src/HOL/Number_Theory/Primes.thy
author paulson <lp15@cam.ac.uk>
Tue Dec 01 14:09:10 2015 +0000 (2015-12-01)
changeset 61762 d50b993b4fb9
parent 60804 080a979a985b
child 62348 9a5f43dac883
permissions -rw-r--r--
Removal of redundant lemmas (diff_less_iff, diff_le_iff) and of the abbreviation Exp. Addition of some new material.
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(*  Authors:    Christophe Tabacznyj, Lawrence C. Paulson, Amine Chaieb,
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                Thomas M. Rasmussen, Jeremy Avigad, Tobias Nipkow
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This file deals with properties of primes. Definitions and lemmas are
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proved uniformly for the natural numbers and integers.
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This file combines and revises a number of prior developments.
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The original theories "GCD" and "Primes" were by Christophe Tabacznyj
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and Lawrence C. Paulson, based on @{cite davenport92}. They introduced
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gcd, lcm, and prime for the natural numbers.
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The original theory "IntPrimes" was by Thomas M. Rasmussen, and
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extended gcd, lcm, primes to the integers. Amine Chaieb provided
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another extension of the notions to the integers, and added a number
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of results to "Primes" and "GCD". IntPrimes also defined and developed
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the congruence relations on the integers. The notion was extended to
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the natural numbers by Chaieb.
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Jeremy Avigad combined all of these, made everything uniform for the
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natural numbers and the integers, and added a number of new theorems.
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Tobias Nipkow cleaned up a lot.
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*)
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section \<open>Primes\<close>
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theory Primes
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imports "~~/src/HOL/GCD" "~~/src/HOL/Binomial"
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begin
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declare [[coercion int]]
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declare [[coercion_enabled]]
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definition prime :: "nat \<Rightarrow> bool"
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  where "prime p = (1 < p \<and> (\<forall>m. m dvd p \<longrightarrow> m = 1 \<or> m = p))"
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subsection \<open>Primes\<close>
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lemma prime_odd_nat: "prime p \<Longrightarrow> p > 2 \<Longrightarrow> odd p"
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  apply (auto simp add: prime_def even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero dvd_eq_mod_eq_0)
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  apply (metis dvd_eq_mod_eq_0 even_Suc mod_by_1 nat_dvd_not_less not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1 zero_less_numeral)
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  done
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lemma prime_gt_0_nat: "prime p \<Longrightarrow> p > 0"
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  unfolding prime_def by auto
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lemma prime_ge_1_nat: "prime p \<Longrightarrow> p >= 1"
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  unfolding prime_def by auto
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lemma prime_gt_1_nat: "prime p \<Longrightarrow> p > 1"
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  unfolding prime_def by auto
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lemma prime_ge_Suc_0_nat: "prime p \<Longrightarrow> p >= Suc 0"
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  unfolding prime_def by auto
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lemma prime_gt_Suc_0_nat: "prime p \<Longrightarrow> p > Suc 0"
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  unfolding prime_def by auto
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lemma prime_ge_2_nat: "prime p \<Longrightarrow> p >= 2"
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  unfolding prime_def by auto
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lemma prime_imp_coprime_nat: "prime p \<Longrightarrow> \<not> p dvd n \<Longrightarrow> coprime p n"
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  apply (unfold prime_def)
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  apply (metis gcd_dvd1_nat gcd_dvd2_nat)
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  done
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lemma prime_int_altdef:
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  "prime p = (1 < p \<and> (\<forall>m::int. m \<ge> 0 \<longrightarrow> m dvd p \<longrightarrow>
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    m = 1 \<or> m = p))"
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  apply (simp add: prime_def)
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  apply (auto simp add: )
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  apply (metis One_nat_def int_1 nat_0_le nat_dvd_iff)
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  apply (metis zdvd_int One_nat_def le0 of_nat_0 of_nat_1 of_nat_eq_iff of_nat_le_iff)
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  done
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lemma prime_imp_coprime_int:
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  fixes n::int shows "prime p \<Longrightarrow> \<not> p dvd n \<Longrightarrow> coprime p n"
