src/Tools/quickcheck.ML
author haftmann
Thu Aug 12 13:42:12 2010 +0200 (2010-08-12)
changeset 38390 cb72d89bb444
parent 38350 480b2de9927c
child 38759 37a9092de102
permissions -rw-r--r--
named target is optional
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(*  Title:      Tools/quickcheck.ML
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    Author:     Stefan Berghofer, Florian Haftmann, TU Muenchen
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Generic counterexample search engine.
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*)
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signature QUICKCHECK =
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sig
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  val setup: theory -> theory
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  (* configuration *)
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  val auto: bool Unsynchronized.ref
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  val timing : bool Unsynchronized.ref
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  datatype report = Report of
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    { iterations : int, raised_match_errors : int,
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      satisfied_assms : int list, positive_concl_tests : int }
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  datatype expectation = No_Expectation | No_Counterexample | Counterexample;
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  datatype test_params = Test_Params of
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  { size: int, iterations: int, default_type: typ list, no_assms: bool,
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    expect : expectation, report: bool, quiet : bool};
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  val test_params_of: theory -> test_params 
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  val add_generator:
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    string * (Proof.context -> bool -> term -> int -> term list option * (bool list * bool))
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      -> theory -> theory
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  (* testing terms and proof states *)
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  val gen_test_term: Proof.context -> bool -> bool -> string option -> int -> int -> term ->
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    (string * term) list option * ((string * int) list * ((int * report list) list) option)
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  val test_term: Proof.context -> bool -> string option -> int -> int -> term ->
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    (string * term) list option
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  val quickcheck: (string * string list) list -> int -> Proof.state -> (string * term) list option
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end;
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structure Quickcheck : QUICKCHECK =
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struct
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(* preferences *)
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val auto = Unsynchronized.ref false;
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val timing = Unsynchronized.ref false;
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val _ =
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  ProofGeneralPgip.add_preference Preferences.category_tracing
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  (setmp_CRITICAL auto true (fn () =>
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    Preferences.bool_pref auto
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      "auto-quickcheck"
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      "Whether to run Quickcheck automatically.") ());
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(* quickcheck report *)
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datatype single_report = Run of bool list * bool | MatchExc
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datatype report = Report of
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  { iterations : int, raised_match_errors : int,
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    satisfied_assms : int list, positive_concl_tests : int }
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fun collect_single_report single_report
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    (Report {iterations = iterations, raised_match_errors = raised_match_errors,
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    satisfied_assms = satisfied_assms, positive_concl_tests = positive_concl_tests}) =
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  case single_report
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  of MatchExc =>
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    Report {iterations = iterations + 1, raised_match_errors = raised_match_errors + 1,
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      satisfied_assms = satisfied_assms, positive_concl_tests = positive_concl_tests}
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   | Run (assms, concl) =>
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    Report {iterations = iterations + 1, raised_match_errors = raised_match_errors,
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      satisfied_assms =
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        map2 (fn b => fn s => if b then s + 1 else s) assms
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         (if null satisfied_assms then replicate (length assms) 0 else satisfied_assms),
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      positive_concl_tests = if concl then positive_concl_tests + 1 else positive_concl_tests}
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(* expectation *)
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datatype expectation = No_Expectation | No_Counterexample | Counterexample; 
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fun merge_expectation (expect1, expect2) =
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  if expect1 = expect2 then expect1 else No_Expectation
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(* quickcheck configuration -- default parameters, test generators *)
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datatype test_params = Test_Params of
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  { size: int, iterations: int, default_type: typ list, no_assms: bool,
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  expect : expectation, report: bool, quiet : bool};
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fun dest_test_params (Test_Params { size, iterations, default_type, no_assms, expect, report, quiet }) =
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  ((size, iterations), ((default_type, no_assms), ((expect, report), quiet)));
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fun make_test_params ((size, iterations), ((default_type, no_assms), ((expect, report), quiet))) =
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  Test_Params { size = size, iterations = iterations, default_type = default_type,
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                no_assms = no_assms, expect = expect, report = report, quiet = quiet };
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fun map_test_params f (Test_Params { size, iterations, default_type, no_assms, expect, report, quiet }) =
