assms)
haftmann@57514
  1253
  also have "... = x2 + (x1 + y)"  by (simp add: ac_simps)
wenzelm@41541
  1254
  also have "... = x2 + (x + y1)"  by (simp add: assms)
haftmann@57514
  1255
  also have "... = (x2 + y1) + x"  by (simp add: ac_simps)
huffman@36793
  1256
  finally have "(x1 + y2) + x = (x2 + y1) + x" .
haftmann@59815
  1257
  thus ?thesis by (rule preal_add_right_cancel)
huffman@36793
  1258
qed
huffman@36793
  1259
huffman@36793
  1260
huffman@36793
  1261
lemma realrel_iff [simp]: "(((x1,y1),(x2,y2)) \<in> realrel) = (x1 + y2 = x2 + y1)"
huffman@36793
  1262
by (simp add: realrel_def)
huffman@36793
  1263
huffman@36793
  1264
lemma equiv_realrel: "equiv UNIV realrel"
huffman@36793
  1265
apply (auto simp add: equiv_def refl_on_def sym_def trans_def realrel_def)
huffman@36793
  1266
apply (blast dest: preal_trans_lemma) 
huffman@36793
  1267
done
huffman@36793
  1268
huffman@36793
  1269
text{*Reduces equality of equivalence classes to the @{term realrel} relation:
huffman@36793
  1270
  @{term "(realrel `` {x} = realrel `` {y}) = ((x,y) \<in> realrel)"} *}
huffman@36793
  1271
lemmas equiv_realrel_iff = 
huffman@36793
  1272
       eq_equiv_class_iff [OF equiv_realrel UNIV_I UNIV_I]
huffman@36793
  1273
huffman@36793
  1274
declare equiv_realrel_iff [simp]
huffman@36793
  1275
huffman@36793
  1276
huffman@36793
  1277
lemma realrel_in_real [simp]: "realrel``{(x,y)}: Real"
huffman@36793
  1278
by (simp add: Real_def realrel_def quotient_def, blast)
huffman@36793
  1279
huffman@36793
  1280
declare Abs_Real_inject [simp]
huffman@36793
  1281
declare Abs_Real_inverse [simp]
huffman@36793
  1282
huffman@36793
  1283
huffman@36793
  1284
text{*Case analysis on the representation of a real number as an equivalence
huffman@36793
  1285
      class of pairs of positive reals.*}
huffman@36793
  1286
lemma eq_Abs_Real [case_names Abs_Real, cases type: real]: 
huffman@36793
  1287
     "(!!x y. z = Abs_Real(realrel``{(x,y)}) ==> P) ==> P"
huffman@36793
  1288
apply (rule Rep_Real [of z, unfolded Real_def, THEN quotientE])
huffman@36793
  1289
apply (drule arg_cong [where f=Abs_Real])
huffman@36793
  1290
apply (auto simp add: Rep_Real_inverse)
huffman@36793
  1291
done
huffman@36793
  1292
huffman@36793
  1293
huffman@36793
  1294
subsection {* Addition and Subtraction *}
huffman@36793
  1295
huffman@36793
  1296
lemma real_add_congruent2_lemma:
huffman@36793
  1297
     "[|a + ba = aa + b; ab + bc = ac + bb|]
huffman@36793
  1298
      ==> a + ab + (ba + bc) = aa + ac + (b + (bb::preal))"
haftmann@57512
  1299
apply (simp add: add.assoc)
haftmann@57512
  1300
apply (rule add.left_commute [of ab, THEN ssubst])
haftmann@57512
  1301
apply (simp add: add.assoc [symmetric])
haftmann@57514
  1302
apply (simp add: ac_simps)
huffman@36793
  1303
done
huffman@36793
  1304
huffman@36793
  1305
lemma real_add:
huffman@36793
  1306
     "Abs_Real (realrel``{(x,y)}) + Abs_Real (realrel``{(u,v)}) =
huffman@36793
  1307
      Abs_Real (realrel``{(x+u, y+v)})"
huffman@36793
  1308
proof -
huffman@36793
  1309
  have "(\<lambda>z w. (\<lambda>(x,y). (\<lambda>(u,v). {Abs_Real (realrel `` {(x+u, y+v)})}) w) z)
huffman@36793
  1310
        respects2 realrel"
haftmann@40822
  1311
    by (auto simp add: congruent2_def, blast intro: real_add_congruent2_lemma) 
huffman@36793
  1312
  thus ?thesis
huffman@36793
  1313
    by (simp add: real_add_def UN_UN_split_split_eq
huffman@36793
  1314
                  UN_equiv_class2 [OF equiv_realrel equiv_realrel])
huffman@36793
  1315
qed
huffman@36793
  1316
huffman@36793
  1317
lemma real_minus: "- Abs_Real(realrel``{(x,y)}) = Abs_Real(realrel `` {(y,x)})"
huffman@36793
  1318
proof -
huffman@36793
  1319
  have "(\<lambda>(x,y). {Abs_Real (realrel``{(y,x)})}) respects realrel"
haftmann@57512
  1320
    by (auto simp add: congruent_def add.commute) 
huffman@36793
  1321
  thus ?thesis
huffman@36793
  1322
    by (simp add: real_minus_def UN_equiv_class [OF equiv_realrel])
huffman@36793
  1323
qed
huffman@36793
  1324
huffman@36793
  1325
instance real :: ab_group_add
huffman@36793
  1326
proof
huffman@36793
  1327
  fix x y z :: real
huffman@36793
  1328
  show "(x + y) + z = x + (y + z)"
haftmann@57512
  1329
    by (cases x, cases y, cases z, simp add: real_add add.assoc)
huffman@36793
  1330
  show "x + y = y + x"
haftmann@57512
  1331
    by (cases x, cases y, simp add: real_add add.commute)
huffman@36793
  1332
  show "0 + x = x"
haftmann@57514
  1333
    by (cases x, simp add: real_add real_zero_def ac_simps)
huffman@36793
  1334
  show "- x + x = 0"
haftmann@57512
  1335
    by (cases x, simp add: real_minus real_add real_zero_def add.commute)
huffman@36793
  1336
  show "x - y = x + - y"
huffman@36793
  1337
    by (simp add: real_diff_def)
huffman@36793
  1338
qed
huffman@36793
  1339
huffman@36793
  1340
huffman@36793
  1341
subsection {* Multiplication *}
huffman@36793
  1342
huffman@36793
  1343
lemma real_mult_congruent2_lemma:
huffman@36793
  1344
     "!!(x1::preal). [| x1 + y2 = x2 + y1 |] ==>
huffman@36793
  1345
          x * x1 + y * y1 + (x * y2 + y * x2) =
huffman@36793
  1346
          x * x2 + y * y2 + (x * y1 + y * x1)"
haftmann@57512
  1347
apply (simp add: add.left_commute add.assoc [symmetric])
haftmann@57512
  1348
apply (simp add: add.assoc distrib_left [symmetric])
haftmann@57512
  1349
apply (simp add: add.commute)
huffman@36793
  1350
done
huffman@36793
  1351
huffman@36793
  1352
lemma real_mult_congruent2:
huffman@36793
  1353
    "(%p1 p2.
