src/HOL/Library/Extended_Real.thy
author nipkow
Mon, 17 Oct 2016 11:46:22 +0200
changeset 64267 b9a1486e79be
parent 63968 4359400adfe7
child 64272 f76b6dda2e56
permissions -rw-r--r--
setsum -> sum
Ignore whitespace changes - Everywhere: Within whitespace: At end of lines:
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cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
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(*  Title:      HOL/Library/Extended_Real.thy
41983
2dc6e382a58b standardized headers;
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    Author:     Johannes Hölzl, TU München
2dc6e382a58b standardized headers;
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    Author:     Robert Himmelmann, TU München
2dc6e382a58b standardized headers;
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    Author:     Armin Heller, TU München
2dc6e382a58b standardized headers;
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    Author:     Bogdan Grechuk, University of Edinburgh
62049
b0f941e207cf Added lots of material on infinite sums, convergence radii, harmonic numbers, Gamma function
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    Author:     Manuel Eberl, TU München
41983
2dc6e382a58b standardized headers;
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*)
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
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903bb1495239 isabelle update_cartouches;
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section \<open>Extended real number line\<close>
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
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43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
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theory Extended_Real
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imports Complex_Main Extended_Nat Liminf_Limsup
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
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begin
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
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62626
de25474ce728 Contractible sets. Also removal of obsolete theorems and refactoring
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text \<open>This should be part of @{theory Extended_Nat} or @{theory Order_Continuity}, but then the
de25474ce728 Contractible sets. Also removal of obsolete theorems and refactoring
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parents: 62390
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    16
AFP-entry \<open>Jinja_Thread\<close> fails, as it does overload certain named from @{theory Complex_Main}.\<close>
62376
85f38d5f8807 Rename ordered_comm_monoid_add to ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add. Introduce ordreed_comm_monoid_add, canonically_ordered_comm_monoid and dioid. Setup nat, entat and ennreal as dioids.
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lemma incseq_sumI2:
62376
85f38d5f8807 Rename ordered_comm_monoid_add to ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add. Introduce ordreed_comm_monoid_add, canonically_ordered_comm_monoid and dioid. Setup nat, entat and ennreal as dioids.
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    19
  fixes f :: "'i \<Rightarrow> nat \<Rightarrow> 'a::ordered_comm_monoid_add"
85f38d5f8807 Rename ordered_comm_monoid_add to ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add. Introduce ordreed_comm_monoid_add, canonically_ordered_comm_monoid and dioid. Setup nat, entat and ennreal as dioids.
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  shows "(\<And>n. n \<in> A \<Longrightarrow> mono (f n)) \<Longrightarrow> mono (\<lambda>i. \<Sum>n\<in>A. f n i)"
64267
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    21
  unfolding incseq_def by (auto intro: sum_mono)
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b9a1486e79be setsum -> sum
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lemma incseq_sumI:
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    24
  fixes f :: "nat \<Rightarrow> 'a::ordered_comm_monoid_add"
85f38d5f8807 Rename ordered_comm_monoid_add to ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add. Introduce ordreed_comm_monoid_add, canonically_ordered_comm_monoid and dioid. Setup nat, entat and ennreal as dioids.
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  assumes "\<And>i. 0 \<le> f i"
64267
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    26
  shows "incseq (\<lambda>i. sum f {..< i})"
62376
85f38d5f8807 Rename ordered_comm_monoid_add to ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add. Introduce ordreed_comm_monoid_add, canonically_ordered_comm_monoid and dioid. Setup nat, entat and ennreal as dioids.
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proof (intro incseq_SucI)
85f38d5f8807 Rename ordered_comm_monoid_add to ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add. Introduce ordreed_comm_monoid_add, canonically_ordered_comm_monoid and dioid. Setup nat, entat and ennreal as dioids.
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  fix n
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    29
  have "sum f {..< n} + 0 \<le> sum f {..<n} + f n"
62376
85f38d5f8807 Rename ordered_comm_monoid_add to ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add. Introduce ordreed_comm_monoid_add, canonically_ordered_comm_monoid and dioid. Setup nat, entat and ennreal as dioids.
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    using assms by (rule add_left_mono)
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  then show "sum f {..< n} \<le> sum f {..< Suc n}"
62376
85f38d5f8807 Rename ordered_comm_monoid_add to ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add. Introduce ordreed_comm_monoid_add, canonically_ordered_comm_monoid and dioid. Setup nat, entat and ennreal as dioids.
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    32
    by auto
85f38d5f8807 Rename ordered_comm_monoid_add to ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add. Introduce ordreed_comm_monoid_add, canonically_ordered_comm_monoid and dioid. Setup nat, entat and ennreal as dioids.
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qed
85f38d5f8807 Rename ordered_comm_monoid_add to ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add. Introduce ordreed_comm_monoid_add, canonically_ordered_comm_monoid and dioid. Setup nat, entat and ennreal as dioids.
hoelzl
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    34
60172
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
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lemma continuous_at_left_imp_sup_continuous:
62378
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    36
  fixes f :: "'a::{complete_linorder, linorder_topology} \<Rightarrow> 'b::{complete_linorder, linorder_topology}"
60172
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
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    37
  assumes "mono f" "\<And>x. continuous (at_left x) f"
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
hoelzl
parents: 60060
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    38
  shows "sup_continuous f"
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
hoelzl
parents: 60060
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    39
  unfolding sup_continuous_def
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
hoelzl
parents: 60060
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    40
proof safe
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
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    41
  fix M :: "nat \<Rightarrow> 'a" assume "incseq M" then show "f (SUP i. M i) = (SUP i. f (M i))"
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
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    42
    using continuous_at_Sup_mono[OF assms, of "range M"] by simp
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
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qed
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423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
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lemma sup_continuous_at_left:
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    46
  fixes f :: "'a::{complete_linorder, linorder_topology, first_countable_topology} \<Rightarrow>
85ed00c1fe7c generalize more theorems to support enat and ennreal
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    'b::{complete_linorder, linorder_topology}"
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  assumes f: "sup_continuous f"
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    49
  shows "continuous (at_left x) f"
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
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    50
proof cases
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
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  assume "x = bot" then show ?thesis
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
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    52
    by (simp add: trivial_limit_at_left_bot)
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
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next
61738
c4f6031f1310 New material about paths, winding numbers, etc. Added lemmas to divide_const_simps. Misc tuning.
paulson <lp15@cam.ac.uk>
parents: 61631
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    54
  assume x: "x \<noteq> bot"
60172
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
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    55
  show ?thesis
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
hoelzl
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    56
    unfolding continuous_within
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
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    57
  proof (intro tendsto_at_left_sequentially[of bot])
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    58
    fix S :: "nat \<Rightarrow> 'a" assume S: "incseq S" and S_x: "S \<longlonglongrightarrow> x"
60172
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
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    59
    from S_x have x_eq: "x = (SUP i. S i)"
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
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    60
      by (rule LIMSEQ_unique) (intro LIMSEQ_SUP S)
61969
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    61
    show "(\<lambda>n. f (S n)) \<longlonglongrightarrow> f x"
60172
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    62
      unfolding x_eq sup_continuousD[OF f S]
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
hoelzl
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diff changeset
    63
      using S sup_continuous_mono[OF f] by (intro LIMSEQ_SUP) (auto simp: mono_def)
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
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    64
  qed (insert x, auto simp: bot_less)
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    65
qed
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
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    66
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
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lemma sup_continuous_iff_at_left:
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    68
  fixes f :: "'a::{complete_linorder, linorder_topology, first_countable_topology} \<Rightarrow>
85ed00c1fe7c generalize more theorems to support enat and ennreal
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    69
    'b::{complete_linorder, linorder_topology}"
60172
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    70
  shows "sup_continuous f \<longleftrightarrow> (\<forall>x. continuous (at_left x) f) \<and> mono f"
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
hoelzl
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    71
  using sup_continuous_at_left[of f] continuous_at_left_imp_sup_continuous[of f]
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
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    72
    sup_continuous_mono[of f] by auto
61738
c4f6031f1310 New material about paths, winding numbers, etc. Added lemmas to divide_const_simps. Misc tuning.
paulson <lp15@cam.ac.uk>
parents: 61631
diff changeset
    73
60172
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    74
lemma continuous_at_right_imp_inf_continuous:
62378
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hoelzl
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    75
  fixes f :: "'a::{complete_linorder, linorder_topology} \<Rightarrow> 'b::{complete_linorder, linorder_topology}"
60172
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
hoelzl
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    76
  assumes "mono f" "\<And>x. continuous (at_right x) f"
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
hoelzl
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diff changeset
    77
  shows "inf_continuous f"
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
hoelzl
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diff changeset
    78
  unfolding inf_continuous_def
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
hoelzl
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    79
proof safe
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
hoelzl
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diff changeset
    80
  fix M :: "nat \<Rightarrow> 'a" assume "decseq M" then show "f (INF i. M i) = (INF i. f (M i))"
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
hoelzl
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diff changeset
    81
    using continuous_at_Inf_mono[OF assms, of "range M"] by simp
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
hoelzl
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    82
qed
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
hoelzl
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    83
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
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    84
lemma inf_continuous_at_right:
62378
85ed00c1fe7c generalize more theorems to support enat and ennreal
hoelzl
parents: 62376
diff changeset
    85
  fixes f :: "'a::{complete_linorder, linorder_topology, first_countable_topology} \<Rightarrow>
85ed00c1fe7c generalize more theorems to support enat and ennreal
hoelzl
parents: 62376
diff changeset
    86
    'b::{complete_linorder, linorder_topology}"
60172
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
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    87
  assumes f: "inf_continuous f"
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
hoelzl
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    88
  shows "continuous (at_right x) f"
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
hoelzl
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    89
proof cases
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
hoelzl
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    90
  assume "x = top" then show ?thesis
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
hoelzl
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diff changeset
    91
    by (simp add: trivial_limit_at_right_top)
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
hoelzl
parents: 60060
diff changeset
    92
next
61738
c4f6031f1310 New material about paths, winding numbers, etc. Added lemmas to divide_const_simps. Misc tuning.