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  make_test_params (f ((size, iterations), ((default_type, no_assms), ((expect, report), quiet))));
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fun merge_test_params (Test_Params { size = size1, iterations = iterations1, default_type = default_type1,
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                                     no_assms = no_assms1, expect = expect1, report = report1, quiet = quiet1 },
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  Test_Params { size = size2, iterations = iterations2, default_type = default_type2,
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                no_assms = no_assms2, expect = expect2, report = report2, quiet = quiet2 }) =
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  make_test_params ((Int.max (size1, size2), Int.max (iterations1, iterations2)),
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    ((merge (op =) (default_type1, default_type2), no_assms1 orelse no_assms2),
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    ((merge_expectation (expect1, expect2), report1 orelse report2), quiet1 orelse quiet2)));
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structure Data = Theory_Data
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(
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  type T = (string * (Proof.context -> bool -> term -> int -> term list option * (bool list * bool))) list
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    * test_params;
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  val empty = ([], Test_Params
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    { size = 10, iterations = 100, default_type = [], no_assms = false,
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      expect = No_Expectation, report = false, quiet = false});
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  val extend = I;
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  fun merge ((generators1, params1), (generators2, params2)) : T =
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    (AList.merge (op =) (K true) (generators1, generators2),
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      merge_test_params (params1, params2));
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);
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val test_params_of = snd o Data.get;
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val add_generator = Data.map o apfst o AList.update (op =);
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(* generating tests *)
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fun mk_tester_select name ctxt =
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  case AList.lookup (op =) ((fst o Data.get o ProofContext.theory_of) ctxt) name
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   of NONE => error ("No such quickcheck generator: " ^ name)
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    | SOME generator => generator ctxt;
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fun mk_testers ctxt report t =
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  (map snd o fst o Data.get o ProofContext.theory_of) ctxt
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  |> map_filter (fn generator => try (generator ctxt report) t);
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fun mk_testers_strict ctxt report t =
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  let
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    val generators = ((map snd o fst o Data.get o ProofContext.theory_of) ctxt)
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    val testers = map (fn generator => Exn.capture (generator ctxt report) t) generators;
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  in if forall (is_none o Exn.get_result) testers
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    then [(Exn.release o snd o split_last) testers]
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    else map_filter Exn.get_result testers
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  end;
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(* testing propositions *)
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fun prep_test_term t =
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  let
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    val _ = (null (Term.add_tvars t []) andalso null (Term.add_tfrees t [])) orelse
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      error "Term to be tested contains type variables";
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    val _ = null (Term.add_vars t []) orelse
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      error "Term to be tested contains schematic variables";
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    val frees = Term.add_frees t [];
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  in (map fst frees, list_abs_free (frees, t)) end
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fun cpu_time description f =
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  let
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    val start = start_timing ()
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    val result = Exn.capture f ()
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    val time = Time.toMilliseconds (#cpu (end_timing start))
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  in (Exn.release result, (description, time)) end
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fun gen_test_term ctxt quiet report generator_name size i t =
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  let
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    val (names, t') = prep_test_term t;
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    val (testers, comp_time) = cpu_time "quickcheck compilation"
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      (fn () => (case generator_name
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       of NONE => if quiet then mk_testers ctxt report t' else mk_testers_strict ctxt report t'
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        | SOME name => [mk_tester_select name ctxt report t']));
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    fun iterate f 0 report = (NONE, report)
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      | iterate f j report =
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        let
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          val (test_result, single_report) = apsnd Run (f ()) handle Match => (if quiet then ()
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             else warning "Exception Match raised during quickcheck"; (NONE, MatchExc))
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          val report = collect_single_report single_report report
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        in
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          case test_result of NONE => iterate f (j - 1) report | SOME q => (SOME q, report)
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        end
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    val empty_report = Report { iterations = 0, raised_match_errors = 0,
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      satisfied_assms = [], positive_concl_tests = 0 }
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    fun with_testers k [] = (NONE, [])