huffman@36793
  1354
        (%(x1,y1). (%(x2,y2). 
huffman@36793
  1355
          { Abs_Real (realrel``{(x1*x2 + y1*y2, x1*y2+y1*x2)}) }) p2) p1)
huffman@36793
  1356
     respects2 realrel"
huffman@36793
  1357
apply (rule congruent2_commuteI [OF equiv_realrel], clarify)
haftmann@57512
  1358
apply (simp add: mult.commute add.commute)
huffman@36793
  1359
apply (auto simp add: real_mult_congruent2_lemma)
huffman@36793
  1360
done
huffman@36793
  1361
huffman@36793
  1362
lemma real_mult:
huffman@36793
  1363
      "Abs_Real((realrel``{(x1,y1)})) * Abs_Real((realrel``{(x2,y2)})) =
huffman@36793
  1364
       Abs_Real(realrel `` {(x1*x2+y1*y2,x1*y2+y1*x2)})"
huffman@36793
  1365
by (simp add: real_mult_def UN_UN_split_split_eq
huffman@36793
  1366
         UN_equiv_class2 [OF equiv_realrel equiv_realrel real_mult_congruent2])
huffman@36793
  1367
huffman@36793
  1368
lemma real_mult_commute: "(z::real) * w = w * z"
haftmann@59815
  1369
by (cases z, cases w, simp add: real_mult ac_simps)
huffman@36793
  1370
huffman@36793
  1371
lemma real_mult_assoc: "((z1::real) * z2) * z3 = z1 * (z2 * z3)"
huffman@36793
  1372
apply (cases z1, cases z2, cases z3)
huffman@36793
  1373
apply (simp add: real_mult algebra_simps)
huffman@36793
  1374
done
huffman@36793
  1375
huffman@36793
  1376
lemma real_mult_1: "(1::real) * z = z"
huffman@36793
  1377
apply (cases z)
huffman@36793
  1378
apply (simp add: real_mult real_one_def algebra_simps)
huffman@36793
  1379
done
huffman@36793
  1380
huffman@36793
  1381
lemma real_add_mult_distrib: "((z1::real) + z2) * w = (z1 * w) + (z2 * w)"
huffman@36793
  1382
apply (cases z1, cases z2, cases w)
huffman@36793
  1383
apply (simp add: real_add real_mult algebra_simps)
huffman@36793
  1384
done
huffman@36793
  1385
huffman@36793
  1386
text{*one and zero are distinct*}
huffman@36793
  1387
lemma real_zero_not_eq_one: "0 \<noteq> (1::real)"
huffman@36793
  1388
proof -
huffman@36793
  1389
  have "(1::preal) < 1 + 1"
huffman@36793
  1390
    by (simp add: preal_self_less_add_left)
haftmann@59815
  1391
  then show ?thesis
haftmann@59815
  1392
    by (simp add: real_zero_def real_one_def neq_iff)
huffman@36793
  1393
qed
huffman@36793
  1394
huffman@36793
  1395
instance real :: comm_ring_1
huffman@36793
  1396
proof
huffman@36793
  1397
  fix x y z :: real
huffman@36793
  1398
  show "(x * y) * z = x * (y * z)" by (rule real_mult_assoc)
huffman@36793
  1399
  show "x * y = y * x" by (rule real_mult_commute)
huffman@36793
  1400
  show "1 * x = x" by (rule real_mult_1)
huffman@36793
  1401
  show "(x + y) * z = x * z + y * z" by (rule real_add_mult_distrib)
huffman@36793
  1402
  show "0 \<noteq> (1::real)" by (rule real_zero_not_eq_one)
huffman@36793
  1403
qed
huffman@36793
  1404
huffman@36793
  1405
subsection {* Inverse and Division *}
huffman@36793
  1406
huffman@36793
  1407
lemma real_zero_iff: "Abs_Real (realrel `` {(x, x)}) = 0"
haftmann@57512
  1408
by (simp add: real_zero_def add.commute)
huffman@36793
  1409
huffman@36793
  1410
text{*Instead of using an existential quantifier and constructing the inverse
huffman@36793
  1411
within the proof, we could define the inverse explicitly.*}
huffman@36793
  1412
huffman@36793
  1413
lemma real_mult_inverse_left_ex: "x \<noteq> 0 ==> \<exists>y. y*x = (1::real)"
huffman@36793
  1414
apply (simp add: real_zero_def real_one_def, cases x)
huffman@36793
  1415
apply (cut_tac x = xa and y = y in linorder_less_linear)
huffman@36793
  1416
apply (auto dest!: less_add_left_Ex simp add: real_zero_iff)
huffman@36793
  1417
apply (rule_tac
huffman@36793
  1418
        x = "Abs_Real (realrel``{(1, inverse (D) + 1)})"
huffman@36793
  1419
       in exI)
huffman@36793
  1420
apply (rule_tac [2]
huffman@36793
  1421
        x = "Abs_Real (realrel``{(inverse (D) + 1, 1)})" 
huffman@36793
  1422
       in exI)
huffman@36793
  1423
apply (auto simp add: real_mult preal_mult_inverse_right algebra_simps)
huffman@36793
  1424
done
huffman@36793
  1425
huffman@36793
  1426
lemma real_mult_inverse_left: "x \<noteq> 0 ==> inverse(x)*x = (1::real)"
huffman@36793
  1427
apply (simp add: real_inverse_def)
huffman@36793
  1428
apply (drule real_mult_inverse_left_ex, safe)
huffman@36793
  1429
apply (rule theI, assumption, rename_tac z)
huffman@36793
  1430
apply (subgoal_tac "(z * x) * y = z * (x * y)")
haftmann@57512
  1431
apply (simp add: mult.commute)
haftmann@57512
  1432
apply (rule mult.assoc)
huffman@36793
  1433
done
huffman@36793
  1434
huffman@36793
  1435
huffman@36793
  1436
subsection{*The Real Numbers form a Field*}
huffman@36793
  1437
haftmann@59867
  1438
instance real :: field
huffman@36793
  1439
proof
huffman@36793
  1440
  fix x y z :: real
huffman@36793
  1441
  show "x \<noteq> 0 ==> inverse x * x = 1" by (rule real_mult_inverse_left)
huffman@36793
  1442
  show "x / y = x * inverse y" by (simp add: real_divide_def)
huffman@36793
  1443
  show "inverse 0 = (0::real)" by (simp add: real_inverse_def)
huffman@36793
  1444
qed
huffman@36793
  1445
huffman@36793
  1446
huffman@36793
  1447
subsection{*The @{text "\<le>"} Ordering*}
huffman@36793
  1448
huffman@36793
  1449
lemma real_le_refl: "w \<le> (w::real)"
huffman@36793
  1450
by (cases w, force simp add: real_le_def)
huffman@36793
  1451
huffman@36793
  1452
text{*The arithmetic decision procedure is not set up for type preal.