paulson <lp15@cam.ac.uk>
parents: 61631
diff changeset
    93
  assume x: "x \<noteq> top"
60172
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
hoelzl
parents: 60060
diff changeset
    94
  show ?thesis
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
hoelzl
parents: 60060
diff changeset
    95
    unfolding continuous_within
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
hoelzl
parents: 60060
diff changeset
    96
  proof (intro tendsto_at_right_sequentially[of _ top])
61969
e01015e49041 more symbols;
wenzelm
parents: 61945
diff changeset
    97
    fix S :: "nat \<Rightarrow> 'a" assume S: "decseq S" and S_x: "S \<longlonglongrightarrow> x"
60172
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
hoelzl
parents: 60060
diff changeset
    98
    from S_x have x_eq: "x = (INF i. S i)"
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
hoelzl
parents: 60060
diff changeset
    99
      by (rule LIMSEQ_unique) (intro LIMSEQ_INF S)
61969
e01015e49041 more symbols;
wenzelm
parents: 61945
diff changeset
   100
    show "(\<lambda>n. f (S n)) \<longlonglongrightarrow> f x"
60172
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
hoelzl
parents: 60060
diff changeset
   101
      unfolding x_eq inf_continuousD[OF f S]
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
hoelzl
parents: 60060
diff changeset
   102
      using S inf_continuous_mono[OF f] by (intro LIMSEQ_INF) (auto simp: mono_def antimono_def)
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
hoelzl
parents: 60060
diff changeset
   103
  qed (insert x, auto simp: less_top)
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
hoelzl
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diff changeset
   104
qed
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
hoelzl
parents: 60060
diff changeset
   105
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
hoelzl
parents: 60060
diff changeset
   106
lemma inf_continuous_iff_at_right:
62378
85ed00c1fe7c generalize more theorems to support enat and ennreal
hoelzl
parents: 62376
diff changeset
   107
  fixes f :: "'a::{complete_linorder, linorder_topology, first_countable_topology} \<Rightarrow>
85ed00c1fe7c generalize more theorems to support enat and ennreal
hoelzl
parents: 62376
diff changeset
   108
    'b::{complete_linorder, linorder_topology}"
60172
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
hoelzl
parents: 60060
diff changeset
   109
  shows "inf_continuous f \<longleftrightarrow> (\<forall>x. continuous (at_right x) f) \<and> mono f"
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
hoelzl
parents: 60060
diff changeset
   110
  using inf_continuous_at_right[of f] continuous_at_right_imp_inf_continuous[of f]
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
hoelzl
parents: 60060
diff changeset
   111
    inf_continuous_mono[of f] by auto
423273355b55 rename continuous and down_continuous in Order_Continuity to sup_/inf_continuous; relate them with topological continuity
hoelzl
parents: 60060
diff changeset
   112
59115
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   113
instantiation enat :: linorder_topology
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   114
begin
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   115
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   116
definition open_enat :: "enat set \<Rightarrow> bool" where
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   117
  "open_enat = generate_topology (range lessThan \<union> range greaterThan)"
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   118
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   119
instance
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   120
  proof qed (rule open_enat_def)
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   121
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   122
end
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   123
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   124
lemma open_enat: "open {enat n}"
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   125
proof (cases n)
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   126
  case 0
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   127
  then have "{enat n} = {..< eSuc 0}"
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   128
    by (auto simp: enat_0)
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   129
  then show ?thesis
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   130
    by simp
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   131
next
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   132
  case (Suc n')
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   133
  then have "{enat n} = {enat n' <..< enat (Suc n)}"
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   134
    apply auto
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   135
    apply (case_tac x)
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   136
    apply auto
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   137
    done
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   138
  then show ?thesis
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   139
    by simp
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   140
qed
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   141
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   142
lemma open_enat_iff:
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   143
  fixes A :: "enat set"
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   144
  shows "open A \<longleftrightarrow> (\<infinity> \<in> A \<longrightarrow> (\<exists>n::nat. {n <..} \<subseteq> A))"
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   145
proof safe
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   146
  assume "\<infinity> \<notin> A"
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   147
  then have "A = (\<Union>n\<in>{n. enat n \<in> A}. {enat n})"
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   148
    apply auto
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   149
    apply (case_tac x)
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   150
    apply auto
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   151
    done
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   152
  moreover have "open \<dots>"
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   153
    by (auto intro: open_enat)
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   154
  ultimately show "open A"
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   155
    by simp
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   156
next
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   157
  fix n assume "{enat n <..} \<subseteq> A"
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   158
  then have "A = (\<Union>n\<in>{n. enat n \<in> A}. {enat n}) \<union> {enat n <..}"
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   159
    apply auto
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   160
    apply (case_tac x)
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   161
    apply auto
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   162
    done
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   163
  moreover have "open \<dots>"
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   164
    by (intro open_Un open_UN ballI open_enat open_greaterThan)
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   165
  ultimately show "open A"
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   166
    by simp
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   167
next
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   168
  assume "open A" "\<infinity> \<in> A"
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   169
  then have "generate_topology (range lessThan \<union> range greaterThan) A" "\<infinity> \<in> A"
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   170
    unfolding open_enat_def by auto
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   171
  then show "\<exists>n::nat. {n <..} \<subseteq> A"
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   172
  proof induction
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   173
    case (Int A B)
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   174
    then obtain n m where "{enat n<..} \<subseteq> A" "{enat m<..} \<subseteq> B"
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   175
      by auto
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   176
    then have "{enat (max n m) <..} \<subseteq> A \<inter> B"
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   177
      by (auto simp add: subset_eq Ball_def max_def enat_ord_code(1)[symmetric] simp del: enat_ord_code(1))
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   178
    then show ?case
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   179
      by auto
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   180
  next
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   181
    case (UN K)
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   182
    then obtain k where "k \<in> K" "\<infinity> \<in> k"
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   183
      by auto
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   184
    with UN.IH[OF this] show ?case
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   185
      by auto
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   186
  qed auto
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   187
qed
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   188
62369
acfc4ad7b76a instantiate topologies for nat, int and enat
hoelzl
parents: 62343
diff changeset
   189
lemma nhds_enat: "nhds x = (if x = \<infinity> then INF i. principal {enat i..} else principal {x})"
acfc4ad7b76a instantiate topologies for nat, int and enat
hoelzl
parents: 62343
diff changeset
   190
proof auto
acfc4ad7b76a instantiate topologies for nat, int and enat
hoelzl
parents: 62343
diff changeset
   191
  show "nhds \<infinity> = (INF i. principal {enat i..})"
acfc4ad7b76a instantiate topologies for nat, int and enat
hoelzl
parents: 62343
diff changeset
   192
    unfolding nhds_def
acfc4ad7b76a instantiate topologies for nat, int and enat
hoelzl
parents: 62343
diff changeset
   193
    apply (auto intro!: antisym INF_greatest simp add: open_enat_iff cong: rev_conj_cong)
acfc4ad7b76a instantiate topologies for nat, int and enat
hoelzl
parents: 62343
diff changeset
   194
    apply (auto intro!: INF_lower Ioi_le_Ico) []
acfc4ad7b76a instantiate topologies for nat, int and enat
hoelzl
parents: 62343
diff changeset
   195
    subgoal for x i
acfc4ad7b76a instantiate topologies for nat, int and enat
hoelzl
parents: 62343
diff changeset
   196
      by (auto intro!: INF_lower2[of "Suc i"] simp: subset_eq Ball_def eSuc_enat Suc_ile_eq)
acfc4ad7b76a instantiate topologies for nat, int and enat
hoelzl
parents: 62343
diff changeset
   197
    done
acfc4ad7b76a instantiate topologies for nat, int and enat
hoelzl
parents: 62343
diff changeset
   198
  show "nhds (enat i) = principal {enat i}" for i
acfc4ad7b76a instantiate topologies for nat, int and enat
hoelzl
parents: 62343
diff changeset
   199
    by (simp add: nhds_discrete_open open_enat)
acfc4ad7b76a instantiate topologies for nat, int and enat
hoelzl
parents: 62343
diff changeset
   200
qed
acfc4ad7b76a instantiate topologies for nat, int and enat
hoelzl
parents: 62343
diff changeset
   201
acfc4ad7b76a instantiate topologies for nat, int and enat
hoelzl
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diff changeset
   202
instance enat :: topological_comm_monoid_add
acfc4ad7b76a instantiate topologies for nat, int and enat
hoelzl
parents: 62343
diff changeset
   203
proof
acfc4ad7b76a instantiate topologies for nat, int and enat
hoelzl
parents: 62343
diff changeset
   204
  have [simp]: "enat i \<le> aa \<Longrightarrow> enat i \<le> aa + ba" for aa ba i
acfc4ad7b76a instantiate topologies for nat, int and enat
hoelzl
parents: 62343
diff changeset
   205
    by (rule order_trans[OF _ add_mono[of aa aa 0 ba]]) auto
acfc4ad7b76a instantiate topologies for nat, int and enat
hoelzl
parents: 62343
diff changeset
   206
  then have [simp]: "enat i \<le> ba \<Longrightarrow> enat i \<le> aa + ba" for aa ba i
acfc4ad7b76a instantiate topologies for nat, int and enat
hoelzl
parents: 62343
diff changeset
   207
    by (metis add.commute)
acfc4ad7b76a instantiate topologies for nat, int and enat
hoelzl
parents: 62343
diff changeset
   208
  fix a b :: enat show "((\<lambda>x. fst x + snd x) \<longlongrightarrow> a + b) (nhds a \<times>\<^sub>F nhds b)"
acfc4ad7b76a instantiate topologies for nat, int and enat
hoelzl
parents: 62343
diff changeset
   209
    apply (auto simp: nhds_enat filterlim_INF prod_filter_INF1 prod_filter_INF2
acfc4ad7b76a instantiate topologies for nat, int and enat
hoelzl
parents: 62343
diff changeset
   210
                      filterlim_principal principal_prod_principal eventually_principal)
acfc4ad7b76a instantiate topologies for nat, int and enat
hoelzl
parents: 62343
diff changeset
   211
    subgoal for i
acfc4ad7b76a instantiate topologies for nat, int and enat
hoelzl
parents: 62343
diff changeset
   212
      by (auto intro!: eventually_INF1[of i] simp: eventually_principal)
acfc4ad7b76a instantiate topologies for nat, int and enat
hoelzl
parents: 62343
diff changeset
   213
    subgoal for j i
acfc4ad7b76a instantiate topologies for nat, int and enat
hoelzl
parents: 62343
diff changeset
   214
      by (auto intro!: eventually_INF1[of i] simp: eventually_principal)
acfc4ad7b76a instantiate topologies for nat, int and enat
hoelzl
parents: 62343
diff changeset
   215
    subgoal for j i
acfc4ad7b76a instantiate topologies for nat, int and enat
hoelzl
parents: 62343
diff changeset
   216
      by (auto intro!: eventually_INF1[of i] simp: eventually_principal)
acfc4ad7b76a instantiate topologies for nat, int and enat
hoelzl
parents: 62343
diff changeset
   217
    done
acfc4ad7b76a instantiate topologies for nat, int and enat
hoelzl
parents: 62343
diff changeset
   218
qed
59115
f65ac77f7e07 move topology on enat to Extended_Real, otherwise Jinja_Threads fails
hoelzl
parents: 59023
diff changeset
   219
60500
903bb1495239 isabelle update_cartouches;
wenzelm
parents: 60429
diff changeset
   220
text \<open>
63680
6e1e8b5abbfa more symbols;
wenzelm
parents: 63627
diff changeset
   221
  For more lemmas about the extended real numbers see
6e1e8b5abbfa more symbols;
wenzelm
parents: 63627
diff changeset
   222
  \<^file>\<open>~~/src/HOL/Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.thy\<close>.
60500
903bb1495239 isabelle update_cartouches;
wenzelm
parents: 60429
diff changeset
   223
\<close>
903bb1495239 isabelle update_cartouches;
wenzelm
parents: 60429
diff changeset
   224
903bb1495239 isabelle update_cartouches;
wenzelm
parents: 60429
diff changeset
   225
subsection \<open>Definition and basic properties\<close>
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   226
58310
91ea607a34d8 updated news
blanchet
parents: 58249
diff changeset
   227
datatype ereal = ereal real | PInfty | MInfty
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   228
63099
af0e964aad7b Moved material from AFP/Randomised_Social_Choice to distribution
eberlm
parents: 63092
diff changeset
   229
lemma ereal_cong: "x = y \<Longrightarrow> ereal x = ereal y" by simp
af0e964aad7b Moved material from AFP/Randomised_Social_Choice to distribution
eberlm
parents: 63092
diff changeset
   230
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   231
instantiation ereal :: uminus
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   232
begin
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   233
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   234
fun uminus_ereal where
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   235
  "- (ereal r) = ereal (- r)"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   236
| "- PInfty = MInfty"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   237
| "- MInfty = PInfty"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   238
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   239
instance ..
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   240
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   241
end
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   242
43923
ab93d0190a5d add ereal to typeclass infinity
hoelzl
parents: 43920
diff changeset
   243
instantiation ereal :: infinity
ab93d0190a5d add ereal to typeclass infinity
hoelzl
parents: 43920
diff changeset
   244
begin
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   245
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   246
definition "(\<infinity>::ereal) = PInfty"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   247
instance ..
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   248
43923
ab93d0190a5d add ereal to typeclass infinity
hoelzl
parents: 43920
diff changeset
   249
end
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   250
43923
ab93d0190a5d add ereal to typeclass infinity
hoelzl
parents: 43920
diff changeset
   251
declare [[coercion "ereal :: real \<Rightarrow> ereal"]]
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   252
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   253
lemma ereal_uminus_uminus[simp]:
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   254
  fixes a :: ereal
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   255
  shows "- (- a) = a"
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   256
  by (cases a) simp_all
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   257
43923
ab93d0190a5d add ereal to typeclass infinity
hoelzl
parents: 43920
diff changeset
   258
lemma
ab93d0190a5d add ereal to typeclass infinity
hoelzl
parents: 43920
diff changeset
   259
  shows PInfty_eq_infinity[simp]: "PInfty = \<infinity>"
ab93d0190a5d add ereal to typeclass infinity
hoelzl
parents: 43920
diff changeset
   260
    and MInfty_eq_minfinity[simp]: "MInfty = - \<infinity>"
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   261
    and MInfty_neq_PInfty[simp]: "\<infinity> \<noteq> - (\<infinity>::ereal)" "- \<infinity> \<noteq> (\<infinity>::ereal)"
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   262
    and MInfty_neq_ereal[simp]: "ereal r \<noteq> - \<infinity>" "- \<infinity> \<noteq> ereal r"
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   263
    and PInfty_neq_ereal[simp]: "ereal r \<noteq> \<infinity>" "\<infinity> \<noteq> ereal r"
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   264
    and PInfty_cases[simp]: "(case \<infinity> of ereal r \<Rightarrow> f r | PInfty \<Rightarrow> y | MInfty \<Rightarrow> z) = y"
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   265
    and MInfty_cases[simp]: "(case - \<infinity> of ereal r \<Rightarrow> f r | PInfty \<Rightarrow> y | MInfty \<Rightarrow> z) = z"
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   266
  by (simp_all add: infinity_ereal_def)
41973
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   267
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   268
declare
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   269
  PInfty_eq_infinity[code_post]
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   270
  MInfty_eq_minfinity[code_post]
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   271
6cc1875cf35d add code generator setup and tests for ereal
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   272
lemma [code_unfold]:
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  "\<infinity> = PInfty"
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   274
  "- PInfty = MInfty"
43933
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  by simp_all
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   276
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lemma inj_ereal[simp]: "inj_on ereal A"
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   278
  unfolding inj_on_def by auto
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   279
55913
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lemma ereal_cases[cases type: ereal]:
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  obtains (real) r where "x = ereal r"
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    | (PInf) "x = \<infinity>"
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   283
    | (MInf) "x = -\<infinity>"
63092
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  by (cases x) auto
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   285
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   286
lemmas ereal2_cases = ereal_cases[case_product ereal_cases]
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   287
lemmas ereal3_cases = ereal2_cases[case_product ereal_cases]
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   288
57447
87429bdecad5 import more stuff from the CLT proof; base the lborel measure on interval_measure; remove lebesgue measure
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   289
lemma ereal_all_split: "\<And>P. (\<forall>x::ereal. P x) \<longleftrightarrow> P \<infinity> \<and> (\<forall>x. P (ereal x)) \<and> P (-\<infinity>)"
87429bdecad5 import more stuff from the CLT proof; base the lborel measure on interval_measure; remove lebesgue measure
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   290
  by (metis ereal_cases)
87429bdecad5 import more stuff from the CLT proof; base the lborel measure on interval_measure; remove lebesgue measure
hoelzl
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   291
87429bdecad5 import more stuff from the CLT proof; base the lborel measure on interval_measure; remove lebesgue measure
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   292
lemma ereal_ex_split: "\<And>P. (\<exists>x::ereal. P x) \<longleftrightarrow> P \<infinity> \<or> (\<exists>x. P (ereal x)) \<or> P (-\<infinity>)"
87429bdecad5 import more stuff from the CLT proof; base the lborel measure on interval_measure; remove lebesgue measure
hoelzl
parents: 57025
diff changeset
   293
  by (metis ereal_cases)
87429bdecad5 import more stuff from the CLT proof; base the lborel measure on interval_measure; remove lebesgue measure
hoelzl
parents: 57025
diff changeset
   294
43920
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   295
lemma ereal_uminus_eq_iff[simp]:
53873
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   296
  fixes a b :: ereal
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
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parents: 53381
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   297
  shows "-a = -b \<longleftrightarrow> a = b"
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parents: 43138
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   298
  by (cases rule: ereal2_cases[of a b]) simp_all
41973
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parents:
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   299
61609
77b453bd616f Coercion "real" now has type nat => real only and is no longer overloaded. Type class "real_of" is gone. Many duplicate theorems removed.