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      | with_testers k (tester :: testers) =
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          case iterate (fn () => tester (k - 1)) i empty_report
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           of (NONE, report) => apsnd (cons report) (with_testers k testers)
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            | (SOME q, report) => (SOME q, [report]);
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    fun with_size k reports = if k > size then (NONE, reports)
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      else (if quiet then () else priority ("Test data size: " ^ string_of_int k);
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        let
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          val (result, new_report) = with_testers k testers
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          val reports = ((k, new_report) :: reports)
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        in case result of NONE => with_size (k + 1) reports | SOME q => (SOME q, reports) end);
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    val ((result, reports), exec_time) = cpu_time "quickcheck execution"
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      (fn () => apfst
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         (fn result => case result of NONE => NONE
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        | SOME ts => SOME (names ~~ ts)) (with_size 1 []))
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  in
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    (result, ([exec_time, comp_time], if report then SOME reports else NONE))
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  end;
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fun test_term ctxt quiet generator_name size i t =
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  fst (gen_test_term ctxt quiet false generator_name size i t)
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exception WELLSORTED of string
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fun monomorphic_term thy insts default_T = 
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  let
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    fun subst (T as TFree (v, S)) =
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          let
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            val T' = AList.lookup (op =) insts v
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              |> the_default default_T
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          in if Sign.of_sort thy (T', S) then T'
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            else raise (WELLSORTED ("For instantiation with default_type " ^ Syntax.string_of_typ_global thy default_T ^
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              ":\n" ^ Syntax.string_of_typ_global thy T' ^
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              " to be substituted for variable " ^
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              Syntax.string_of_typ_global thy T ^ " does not have sort " ^
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              Syntax.string_of_sort_global thy S))
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          end
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      | subst T = T;
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  in (map_types o map_atyps) subst end;
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datatype wellsorted_error = Wellsorted_Error of string | Term of term
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fun test_goal quiet report generator_name size iterations default_Ts no_assms insts i state =
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  let
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    val lthy = Proof.context_of state;
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    val thy = Proof.theory_of state;
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    fun strip (Const ("all", _) $ Abs (_, _, t)) = strip t
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      | strip t = t;
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    val {goal = st, ...} = Proof.raw_goal state;
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    val (gi, frees) = Logic.goal_params (prop_of st) i;
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    val some_locale = case (Option.map #target o Named_Target.peek) lthy
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     of NONE => NONE
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      | SOME "" => NONE
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      | SOME locale => SOME locale;
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    val assms = if no_assms then [] else case some_locale
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     of NONE => Assumption.all_assms_of lthy
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      | SOME locale => Assumption.local_assms_of lthy (Locale.init locale thy);
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    val proto_goal = Logic.list_implies (map Thm.term_of assms, subst_bounds (frees, strip gi));
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    val check_goals = case some_locale
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     of NONE => [proto_goal]
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      | SOME locale => map (fn (_, phi) => Morphism.term phi proto_goal) (Locale.registrations_of (Context.Theory thy) (*FIXME*) locale);
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    val inst_goals = maps (fn check_goal => map (fn T =>
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      Term ((Object_Logic.atomize_term thy o monomorphic_term thy insts T) check_goal)
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        handle WELLSORTED s => Wellsorted_Error s) default_Ts) check_goals
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    val error_msg = cat_lines (map_filter (fn Term t => NONE | Wellsorted_Error s => SOME s) inst_goals)
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    val correct_inst_goals =
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      case map_filter (fn Term t => SOME t | Wellsorted_Error s => NONE) inst_goals of
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        [] => error error_msg
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      | xs => xs
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    val _ = if quiet then () else warning error_msg
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    fun collect_results f reports [] = (NONE, rev reports)
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      | collect_results f reports (t :: ts) =
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        case f t of
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          (SOME res, report) => (SOME res, rev (report :: reports))
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        | (NONE, report) => collect_results f (report :: reports) ts
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  in collect_results (gen_test_term lthy quiet report generator_name size iterations) [] correct_inst_goals end;
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(* pretty printing *)
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fun pretty_counterex ctxt NONE = Pretty.str "Quickcheck found no counterexample."