huffman@36793
  1453
  This lemma is currently unused, but it could simplify the proofs of the
huffman@36793
  1454
  following two lemmas.*}
huffman@36793
  1455
lemma preal_eq_le_imp_le:
huffman@36793
  1456
  assumes eq: "a+b = c+d" and le: "c \<le> a"
huffman@36793
  1457
  shows "b \<le> (d::preal)"
huffman@36793
  1458
proof -
haftmann@59815
  1459
  from le have "c+d \<le> a+d" by simp
wenzelm@41541
  1460
  hence "a+b \<le> a+d" by (simp add: eq)
huffman@36793
  1461
  thus "b \<le> d" by simp
huffman@36793
  1462
qed
huffman@36793
  1463
huffman@36793
  1464
lemma real_le_lemma:
huffman@36793
  1465
  assumes l: "u1 + v2 \<le> u2 + v1"
wenzelm@41541
  1466
    and "x1 + v1 = u1 + y1"
wenzelm@41541
  1467
    and "x2 + v2 = u2 + y2"
huffman@36793
  1468
  shows "x1 + y2 \<le> x2 + (y1::preal)"
huffman@36793
  1469
proof -
wenzelm@41541
  1470
  have "(x1+v1) + (u2+y2) = (u1+y1) + (x2+v2)" by (simp add: assms)
haftmann@57514
  1471
  hence "(x1+y2) + (u2+v1) = (x2+y1) + (u1+v2)" by (simp add: ac_simps)
wenzelm@41541
  1472
  also have "... \<le> (x2+y1) + (u2+v1)" by (simp add: assms)
huffman@36793
  1473
  finally show ?thesis by simp
huffman@36793
  1474
qed
huffman@36793
  1475
huffman@36793
  1476
lemma real_le: 
huffman@36793
  1477
     "(Abs_Real(realrel``{(x1,y1)}) \<le> Abs_Real(realrel``{(x2,y2)})) =  
huffman@36793
  1478
      (x1 + y2 \<le> x2 + y1)"
huffman@36793
  1479
apply (simp add: real_le_def)
huffman@36793
  1480
apply (auto intro: real_le_lemma)
huffman@36793
  1481
done
huffman@36793
  1482
huffman@36793
  1483
lemma real_le_antisym: "[| z \<le> w; w \<le> z |] ==> z = (w::real)"
huffman@36793
  1484
by (cases z, cases w, simp add: real_le)
huffman@36793
  1485
huffman@36793
  1486
lemma real_trans_lemma:
huffman@36793
  1487
  assumes "x + v \<le> u + y"
wenzelm@41541
  1488
    and "u + v' \<le> u' + v"
wenzelm@41541
  1489
    and "x2 + v2 = u2 + y2"
huffman@36793
  1490
  shows "x + v' \<le> u' + (y::preal)"
huffman@36793
  1491
proof -
haftmann@57514
  1492
  have "(x+v') + (u+v) = (x+v) + (u+v')" by (simp add: ac_simps)
wenzelm@41541
  1493
  also have "... \<le> (u+y) + (u+v')" by (simp add: assms)
wenzelm@41541
  1494
  also have "... \<le> (u+y) + (u'+v)" by (simp add: assms)
haftmann@57514
  1495
  also have "... = (u'+y) + (u+v)"  by (simp add: ac_simps)
huffman@36793
  1496
  finally show ?thesis by simp
huffman@36793
  1497
qed
huffman@36793
  1498
huffman@36793
  1499
lemma real_le_trans: "[| i \<le> j; j \<le> k |] ==> i \<le> (k::real)"
huffman@36793
  1500
apply (cases i, cases j, cases k)
huffman@36793
  1501
apply (simp add: real_le)
huffman@36793
  1502
apply (blast intro: real_trans_lemma)
huffman@36793
  1503
done
huffman@36793
  1504
huffman@36793
  1505
instance real :: order
huffman@36793
  1506
proof
huffman@36793
  1507
  fix u v :: real
huffman@36793
  1508
  show "u < v \<longleftrightarrow> u \<le> v \<and> \<not> v \<le> u" 
huffman@36793
  1509
    by (auto simp add: real_less_def intro: real_le_antisym)
huffman@36793
  1510
qed (assumption | rule real_le_refl real_le_trans real_le_antisym)+
huffman@36793
  1511
huffman@36793
  1512
(* Axiom 'linorder_linear' of class 'linorder': *)
huffman@36793
  1513
lemma real_le_linear: "(z::real) \<le> w | w \<le> z"
huffman@36793
  1514
apply (cases z, cases w)
haftmann@57514
  1515
apply (auto simp add: real_le real_zero_def ac_simps)
huffman@36793
  1516
done
huffman@36793
  1517
huffman@36793
  1518
instance real :: linorder
huffman@36793
  1519
  by (intro_classes, rule real_le_linear)
huffman@36793
  1520
huffman@36793
  1521
lemma real_le_eq_diff: "(x \<le> y) = (x-y \<le> (0::real))"
huffman@36793
  1522
apply (cases x, cases y) 
huffman@36793
  1523
apply (auto simp add: real_le real_zero_def real_diff_def real_add real_minus
haftmann@57514
  1524
                      ac_simps)
haftmann@57512
  1525
apply (simp_all add: add.assoc [symmetric])
huffman@36793
  1526
done
huffman@36793
  1527
huffman@36793
  1528
lemma real_add_left_mono: 
huffman@36793
  1529
  assumes le: "x \<le> y" shows "z + x \<le> z + (y::real)"
huffman@36793
  1530
proof -
huffman@36793
  1531
  have "z + x - (z + y) = (z + -z) + (x - y)" 
huffman@36793
  1532
    by (simp add: algebra_simps) 
huffman@36793
  1533
  with le show ?thesis 
haftmann@54230
  1534
    by (simp add: real_le_eq_diff[of x] real_le_eq_diff[of "z+x"])
huffman@36793
  1535
qed
huffman@36793
  1536
huffman@36793
  1537
lemma real_sum_gt_zero_less: "(0 < S + (-W::real)) ==> (W < S)"
haftmann@54230
  1538