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  apply (unfold prime_int_altdef)
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  apply (metis gcd_dvd1_int gcd_dvd2_int gcd_ge_0_int)
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  done
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lemma prime_dvd_mult_nat: "prime p \<Longrightarrow> p dvd m * n \<Longrightarrow> p dvd m \<or> p dvd n"
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  by (blast intro: coprime_dvd_mult_nat prime_imp_coprime_nat)
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lemma prime_dvd_mult_int:
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  fixes n::int shows "prime p \<Longrightarrow> p dvd m * n \<Longrightarrow> p dvd m \<or> p dvd n"
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  by (blast intro: coprime_dvd_mult_int prime_imp_coprime_int)
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lemma prime_dvd_mult_eq_nat [simp]: "prime p \<Longrightarrow>
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    p dvd m * n = (p dvd m \<or> p dvd n)"
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  by (rule iffI, rule prime_dvd_mult_nat, auto)
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lemma prime_dvd_mult_eq_int [simp]:
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  fixes n::int
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  shows "prime p \<Longrightarrow> p dvd m * n = (p dvd m \<or> p dvd n)"
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  by (rule iffI, rule prime_dvd_mult_int, auto)
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lemma not_prime_eq_prod_nat: "(n::nat) > 1 \<Longrightarrow> ~ prime n \<Longrightarrow>
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    EX m k. n = m * k & 1 < m & m < n & 1 < k & k < n"
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  unfolding prime_def dvd_def apply auto
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  by (metis mult.commute linorder_neq_iff linorder_not_le mult_1
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      n_less_n_mult_m one_le_mult_iff less_imp_le_nat)
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lemma prime_dvd_power_nat: "prime p \<Longrightarrow> p dvd x^n \<Longrightarrow> p dvd x"
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  by (induct n) auto
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lemma prime_dvd_power_int:
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  fixes x::int shows "prime p \<Longrightarrow> p dvd x^n \<Longrightarrow> p dvd x"
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  by (induct n) auto
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lemma prime_dvd_power_nat_iff: "prime p \<Longrightarrow> n > 0 \<Longrightarrow>
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    p dvd x^n \<longleftrightarrow> p dvd x"
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  by (cases n) (auto elim: prime_dvd_power_nat)
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lemma prime_dvd_power_int_iff:
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  fixes x::int
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  shows "prime p \<Longrightarrow> n > 0 \<Longrightarrow> p dvd x^n \<longleftrightarrow> p dvd x"
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  by (cases n) (auto elim: prime_dvd_power_int)
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subsubsection \<open>Make prime naively executable\<close>
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lemma zero_not_prime_nat [simp]: "~prime (0::nat)"
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  by (simp add: prime_def)
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lemma one_not_prime_nat [simp]: "~prime (1::nat)"
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  by (simp add: prime_def)
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lemma Suc_0_not_prime_nat [simp]: "~prime (Suc 0)"
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  by (simp add: prime_def)
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lemma prime_nat_code [code]:
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    "prime p \<longleftrightarrow> p > 1 \<and> (\<forall>n \<in> {1<..<p}. ~ n dvd p)"
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  apply (simp add: Ball_def)
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  apply (metis One_nat_def less_not_refl prime_def dvd_triv_right not_prime_eq_prod_nat)
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  done
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lemma prime_nat_simp:
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    "prime p \<longleftrightarrow> p > 1 \<and> (\<forall>n \<in> set [2..<p]. \<not> n dvd p)"
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  by (auto simp add: prime_nat_code)
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lemmas prime_nat_simp_numeral [simp] = prime_nat_simp [of "numeral m"] for m
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lemma two_is_prime_nat [simp]: "prime (2::nat)"
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  by simp
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text\<open>A bit of regression testing:\<close>
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lemma "prime(97::nat)" by simp
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lemma "prime(997::nat)" by eval
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lemma prime_imp_power_coprime_nat: "prime p \<Longrightarrow> ~ p dvd a \<Longrightarrow> coprime a (p^m)"
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  by (metis coprime_exp_nat gcd.commute prime_imp_coprime_nat)
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lemma prime_imp_power_coprime_int:
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  fixes a::int shows "prime p \<Longrightarrow> ~ p dvd a \<Longrightarrow> coprime a (p^m)"
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  by (metis coprime_exp_int gcd.commute prime_imp_coprime_int)