paulson <lp15@cam.ac.uk>
parents: 61245
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   300
function real_of_ereal :: "ereal \<Rightarrow> real" where
77b453bd616f Coercion "real" now has type nat => real only and is no longer overloaded. Type class "real_of" is gone. Many duplicate theorems removed.
paulson <lp15@cam.ac.uk>
parents: 61245
diff changeset
   301
  "real_of_ereal (ereal r) = r"
77b453bd616f Coercion "real" now has type nat => real only and is no longer overloaded. Type class "real_of" is gone. Many duplicate theorems removed.
paulson <lp15@cam.ac.uk>
parents: 61245
diff changeset
   302
| "real_of_ereal \<infinity> = 0"
77b453bd616f Coercion "real" now has type nat => real only and is no longer overloaded. Type class "real_of" is gone. Many duplicate theorems removed.
paulson <lp15@cam.ac.uk>
parents: 61245
diff changeset
   303
| "real_of_ereal (-\<infinity>) = 0"
43920
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parents: 43138
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   304
  by (auto intro: ereal_cases)
60679
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wenzelm
parents: 60637
diff changeset
   305
termination by standard (rule wf_empty)
41973
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parents:
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   306
43920
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diff changeset
   307
lemma real_of_ereal[simp]:
61609
77b453bd616f Coercion "real" now has type nat => real only and is no longer overloaded. Type class "real_of" is gone. Many duplicate theorems removed.
paulson <lp15@cam.ac.uk>
parents: 61245
diff changeset
   308
  "real_of_ereal (- x :: ereal) = - (real_of_ereal x)"
58042
ffa9e39763e3 introduce real_of typeclass for real :: 'a => real
hoelzl
parents: 57512
diff changeset
   309
  by (cases x) simp_all
41973
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parents:
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   310
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   311
lemma range_ereal[simp]: "range ereal = UNIV - {\<infinity>, -\<infinity>}"
41973
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parents:
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   312
proof safe
53873
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   313
  fix x
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
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parents: 53381
diff changeset
   314
  assume "x \<notin> range ereal" "x \<noteq> \<infinity>"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   315
  then show "x = -\<infinity>"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
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   316
    by (cases x) auto
41973
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parents:
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   317
qed auto
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parents:
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   318
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   319
lemma ereal_range_uminus[simp]: "range uminus = (UNIV::ereal set)"
41979
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hoelzl
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   320
proof safe
53873
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wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   321
  fix x :: ereal
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   322
  show "x \<in> range uminus"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   323
    by (intro image_eqI[of _ _ "-x"]) auto
41979
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hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
   324
qed auto
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
   325
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diff changeset
   326
instantiation ereal :: abs
41976
3fdbc7d5b525 use abs_extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41975
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   327
begin
53873
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   328
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
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parents: 53381
diff changeset
   329
function abs_ereal where
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
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   330
  "\<bar>ereal r\<bar> = ereal \<bar>r\<bar>"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
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parents: 53381
diff changeset
   331
| "\<bar>-\<infinity>\<bar> = (\<infinity>::ereal)"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
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parents: 53381
diff changeset
   332
| "\<bar>\<infinity>\<bar> = (\<infinity>::ereal)"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   333
by (auto intro: ereal_cases)
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   334
termination proof qed (rule wf_empty)
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
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parents: 53381
diff changeset
   335
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
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parents: 53381
diff changeset
   336
instance ..
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
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   337
41976
3fdbc7d5b525 use abs_extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41975
diff changeset
   338
end
3fdbc7d5b525 use abs_extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41975
diff changeset
   339
53873
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diff changeset
   340
lemma abs_eq_infinity_cases[elim!]:
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
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diff changeset
   341
  fixes x :: ereal
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   342
  assumes "\<bar>x\<bar> = \<infinity>"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   343
  obtains "x = \<infinity>" | "x = -\<infinity>"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   344
  using assms by (cases x) auto
41976
3fdbc7d5b525 use abs_extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41975
diff changeset
   345
53873
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diff changeset
   346
lemma abs_neq_infinity_cases[elim!]:
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   347
  fixes x :: ereal
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   348
  assumes "\<bar>x\<bar> \<noteq> \<infinity>"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   349
  obtains r where "x = ereal r"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   350
  using assms by (cases x) auto
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   351
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   352
lemma abs_ereal_uminus[simp]:
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   353
  fixes x :: ereal
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   354
  shows "\<bar>- x\<bar> = \<bar>x\<bar>"
41976
3fdbc7d5b525 use abs_extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41975
diff changeset
   355
  by (cases x) auto
3fdbc7d5b525 use abs_extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41975
diff changeset
   356
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   357
lemma ereal_infinity_cases:
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   358
  fixes a :: ereal
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   359
  shows "a \<noteq> \<infinity> \<Longrightarrow> a \<noteq> -\<infinity> \<Longrightarrow> \<bar>a\<bar> \<noteq> \<infinity>"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   360
  by auto
41976
3fdbc7d5b525 use abs_extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41975
diff changeset
   361
41973
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hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   362
subsubsection "Addition"
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   363
54408
67dec4ccaabd equation when indicator function equals 0 or 1
hoelzl
parents: 53873
diff changeset
   364
instantiation ereal :: "{one,comm_monoid_add,zero_neq_one}"
41973
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hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   365
begin
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   366
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   367
definition "0 = ereal 0"
51351
dd1dd470690b generalized lemmas in Extended_Real_Limits
hoelzl
parents: 51340
diff changeset
   368
definition "1 = ereal 1"
41973
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hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   369
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   370
function plus_ereal where
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   371
  "ereal r + ereal p = ereal (r + p)"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   372
| "\<infinity> + a = (\<infinity>::ereal)"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   373
| "a + \<infinity> = (\<infinity>::ereal)"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   374
| "ereal r + -\<infinity> = - \<infinity>"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   375
| "-\<infinity> + ereal p = -(\<infinity>::ereal)"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   376
| "-\<infinity> + -\<infinity> = -(\<infinity>::ereal)"
61166
5976fe402824 renamed method "goals" to "goal_cases" to emphasize its meaning;
wenzelm
parents: 61120
diff changeset
   377
proof goal_cases
60580
7e741e22d7fc tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 60500
diff changeset
   378
  case prems: (1 P x)
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   379
  then obtain a b where "x = (a, b)"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   380
    by (cases x) auto
60580
7e741e22d7fc tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 60500
diff changeset
   381
  with prems show P
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   382
   by (cases rule: ereal2_cases[of a b]) auto
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   383
qed auto
60679
ade12ef2773c tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 60637
diff changeset
   384
termination by standard (rule wf_empty)
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   385
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   386
lemma Infty_neq_0[simp]:
43923
ab93d0190a5d add ereal to typeclass infinity
hoelzl
parents: 43920
diff changeset
   387
  "(\<infinity>::ereal) \<noteq> 0" "0 \<noteq> (\<infinity>::ereal)"
ab93d0190a5d add ereal to typeclass infinity
hoelzl
parents: 43920
diff changeset
   388
  "-(\<infinity>::ereal) \<noteq> 0" "0 \<noteq> -(\<infinity>::ereal)"
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   389
  by (simp_all add: zero_ereal_def)
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   390
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   391
lemma ereal_eq_0[simp]:
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   392
  "ereal r = 0 \<longleftrightarrow> r = 0"
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   393
  "0 = ereal r \<longleftrightarrow> r = 0"
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   394
  unfolding zero_ereal_def by simp_all
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   395
54416
7fb88ed6ff3c better support for enat and ereal conversions
hoelzl
parents: 54408
diff changeset
   396
lemma ereal_eq_1[simp]:
7fb88ed6ff3c better support for enat and ereal conversions
hoelzl
parents: 54408
diff changeset
   397
  "ereal r = 1 \<longleftrightarrow> r = 1"
7fb88ed6ff3c better support for enat and ereal conversions
hoelzl
parents: 54408
diff changeset
   398
  "1 = ereal r \<longleftrightarrow> r = 1"
7fb88ed6ff3c better support for enat and ereal conversions
hoelzl
parents: 54408
diff changeset
   399
  unfolding one_ereal_def by simp_all
7fb88ed6ff3c better support for enat and ereal conversions
hoelzl
parents: 54408
diff changeset
   400
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   401
instance
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   402
proof
47082
737d7bc8e50f tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 45934
diff changeset
   403
  fix a b c :: ereal
737d7bc8e50f tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 45934
diff changeset
   404
  show "0 + a = a"
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   405
    by (cases a) (simp_all add: zero_ereal_def)
47082
737d7bc8e50f tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 45934
diff changeset
   406
  show "a + b = b + a"
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   407
    by (cases rule: ereal2_cases[of a b]) simp_all
47082
737d7bc8e50f tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 45934
diff changeset
   408
  show "a + b + c = a + (b + c)"
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   409
    by (cases rule: ereal3_cases[of a b c]) simp_all
54408
67dec4ccaabd equation when indicator function equals 0 or 1
hoelzl
parents: 53873
diff changeset
   410
  show "0 \<noteq> (1::ereal)"
67dec4ccaabd equation when indicator function equals 0 or 1
hoelzl
parents: 53873
diff changeset
   411
    by (simp add: one_ereal_def zero_ereal_def)
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   412
qed
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   413
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   414
end
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   415
60060
3630ecde4e7c more lemmas about ereal
Andreas Lochbihler
parents: 59679
diff changeset
   416
lemma ereal_0_plus [simp]: "ereal 0 + x = x"
3630ecde4e7c more lemmas about ereal
Andreas Lochbihler
parents: 59679
diff changeset
   417
  and plus_ereal_0 [simp]: "x + ereal 0 = x"
3630ecde4e7c more lemmas about ereal
Andreas Lochbihler
parents: 59679
diff changeset
   418
by(simp_all add: zero_ereal_def[symmetric])
3630ecde4e7c more lemmas about ereal
Andreas Lochbihler
parents: 59679
diff changeset
   419
51351
dd1dd470690b generalized lemmas in Extended_Real_Limits
hoelzl
parents: 51340
diff changeset
   420
instance ereal :: numeral ..
dd1dd470690b generalized lemmas in Extended_Real_Limits
hoelzl
parents: 51340
diff changeset
   421
61609
77b453bd616f Coercion "real" now has type nat => real only and is no longer overloaded. Type class "real_of" is gone. Many duplicate theorems removed.
paulson <lp15@cam.ac.uk>
parents: 61245
diff changeset
   422
lemma real_of_ereal_0[simp]: "real_of_ereal (0::ereal) = 0"
58042
ffa9e39763e3 introduce real_of typeclass for real :: 'a => real
hoelzl
parents: 57512
diff changeset
   423
  unfolding zero_ereal_def by simp
42950
6e5c2a3c69da move lemmas to Extended_Reals and Extended_Real_Limits
hoelzl
parents: 42600
diff changeset
   424
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   425
lemma abs_ereal_zero[simp]: "\<bar>0\<bar> = (0::ereal)"
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   426
  unfolding zero_ereal_def abs_ereal.simps by simp
41976
3fdbc7d5b525 use abs_extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41975
diff changeset
   427
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   428
lemma ereal_uminus_zero[simp]: "- 0 = (0::ereal)"
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   429
  by (simp add: zero_ereal_def)
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   430
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   431
lemma ereal_uminus_zero_iff[simp]:
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   432
  fixes a :: ereal
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   433
  shows "-a = 0 \<longleftrightarrow> a = 0"
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   434
  by (cases a) simp_all
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   435
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   436
lemma ereal_plus_eq_PInfty[simp]:
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   437
  fixes a b :: ereal
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   438
  shows "a + b = \<infinity> \<longleftrightarrow> a = \<infinity> \<or> b = \<infinity>"
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   439
  by (cases rule: ereal2_cases[of a b]) auto
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   440
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   441
lemma ereal_plus_eq_MInfty[simp]:
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   442
  fixes a b :: ereal
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   443
  shows "a + b = -\<infinity> \<longleftrightarrow> (a = -\<infinity> \<or> b = -\<infinity>) \<and> a \<noteq> \<infinity> \<and> b \<noteq> \<infinity>"
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   444
  by (cases rule: ereal2_cases[of a b]) auto
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   445
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   446
lemma ereal_add_cancel_left:
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   447
  fixes a b :: ereal
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   448
  assumes "a \<noteq> -\<infinity>"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   449
  shows "a + b = a + c \<longleftrightarrow> a = \<infinity> \<or> b = c"
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   450
  using assms by (cases rule: ereal3_cases[of a b c]) auto
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   451
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   452
lemma ereal_add_cancel_right:
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   453
  fixes a b :: ereal
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   454
  assumes "a \<noteq> -\<infinity>"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   455
  shows "b + a = c + a \<longleftrightarrow> a = \<infinity> \<or> b = c"
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   456
  using assms by (cases rule: ereal3_cases[of a b c]) auto
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   457
61609
77b453bd616f Coercion "real" now has type nat => real only and is no longer overloaded. Type class "real_of" is gone. Many duplicate theorems removed.