by (simp add: linorder_not_le [symmetric] real_le_eq_diff [of S])
huffman@36793
  1539
huffman@36793
  1540
lemma real_less_sum_gt_zero: "(W < S) ==> (0 < S + (-W::real))"
haftmann@54230
  1541
by (simp add: linorder_not_le [symmetric] real_le_eq_diff [of S])
huffman@36793
  1542
huffman@36793
  1543
lemma real_mult_order: "[| 0 < x; 0 < y |] ==> (0::real) < x * y"
huffman@36793
  1544
apply (cases x, cases y)
huffman@36793
  1545
apply (simp add: linorder_not_le [where 'a = real, symmetric] 
huffman@36793
  1546
                 linorder_not_le [where 'a = preal] 
huffman@36793
  1547
                  real_zero_def real_le real_mult)
huffman@36793
  1548
  --{*Reduce to the (simpler) @{text "\<le>"} relation *}
huffman@36793
  1549
apply (auto dest!: less_add_left_Ex
huffman@36793
  1550
     simp add: algebra_simps preal_self_less_add_left)
huffman@36793
  1551
done
huffman@36793
  1552
huffman@36793
  1553
lemma real_mult_less_mono2: "[| (0::real) < z; x < y |] ==> z * x < z * y"
huffman@36793
  1554
apply (rule real_sum_gt_zero_less)
huffman@36793
  1555
apply (drule real_less_sum_gt_zero [of x y])
huffman@36793
  1556
apply (drule real_mult_order, assumption)
haftmann@54230
  1557
apply (simp add: algebra_simps)
huffman@36793
  1558
done
huffman@36793
  1559
huffman@36793
  1560
instantiation real :: distrib_lattice
huffman@36793
  1561
begin
huffman@36793
  1562
huffman@36793
  1563
definition
huffman@36793
  1564
  "(inf \<Colon> real \<Rightarrow> real \<Rightarrow> real) = min"
huffman@36793
  1565
huffman@36793
  1566
definition
huffman@36793
  1567
  "(sup \<Colon> real \<Rightarrow> real \<Rightarrow> real) = max"
huffman@36793
  1568
huffman@36793
  1569
instance
haftmann@54863
  1570
  by default (auto simp add: inf_real_def sup_real_def max_min_distrib2)
huffman@36793
  1571
huffman@36793
  1572
end
huffman@36793
  1573
huffman@36793
  1574
huffman@36793
  1575
subsection{*The Reals Form an Ordered Field*}
huffman@36793
  1576
haftmann@59867
  1577
instance real :: linordered_field
huffman@36793
  1578
proof
huffman@36793
  1579
  fix x y z :: real
huffman@36793
  1580
  show "x \<le> y ==> z + x \<le> z + y" by (rule real_add_left_mono)
huffman@36793
  1581
  show "x < y ==> 0 < z ==> z * x < z * y" by (rule real_mult_less_mono2)
huffman@36793
  1582
  show "\<bar>x\<bar> = (if x < 0 then -x else x)" by (simp only: real_abs_def)
huffman@36793
  1583
  show "sgn x = (if x=0 then 0 else if 0<x then 1 else - 1)"
huffman@36793
  1584
    by (simp only: real_sgn_def)
huffman@36793
  1585
qed
huffman@36793
  1586
huffman@36793
  1587
text{*The function @{term real_of_preal} requires many proofs, but it seems
huffman@36793
  1588
to be essential for proving completeness of the reals from that of the
huffman@36793
  1589
positive reals.*}
huffman@36793
  1590
huffman@36793
  1591
lemma real_of_preal_add:
huffman@36793
  1592
     "real_of_preal ((x::preal) + y) = real_of_preal x + real_of_preal y"
huffman@36793
  1593
by (simp add: real_of_preal_def real_add algebra_simps)
huffman@36793
  1594
huffman@36793
  1595
lemma real_of_preal_mult:
huffman@36793
  1596
     "real_of_preal ((x::preal) * y) = real_of_preal x* real_of_preal y"
huffman@36793
  1597
by (simp add: real_of_preal_def real_mult algebra_simps)
huffman@36793
  1598
huffman@36793
  1599
huffman@36793
  1600
text{*Gleason prop 9-4.4 p 127*}
huffman@36793
  1601
lemma real_of_preal_trichotomy:
huffman@36793
  1602
      "\<exists>m. (x::real) = real_of_preal m | x = 0 | x = -(real_of_preal m)"
huffman@36793
  1603
apply (simp add: real_of_preal_def real_zero_def, cases x)
haftmann@57514
  1604
apply (auto simp add: real_minus ac_simps)
thomas@57492
  1605
apply (cut_tac x = xa and y = y in linorder_less_linear)
haftmann@57512
  1606
apply (auto dest!: less_add_left_Ex simp add: add.assoc [symmetric])
huffman@36793
  1607
done
huffman@36793
  1608
huffman@36793
  1609
lemma real_of_preal_leD:
huffman@36793
  1610
      "real_of_preal m1 \<le> real_of_preal m2 ==> m1 \<le> m2"
huffman@36793
  1611
by (simp add: real_of_preal_def real_le)
huffman@36793
  1612
huffman@36793
  1613
lemma real_of_preal_lessI: "m1 < m2 ==> real_of_preal m1 < real_of_preal m2"
huffman@36793
  1614
by (auto simp add: real_of_preal_leD linorder_not_le [symmetric])
huffman@36793
  1615
huffman@36793
  1616
lemma real_of_preal_lessD:
huffman@36793
  1617
      "real_of_preal m1 < real_of_preal m2 ==> m1 < m2"
huffman@36793
  1618
by (simp add: real_of_preal_def real_le linorder_not_le [symmetric])
huffman@36793
  1619