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lemma primes_coprime_nat: "prime p \<Longrightarrow> prime q \<Longrightarrow> p \<noteq> q \<Longrightarrow> coprime p q"
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  by (metis gcd_nat.absorb1 gcd_nat.absorb2 prime_imp_coprime_nat)
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lemma primes_imp_powers_coprime_nat:
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    "prime p \<Longrightarrow> prime q \<Longrightarrow> p ~= q \<Longrightarrow> coprime (p^m) (q^n)"
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  by (rule coprime_exp2_nat, rule primes_coprime_nat)
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lemma prime_factor_nat: "n \<noteq> (1::nat) \<Longrightarrow> \<exists> p. prime p \<and> p dvd n"
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  apply (induct n rule: nat_less_induct)
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  apply (case_tac "n = 0")
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  using two_is_prime_nat
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  apply blast
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  apply (metis One_nat_def dvd.order_trans dvd_refl less_Suc0 linorder_neqE_nat
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    nat_dvd_not_less neq0_conv prime_def)
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  done
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text \<open>One property of coprimality is easier to prove via prime factors.\<close>
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lemma prime_divprod_pow_nat:
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  assumes p: "prime p" and ab: "coprime a b" and pab: "p^n dvd a * b"
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  shows "p^n dvd a \<or> p^n dvd b"
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proof-
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  { assume "n = 0 \<or> a = 1 \<or> b = 1" with pab have ?thesis
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      apply (cases "n=0", simp_all)
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      apply (cases "a=1", simp_all)
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      done }
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  moreover
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  { assume n: "n \<noteq> 0" and a: "a\<noteq>1" and b: "b\<noteq>1"
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    then obtain m where m: "n = Suc m" by (cases n) auto
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    from n have "p dvd p^n" apply (intro dvd_power) apply auto done
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    also note pab
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    finally have pab': "p dvd a * b".
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    from prime_dvd_mult_nat[OF p pab']
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    have "p dvd a \<or> p dvd b" .
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    moreover
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    { assume pa: "p dvd a"
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      from coprime_common_divisor_nat [OF ab, OF pa] p have "\<not> p dvd b" by auto
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      with p have "coprime b p"
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        by (subst gcd_commute_nat, intro prime_imp_coprime_nat)
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      then have pnb: "coprime (p^n) b"
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        by (subst gcd_commute_nat, rule coprime_exp_nat)
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      from coprime_dvd_mult_nat[OF pnb pab] have ?thesis by blast }
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    moreover
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    { assume pb: "p dvd b"
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      have pnba: "p^n dvd b*a" using pab by (simp add: mult.commute)
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      from coprime_common_divisor_nat [OF ab, of p] pb p have "\<not> p dvd a"
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        by auto
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      with p have "coprime a p"
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        by (subst gcd_commute_nat, intro prime_imp_coprime_nat)
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      then have pna: "coprime (p^n) a"
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        by (subst gcd_commute_nat, rule coprime_exp_nat)
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      from coprime_dvd_mult_nat[OF pna pnba] have ?thesis by blast }
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    ultimately have ?thesis by blast }
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  ultimately show ?thesis by blast
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qed
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subsection \<open>Infinitely many primes\<close>
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lemma next_prime_bound: "\<exists>p. prime p \<and> n < p \<and> p <= fact n + 1"
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proof-
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  have f1: "fact n + 1 \<noteq> (1::nat)" using fact_ge_1 [of n, where 'a=nat] by arith
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  from prime_factor_nat [OF f1]
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  obtain p where "prime p" and "p dvd fact n + 1" by auto
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  then have "p \<le> fact n + 1" apply (intro dvd_imp_le) apply auto done
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  { assume "p \<le> n"
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    from \<open>prime p\<close> have "p \<ge> 1"
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      by (cases p, simp_all)
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    with \<open>p <= n\<close> have "p dvd fact n"
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      by (intro dvd_fact)