paulson <lp15@cam.ac.uk>
parents: 61245
diff changeset
   458
lemma ereal_real: "ereal (real_of_ereal x) = (if \<bar>x\<bar> = \<infinity> then 0 else x)"
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   459
  by (cases x) simp_all
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   460
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   461
lemma real_of_ereal_add:
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   462
  fixes a b :: ereal
61609
77b453bd616f Coercion "real" now has type nat => real only and is no longer overloaded. Type class "real_of" is gone. Many duplicate theorems removed.
paulson <lp15@cam.ac.uk>
parents: 61245
diff changeset
   463
  shows "real_of_ereal (a + b) =
77b453bd616f Coercion "real" now has type nat => real only and is no longer overloaded. Type class "real_of" is gone. Many duplicate theorems removed.
paulson <lp15@cam.ac.uk>
parents: 61245
diff changeset
   464
    (if (\<bar>a\<bar> = \<infinity>) \<and> (\<bar>b\<bar> = \<infinity>) \<or> (\<bar>a\<bar> \<noteq> \<infinity>) \<and> (\<bar>b\<bar> \<noteq> \<infinity>) then real_of_ereal a + real_of_ereal b else 0)"
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   465
  by (cases rule: ereal2_cases[of a b]) auto
41979
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
   466
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   467
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   468
subsubsection "Linear order on @{typ ereal}"
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   469
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   470
instantiation ereal :: linorder
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   471
begin
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   472
47082
737d7bc8e50f tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 45934
diff changeset
   473
function less_ereal
737d7bc8e50f tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 45934
diff changeset
   474
where
737d7bc8e50f tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 45934
diff changeset
   475
  "   ereal x < ereal y     \<longleftrightarrow> x < y"
737d7bc8e50f tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 45934
diff changeset
   476
| "(\<infinity>::ereal) < a           \<longleftrightarrow> False"
737d7bc8e50f tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 45934
diff changeset
   477
| "         a < -(\<infinity>::ereal) \<longleftrightarrow> False"
737d7bc8e50f tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 45934
diff changeset
   478
| "ereal x    < \<infinity>           \<longleftrightarrow> True"
737d7bc8e50f tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 45934
diff changeset
   479
| "        -\<infinity> < ereal r     \<longleftrightarrow> True"
737d7bc8e50f tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 45934
diff changeset
   480
| "        -\<infinity> < (\<infinity>::ereal) \<longleftrightarrow> True"
61166
5976fe402824 renamed method "goals" to "goal_cases" to emphasize its meaning;
wenzelm
parents: 61120
diff changeset
   481
proof goal_cases
60580
7e741e22d7fc tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 60500
diff changeset
   482
  case prems: (1 P x)
53374
a14d2a854c02 tuned proofs -- clarified flow of facts wrt. calculation;
wenzelm
parents: 53216
diff changeset
   483
  then obtain a b where "x = (a,b)" by (cases x) auto
60580
7e741e22d7fc tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 60500
diff changeset
   484
  with prems show P by (cases rule: ereal2_cases[of a b]) auto
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   485
qed simp_all
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   486
termination by (relation "{}") simp
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   487
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   488
definition "x \<le> (y::ereal) \<longleftrightarrow> x < y \<or> x = y"
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   489
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   490
lemma ereal_infty_less[simp]:
43923
ab93d0190a5d add ereal to typeclass infinity
hoelzl
parents: 43920
diff changeset
   491
  fixes x :: ereal
ab93d0190a5d add ereal to typeclass infinity
hoelzl
parents: 43920
diff changeset
   492
  shows "x < \<infinity> \<longleftrightarrow> (x \<noteq> \<infinity>)"
ab93d0190a5d add ereal to typeclass infinity
hoelzl
parents: 43920
diff changeset
   493
    "-\<infinity> < x \<longleftrightarrow> (x \<noteq> -\<infinity>)"
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   494
  by (cases x, simp_all) (cases x, simp_all)
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   495
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   496
lemma ereal_infty_less_eq[simp]:
43923
ab93d0190a5d add ereal to typeclass infinity
hoelzl
parents: 43920
diff changeset
   497
  fixes x :: ereal
ab93d0190a5d add ereal to typeclass infinity
hoelzl
parents: 43920
diff changeset
   498
  shows "\<infinity> \<le> x \<longleftrightarrow> x = \<infinity>"
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   499
    and "x \<le> -\<infinity> \<longleftrightarrow> x = -\<infinity>"
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   500
  by (auto simp add: less_eq_ereal_def)
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   501
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   502
lemma ereal_less[simp]:
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   503
  "ereal r < 0 \<longleftrightarrow> (r < 0)"
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   504
  "0 < ereal r \<longleftrightarrow> (0 < r)"
54416
7fb88ed6ff3c better support for enat and ereal conversions
hoelzl
parents: 54408
diff changeset
   505
  "ereal r < 1 \<longleftrightarrow> (r < 1)"
7fb88ed6ff3c better support for enat and ereal conversions
hoelzl
parents: 54408
diff changeset
   506
  "1 < ereal r \<longleftrightarrow> (1 < r)"
43923
ab93d0190a5d add ereal to typeclass infinity
hoelzl
parents: 43920
diff changeset
   507
  "0 < (\<infinity>::ereal)"
ab93d0190a5d add ereal to typeclass infinity
hoelzl
parents: 43920
diff changeset
   508
  "-(\<infinity>::ereal) < 0"
54416
7fb88ed6ff3c better support for enat and ereal conversions
hoelzl
parents: 54408
diff changeset
   509
  by (simp_all add: zero_ereal_def one_ereal_def)
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   510
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   511
lemma ereal_less_eq[simp]:
43923
ab93d0190a5d add ereal to typeclass infinity
hoelzl
parents: 43920
diff changeset
   512
  "x \<le> (\<infinity>::ereal)"
ab93d0190a5d add ereal to typeclass infinity
hoelzl
parents: 43920
diff changeset
   513
  "-(\<infinity>::ereal) \<le> x"
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   514
  "ereal r \<le> ereal p \<longleftrightarrow> r \<le> p"
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   515
  "ereal r \<le> 0 \<longleftrightarrow> r \<le> 0"
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   516
  "0 \<le> ereal r \<longleftrightarrow> 0 \<le> r"
54416
7fb88ed6ff3c better support for enat and ereal conversions
hoelzl
parents: 54408
diff changeset
   517
  "ereal r \<le> 1 \<longleftrightarrow> r \<le> 1"
7fb88ed6ff3c better support for enat and ereal conversions
hoelzl
parents: 54408
diff changeset
   518
  "1 \<le> ereal r \<longleftrightarrow> 1 \<le> r"
7fb88ed6ff3c better support for enat and ereal conversions
hoelzl
parents: 54408
diff changeset
   519
  by (auto simp add: less_eq_ereal_def zero_ereal_def one_ereal_def)
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   520
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   521
lemma ereal_infty_less_eq2:
43923
ab93d0190a5d add ereal to typeclass infinity
hoelzl
parents: 43920
diff changeset
   522
  "a \<le> b \<Longrightarrow> a = \<infinity> \<Longrightarrow> b = (\<infinity>::ereal)"
ab93d0190a5d add ereal to typeclass infinity
hoelzl
parents: 43920
diff changeset
   523
  "a \<le> b \<Longrightarrow> b = -\<infinity> \<Longrightarrow> a = -(\<infinity>::ereal)"
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   524
  by simp_all
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   525
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   526
instance
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   527
proof
47082
737d7bc8e50f tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 45934
diff changeset
   528
  fix x y z :: ereal
737d7bc8e50f tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 45934
diff changeset
   529
  show "x \<le> x"
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   530
    by (cases x) simp_all
47082
737d7bc8e50f tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 45934
diff changeset
   531
  show "x < y \<longleftrightarrow> x \<le> y \<and> \<not> y \<le> x"
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   532
    by (cases rule: ereal2_cases[of x y]) auto
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   533
  show "x \<le> y \<or> y \<le> x "
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   534
    by (cases rule: ereal2_cases[of x y]) auto
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   535
  {
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   536
    assume "x \<le> y" "y \<le> x"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   537
    then show "x = y"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   538
      by (cases rule: ereal2_cases[of x y]) auto
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   539
  }
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   540
  {
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   541
    assume "x \<le> y" "y \<le> z"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   542
    then show "x \<le> z"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   543
      by (cases rule: ereal3_cases[of x y z]) auto
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   544
  }
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   545
qed
47082
737d7bc8e50f tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 45934
diff changeset
   546
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   547
end
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   548
51329
4a3c453f99a1 split dense into inner_dense_order and no_top/no_bot
hoelzl
parents: 51328
diff changeset
   549
lemma ereal_dense2: "x < y \<Longrightarrow> \<exists>z. x < ereal z \<and> ereal z < y"
4a3c453f99a1 split dense into inner_dense_order and no_top/no_bot
hoelzl
parents: 51328
diff changeset
   550
  using lt_ex gt_ex dense by (cases x y rule: ereal2_cases) auto
4a3c453f99a1 split dense into inner_dense_order and no_top/no_bot
hoelzl
parents: 51328
diff changeset
   551
53216
ad2e09c30aa8 renamed inner_dense_linorder to dense_linorder
hoelzl
parents: 52729
diff changeset
   552
instance ereal :: dense_linorder
60679
ade12ef2773c tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 60637
diff changeset
   553
  by standard (blast dest: ereal_dense2)
51329
4a3c453f99a1 split dense into inner_dense_order and no_top/no_bot
hoelzl
parents: 51328
diff changeset
   554
62376
85f38d5f8807 Rename ordered_comm_monoid_add to ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add. Introduce ordreed_comm_monoid_add, canonically_ordered_comm_monoid and dioid. Setup nat, entat and ennreal as dioids.
hoelzl
parents: 62371
diff changeset
   555
instance ereal :: ordered_comm_monoid_add
41978
656298577a33 add infinite sums and power on extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41977
diff changeset
   556
proof
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   557
  fix a b c :: ereal
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   558
  assume "a \<le> b"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   559
  then show "c + a \<le> c + b"
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   560
    by (cases rule: ereal3_cases[of a b c]) auto
41978
656298577a33 add infinite sums and power on extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41977
diff changeset
   561
qed
656298577a33 add infinite sums and power on extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41977
diff changeset
   562
62648
ee48e0b4f669 more stuff for extended nonnegative real numbers
hoelzl
parents: 62626
diff changeset
   563
lemma ereal_one_not_less_zero_ereal[simp]: "\<not> 1 < (0::ereal)"
ee48e0b4f669 more stuff for extended nonnegative real numbers
hoelzl
parents: 62626
diff changeset
   564
  by (simp add: zero_ereal_def)
ee48e0b4f669 more stuff for extended nonnegative real numbers
hoelzl
parents: 62626
diff changeset
   565
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   566
lemma real_of_ereal_positive_mono:
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   567
  fixes x y :: ereal
61609
77b453bd616f Coercion "real" now has type nat => real only and is no longer overloaded. Type class "real_of" is gone. Many duplicate theorems removed.
paulson <lp15@cam.ac.uk>
parents: 61245
diff changeset
   568
  shows "0 \<le> x \<Longrightarrow> x \<le> y \<Longrightarrow> y \<noteq> \<infinity> \<Longrightarrow> real_of_ereal x \<le> real_of_ereal y"
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   569
  by (cases rule: ereal2_cases[of x y]) auto
42950
6e5c2a3c69da move lemmas to Extended_Reals and Extended_Real_Limits
hoelzl
parents: 42600
diff changeset
   570
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   571
lemma ereal_MInfty_lessI[intro, simp]:
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   572
  fixes a :: ereal
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   573
  shows "a \<noteq> -\<infinity> \<Longrightarrow> -\<infinity> < a"
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   574
  by (cases a) auto
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   575
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   576
lemma ereal_less_PInfty[intro, simp]:
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   577
  fixes a :: ereal
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   578
  shows "a \<noteq> \<infinity> \<Longrightarrow> a < \<infinity>"
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   579
  by (cases a) auto
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   580
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   581
lemma ereal_less_ereal_Ex:
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   582
  fixes a b :: ereal
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   583
  shows "x < ereal r \<longleftrightarrow> x = -\<infinity> \<or> (\<exists>p. p < r \<and> x = ereal p)"
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   584
  by (cases x) auto
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   585
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   586
lemma less_PInf_Ex_of_nat: "x \<noteq> \<infinity> \<longleftrightarrow> (\<exists>n::nat. x < ereal (real n))"
41979
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
   587
proof (cases x)
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   588
  case (real r)
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   589
  then show ?thesis
41980
28b51effc5ed split Extended_Reals into parts for Library and Multivariate_Analysis
hoelzl
parents: 41979
diff changeset
   590
    using reals_Archimedean2[of r] by simp
41979
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
   591
qed simp_all
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
   592
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   593
lemma ereal_add_mono:
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   594
  fixes a b c d :: ereal
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   595
  assumes "a \<le> b"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   596
    and "c \<le> d"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   597
  shows "a + c \<le> b + d"
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   598
  using assms
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   599
  apply (cases a)
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   600
  apply (cases rule: ereal3_cases[of b c d], auto)
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   601
  apply (cases rule: ereal3_cases[of b c d], auto)
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   602
  done
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   603
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   604
lemma ereal_minus_le_minus[simp]:
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   605
  fixes a b :: ereal
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   606
  shows "- a \<le> - b \<longleftrightarrow> b \<le> a"
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   607
  by (cases rule: ereal2_cases[of a b]) auto
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   608
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   609
lemma ereal_minus_less_minus[simp]:
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   610
  fixes a b :: ereal
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   611
  shows "- a < - b \<longleftrightarrow> b < a"
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   612
  by (cases rule: ereal2_cases[of a b]) auto
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   613
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   614
lemma ereal_le_real_iff:
61609
77b453bd616f Coercion "real" now has type nat => real only and is no longer overloaded. Type class "real_of" is gone. Many duplicate theorems removed.