huffman@36793
  1620
lemma real_of_preal_less_iff [simp]:
huffman@36793
  1621
     "(real_of_preal m1 < real_of_preal m2) = (m1 < m2)"
huffman@36793
  1622
by (blast intro: real_of_preal_lessI real_of_preal_lessD)
huffman@36793
  1623
huffman@36793
  1624
lemma real_of_preal_le_iff:
huffman@36793
  1625
     "(real_of_preal m1 \<le> real_of_preal m2) = (m1 \<le> m2)"
huffman@36793
  1626
by (simp add: linorder_not_less [symmetric])
huffman@36793
  1627
huffman@36793
  1628
lemma real_of_preal_zero_less: "0 < real_of_preal m"
haftmann@59815
  1629
using preal_self_less_add_left [of 1 m]
haftmann@59815
  1630
apply (auto simp add: real_zero_def real_of_preal_def real_less_def real_le_def ac_simps neq_iff)
haftmann@59815
  1631
apply (metis Rep_preal_self_subset add.commute preal_le_def)
huffman@36793
  1632
done
huffman@36793
  1633
huffman@36793
  1634
lemma real_of_preal_minus_less_zero: "- real_of_preal m < 0"
huffman@36793
  1635
by (simp add: real_of_preal_zero_less)
huffman@36793
  1636
huffman@36793
  1637
lemma real_of_preal_not_minus_gt_zero: "~ 0 < - real_of_preal m"
huffman@36793
  1638
proof -
huffman@36793
  1639
  from real_of_preal_minus_less_zero
huffman@36793
  1640
  show ?thesis by (blast dest: order_less_trans)
huffman@36793
  1641
qed
huffman@36793
  1642
huffman@36793
  1643
huffman@36793
  1644
subsection{*Theorems About the Ordering*}
huffman@36793
  1645
huffman@36793
  1646
lemma real_gt_zero_preal_Ex: "(0 < x) = (\<exists>y. x = real_of_preal y)"
huffman@36793
  1647
apply (auto simp add: real_of_preal_zero_less)
huffman@36793
  1648
apply (cut_tac x = x in real_of_preal_trichotomy)
huffman@36793
  1649
apply (blast elim!: real_of_preal_not_minus_gt_zero [THEN notE])
huffman@36793
  1650
done
huffman@36793
  1651
huffman@36793
  1652
lemma real_gt_preal_preal_Ex:
huffman@36793
  1653
     "real_of_preal z < x ==> \<exists>y. x = real_of_preal y"
huffman@36793
  1654
by (blast dest!: real_of_preal_zero_less [THEN order_less_trans]
huffman@36793
  1655
             intro: real_gt_zero_preal_Ex [THEN iffD1])
huffman@36793
  1656
huffman@36793
  1657
lemma real_ge_preal_preal_Ex:
huffman@36793
  1658
     "real_of_preal z \<le> x ==> \<exists>y. x = real_of_preal y"
huffman@36793
  1659
by (blast dest: order_le_imp_less_or_eq real_gt_preal_preal_Ex)
huffman@36793
  1660
huffman@36793
  1661
lemma real_less_all_preal: "y \<le> 0 ==> \<forall>x. y < real_of_preal x"
huffman@36793
  1662
by (auto elim: order_le_imp_less_or_eq [THEN disjE] 
huffman@36793
  1663
            intro: real_of_preal_zero_less [THEN [2] order_less_trans] 
huffman@36793
  1664
            simp add: real_of_preal_zero_less)
huffman@36793
  1665
huffman@36793
  1666
lemma real_less_all_real2: "~ 0 < y ==> \<forall>x. y < real_of_preal x"
huffman@36793
  1667
by (blast intro!: real_less_all_preal linorder_not_less [THEN iffD1])
huffman@36793
  1668
huffman@36793
  1669
subsection {* Completeness of Positive Reals *}
huffman@36793
  1670
huffman@36793
  1671
text {*
huffman@36793
  1672
  Supremum property for the set of positive reals
huffman@36793
  1673
huffman@36793
  1674
  Let @{text "P"} be a non-empty set of positive reals, with an upper
huffman@36793
  1675
  bound @{text "y"}.  Then @{text "P"} has a least upper bound
huffman@36793
  1676
  (written @{text "S"}).
huffman@36793
  1677
huffman@36793
  1678
  FIXME: Can the premise be weakened to @{text "\<forall>x \<in> P. x\<le> y"}?
huffman@36793
  1679
*}
huffman@36793
  1680
huffman@36793
  1681
lemma posreal_complete:
huffman@36793
  1682
  assumes positive_P: "\<forall>x \<in> P. (0::real) < x"
huffman@36793
  1683
    and not_empty_P: "\<exists>x. x \<in> P"
huffman@36793
  1684
    and upper_bound_Ex: "\<exists>y. \<forall>x \<in> P. x<y"
huffman@36793
  1685
  shows "\<exists>S. \<forall>y. (\<exists>x \<in> P. y < x) = (y < S)"
huffman@36793
  1686
proof (rule exI, rule allI)
huffman@36793
  1687
  fix y
huffman@36793
  1688
  let ?pP = "{w. real_of_preal w \<in> P}"
huffman@36793
  1689
huffman@36793
  1690
  show "(\<exists>x\<in>P. y < x) = (y < real_of_preal (psup ?pP))"
huffman@36793
  1691
  proof (cases "0 < y")
huffman@36793
  1692
    assume neg_y: "\<not> 0 < y"
huffman@36793
  1693
    show ?thesis
huffman@36793
  1694
    proof
huffman@36793
  1695
      assume "\<exists>x\<in>P. y < x"
huffman@36793
  1696
      have "\<forall>x. y < real_of_preal x"
huffman@36793
  1697
        using neg_y by (rule real_less_all_real2)
huffman@36793
  1698
      thus "y < real_of_preal (psup ?pP)" ..