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    with \<open>p dvd fact n + 1\<close> have "p dvd fact n + 1 - fact n"
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      by (rule dvd_diff_nat)
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    then have "p dvd 1" by simp
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    then have "p <= 1" by auto
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    moreover from \<open>prime p\<close> have "p > 1"
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      using prime_def by blast
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    ultimately have False by auto}
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  then have "n < p" by presburger
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  with \<open>prime p\<close> and \<open>p <= fact n + 1\<close> show ?thesis by auto
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qed
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lemma bigger_prime: "\<exists>p. prime p \<and> p > (n::nat)"
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  using next_prime_bound by auto
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lemma primes_infinite: "\<not> (finite {(p::nat). prime p})"
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proof
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  assume "finite {(p::nat). prime p}"
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  with Max_ge have "(EX b. (ALL x : {(p::nat). prime p}. x <= b))"
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    by auto
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  then obtain b where "ALL (x::nat). prime x \<longrightarrow> x <= b"
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    by auto
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  with bigger_prime [of b] show False
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    by auto
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qed
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subsection\<open>Powers of Primes\<close>
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text\<open>Versions for type nat only\<close>
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lemma prime_product:
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  fixes p::nat
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  assumes "prime (p * q)"
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  shows "p = 1 \<or> q = 1"
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proof -
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  from assms have
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    "1 < p * q" and P: "\<And>m. m dvd p * q \<Longrightarrow> m = 1 \<or> m = p * q"
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    unfolding prime_def by auto
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  from \<open>1 < p * q\<close> have "p \<noteq> 0" by (cases p) auto
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  then have Q: "p = p * q \<longleftrightarrow> q = 1" by auto
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  have "p dvd p * q" by simp
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  then have "p = 1 \<or> p = p * q" by (rule P)
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  then show ?thesis by (simp add: Q)
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qed
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lemma prime_exp:
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  fixes p::nat
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  shows "prime (p^n) \<longleftrightarrow> prime p \<and> n = 1"
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proof(induct n)
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  case 0 thus ?case by simp
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next
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  case (Suc n)
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  {assume "p = 0" hence ?case by simp}
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  moreover
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  {assume "p=1" hence ?case by simp}
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  moreover
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  {assume p: "p \<noteq> 0" "p\<noteq>1"
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    {assume pp: "prime (p^Suc n)"
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      hence "p = 1 \<or> p^n = 1" using prime_product[of p "p^n"] by simp
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      with p have n: "n = 0"
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        by (metis One_nat_def nat_power_eq_Suc_0_iff)
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      with pp have "prime p \<and> Suc n = 1" by simp}
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    moreover
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    {assume n: "prime p \<and> Suc n = 1" hence "prime (p^Suc n)" by simp}
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    ultimately have ?case by blast}
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  ultimately show ?case by blast
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qed
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lemma prime_power_mult:
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  fixes p::nat
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  assumes p: "prime p" and xy: "x * y = p ^ k"
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  shows "\<exists>i j. x = p ^i \<and> y = p^ j"
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using xy
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proof(induct k arbitrary: x y)
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  case 0 thus ?case apply simp by (rule exI[where x="0"], simp)
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next
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  case (Suc k x y)
lp15@55215
   309
  from Suc.prems have pxy: "p dvd x*y" by auto
lp15@55215
   310
  from Primes.prime_dvd_mult_nat [OF p pxy] have pxyc: "p dvd x \<or> p dvd y" .