paulson <lp15@cam.ac.uk>
parents: 61245
diff changeset
   615
  "x \<le> real_of_ereal y \<longleftrightarrow> (\<bar>y\<bar> \<noteq> \<infinity> \<longrightarrow> ereal x \<le> y) \<and> (\<bar>y\<bar> = \<infinity> \<longrightarrow> x \<le> 0)"
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   616
  by (cases y) auto
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   617
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   618
lemma real_le_ereal_iff:
61609
77b453bd616f Coercion "real" now has type nat => real only and is no longer overloaded. Type class "real_of" is gone. Many duplicate theorems removed.
paulson <lp15@cam.ac.uk>
parents: 61245
diff changeset
   619
  "real_of_ereal y \<le> x \<longleftrightarrow> (\<bar>y\<bar> \<noteq> \<infinity> \<longrightarrow> y \<le> ereal x) \<and> (\<bar>y\<bar> = \<infinity> \<longrightarrow> 0 \<le> x)"
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   620
  by (cases y) auto
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   621
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   622
lemma ereal_less_real_iff:
61609
77b453bd616f Coercion "real" now has type nat => real only and is no longer overloaded. Type class "real_of" is gone. Many duplicate theorems removed.
paulson <lp15@cam.ac.uk>
parents: 61245
diff changeset
   623
  "x < real_of_ereal y \<longleftrightarrow> (\<bar>y\<bar> \<noteq> \<infinity> \<longrightarrow> ereal x < y) \<and> (\<bar>y\<bar> = \<infinity> \<longrightarrow> x < 0)"
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   624
  by (cases y) auto
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   625
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   626
lemma real_less_ereal_iff:
61609
77b453bd616f Coercion "real" now has type nat => real only and is no longer overloaded. Type class "real_of" is gone. Many duplicate theorems removed.
paulson <lp15@cam.ac.uk>
parents: 61245
diff changeset
   627
  "real_of_ereal y < x \<longleftrightarrow> (\<bar>y\<bar> \<noteq> \<infinity> \<longrightarrow> y < ereal x) \<and> (\<bar>y\<bar> = \<infinity> \<longrightarrow> 0 < x)"
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   628
  by (cases y) auto
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   629
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   630
lemma real_of_ereal_pos:
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   631
  fixes x :: ereal
61609
77b453bd616f Coercion "real" now has type nat => real only and is no longer overloaded. Type class "real_of" is gone. Many duplicate theorems removed.
paulson <lp15@cam.ac.uk>
parents: 61245
diff changeset
   632
  shows "0 \<le> x \<Longrightarrow> 0 \<le> real_of_ereal x" by (cases x) auto
41979
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
   633
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   634
lemmas real_of_ereal_ord_simps =
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   635
  ereal_le_real_iff real_le_ereal_iff ereal_less_real_iff real_less_ereal_iff
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   636
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   637
lemma abs_ereal_ge0[simp]: "0 \<le> x \<Longrightarrow> \<bar>x :: ereal\<bar> = x"
42950
6e5c2a3c69da move lemmas to Extended_Reals and Extended_Real_Limits
hoelzl
parents: 42600
diff changeset
   638
  by (cases x) auto
6e5c2a3c69da move lemmas to Extended_Reals and Extended_Real_Limits
hoelzl
parents: 42600
diff changeset
   639
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   640
lemma abs_ereal_less0[simp]: "x < 0 \<Longrightarrow> \<bar>x :: ereal\<bar> = -x"
42950
6e5c2a3c69da move lemmas to Extended_Reals and Extended_Real_Limits
hoelzl
parents: 42600
diff changeset
   641
  by (cases x) auto
6e5c2a3c69da move lemmas to Extended_Reals and Extended_Real_Limits
hoelzl
parents: 42600
diff changeset
   642
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   643
lemma abs_ereal_pos[simp]: "0 \<le> \<bar>x :: ereal\<bar>"
42950
6e5c2a3c69da move lemmas to Extended_Reals and Extended_Real_Limits
hoelzl
parents: 42600
diff changeset
   644
  by (cases x) auto
6e5c2a3c69da move lemmas to Extended_Reals and Extended_Real_Limits
hoelzl
parents: 42600
diff changeset
   645
61631
4f7ef088c4ed add lemmas for extended nats and reals
Andreas Lochbihler
parents: 61610
diff changeset
   646
lemma ereal_abs_leI:
61738
c4f6031f1310 New material about paths, winding numbers, etc. Added lemmas to divide_const_simps. Misc tuning.
paulson <lp15@cam.ac.uk>
parents: 61631
diff changeset
   647
  fixes x y :: ereal
61631
4f7ef088c4ed add lemmas for extended nats and reals
Andreas Lochbihler
parents: 61610
diff changeset
   648
  shows "\<lbrakk> x \<le> y; -x \<le> y \<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> \<bar>x\<bar> \<le> y"
4f7ef088c4ed add lemmas for extended nats and reals
Andreas Lochbihler
parents: 61610
diff changeset
   649
by(cases x y rule: ereal2_cases)(simp_all)
4f7ef088c4ed add lemmas for extended nats and reals
Andreas Lochbihler
parents: 61610
diff changeset
   650
61609
77b453bd616f Coercion "real" now has type nat => real only and is no longer overloaded. Type class "real_of" is gone. Many duplicate theorems removed.
paulson <lp15@cam.ac.uk>
parents: 61245
diff changeset
   651
lemma real_of_ereal_le_0[simp]: "real_of_ereal (x :: ereal) \<le> 0 \<longleftrightarrow> x \<le> 0 \<or> x = \<infinity>"
43923
ab93d0190a5d add ereal to typeclass infinity
hoelzl
parents: 43920
diff changeset
   652
  by (cases x) auto
42950
6e5c2a3c69da move lemmas to Extended_Reals and Extended_Real_Limits
hoelzl
parents: 42600
diff changeset
   653
61609
77b453bd616f Coercion "real" now has type nat => real only and is no longer overloaded. Type class "real_of" is gone. Many duplicate theorems removed.
paulson <lp15@cam.ac.uk>
parents: 61245
diff changeset
   654
lemma abs_real_of_ereal[simp]: "\<bar>real_of_ereal (x :: ereal)\<bar> = real_of_ereal \<bar>x\<bar>"
43923
ab93d0190a5d add ereal to typeclass infinity
hoelzl
parents: 43920
diff changeset
   655
  by (cases x) auto
42950
6e5c2a3c69da move lemmas to Extended_Reals and Extended_Real_Limits
hoelzl
parents: 42600
diff changeset
   656
43923
ab93d0190a5d add ereal to typeclass infinity
hoelzl
parents: 43920
diff changeset
   657
lemma zero_less_real_of_ereal:
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   658
  fixes x :: ereal
61609
77b453bd616f Coercion "real" now has type nat => real only and is no longer overloaded. Type class "real_of" is gone. Many duplicate theorems removed.
paulson <lp15@cam.ac.uk>
parents: 61245
diff changeset
   659
  shows "0 < real_of_ereal x \<longleftrightarrow> 0 < x \<and> x \<noteq> \<infinity>"
43923
ab93d0190a5d add ereal to typeclass infinity
hoelzl
parents: 43920
diff changeset
   660
  by (cases x) auto
42950
6e5c2a3c69da move lemmas to Extended_Reals and Extended_Real_Limits
hoelzl
parents: 42600
diff changeset
   661
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   662
lemma ereal_0_le_uminus_iff[simp]:
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   663
  fixes a :: ereal
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   664
  shows "0 \<le> - a \<longleftrightarrow> a \<le> 0"
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   665
  by (cases rule: ereal2_cases[of a]) auto
42950
6e5c2a3c69da move lemmas to Extended_Reals and Extended_Real_Limits
hoelzl
parents: 42600
diff changeset
   666
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   667
lemma ereal_uminus_le_0_iff[simp]:
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   668
  fixes a :: ereal
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   669
  shows "- a \<le> 0 \<longleftrightarrow> 0 \<le> a"
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   670
  by (cases rule: ereal2_cases[of a]) auto
42950
6e5c2a3c69da move lemmas to Extended_Reals and Extended_Real_Limits
hoelzl
parents: 42600
diff changeset
   671
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   672
lemma ereal_add_strict_mono:
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   673
  fixes a b c d :: ereal
56993
e5366291d6aa introduce Bochner integral: generalizes Lebesgue integral from real-valued function to functions on real-normed vector spaces
hoelzl
parents: 56927
diff changeset
   674
  assumes "a \<le> b"
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   675
    and "0 \<le> a"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   676
    and "a \<noteq> \<infinity>"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   677
    and "c < d"
41979
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
   678
  shows "a + c < b + d"
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   679
  using assms
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   680
  by (cases rule: ereal3_cases[case_product ereal_cases, of a b c d]) auto
41979
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
   681
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   682
lemma ereal_less_add:
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   683
  fixes a b c :: ereal
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   684
  shows "\<bar>a\<bar> \<noteq> \<infinity> \<Longrightarrow> c < b \<Longrightarrow> a + c < a + b"
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   685
  by (cases rule: ereal2_cases[of b c]) auto
41979
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
   686
54416
7fb88ed6ff3c better support for enat and ereal conversions
hoelzl
parents: 54408
diff changeset
   687
lemma ereal_add_nonneg_eq_0_iff:
7fb88ed6ff3c better support for enat and ereal conversions
hoelzl
parents: 54408
diff changeset
   688
  fixes a b :: ereal
7fb88ed6ff3c better support for enat and ereal conversions
hoelzl
parents: 54408
diff changeset
   689
  shows "0 \<le> a \<Longrightarrow> 0 \<le> b \<Longrightarrow> a + b = 0 \<longleftrightarrow> a = 0 \<and> b = 0"
7fb88ed6ff3c better support for enat and ereal conversions
hoelzl
parents: 54408
diff changeset
   690
  by (cases a b rule: ereal2_cases) auto
7fb88ed6ff3c better support for enat and ereal conversions
hoelzl
parents: 54408
diff changeset
   691
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   692
lemma ereal_uminus_eq_reorder: "- a = b \<longleftrightarrow> a = (-b::ereal)"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   693
  by auto
41979
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
   694
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   695
lemma ereal_uminus_less_reorder: "- a < b \<longleftrightarrow> -b < (a::ereal)"
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   696
  by (subst (3) ereal_uminus_uminus[symmetric]) (simp only: ereal_minus_less_minus)
41979
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
   697
59452
2538b2c51769 ereal: tuned proofs concerning continuity and suprema
hoelzl
parents: 59425
diff changeset
   698
lemma ereal_less_uminus_reorder: "a < - b \<longleftrightarrow> b < - (a::ereal)"
2538b2c51769 ereal: tuned proofs concerning continuity and suprema
hoelzl
parents: 59425
diff changeset
   699
  by (subst (3) ereal_uminus_uminus[symmetric]) (simp only: ereal_minus_less_minus)
2538b2c51769 ereal: tuned proofs concerning continuity and suprema
hoelzl
parents: 59425
diff changeset
   700
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   701
lemma ereal_uminus_le_reorder: "- a \<le> b \<longleftrightarrow> -b \<le> (a::ereal)"
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   702
  by (subst (3) ereal_uminus_uminus[symmetric]) (simp only: ereal_minus_le_minus)
41979
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
   703
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   704
lemmas ereal_uminus_reorder =
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   705
  ereal_uminus_eq_reorder ereal_uminus_less_reorder ereal_uminus_le_reorder
41979
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
   706
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   707
lemma ereal_bot:
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   708
  fixes x :: ereal
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   709
  assumes "\<And>B. x \<le> ereal B"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   710
  shows "x = - \<infinity>"
41979
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
   711
proof (cases x)
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   712
  case (real r)
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   713
  with assms[of "r - 1"] show ?thesis
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   714
    by auto
47082
737d7bc8e50f tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 45934
diff changeset
   715
next
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   716
  case PInf
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   717
  with assms[of 0] show ?thesis
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   718
    by auto
47082
737d7bc8e50f tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 45934
diff changeset
   719
next
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   720
  case MInf
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   721
  then show ?thesis
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   722
    by simp
41979
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
   723
qed
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
   724
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   725
lemma ereal_top:
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   726
  fixes x :: ereal
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   727
  assumes "\<And>B. x \<ge> ereal B"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   728
  shows "x = \<infinity>"
41979
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
   729
proof (cases x)
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   730
  case (real r)
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   731
  with assms[of "r + 1"] show ?thesis
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   732
    by auto
47082
737d7bc8e50f tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 45934
diff changeset
   733
next
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   734
  case MInf
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   735
  with assms[of 0] show ?thesis
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   736
    by auto
47082
737d7bc8e50f tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 45934
diff changeset
   737
next
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   738
  case PInf
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   739
  then show ?thesis
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   740
    by simp
41979
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
   741
qed
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
   742
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
   743
lemma
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   744
  shows ereal_max[simp]: "ereal (max x y) = max (ereal x) (ereal y)"
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   745
    and ereal_min[simp]: "ereal (min x y) = min (ereal x) (ereal y)"
41979
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
   746
  by (simp_all add: min_def max_def)
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
   747
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   748
lemma ereal_max_0: "max 0 (ereal r) = ereal (max 0 r)"
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   749
  by (auto simp: zero_ereal_def)
41979
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
   750
41978
656298577a33 add infinite sums and power on extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41977
diff changeset
   751
lemma
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   752
  fixes f :: "nat \<Rightarrow> ereal"
54416
7fb88ed6ff3c better support for enat and ereal conversions
hoelzl
parents: 54408
diff changeset
   753
  shows ereal_incseq_uminus[simp]: "incseq (\<lambda>x. - f x) \<longleftrightarrow> decseq f"
7fb88ed6ff3c better support for enat and ereal conversions
hoelzl
parents: 54408
diff changeset
   754
    and ereal_decseq_uminus[simp]: "decseq (\<lambda>x. - f x) \<longleftrightarrow> incseq f"
41978