huffman@36793
  1699
    next
huffman@36793
  1700
      assume "y < real_of_preal (psup ?pP)"
huffman@36793
  1701
      obtain "x" where x_in_P: "x \<in> P" using not_empty_P ..
huffman@36793
  1702
      hence "0 < x" using positive_P by simp
huffman@36793
  1703
      hence "y < x" using neg_y by simp
huffman@36793
  1704
      thus "\<exists>x \<in> P. y < x" using x_in_P ..
huffman@36793
  1705
    qed
huffman@36793
  1706
  next
huffman@36793
  1707
    assume pos_y: "0 < y"
huffman@36793
  1708
huffman@36793
  1709
    then obtain py where y_is_py: "y = real_of_preal py"
huffman@36793
  1710
      by (auto simp add: real_gt_zero_preal_Ex)
huffman@36793
  1711
huffman@36793
  1712
    obtain a where "a \<in> P" using not_empty_P ..
huffman@36793
  1713
    with positive_P have a_pos: "0 < a" ..
huffman@36793
  1714
    then obtain pa where "a = real_of_preal pa"
huffman@36793
  1715
      by (auto simp add: real_gt_zero_preal_Ex)
huffman@36793
  1716
    hence "pa \<in> ?pP" using `a \<in> P` by auto
huffman@36793
  1717
    hence pP_not_empty: "?pP \<noteq> {}" by auto
huffman@36793
  1718
huffman@36793
  1719
    obtain sup where sup: "\<forall>x \<in> P. x < sup"
huffman@36793
  1720
      using upper_bound_Ex ..
huffman@36793
  1721
    from this and `a \<in> P` have "a < sup" ..
huffman@36793
  1722
    hence "0 < sup" using a_pos by arith
huffman@36793
  1723
    then obtain possup where "sup = real_of_preal possup"
huffman@36793
  1724
      by (auto simp add: real_gt_zero_preal_Ex)
huffman@36793
  1725
    hence "\<forall>X \<in> ?pP. X \<le> possup"
huffman@36793
  1726
      using sup by (auto simp add: real_of_preal_lessI)
huffman@36793
  1727
    with pP_not_empty have psup: "\<And>Z. (\<exists>X \<in> ?pP. Z < X) = (Z < psup ?pP)"
huffman@36793
  1728
      by (rule preal_complete)
huffman@36793
  1729
huffman@36793
  1730
    show ?thesis
huffman@36793
  1731
    proof
huffman@36793
  1732
      assume "\<exists>x \<in> P. y < x"
huffman@36793
  1733
      then obtain x where x_in_P: "x \<in> P" and y_less_x: "y < x" ..
huffman@36793
  1734
      hence "0 < x" using pos_y by arith
huffman@36793
  1735
      then obtain px where x_is_px: "x = real_of_preal px"
huffman@36793
  1736
        by (auto simp add: real_gt_zero_preal_Ex)
huffman@36793
  1737
huffman@36793
  1738
      have py_less_X: "\<exists>X \<in> ?pP. py < X"
huffman@36793
  1739
      proof
huffman@36793
  1740
        show "py < px" using y_is_py and x_is_px and y_less_x
huffman@36793
  1741
          by (simp add: real_of_preal_lessI)
huffman@36793
  1742
        show "px \<in> ?pP" using x_in_P and x_is_px by simp
huffman@36793
  1743
      qed
huffman@36793
  1744
huffman@36793
  1745
      have "(\<exists>X \<in> ?pP. py < X) ==> (py < psup ?pP)"
huffman@36793
  1746
        using psup by simp
huffman@36793
  1747
      hence "py < psup ?pP" using py_less_X by simp
huffman@36793
  1748
      thus "y < real_of_preal (psup {w. real_of_preal w \<in> P})"
huffman@36793
  1749
        using y_is_py and pos_y by (simp add: real_of_preal_lessI)
huffman@36793
  1750
    next
huffman@36793
  1751
      assume y_less_psup: "y < real_of_preal (psup ?pP)"
huffman@36793
  1752
huffman@36793
  1753
      hence "py < psup ?pP" using y_is_py
huffman@36793
  1754
        by (simp add: real_of_preal_lessI)
huffman@36793
  1755
      then obtain "X" where py_less_X: "py < X" and X_in_pP: "X \<in> ?pP"
huffman@36793
  1756
        using psup by auto
huffman@36793
  1757
      then obtain x where x_is_X: "x = real_of_preal X"
huffman@36793
  1758
        by (simp add: real_gt_zero_preal_Ex)
huffman@36793
  1759
      hence "y < x" using py_less_X and y_is_py
huffman@36793
  1760
        by (simp add: real_of_preal_lessI)
huffman@36793
  1761
huffman@36793
  1762
      moreover have "x \<in> P" using x_is_X and X_in_pP by simp
huffman@36793
  1763
huffman@36793
  1764
      ultimately show "\<exists> x \<in> P. y < x" ..
huffman@36793
  1765
    qed
huffman@36793
  1766
  qed
huffman@36793
  1767
qed
huffman@36793
  1768
huffman@36793
  1769
text {*
hoelzl@54263
  1770
  \medskip Completeness
huffman@36793
  1771
*}
huffman@36793
  1772
huffman@36793
  1773
lemma reals_complete:
hoelzl@54263
  1774
  fixes S :: "real set"
huffman@36793
  1775
  assumes notempty_S: "\<exists>X. X \<in> S"
hoelzl@54263
  1776
    and exists_Ub: "bdd_above S"
hoelzl@54263
  1777
  shows "\<exists>x. (\<forall>s\<in>S. s \<le> x) \<and> (\<forall>y. (\<forall>s\<in>S. s \<le> y) \<longrightarrow> x \<le> y)"
huffman@36793
  1778
proof -
huffman@36793
  1779
  obtain X where X_in_S: "X \<in> S" using notempty_S ..