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  | pretty_counterex ctxt (SOME cex) =
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      Pretty.chunks (Pretty.str "Quickcheck found a counterexample:\n" ::
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        map (fn (s, t) =>
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          Pretty.block [Pretty.str (s ^ " ="), Pretty.brk 1, Syntax.pretty_term ctxt t]) cex);
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fun pretty_report (Report {iterations = iterations, raised_match_errors = raised_match_errors,
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    satisfied_assms = satisfied_assms, positive_concl_tests = positive_concl_tests}) =
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  let
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    fun pretty_stat s i = Pretty.block ([Pretty.str (s ^ ": " ^ string_of_int i)])
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  in
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     ([pretty_stat "iterations" iterations,
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     pretty_stat "match exceptions" raised_match_errors]
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     @ map_index (fn (i, n) => pretty_stat ("satisfied " ^ string_of_int (i + 1) ^ ". assumption") n)
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       satisfied_assms
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     @ [pretty_stat "positive conclusion tests" positive_concl_tests])
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  end
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fun pretty_reports' [report] = [Pretty.chunks (pretty_report report)]
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  | pretty_reports' reports =
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  map_index (fn (i, report) =>
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    Pretty.chunks (Pretty.str (string_of_int (i + 1) ^ ". generator:\n") :: pretty_report report))
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    reports
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fun pretty_reports ctxt (SOME reports) =
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  Pretty.chunks (Pretty.str "Quickcheck report:" ::
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    maps (fn (size, reports) =>
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      Pretty.str ("size " ^ string_of_int size ^ ":") :: pretty_reports' reports @ [Pretty.brk 1])
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      (rev reports))
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  | pretty_reports ctxt NONE = Pretty.str ""
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fun pretty_counterex_and_reports ctxt (cex, timing_and_reports) =
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  Pretty.chunks (pretty_counterex ctxt cex :: map (pretty_reports ctxt) (map snd timing_and_reports))
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(* automatic testing *)
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fun auto_quickcheck state =
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  if not (!auto) then
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    (false, state)
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  else
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    let
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      val ctxt = Proof.context_of state;
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      val Test_Params {size, iterations, default_type, no_assms, ...} =
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        (snd o Data.get o Proof.theory_of) state;
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      val res =
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        try (test_goal true false NONE size iterations default_type no_assms [] 1) state;
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    in
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      case res of
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        NONE => (false, state)
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      | SOME (NONE, report) => (false, state)
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      | SOME (cex, report) => (true, Proof.goal_message (K (Pretty.chunks [Pretty.str "",
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          Pretty.mark Markup.hilite (pretty_counterex ctxt cex)])) state)
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    end
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val setup = Auto_Counterexample.register_tool ("quickcheck", auto_quickcheck)
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(* Isar commands *)
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fun read_nat s = case (Library.read_int o Symbol.explode) s
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 of (k, []) => if k >= 0 then k
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      else error ("Not a natural number: " ^ s)
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  | (_, _ :: _) => error ("Not a natural number: " ^ s);
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fun read_bool "false" = false
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  | read_bool "true" = true
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  | read_bool s = error ("Not a Boolean value: " ^ s)
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fun read_expectation "no_expectation" = No_Expectation
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  | read_expectation "no_counterexample" = No_Counterexample 
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  | read_expectation "counterexample" = Counterexample
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  | read_expectation s = error ("Not an expectation value: " ^ s)  
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fun parse_test_param ctxt ("size", [arg]) =
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      (apfst o apfst o K) (read_nat arg)
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  | parse_test_param ctxt ("iterations", [arg]) =