656298577a33 add infinite sums and power on extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41977
diff changeset
   755
  unfolding decseq_def incseq_def by auto
656298577a33 add infinite sums and power on extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41977
diff changeset
   756
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   757
lemma incseq_ereal: "incseq f \<Longrightarrow> incseq (\<lambda>x. ereal (f x))"
42950
6e5c2a3c69da move lemmas to Extended_Reals and Extended_Real_Limits
hoelzl
parents: 42600
diff changeset
   758
  unfolding incseq_def by auto
6e5c2a3c69da move lemmas to Extended_Reals and Extended_Real_Limits
hoelzl
parents: 42600
diff changeset
   759
56537
01caba82e1d2 made ereal_add_nonneg_nonneg a simp rule
nipkow
parents: 56536
diff changeset
   760
lemma ereal_add_nonneg_nonneg[simp]:
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   761
  fixes a b :: ereal
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   762
  shows "0 \<le> a \<Longrightarrow> 0 \<le> b \<Longrightarrow> 0 \<le> a + b"
41978
656298577a33 add infinite sums and power on extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41977
diff changeset
   763
  using add_mono[of 0 a 0 b] by simp
656298577a33 add infinite sums and power on extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41977
diff changeset
   764
64267
b9a1486e79be setsum -> sum
nipkow
parents: 63968
diff changeset
   765
lemma sum_ereal[simp]: "(\<Sum>x\<in>A. ereal (f x)) = ereal (\<Sum>x\<in>A. f x)"
59000
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   766
proof (cases "finite A")
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   767
  case True
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   768
  then show ?thesis by induct auto
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   769
next
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   770
  case False
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   771
  then show ?thesis by simp
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   772
qed
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   773
63882
018998c00003 renamed listsum -> sum_list, listprod ~> prod_list
nipkow
parents: 63680
diff changeset
   774
lemma sum_list_ereal [simp]: "sum_list (map (\<lambda>x. ereal (f x)) xs) = ereal (sum_list (map f xs))"
63099
af0e964aad7b Moved material from AFP/Randomised_Social_Choice to distribution
eberlm
parents: 63092
diff changeset
   775
  by (induction xs) simp_all
af0e964aad7b Moved material from AFP/Randomised_Social_Choice to distribution
eberlm
parents: 63092
diff changeset
   776
64267
b9a1486e79be setsum -> sum
nipkow
parents: 63968
diff changeset
   777
lemma sum_Pinfty:
59000
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   778
  fixes f :: "'a \<Rightarrow> ereal"
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   779
  shows "(\<Sum>x\<in>P. f x) = \<infinity> \<longleftrightarrow> finite P \<and> (\<exists>i\<in>P. f i = \<infinity>)"
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   780
proof safe
64267
b9a1486e79be setsum -> sum
nipkow
parents: 63968
diff changeset
   781
  assume *: "sum f P = \<infinity>"
59000
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   782
  show "finite P"
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   783
  proof (rule ccontr)
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   784
    assume "\<not> finite P"
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   785
    with * show False
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   786
      by auto
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   787
  qed
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   788
  show "\<exists>i\<in>P. f i = \<infinity>"
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   789
  proof (rule ccontr)
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   790
    assume "\<not> ?thesis"
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   791
    then have "\<And>i. i \<in> P \<Longrightarrow> f i \<noteq> \<infinity>"
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   792
      by auto
64267
b9a1486e79be setsum -> sum
nipkow
parents: 63968
diff changeset
   793
    with \<open>finite P\<close> have "sum f P \<noteq> \<infinity>"
59000
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   794
      by induct auto
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   795
    with * show False
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   796
      by auto
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   797
  qed
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   798
next
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   799
  fix i
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   800
  assume "finite P" and "i \<in> P" and "f i = \<infinity>"
64267
b9a1486e79be setsum -> sum
nipkow
parents: 63968
diff changeset
   801
  then show "sum f P = \<infinity>"
59000
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   802
  proof induct
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   803
    case (insert x A)
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   804
    show ?case using insert by (cases "x = i") auto
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   805
  qed simp
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   806
qed
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   807
64267
b9a1486e79be setsum -> sum
nipkow
parents: 63968
diff changeset
   808
lemma sum_Inf:
59000
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   809
  fixes f :: "'a \<Rightarrow> ereal"
64267
b9a1486e79be setsum -> sum
nipkow
parents: 63968
diff changeset
   810
  shows "\<bar>sum f A\<bar> = \<infinity> \<longleftrightarrow> finite A \<and> (\<exists>i\<in>A. \<bar>f i\<bar> = \<infinity>)"
59000
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   811
proof
64267
b9a1486e79be setsum -> sum
nipkow
parents: 63968
diff changeset
   812
  assume *: "\<bar>sum f A\<bar> = \<infinity>"
59000
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   813
  have "finite A"
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   814
    by (rule ccontr) (insert *, auto)
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   815
  moreover have "\<exists>i\<in>A. \<bar>f i\<bar> = \<infinity>"
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   816
  proof (rule ccontr)
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   817
    assume "\<not> ?thesis"
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   818
    then have "\<forall>i\<in>A. \<exists>r. f i = ereal r"
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   819
      by auto
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   820
    from bchoice[OF this] obtain r where "\<forall>x\<in>A. f x = ereal (r x)" ..
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   821
    with * show False
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   822
      by auto
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   823
  qed
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   824
  ultimately show "finite A \<and> (\<exists>i\<in>A. \<bar>f i\<bar> = \<infinity>)"
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   825
    by auto
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   826
next
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   827
  assume "finite A \<and> (\<exists>i\<in>A. \<bar>f i\<bar> = \<infinity>)"
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   828
  then obtain i where "finite A" "i \<in> A" and "\<bar>f i\<bar> = \<infinity>"
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   829
    by auto
64267
b9a1486e79be setsum -> sum
nipkow
parents: 63968
diff changeset
   830
  then show "\<bar>sum f A\<bar> = \<infinity>"
59000
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   831
  proof induct
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   832
    case (insert j A)
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   833
    then show ?case
64267
b9a1486e79be setsum -> sum
nipkow
parents: 63968
diff changeset
   834
      by (cases rule: ereal3_cases[of "f i" "f j" "sum f A"]) auto
59000
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   835
  qed simp
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   836
qed
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   837
64267
b9a1486e79be setsum -> sum
nipkow
parents: 63968
diff changeset
   838
lemma sum_real_of_ereal:
59000
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   839
  fixes f :: "'i \<Rightarrow> ereal"
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   840
  assumes "\<And>x. x \<in> S \<Longrightarrow> \<bar>f x\<bar> \<noteq> \<infinity>"
64267
b9a1486e79be setsum -> sum
nipkow
parents: 63968
diff changeset
   841
  shows "(\<Sum>x\<in>S. real_of_ereal (f x)) = real_of_ereal (sum f S)"
59000
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   842
proof -
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   843
  have "\<forall>x\<in>S. \<exists>r. f x = ereal r"
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   844
  proof
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   845
    fix x
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   846
    assume "x \<in> S"
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   847
    from assms[OF this] show "\<exists>r. f x = ereal r"
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   848
      by (cases "f x") auto
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   849
  qed
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   850
  from bchoice[OF this] obtain r where "\<forall>x\<in>S. f x = ereal (r x)" ..
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   851
  then show ?thesis
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   852
    by simp
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   853
qed
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   854
64267
b9a1486e79be setsum -> sum
nipkow
parents: 63968
diff changeset
   855
lemma sum_ereal_0:
59000
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   856
  fixes f :: "'a \<Rightarrow> ereal"
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   857
  assumes "finite A"
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   858
    and "\<And>i. i \<in> A \<Longrightarrow> 0 \<le> f i"
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   859
  shows "(\<Sum>x\<in>A. f x) = 0 \<longleftrightarrow> (\<forall>i\<in>A. f i = 0)"
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   860
proof
64267
b9a1486e79be setsum -> sum
nipkow
parents: 63968
diff changeset
   861
  assume "sum f A = 0" with assms show "\<forall>i\<in>A. f i = 0"
59000
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   862
  proof (induction A)
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   863
    case (insert a A)
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   864
    then have "f a = 0 \<and> (\<Sum>a\<in>A. f a) = 0"
64267
b9a1486e79be setsum -> sum
nipkow
parents: 63968
diff changeset
   865
      by (subst ereal_add_nonneg_eq_0_iff[symmetric]) (simp_all add: sum_nonneg)
59000
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   866
    with insert show ?case
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   867
      by simp
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   868
  qed simp
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   869
qed auto
41979
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
   870
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   871
subsubsection "Multiplication"
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   872
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   873
instantiation ereal :: "{comm_monoid_mult,sgn}"
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   874
begin
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   875
51351
dd1dd470690b generalized lemmas in Extended_Real_Limits
hoelzl
parents: 51340
diff changeset
   876
function sgn_ereal :: "ereal \<Rightarrow> ereal" where
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   877
  "sgn (ereal r) = ereal (sgn r)"
43923
ab93d0190a5d add ereal to typeclass infinity
hoelzl
parents: 43920
diff changeset
   878
| "sgn (\<infinity>::ereal) = 1"
ab93d0190a5d add ereal to typeclass infinity
hoelzl
parents: 43920
diff changeset
   879
| "sgn (-\<infinity>::ereal) = -1"
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   880
by (auto intro: ereal_cases)
60679
ade12ef2773c tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 60637
diff changeset
   881
termination by standard (rule wf_empty)
41976
3fdbc7d5b525 use abs_extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41975
diff changeset
   882
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   883
function times_ereal where
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   884
  "ereal r * ereal p = ereal (r * p)"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   885
| "ereal r * \<infinity> = (if r = 0 then 0 else if r > 0 then \<infinity> else -\<infinity>)"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   886
| "\<infinity> * ereal r = (if r = 0 then 0 else if r > 0 then \<infinity> else -\<infinity>)"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   887
| "ereal r * -\<infinity> = (if r = 0 then 0 else if r > 0 then -\<infinity> else \<infinity>)"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   888
| "-\<infinity> * ereal r = (if r = 0 then 0 else if r > 0 then -\<infinity> else \<infinity>)"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   889
| "(\<infinity>::ereal) * \<infinity> = \<infinity>"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   890
| "-(\<infinity>::ereal) * \<infinity> = -\<infinity>"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   891
| "(\<infinity>::ereal) * -\<infinity> = -\<infinity>"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   892
| "-(\<infinity>::ereal) * -\<infinity> = \<infinity>"
61166
5976fe402824 renamed method "goals" to "goal_cases" to emphasize its meaning;
wenzelm
parents: 61120
diff changeset
   893
proof goal_cases
60580
7e741e22d7fc tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 60500
diff changeset
   894
  case prems: (1 P x)
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   895
  then obtain a b where "x = (a, b)"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   896
    by (cases x) auto
60580
7e741e22d7fc tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 60500
diff changeset
   897
  with prems show P
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   898
    by (cases rule: ereal2_cases[of a b]) auto
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   899
qed simp_all
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   900
termination by (relation "{}") simp
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   901
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   902
instance
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   903
proof
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   904
  fix a b c :: ereal
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   905
  show "1 * a = a"
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   906
    by (cases a) (simp_all add: one_ereal_def)
47082
737d7bc8e50f tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 45934
diff changeset
   907
  show "a * b = b * a"
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   908
    by (cases rule: ereal2_cases[of a b]) simp_all
47082
737d7bc8e50f tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 45934
diff changeset
   909
  show "a * b * c = a * (b * c)"
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   910
    by (cases rule: ereal3_cases[of a b c])
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   911
       (simp_all add: zero_ereal_def zero_less_mult_iff)
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   912
qed
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   913
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   914
end
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   915
61738
c4f6031f1310 New material about paths, winding numbers, etc. Added lemmas to divide_const_simps. Misc tuning.