hoelzl@54263
  1780
  obtain Y where Y_isUb: "\<forall>s\<in>S. s \<le> Y"
hoelzl@54263
  1781
    using exists_Ub by (auto simp: bdd_above_def)
huffman@36793
  1782
  let ?SHIFT = "{z. \<exists>x \<in>S. z = x + (-X) + 1} \<inter> {x. 0 < x}"
huffman@36793
  1783
huffman@36793
  1784
  {
huffman@36793
  1785
    fix x
hoelzl@54263
  1786
    assume S_le_x: "\<forall>s\<in>S. s \<le> x"
huffman@36793
  1787
    {
huffman@36793
  1788
      fix s
huffman@36793
  1789
      assume "s \<in> {z. \<exists>x\<in>S. z = x + - X + 1}"
huffman@36793
  1790
      hence "\<exists> x \<in> S. s = x + -X + 1" ..
wenzelm@53373
  1791
      then obtain x1 where x1: "x1 \<in> S" "s = x1 + (-X) + 1" ..
wenzelm@53373
  1792
      then have "x1 \<le> x" using S_le_x by simp
wenzelm@53373
  1793
      with x1 have "s \<le> x + - X + 1" by arith
huffman@36793
  1794
    }
hoelzl@54263
  1795
    then have "\<forall>s\<in>?SHIFT. s \<le> x + (-X) + 1"
hoelzl@54263
  1796
      by auto
huffman@36793
  1797
  } note S_Ub_is_SHIFT_Ub = this
huffman@36793
  1798
hoelzl@54263
  1799
  have *: "\<forall>s\<in>?SHIFT. s \<le> Y + (-X) + 1" using Y_isUb by (rule S_Ub_is_SHIFT_Ub)
hoelzl@54263
  1800
  have "\<forall>s\<in>?SHIFT. s < Y + (-X) + 2"
hoelzl@54263
  1801
  proof
hoelzl@54263
  1802
    fix s assume "s\<in>?SHIFT"
hoelzl@54263
  1803
    with * have "s \<le> Y + (-X) + 1" by simp
hoelzl@54263
  1804
    also have "\<dots> < Y + (-X) + 2" by simp
hoelzl@54263
  1805
    finally show "s < Y + (-X) + 2" .
hoelzl@54263
  1806
  qed
huffman@36793
  1807
  moreover have "\<forall>y \<in> ?SHIFT. 0 < y" by auto
huffman@36793
  1808
  moreover have shifted_not_empty: "\<exists>u. u \<in> ?SHIFT"
huffman@36793
  1809
    using X_in_S and Y_isUb by auto
hoelzl@54263
  1810
  ultimately obtain t where t_is_Lub: "\<forall>y. (\<exists>x\<in>?SHIFT. y < x) = (y < t)"
hoelzl@54263
  1811
    using posreal_complete [of ?SHIFT] unfolding bdd_above_def by blast
huffman@36793
  1812
huffman@36793
  1813
  show ?thesis
huffman@36793
  1814
  proof
hoelzl@54263
  1815
    show "(\<forall>s\<in>S. s \<le> (t + X + (-1))) \<and> (\<forall>y. (\<forall>s\<in>S. s \<le> y) \<longrightarrow> (t + X + (-1)) \<le> y)"
hoelzl@54263
  1816
    proof safe
hoelzl@54263
  1817
      fix x
hoelzl@54263
  1818
      assume "\<forall>s\<in>S. s \<le> x"
hoelzl@54263
  1819
      hence "\<forall>s\<in>?SHIFT. s \<le> x + (-X) + 1"
hoelzl@54263
  1820
        using S_Ub_is_SHIFT_Ub by simp
hoelzl@54263
  1821
      then have "\<not> x + (-X) + 1 < t"
hoelzl@54263
  1822
        by (subst t_is_Lub[rule_format, symmetric]) (simp add: not_less)
hoelzl@54263
  1823
      thus "t + X + -1 \<le> x" by arith
huffman@36793
  1824
    next
hoelzl@54263
  1825
      fix y
hoelzl@54263
  1826
      assume y_in_S: "y \<in> S"
hoelzl@54263
  1827
      obtain "u" where u_in_shift: "u \<in> ?SHIFT" using shifted_not_empty ..
hoelzl@54263
  1828
      hence "\<exists> x \<in> S. u = x + - X + 1" by simp
hoelzl@54263
  1829
      then obtain "x" where x_and_u: "u = x + - X + 1" ..
hoelzl@54263
  1830
      have u_le_t: "u \<le> t"
hoelzl@54263
  1831
      proof (rule dense_le)
hoelzl@54263
  1832
        fix x assume "x < u" then have "x < t"
hoelzl@54263
  1833
          using u_in_shift t_is_Lub by auto
hoelzl@54263
  1834
        then show "x \<le> t"  by simp
hoelzl@54263
  1835
      qed
huffman@36793
  1836
hoelzl@54263
  1837
      show "y \<le> t + X + -1"
hoelzl@54263
  1838
      proof cases
hoelzl@54263
  1839
        assume "y \<le> x"
hoelzl@54263
  1840
        moreover have "x = u + X + - 1" using x_and_u by arith
hoelzl@54263
  1841
        moreover have "u + X + - 1  \<le> t + X + -1" using u_le_t by arith
hoelzl@54263
  1842
        ultimately show "y  \<le> t + X + -1" by arith
hoelzl@54263
  1843
      next
hoelzl@54263
  1844
        assume "~(y \<le> x)"
hoelzl@54263
  1845
        hence x_less_y: "x < y" by arith
huffman@36793
  1846
hoelzl@54263
  1847
        have "x + (-X) + 1 \<in> ?SHIFT" using x_and_u and u_in_shift by simp
hoelzl@54263
  1848
        hence "0 < x + (-X) + 1" by simp
hoelzl@54263
  1849
        hence "0 < y + (-X) + 1" using x_less_y by arith
hoelzl@54263
  1850
        hence *: "y + (-X) + 1 \<in> ?SHIFT" using y_in_S by simp
hoelzl@54263
  1851
        have "y + (-X) + 1 \<le> t"
hoelzl@54263
  1852
        proof (rule dense_le)
hoelzl@54263
  1853
          fix x assume "x < y + (-X) + 1" then have "x < t"
hoelzl@54263
  1854
            using * t_is_Lub by auto
hoelzl@54263
  1855
          then show "x \<le> t"  by simp
hoelzl@54263
  1856
        qed
hoelzl@54263
  1857
        thus ?thesis by simp
huffman@36793
  1858
      qed
huffman@36793
  1859
    qed
huffman@36793
  1860
  qed
huffman@36793
  1861