lp15@59669
   311
  from p have p0: "p \<noteq> 0" by - (rule ccontr, simp)
lp15@55215
   312
  {assume px: "p dvd x"
lp15@55215
   313
    then obtain d where d: "x = p*d" unfolding dvd_def by blast
lp15@55215
   314
    from Suc.prems d  have "p*d*y = p^Suc k" by simp
lp15@55215
   315
    hence th: "d*y = p^k" using p0 by simp
lp15@55215
   316
    from Suc.hyps[OF th] obtain i j where ij: "d = p^i" "y = p^j" by blast
lp15@59669
   317
    with d have "x = p^Suc i" by simp
lp15@55215
   318
    with ij(2) have ?case by blast}
lp15@59669
   319
  moreover
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   320
  {assume px: "p dvd y"
lp15@55215
   321
    then obtain d where d: "y = p*d" unfolding dvd_def by blast
haftmann@57512
   322
    from Suc.prems d  have "p*d*x = p^Suc k" by (simp add: mult.commute)
lp15@55215
   323
    hence th: "d*x = p^k" using p0 by simp
lp15@55215
   324
    from Suc.hyps[OF th] obtain i j where ij: "d = p^i" "x = p^j" by blast
lp15@59669
   325
    with d have "y = p^Suc i" by simp
lp15@55215
   326
    with ij(2) have ?case by blast}
lp15@55215
   327
  ultimately show ?case  using pxyc by blast
lp15@55215
   328
qed
lp15@55215
   329
lp15@59669
   330
lemma prime_power_exp:
lp15@55215
   331
  fixes p::nat
lp15@59669
   332
  assumes p: "prime p" and n: "n \<noteq> 0"
lp15@55215
   333
    and xn: "x^n = p^k" shows "\<exists>i. x = p^i"
lp15@55215
   334
  using n xn
lp15@55215
   335
proof(induct n arbitrary: k)
lp15@55215
   336
  case 0 thus ?case by simp
lp15@55215
   337
next
lp15@55215
   338
  case (Suc n k) hence th: "x*x^n = p^k" by simp
lp15@55215
   339
  {assume "n = 0" with Suc have ?case by simp (rule exI[where x="k"], simp)}
lp15@55215
   340
  moreover
lp15@55215
   341
  {assume n: "n \<noteq> 0"
lp15@59669
   342
    from prime_power_mult[OF p th]
lp15@55215
   343
    obtain i j where ij: "x = p^i" "x^n = p^j"by blast
lp15@55215
   344
    from Suc.hyps[OF n ij(2)] have ?case .}
lp15@55215
   345
  ultimately show ?case by blast
lp15@55215
   346
qed
lp15@55215
   347
lp15@55215
   348
lemma divides_primepow:
lp15@55215
   349
  fixes p::nat
lp15@59669
   350
  assumes p: "prime p"
lp15@55215
   351
  shows "d dvd p^k \<longleftrightarrow> (\<exists> i. i \<le> k \<and> d = p ^i)"
lp15@55215
   352
proof
lp15@59669
   353
  assume H: "d dvd p^k" then obtain e where e: "d*e = p^k"
haftmann@57512
   354
    unfolding dvd_def  apply (auto simp add: mult.commute) by blast
lp15@55215
   355
  from prime_power_mult[OF p e] obtain i j where ij: "d = p^i" "e=p^j" by blast
lp15@55215
   356
  from e ij have "p^(i + j) = p^k" by (simp add: power_add)
lp15@59669
   357
  hence "i + j = k" using p prime_gt_1_nat power_inject_exp[of p "i+j" k] by simp
lp15@55215
   358
  hence "i \<le> k" by arith
lp15@55215
   359
  with ij(1) show "\<exists>i\<le>k. d = p ^ i" by blast
lp15@55215
   360
next
lp15@55215
   361
  {fix i assume H: "i \<le> k" "d = p^i"
lp15@55215
   362
    then obtain j where j: "k = i + j"
lp15@55215
   363
      by (metis le_add_diff_inverse)
lp15@55215
   364
    hence "p^k = p^j*d" using H(2) by (simp add: power_add)