paulson <lp15@cam.ac.uk>
parents: 61631
diff changeset
   916
lemma [simp]:
61631
4f7ef088c4ed add lemmas for extended nats and reals
Andreas Lochbihler
parents: 61610
diff changeset
   917
  shows ereal_1_times: "ereal 1 * x = x"
4f7ef088c4ed add lemmas for extended nats and reals
Andreas Lochbihler
parents: 61610
diff changeset
   918
  and times_ereal_1: "x * ereal 1 = x"
4f7ef088c4ed add lemmas for extended nats and reals
Andreas Lochbihler
parents: 61610
diff changeset
   919
by(simp_all add: one_ereal_def[symmetric])
4f7ef088c4ed add lemmas for extended nats and reals
Andreas Lochbihler
parents: 61610
diff changeset
   920
59000
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   921
lemma one_not_le_zero_ereal[simp]: "\<not> (1 \<le> (0::ereal))"
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   922
  by (simp add: one_ereal_def zero_ereal_def)
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
   923
61609
77b453bd616f Coercion "real" now has type nat => real only and is no longer overloaded. Type class "real_of" is gone. Many duplicate theorems removed.
paulson <lp15@cam.ac.uk>
parents: 61245
diff changeset
   924
lemma real_ereal_1[simp]: "real_of_ereal (1::ereal) = 1"
50104
de19856feb54 move theorems to be more generally useable
hoelzl
parents: 47108
diff changeset
   925
  unfolding one_ereal_def by simp
de19856feb54 move theorems to be more generally useable
hoelzl
parents: 47108
diff changeset
   926
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   927
lemma real_of_ereal_le_1:
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   928
  fixes a :: ereal
61609
77b453bd616f Coercion "real" now has type nat => real only and is no longer overloaded. Type class "real_of" is gone. Many duplicate theorems removed.
paulson <lp15@cam.ac.uk>
parents: 61245
diff changeset
   929
  shows "a \<le> 1 \<Longrightarrow> real_of_ereal a \<le> 1"
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   930
  by (cases a) (auto simp: one_ereal_def)
42950
6e5c2a3c69da move lemmas to Extended_Reals and Extended_Real_Limits
hoelzl
parents: 42600
diff changeset
   931
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   932
lemma abs_ereal_one[simp]: "\<bar>1\<bar> = (1::ereal)"
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   933
  unfolding one_ereal_def by simp
41976
3fdbc7d5b525 use abs_extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41975
diff changeset
   934
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   935
lemma ereal_mult_zero[simp]:
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   936
  fixes a :: ereal
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   937
  shows "a * 0 = 0"
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   938
  by (cases a) (simp_all add: zero_ereal_def)
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   939
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   940
lemma ereal_zero_mult[simp]:
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   941
  fixes a :: ereal
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   942
  shows "0 * a = 0"
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   943
  by (cases a) (simp_all add: zero_ereal_def)
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   944
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   945
lemma ereal_m1_less_0[simp]: "-(1::ereal) < 0"
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   946
  by (simp add: zero_ereal_def one_ereal_def)
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   947
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   948
lemma ereal_times[simp]:
43923
ab93d0190a5d add ereal to typeclass infinity
hoelzl
parents: 43920
diff changeset
   949
  "1 \<noteq> (\<infinity>::ereal)" "(\<infinity>::ereal) \<noteq> 1"
ab93d0190a5d add ereal to typeclass infinity
hoelzl
parents: 43920
diff changeset
   950
  "1 \<noteq> -(\<infinity>::ereal)" "-(\<infinity>::ereal) \<noteq> 1"
61120
65082457c117 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 60772
diff changeset
   951
  by (auto simp: one_ereal_def)
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   952
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   953
lemma ereal_plus_1[simp]:
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   954
  "1 + ereal r = ereal (r + 1)"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   955
  "ereal r + 1 = ereal (r + 1)"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   956
  "1 + -(\<infinity>::ereal) = -\<infinity>"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   957
  "-(\<infinity>::ereal) + 1 = -\<infinity>"
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   958
  unfolding one_ereal_def by auto
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   959
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   960
lemma ereal_zero_times[simp]:
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   961
  fixes a b :: ereal
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   962
  shows "a * b = 0 \<longleftrightarrow> a = 0 \<or> b = 0"
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   963
  by (cases rule: ereal2_cases[of a b]) auto
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   964
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   965
lemma ereal_mult_eq_PInfty[simp]:
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   966
  "a * b = (\<infinity>::ereal) \<longleftrightarrow>
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   967
    (a = \<infinity> \<and> b > 0) \<or> (a > 0 \<and> b = \<infinity>) \<or> (a = -\<infinity> \<and> b < 0) \<or> (a < 0 \<and> b = -\<infinity>)"
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   968
  by (cases rule: ereal2_cases[of a b]) auto
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   969
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   970
lemma ereal_mult_eq_MInfty[simp]:
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   971
  "a * b = -(\<infinity>::ereal) \<longleftrightarrow>
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   972
    (a = \<infinity> \<and> b < 0) \<or> (a < 0 \<and> b = \<infinity>) \<or> (a = -\<infinity> \<and> b > 0) \<or> (a > 0 \<and> b = -\<infinity>)"
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   973
  by (cases rule: ereal2_cases[of a b]) auto
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   974
54416
7fb88ed6ff3c better support for enat and ereal conversions
hoelzl
parents: 54408
diff changeset
   975
lemma ereal_abs_mult: "\<bar>x * y :: ereal\<bar> = \<bar>x\<bar> * \<bar>y\<bar>"
7fb88ed6ff3c better support for enat and ereal conversions
hoelzl
parents: 54408
diff changeset
   976
  by (cases x y rule: ereal2_cases) (auto simp: abs_mult)
7fb88ed6ff3c better support for enat and ereal conversions
hoelzl
parents: 54408
diff changeset
   977
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   978
lemma ereal_0_less_1[simp]: "0 < (1::ereal)"
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   979
  by (simp_all add: zero_ereal_def one_ereal_def)
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   980
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   981
lemma ereal_mult_minus_left[simp]:
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   982
  fixes a b :: ereal
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   983
  shows "-a * b = - (a * b)"
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   984
  by (cases rule: ereal2_cases[of a b]) auto
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   985
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   986
lemma ereal_mult_minus_right[simp]:
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   987
  fixes a b :: ereal
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
   988
  shows "a * -b = - (a * b)"
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   989
  by (cases rule: ereal2_cases[of a b]) auto
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   990
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   991
lemma ereal_mult_infty[simp]:
43923
ab93d0190a5d add ereal to typeclass infinity
hoelzl
parents: 43920
diff changeset
   992
  "a * (\<infinity>::ereal) = (if a = 0 then 0 else if 0 < a then \<infinity> else - \<infinity>)"
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   993
  by (cases a) auto
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   994
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   995
lemma ereal_infty_mult[simp]:
43923
ab93d0190a5d add ereal to typeclass infinity
hoelzl
parents: 43920
diff changeset
   996
  "(\<infinity>::ereal) * a = (if a = 0 then 0 else if 0 < a then \<infinity> else - \<infinity>)"
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   997
  by (cases a) auto
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
   998
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
   999
lemma ereal_mult_strict_right_mono:
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1000
  assumes "a < b"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1001
    and "0 < c"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1002
    and "c < (\<infinity>::ereal)"
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
  1003
  shows "a * c < b * c"
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
  1004
  using assms
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1005
  by (cases rule: ereal3_cases[of a b c]) (auto simp: zero_le_mult_iff)
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
  1006
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
  1007
lemma ereal_mult_strict_left_mono:
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1008
  "a < b \<Longrightarrow> 0 < c \<Longrightarrow> c < (\<infinity>::ereal) \<Longrightarrow> c * a < c * b"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1009
  using ereal_mult_strict_right_mono
57512
cc97b347b301 reduced name variants for assoc and commute on plus and mult
haftmann
parents: 57447
diff changeset
  1010
  by (simp add: mult.commute[of c])
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
  1011
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
  1012
lemma ereal_mult_right_mono:
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1013
  fixes a b c :: ereal
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1014
  shows "a \<le> b \<Longrightarrow> 0 \<le> c \<Longrightarrow> a * c \<le> b * c"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1015
  apply (cases "c = 0")
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1016
  apply simp
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1017
  apply (cases rule: ereal3_cases[of a b c])
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1018
  apply (auto simp: zero_le_mult_iff)
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1019
  done
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
  1020
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
  1021
lemma ereal_mult_left_mono:
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1022
  fixes a b c :: ereal
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1023
  shows "a \<le> b \<Longrightarrow> 0 \<le> c \<Longrightarrow> c * a \<le> c * b"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1024
  using ereal_mult_right_mono
57512
cc97b347b301 reduced name variants for assoc and commute on plus and mult
haftmann
parents: 57447
diff changeset
  1025
  by (simp add: mult.commute[of c])
41973
15927c040731 add Extended_Reals from AFP/Lower_Semicontinuous
hoelzl
parents:
diff changeset
  1026
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
  1027
lemma zero_less_one_ereal[simp]: "0 \<le> (1::ereal)"
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
  1028
  by (simp add: one_ereal_def zero_ereal_def)
41978
656298577a33 add infinite sums and power on extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41977
diff changeset
  1029
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
  1030
lemma ereal_0_le_mult[simp]: "0 \<le> a \<Longrightarrow> 0 \<le> b \<Longrightarrow> 0 \<le> a * (b :: ereal)"
56536
aefb4a8da31f made mult_nonneg_nonneg a simp rule
nipkow
parents: 56248
diff changeset
  1031
  by (cases rule: ereal2_cases[of a b]) auto
41979
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
  1032
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
  1033
lemma ereal_right_distrib:
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1034
  fixes r a b :: ereal
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1035
  shows "0 \<le> a \<Longrightarrow> 0 \<le> b \<Longrightarrow> r * (a + b) = r * a + r * b"
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
  1036
  by (cases rule: ereal3_cases[of r a b]) (simp_all add: field_simps)
41979
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
  1037
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
  1038
lemma ereal_left_distrib:
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1039
  fixes r a b :: ereal
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1040
  shows "0 \<le> a \<Longrightarrow> 0 \<le> b \<Longrightarrow> (a + b) * r = a * r + b * r"
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
  1041
  by (cases rule: ereal3_cases[of r a b]) (simp_all add: field_simps)
41979
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
  1042
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
  1043
lemma ereal_mult_le_0_iff:
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
  1044
  fixes a b :: ereal
41979
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
  1045
  shows "a * b \<le> 0 \<longleftrightarrow> (0 \<le> a \<and> b \<le> 0) \<or> (a \<le> 0 \<and> 0 \<le> b)"
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
  1046
  by (cases rule: ereal2_cases[of a b]) (simp_all add: mult_le_0_iff)
41979
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
  1047
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
  1048
lemma ereal_zero_le_0_iff:
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
  1049
  fixes a b :: ereal
41979
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
  1050
  shows "0 \<le> a * b \<longleftrightarrow> (0 \<le> a \<and> 0 \<le> b) \<or> (a \<le> 0 \<and> b \<le> 0)"
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
  1051
  by (cases rule: ereal2_cases[of a b]) (simp_all add: zero_le_mult_iff)
41979
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
  1052
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
  1053
lemma ereal_mult_less_0_iff:
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
  1054
  fixes a b :: ereal
41979
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
  1055
  shows "a * b < 0 \<longleftrightarrow> (0 < a \<and> b < 0) \<or> (a < 0 \<and> 0 < b)"
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
  1056
  by (cases rule: ereal2_cases[of a b]) (simp_all add: mult_less_0_iff)
41979
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
  1057
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
  1058
lemma ereal_zero_less_0_iff:
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
  1059
  fixes a b :: ereal
41979
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
  1060
  shows "0 < a * b \<longleftrightarrow> (0 < a \<and> 0 < b) \<or> (a < 0 \<and> b < 0)"
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
  1061
  by (cases rule: ereal2_cases[of a b]) (simp_all add: zero_less_mult_iff)
41979
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
  1062
50104
de19856feb54 move theorems to be more generally useable
hoelzl
parents: 47108
diff changeset
  1063
lemma ereal_left_mult_cong:
de19856feb54 move theorems to be more generally useable
hoelzl
parents: 47108
diff changeset
  1064
  fixes a b c :: ereal
59002
2c8b2fb54b88 cleaning up some theorem names; remove unnecessary assumptions; more complete pmf theory
hoelzl
parents: 59000
diff changeset
  1065
  shows  "c = d \<Longrightarrow> (d \<noteq> 0 \<Longrightarrow> a = b) \<Longrightarrow> a * c = b * d"
50104
de19856feb54 move theorems to be more generally useable
hoelzl
parents: 47108
diff changeset
  1066
  by (cases "c = 0") simp_all
de19856feb54 move theorems to be more generally useable
hoelzl
parents: 47108
diff changeset
  1067
61738
c4f6031f1310 New material about paths, winding numbers, etc. Added lemmas to divide_const_simps. Misc tuning.