qed
huffman@36793
  1862
huffman@36793
  1863
subsection {* The Archimedean Property of the Reals *}
huffman@36793
  1864
huffman@36793
  1865
theorem reals_Archimedean:
huffman@36793
  1866
  fixes x :: real
huffman@36793
  1867
  assumes x_pos: "0 < x"
huffman@36793
  1868
  shows "\<exists>n. inverse (of_nat (Suc n)) < x"
huffman@36793
  1869
proof (rule ccontr)
huffman@36793
  1870
  assume contr: "\<not> ?thesis"
huffman@36793
  1871
  have "\<forall>n. x * of_nat (Suc n) <= 1"
huffman@36793
  1872
  proof
huffman@36793
  1873
    fix n
huffman@36793
  1874
    from contr have "x \<le> inverse (of_nat (Suc n))"
huffman@36793
  1875
      by (simp add: linorder_not_less)
huffman@36793
  1876
    hence "x \<le> (1 / (of_nat (Suc n)))"
huffman@36793
  1877
      by (simp add: inverse_eq_divide)
huffman@36793
  1878
    moreover have "(0::real) \<le> of_nat (Suc n)"
huffman@36793
  1879
      by (rule of_nat_0_le_iff)
huffman@36793
  1880
    ultimately have "x * of_nat (Suc n) \<le> (1 / of_nat (Suc n)) * of_nat (Suc n)"
huffman@36793
  1881
      by (rule mult_right_mono)
huffman@36793
  1882
    thus "x * of_nat (Suc n) \<le> 1" by (simp del: of_nat_Suc)
huffman@36793
  1883
  qed
hoelzl@54263
  1884
  hence 2: "bdd_above {z. \<exists>n. z = x * (of_nat (Suc n))}"
hoelzl@54263
  1885
    by (auto intro!: bdd_aboveI[of _ 1])
hoelzl@54263
  1886
  have 1: "\<exists>X. X \<in> {z. \<exists>n. z = x* (of_nat (Suc n))}" by auto
hoelzl@54263
  1887
  obtain t where
hoelzl@54263
  1888
    upper: "\<And>z. z \<in> {z. \<exists>n. z = x * of_nat (Suc n)} \<Longrightarrow> z \<le> t" and
hoelzl@54263
  1889
    least: "\<And>y. (\<And>a. a \<in> {z. \<exists>n. z = x * of_nat (Suc n)} \<Longrightarrow> a \<le> y) \<Longrightarrow> t \<le> y"
hoelzl@54263
  1890
    using reals_complete[OF 1 2] by auto
hoelzl@54263
  1891
huffman@36793
  1892
hoelzl@54263
  1893
  have "t \<le> t + - x"
hoelzl@54263
  1894
  proof (rule least)
hoelzl@54263
  1895
    fix a assume a: "a \<in> {z. \<exists>n. z = x * (of_nat (Suc n))}"
hoelzl@54263
  1896
    have "\<forall>n::nat. x * of_nat n \<le> t + - x"
hoelzl@54263
  1897
    proof
hoelzl@54263
  1898
      fix n
hoelzl@54263
  1899
      have "x * of_nat (Suc n) \<le> t"
hoelzl@54263
  1900
        by (simp add: upper)
hoelzl@54263
  1901
      hence  "x * (of_nat n) + x \<le> t"
hoelzl@54263
  1902
        by (simp add: distrib_left)
hoelzl@54263
  1903
      thus  "x * (of_nat n) \<le> t + - x" by arith
hoelzl@54263
  1904
    qed    hence "\<forall>m. x * of_nat (Suc m) \<le> t + - x" by (simp del: of_nat_Suc)
hoelzl@54263
  1905
    with a show "a \<le> t + - x"
hoelzl@54263
  1906
      by auto
huffman@36793
  1907
  qed
huffman@36793
  1908
  thus False using x_pos by arith
huffman@36793
  1909
qed
huffman@36793
  1910
huffman@36793
  1911
text {*
haftmann@37388
  1912
  There must be other proofs, e.g. @{text Suc} of the largest
huffman@36793
  1913
  integer in the cut representing @{text "x"}.
huffman@36793
  1914
*}
huffman@36793
  1915
huffman@36793
  1916
lemma reals_Archimedean2: "\<exists>n. (x::real) < of_nat (n::nat)"
huffman@36793
  1917
proof cases
huffman@36793
  1918
  assume "x \<le> 0"
huffman@36793
  1919
  hence "x < of_nat (1::nat)" by simp
huffman@36793
  1920
  thus ?thesis ..
huffman@36793
  1921
next
huffman@36793
  1922
  assume "\<not> x \<le> 0"
huffman@36793
  1923
  hence x_greater_zero: "0 < x" by simp
huffman@36793
  1924
  hence "0 < inverse x" by simp
huffman@36793
  1925
  then obtain n where "inverse (of_nat (Suc n)) < inverse x"
huffman@36793
  1926
    using reals_Archimedean by blast
huffman@36793
  1927
  hence "inverse (of_nat (Suc n)) * x < inverse x * x"
huffman@36793
  1928
    using x_greater_zero by (rule mult_strict_right_mono)
huffman@36793
  1929
  hence "inverse (of_nat (Suc n)) * x < 1"
huffman@36793
  1930
    using x_greater_zero by simp
huffman@36793
  1931
  hence "of_nat (Suc n) * (inverse (of_nat (Suc n)) * x) < of_nat (Suc n) * 1"
huffman@36793
  1932
    by (rule mult_strict_left_mono) (simp del: of_nat_Suc)
huffman@36793
  1933
  hence "x < of_nat (Suc n)"
huffman@36793
  1934
    by (simp add: algebra_simps del: of_nat_Suc)
huffman@36793
  1935
  thus "\<exists>(n::nat). x < of_nat n" ..
huffman@36793
  1936
qed
huffman@36793
  1937
huffman@36793
  1938
instance real :: archimedean_field
huffman@36793
  1939
proof
huffman@36793
  1940
  fix r :: real
huffman@36793
  1941
  obtain n :: nat where "r < of_nat n"
huffman@36793
  1942
    using reals_Archimedean2 ..
huffman@36793
  1943
  then have "r \<le> of_int (int n)"
huffman@36793
  1944
    by simp
huffman@36793
  1945
  then show "\<exists>z. r \<le> of_int z" ..
huffman@36793
  1946
qed
huffman@36793
  1947
huffman@36793
  1948
end