lp15@55215
   365
    hence "d dvd p^k" unfolding dvd_def by auto}
lp15@55215
   366
  thus "\<exists>i\<le>k. d = p ^ i \<Longrightarrow> d dvd p ^ k" by blast
lp15@55215
   367
qed
lp15@55215
   368
wenzelm@60526
   369
subsection \<open>Chinese Remainder Theorem Variants\<close>
lp15@55238
   370
lp15@55238
   371
lemma bezout_gcd_nat:
lp15@55238
   372
  fixes a::nat shows "\<exists>x y. a * x - b * y = gcd a b \<or> b * x - a * y = gcd a b"
lp15@55238
   373
  using bezout_nat[of a b]
haftmann@60688
   374
by (metis bezout_nat diff_add_inverse gcd_add_mult_nat gcd.commute
lp15@59669
   375
  gcd_nat.right_neutral mult_0)
lp15@55238
   376
lp15@55238
   377
lemma gcd_bezout_sum_nat:
lp15@59669
   378
  fixes a::nat
lp15@59669
   379
  assumes "a * x + b * y = d"
lp15@55238
   380
  shows "gcd a b dvd d"
lp15@55238
   381
proof-
lp15@55238
   382
  let ?g = "gcd a b"
lp15@59669
   383
    have dv: "?g dvd a*x" "?g dvd b * y"
lp15@55238
   384
      by simp_all
lp15@55238
   385
    from dvd_add[OF dv] assms
lp15@55238
   386
    show ?thesis by auto
lp15@55238
   387
qed
lp15@55238
   388
lp15@55238
   389
wenzelm@60526
   390
text \<open>A binary form of the Chinese Remainder Theorem.\<close>
lp15@55238
   391
lp15@59669
   392
lemma chinese_remainder:
lp15@55238
   393
  fixes a::nat  assumes ab: "coprime a b" and a: "a \<noteq> 0" and b: "b \<noteq> 0"
lp15@55238
   394
  shows "\<exists>x q1 q2. x = u + q1 * a \<and> x = v + q2 * b"
lp15@55238
   395
proof-
lp15@55238
   396
  from bezout_add_strong_nat[OF a, of b] bezout_add_strong_nat[OF b, of a]
lp15@59669
   397
  obtain d1 x1 y1 d2 x2 y2 where dxy1: "d1 dvd a" "d1 dvd b" "a * x1 = b * y1 + d1"
lp15@55238
   398
    and dxy2: "d2 dvd b" "d2 dvd a" "b * x2 = a * y2 + d2" by blast
lp15@55238
   399
  then have d12: "d1 = 1" "d2 =1"
lp15@55238
   400
    by (metis ab coprime_nat)+
lp15@55238
   401
  let ?x = "v * a * x1 + u * b * x2"
lp15@55238
   402
  let ?q1 = "v * x1 + u * y2"
lp15@55238
   403
  let ?q2 = "v * y1 + u * x2"
lp15@59669
   404
  from dxy2(3)[simplified d12] dxy1(3)[simplified d12]
lp15@55238
   405
  have "?x = u + ?q1 * a" "?x = v + ?q2 * b"
lp15@55337
   406
    by algebra+
lp15@55238
   407
  thus ?thesis by blast
lp15@55238
   408
qed
lp15@55238
   409
wenzelm@60526
   410
text \<open>Primality\<close>
lp15@55238
   411
lp15@55238
   412
lemma coprime_bezout_strong:
lp15@55238
   413
  fixes a::nat assumes "coprime a b"  "b \<noteq> 1"
lp15@55238
   414
  shows "\<exists>x y. a * x = b * y + 1"
lp15@55238
   415
by (metis assms bezout_nat gcd_nat.left_neutral)
lp15@55238
   416
lp15@59669
   417
lemma bezout_prime:
lp15@55238
   418
  assumes p: "prime p" and pa: "\<not> p dvd a"
lp15@55238
   419
  shows "\<exists>x y. a*x = Suc (p*y)"
lp15@55238
   420
proof-
lp15@55238
   421
  have ap: "coprime a p"
haftmann@60688
   422
    by (metis gcd.commute p pa prime_imp_coprime_nat)
lp15@55238
   423
  from coprime_bezout_strong[OF ap] show ?thesis
lp15@59669
   424
    by (metis Suc_eq_plus1 gcd_lcm_complete_lattice_nat.bot.extremum pa)
lp15@55238
   425
qed
lp15@55238
   426
wenzelm@21256
   427
end