paulson <lp15@cam.ac.uk>
parents: 61631
diff changeset
  1068
lemma ereal_right_mult_cong:
59002
2c8b2fb54b88 cleaning up some theorem names; remove unnecessary assumptions; more complete pmf theory
hoelzl
parents: 59000
diff changeset
  1069
  fixes a b c :: ereal
59000
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
  1070
  shows "c = d \<Longrightarrow> (d \<noteq> 0 \<Longrightarrow> a = b) \<Longrightarrow> c * a = d * b"
59002
2c8b2fb54b88 cleaning up some theorem names; remove unnecessary assumptions; more complete pmf theory
hoelzl
parents: 59000
diff changeset
  1071
  by (cases "c = 0") simp_all
50104
de19856feb54 move theorems to be more generally useable
hoelzl
parents: 47108
diff changeset
  1072
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
  1073
lemma ereal_distrib:
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
  1074
  fixes a b c :: ereal
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1075
  assumes "a \<noteq> \<infinity> \<or> b \<noteq> -\<infinity>"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1076
    and "a \<noteq> -\<infinity> \<or> b \<noteq> \<infinity>"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1077
    and "\<bar>c\<bar> \<noteq> \<infinity>"
41979
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
  1078
  shows "(a + b) * c = a * c + b * c"
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
  1079
  using assms
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
  1080
  by (cases rule: ereal3_cases[of a b c]) (simp_all add: field_simps)
41979
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
  1081
47108
2a1953f0d20d merged fork with new numeral representation (see NEWS)
huffman
parents: 47082
diff changeset
  1082
lemma numeral_eq_ereal [simp]: "numeral w = ereal (numeral w)"
2a1953f0d20d merged fork with new numeral representation (see NEWS)
huffman
parents: 47082
diff changeset
  1083
  apply (induct w rule: num_induct)
2a1953f0d20d merged fork with new numeral representation (see NEWS)
huffman
parents: 47082
diff changeset
  1084
  apply (simp only: numeral_One one_ereal_def)
2a1953f0d20d merged fork with new numeral representation (see NEWS)
huffman
parents: 47082
diff changeset
  1085
  apply (simp only: numeral_inc ereal_plus_1)
2a1953f0d20d merged fork with new numeral representation (see NEWS)
huffman
parents: 47082
diff changeset
  1086
  done
2a1953f0d20d merged fork with new numeral representation (see NEWS)
huffman
parents: 47082
diff changeset
  1087
61631
4f7ef088c4ed add lemmas for extended nats and reals
Andreas Lochbihler
parents: 61610
diff changeset
  1088
lemma distrib_left_ereal_nn:
4f7ef088c4ed add lemmas for extended nats and reals
Andreas Lochbihler
parents: 61610
diff changeset
  1089
  "c \<ge> 0 \<Longrightarrow> (x + y) * ereal c = x * ereal c + y * ereal c"
4f7ef088c4ed add lemmas for extended nats and reals
Andreas Lochbihler
parents: 61610
diff changeset
  1090
by(cases x y rule: ereal2_cases)(simp_all add: ring_distribs)
4f7ef088c4ed add lemmas for extended nats and reals
Andreas Lochbihler
parents: 61610
diff changeset
  1091
64267
b9a1486e79be setsum -> sum
nipkow
parents: 63968
diff changeset
  1092
lemma sum_ereal_right_distrib:
59000
6eb0725503fc import general theorems from AFP/Markov_Models
hoelzl
parents: 58881
diff changeset
  1093
  fixes f :: "'a \<Rightarrow> ereal"
64267
b9a1486e79be setsum -> sum
nipkow
parents: 63968
diff changeset
  1094
  shows "(\<And>i. i \<in> A \<Longrightarrow> 0 \<le> f i) \<Longrightarrow> r * sum f A = (\<Sum>n\<in>A. r * f n)"
b9a1486e79be setsum -> sum
nipkow
parents: 63968
diff changeset
  1095
  by (induct A rule: infinite_finite_induct)  (auto simp: ereal_right_distrib sum_nonneg)
b9a1486e79be setsum -> sum
nipkow
parents: 63968
diff changeset
  1096
b9a1486e79be setsum -> sum
nipkow
parents: 63968
diff changeset
  1097
lemma sum_ereal_left_distrib:
b9a1486e79be setsum -> sum
nipkow
parents: 63968
diff changeset
  1098
  "(\<And>i. i \<in> A \<Longrightarrow> 0 \<le> f i) \<Longrightarrow> sum f A * r = (\<Sum>n\<in>A. f n * r :: ereal)"
b9a1486e79be setsum -> sum
nipkow
parents: 63968
diff changeset
  1099
  using sum_ereal_right_distrib[of A f r] by (simp add: mult_ac)
b9a1486e79be setsum -> sum
nipkow
parents: 63968
diff changeset
  1100
b9a1486e79be setsum -> sum
nipkow
parents: 63968
diff changeset
  1101
lemma sum_distrib_right_ereal:
b9a1486e79be setsum -> sum
nipkow
parents: 63968
diff changeset
  1102
  "c \<ge> 0 \<Longrightarrow> sum f A * ereal c = (\<Sum>x\<in>A. f x * c :: ereal)"
b9a1486e79be setsum -> sum
nipkow
parents: 63968
diff changeset
  1103
by(subst sum_comp_morphism[where h="\<lambda>x. x * ereal c", symmetric])(simp_all add: distrib_left_ereal_nn)
61631
4f7ef088c4ed add lemmas for extended nats and reals
Andreas Lochbihler
parents: 61610
diff changeset
  1104
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
  1105
lemma ereal_le_epsilon:
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
  1106
  fixes x y :: ereal
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1107
  assumes "\<forall>e. 0 < e \<longrightarrow> x \<le> y + e"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1108
  shows "x \<le> y"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1109
proof -
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1110
  {
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1111
    assume a: "\<exists>r. y = ereal r"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1112
    then obtain r where r_def: "y = ereal r"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1113
      by auto
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1114
    {
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1115
      assume "x = -\<infinity>"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1116
      then have ?thesis by auto
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1117
    }
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1118
    moreover
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1119
    {
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1120
      assume "x \<noteq> -\<infinity>"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1121
      then obtain p where p_def: "x = ereal p"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1122
      using a assms[rule_format, of 1]
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1123
        by (cases x) auto
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1124
      {
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1125
        fix e
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1126
        have "0 < e \<longrightarrow> p \<le> r + e"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1127
          using assms[rule_format, of "ereal e"] p_def r_def by auto
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1128
      }
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1129
      then have "p \<le> r"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1130
        apply (subst field_le_epsilon)
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1131
        apply auto
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1132
        done
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1133
      then have ?thesis
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1134
        using r_def p_def by auto
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1135
    }
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1136
    ultimately have ?thesis
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1137
      by blast
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1138
  }
41979
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
  1139
  moreover
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1140
  {
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1141
    assume "y = -\<infinity> | y = \<infinity>"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1142
    then have ?thesis
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1143
      using assms[rule_format, of 1] by (cases x) auto
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1144
  }
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1145
  ultimately show ?thesis
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1146
    by (cases y) auto
41979
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
  1147
qed
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
  1148
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
  1149
lemma ereal_le_epsilon2:
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
  1150
  fixes x y :: ereal
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1151
  assumes "\<forall>e. 0 < e \<longrightarrow> x \<le> y + ereal e"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1152
  shows "x \<le> y"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1153
proof -
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1154
  {
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1155
    fix e :: ereal
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1156
    assume "e > 0"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1157
    {
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1158
      assume "e = \<infinity>"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1159
      then have "x \<le> y + e"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1160
        by auto
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1161
    }
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1162
    moreover
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1163
    {
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1164
      assume "e \<noteq> \<infinity>"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1165
      then obtain r where "e = ereal r"
60500
903bb1495239 isabelle update_cartouches;
wenzelm
parents: 60429
diff changeset
  1166
        using \<open>e > 0\<close> by (cases e) auto
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1167
      then have "x \<le> y + e"
60500
903bb1495239 isabelle update_cartouches;
wenzelm
parents: 60429
diff changeset
  1168
        using assms[rule_format, of r] \<open>e>0\<close> by auto
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1169
    }
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1170
    ultimately have "x \<le> y + e"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1171
      by blast
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1172
  }
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1173
  then show ?thesis
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1174
    using ereal_le_epsilon by auto
41979
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
  1175
qed
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
  1176
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
  1177
lemma ereal_le_real:
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
  1178
  fixes x y :: ereal
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1179
  assumes "\<forall>z. x \<le> ereal z \<longrightarrow> y \<le> ereal z"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1180
  shows "y \<le> x"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1181
  by (metis assms ereal_bot ereal_cases ereal_infty_less_eq(2) ereal_less_eq(1) linorder_le_cases)
41979
b10ec1f5e9d5 lemmas about addition, SUP on countable sets and infinite sums for extreal
hoelzl
parents: 41978
diff changeset
  1182
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
  1183
lemma setprod_ereal_0:
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
  1184
  fixes f :: "'a \<Rightarrow> ereal"
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1185
  shows "(\<Prod>i\<in>A. f i) = 0 \<longleftrightarrow> finite A \<and> (\<exists>i\<in>A. f i = 0)"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1186
proof (cases "finite A")
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1187
  case True
42950
6e5c2a3c69da move lemmas to Extended_Reals and Extended_Real_Limits
hoelzl
parents: 42600
diff changeset
  1188
  then show ?thesis by (induct A) auto
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1189
next
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1190
  case False
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1191
  then show ?thesis by auto
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1192
qed
42950
6e5c2a3c69da move lemmas to Extended_Reals and Extended_Real_Limits
hoelzl
parents: 42600
diff changeset
  1193
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
  1194
lemma setprod_ereal_pos:
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1195
  fixes f :: "'a \<Rightarrow> ereal"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1196
  assumes pos: "\<And>i. i \<in> I \<Longrightarrow> 0 \<le> f i"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1197
  shows "0 \<le> (\<Prod>i\<in>I. f i)"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1198
proof (cases "finite I")
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1199
  case True
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1200
  from this pos show ?thesis
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1201
    by induct auto
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1202
next
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1203
  case False
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1204
  then show ?thesis by simp
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1205
qed
42950
6e5c2a3c69da move lemmas to Extended_Reals and Extended_Real_Limits
hoelzl
parents: 42600
diff changeset
  1206
6e5c2a3c69da move lemmas to Extended_Reals and Extended_Real_Limits
hoelzl
parents: 42600
diff changeset
  1207
lemma setprod_PInf:
43923
ab93d0190a5d add ereal to typeclass infinity
hoelzl
parents: 43920
diff changeset
  1208
  fixes f :: "'a \<Rightarrow> ereal"
42950
6e5c2a3c69da move lemmas to Extended_Reals and Extended_Real_Limits
hoelzl
parents: 42600
diff changeset
  1209
  assumes "\<And>i. i \<in> I \<Longrightarrow> 0 \<le> f i"
6e5c2a3c69da move lemmas to Extended_Reals and Extended_Real_Limits
hoelzl
parents: 42600
diff changeset
  1210
  shows "(\<Prod>i\<in>I. f i) = \<infinity> \<longleftrightarrow> finite I \<and> (\<exists>i\<in>I. f i = \<infinity>) \<and> (\<forall>i\<in>I. f i \<noteq> 0)"
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1211
proof (cases "finite I")
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1212
  case True
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1213
  from this assms show ?thesis
42950
6e5c2a3c69da move lemmas to Extended_Reals and Extended_Real_Limits
hoelzl
parents: 42600
diff changeset
  1214
  proof (induct I)
6e5c2a3c69da move lemmas to Extended_Reals and Extended_Real_Limits
hoelzl
parents: 42600
diff changeset
  1215
    case (insert i I)
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1216
    then have pos: "0 \<le> f i" "0 \<le> setprod f I"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1217
      by (auto intro!: setprod_ereal_pos)
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1218
    from insert have "(\<Prod>j\<in>insert i I. f j) = \<infinity> \<longleftrightarrow> setprod f I * f i = \<infinity>"
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1219
      by auto
42950
6e5c2a3c69da move lemmas to Extended_Reals and Extended_Real_Limits
hoelzl
parents: 42600
diff changeset
  1220
    also have "\<dots> \<longleftrightarrow> (setprod f I = \<infinity> \<or> f i = \<infinity>) \<and> f i \<noteq> 0 \<and> setprod f I \<noteq> 0"
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
  1221
      using setprod_ereal_pos[of I f] pos
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
  1222
      by (cases rule: ereal2_cases[of "f i" "setprod f I"]) auto
42950
6e5c2a3c69da move lemmas to Extended_Reals and Extended_Real_Limits
hoelzl
parents: 42600
diff changeset
  1223
    also have "\<dots> \<longleftrightarrow> finite (insert i I) \<and> (\<exists>j\<in>insert i I. f j = \<infinity>) \<and> (\<forall>j\<in>insert i I. f j \<noteq> 0)"
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
  1224
      using insert by (auto simp: setprod_ereal_0)
42950
6e5c2a3c69da move lemmas to Extended_Reals and Extended_Real_Limits
hoelzl
parents: 42600
diff changeset
  1225
    finally show ?case .
6e5c2a3c69da move lemmas to Extended_Reals and Extended_Real_Limits
hoelzl
parents: 42600
diff changeset
  1226
  qed simp
53873
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1227
next
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1228
  case False
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1229
  then show ?thesis by simp
08594daabcd9 tuned proofs;
wenzelm
parents: 53381
diff changeset
  1230
qed
42950
6e5c2a3c69da move lemmas to Extended_Reals and Extended_Real_Limits
hoelzl
parents: 42600
diff changeset
  1231
43920
cedb5cb948fd Rename extreal => ereal
hoelzl
parents: 43138
diff changeset
  1232
lemma setprod_ereal: "(\<Prod>i\<in>A. ereal (f i)) = ereal (setprod f A)"
53873