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      (apfst o apsnd o K) (read_nat arg)
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  | parse_test_param ctxt ("default_type", arg) =
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      (apsnd o apfst o apfst o K) (map (ProofContext.read_typ ctxt) arg)
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  | parse_test_param ctxt ("no_assms", [arg]) =
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      (apsnd o apfst o apsnd o K) (read_bool arg)
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  | parse_test_param ctxt ("expect", [arg]) =
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      (apsnd o apsnd o apfst o apfst o K) (read_expectation arg)
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  | parse_test_param ctxt ("report", [arg]) =
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      (apsnd o apsnd o apfst o apsnd o K) (read_bool arg)
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  | parse_test_param ctxt ("quiet", [arg]) =
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      (apsnd o apsnd o apsnd o K) (read_bool arg)       
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  | parse_test_param ctxt (name, _) =
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      error ("Unknown test parameter: " ^ name);
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fun parse_test_param_inst ctxt ("generator", [arg]) =
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      (apsnd o apfst o K o SOME) arg
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  | parse_test_param_inst ctxt (name, arg) =
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      case try (ProofContext.read_typ ctxt) name
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       of SOME (TFree (v, _)) => (apsnd o apsnd o AList.update (op =))
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              (v, ProofContext.read_typ ctxt (the_single arg))
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        | _ => (apfst o parse_test_param ctxt) (name, arg);
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fun quickcheck_params_cmd args thy =
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  let
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    val ctxt = ProofContext.init_global thy;
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    val f = fold (parse_test_param ctxt) args;
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  in
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    thy
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    |> (Data.map o apsnd o map_test_params) f
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  end;
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fun gen_quickcheck args i state =
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  let
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    val thy = Proof.theory_of state;
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    val ctxt = Proof.context_of state;
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    val default_params = (dest_test_params o snd o Data.get) thy;
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    val f = fold (parse_test_param_inst ctxt) args;
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    val (((size, iterations), ((default_type, no_assms), ((expect, report), quiet))), (generator_name, insts)) =
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      f (default_params, (NONE, []));
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  in
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    test_goal quiet report generator_name size iterations default_type no_assms insts i state
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    |> tap (fn (SOME x, _) => if expect = No_Counterexample then
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                 error ("quickcheck expected to find no counterexample but found one") else ()
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             | (NONE, _) => if expect = Counterexample then
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                 error ("quickcheck expected to find a counterexample but did not find one") else ())
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  end;
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fun quickcheck args i state = fst (gen_quickcheck args i state);
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fun quickcheck_cmd args i state =
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  gen_quickcheck args i (Toplevel.proof_of state)
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  |> Pretty.writeln o pretty_counterex_and_reports (Toplevel.context_of state);
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val parse_arg = Parse.name -- (Scan.optional (Parse.$$$ "=" |-- 
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  ((Parse.name >> single) || (Parse.$$$ "[" |-- Parse.list1 Parse.name --| Parse.$$$ "]"))) ["true"]);
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val parse_args = Parse.$$$ "[" |-- Parse.list1 parse_arg --| Parse.$$$ "]"
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  || Scan.succeed [];
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val _ =
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  Outer_Syntax.command "quickcheck_params" "set parameters for random testing" Keyword.thy_decl
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    (parse_args >> (fn args => Toplevel.theory (quickcheck_params_cmd args)));
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val _ =
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  Outer_Syntax.improper_command "quickcheck" "try to find counterexample for subgoal" Keyword.diag
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    (parse_args -- Scan.optional Parse.nat 1
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      >> (fn (args, i) => Toplevel.no_timing o Toplevel.keep (quickcheck_cmd args i)));
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end;
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val auto_quickcheck = Quickcheck.auto;