NEWS
author huffman
Tue May 18 19:00:55 2010 -0700 (2010-05-18)
changeset 36979 da7c06ab3169
parent 36972 aa4bc5a4be1d
child 37020 6c699a8e6927
permissions -rw-r--r--
remove several redundant lemmas about floor and ceiling
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Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
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==============================================
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New in this Isabelle version
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----------------------------
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*** General ***
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* Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
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via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
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'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
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syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
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asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
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constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
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correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
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the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
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their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
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their full internal name.
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Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
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and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
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Some hints on upgrading:
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  - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
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    by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
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    which are independent of this issue.
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  - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
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    provides the following special forms:
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      CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
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      XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
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      c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
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    Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
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    system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
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    extra variables".
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    Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
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    concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
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    for the "type" category, using type constructor application
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    instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
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    "logic".
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  - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
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    antiquotations:
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      @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
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      @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
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      @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
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      @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
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  - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
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    represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
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    c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
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    antiquotations.
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Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
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names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
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that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
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diagnose syntax problems.
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* Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
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* Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
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body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
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'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
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similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
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* Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
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discontinued (legacy feature).
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* References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
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configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
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case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
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  using [[trace_simp = true]]
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Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
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subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
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disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
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* Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
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'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
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INCOMPATIBILITY.
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*** Pure ***
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* Predicates of locales introduces by classes carry a mandatory
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"class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
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runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
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INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Empty class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  Use 'class' instead.
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INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
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invariants.
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* Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
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are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
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are added internally.  For example:
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  definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
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* Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
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user space functionality any longer.
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* Methods unfold_locales and intro_locales ignore non-locale subgoals.
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This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
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INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
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need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
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datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
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Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
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experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
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* Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
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within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
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constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
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* Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
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context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
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assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
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* Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
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within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Proof terms: Type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
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order of type variables. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working
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with proof terms.
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*** HOL ***
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* Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy for
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future developements;  former Library/Word.thy is still present in the AFP
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entry RSAPPS.
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* Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
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longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
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INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
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INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
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instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
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ceiling; use the generic lemmas from Archimedean_Field.thy instead.
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INCOMPATIBILITY.
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  floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
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  le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
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  le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
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  le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
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  floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
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  floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
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  floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
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  less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
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  less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
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  less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
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  floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
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  floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
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  floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
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  floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
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  floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
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  ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
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  ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
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  ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
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  ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
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  less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
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  less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
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  less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
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  ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
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  ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
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  ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
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  le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
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  le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
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  le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
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  ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
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  ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
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* Theory 'Finite_Set': various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
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application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
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* Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
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provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
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implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
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* Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
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introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
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possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
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contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
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non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
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* Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
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AFP/thys/Coinductive.
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* Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
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been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Split off theory Big_Operators containing setsum, setprod, Inf_fin,
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Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
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"Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
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rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
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* Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
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"Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
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appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
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within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
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  - less_eq, less: Orderings
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  - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
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  - inverse, divide: Rings
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INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
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lattices):
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    lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
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    upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
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    dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
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    pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
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    pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
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    pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
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    pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
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    pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
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    pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
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    pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
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    pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
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    pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
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    pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
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    pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
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    pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
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    pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
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    ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
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    ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
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    ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
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    ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
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    ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
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    ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
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    ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
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    ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
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    ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
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    ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
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    ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
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    ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
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    ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
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    ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
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    ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
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    ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
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    ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
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    ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
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  The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
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  separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras.thy:
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    lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
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    lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
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    lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
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    lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
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    lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
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INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Refined field classes:
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  - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
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    linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
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    subsumes former division_by_zero class;
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  - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
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INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Refined algebra theorem collections:
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  - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
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  - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
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  - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
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    groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
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  - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
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    equal_neg_zero.
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INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
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sets to lattices:
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  fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
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  fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
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  inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
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  union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
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  Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
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  Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
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  inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
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  union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
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  INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
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  UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
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* Theory Complete_Lattice: lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
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replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
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Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
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by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
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former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
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subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* HOLogic.strip_psplit: types are returned in syntactic order, similar
haftmann@36416
   326
to other strip and tuple operations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@36416
   327
wenzelm@36857
   328
* Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
wenzelm@36857
   329
multiset order:
wenzelm@36857
   330
  - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
wenzelm@36857
   331
    <= and <;
wenzelm@36857
   332
  - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
wenzelm@36857
   333
    are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
wenzelm@36857
   334
    multiset_order;
wenzelm@36857
   335
  - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
wenzelm@36857
   336
    conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
wenzelm@36857
   337
    generation;
wenzelm@36857
   338
  - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
wenzelm@36857
   339
    if needed.
nipkow@36903
   340
Renamed:
nipkow@36903
   341
  multiset_eq_conv_count_eq -> multiset_ext_iff
nipkow@36903
   342
  multi_count_ext -> multiset_ext
nipkow@36903
   343
  diff_union_inverse2 -> diff_union_cancelR
wenzelm@36857
   344
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@36416
   345
nipkow@36903
   346
* Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
nipkow@36903
   347
haftmann@36416
   348
* Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
haftmann@36416
   349
wenzelm@35009
   350
* Theory List: added transpose.
wenzelm@35009
   351
wenzelm@35100
   352
* Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
wenzelm@35100
   353
clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
wenzelm@35100
   354
huffman@35810
   355
* Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
huffman@35810
   356
between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
huffman@35810
   357
Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
huffman@35810
   358
huffman@35810
   359
  Constants:
huffman@35810
   360
  Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
huffman@35810
   361
  Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
huffman@35810
   362
  Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
huffman@35810
   363
  Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
huffman@35810
   364
  Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
huffman@35810
   365
  NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
huffman@35810
   366
  NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
huffman@35810
   367
  NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
huffman@35810
   368
  NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
huffman@35810
   369
  NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
huffman@35810
   370
  NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
huffman@35810
   371
  NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
huffman@35810
   372
  NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
huffman@35810
   373
huffman@35810
   374
  Lemmas:
huffman@35810
   375
  Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
huffman@35810
   376
  Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
huffman@35810
   377
  Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
huffman@35810
   378
  Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
huffman@35810
   379
  Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
huffman@35810
   380
  Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
huffman@35810
   381
  Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
huffman@35810
   382
  Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
huffman@35810
   383
  Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
huffman@35810
   384
  Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
huffman@35810
   385
  Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
huffman@35810
   386
  Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
huffman@35810
   387
  Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
huffman@35810
   388
blanchet@36929
   389
* Sledgehammer:
blanchet@36929
   390
  - Renamed ATP commands:
blanchet@36929
   391
    atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
blanchet@36929
   392
    atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
blanchet@36929
   393
    atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
blanchet@36929
   394
    atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
blanchet@36929
   395
    print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
blanchet@36929
   396
    INCOMPATIBILITY.
blanchet@36929
   397
  - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
blanchet@36929
   398
  - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
blanchet@36929
   399
    Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
blanchet@36929
   400
  - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
blanchet@36929
   401
    direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
blanchet@36929
   402
    is still experimental.)
blanchet@36929
   403
  - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
blanchet@36929
   404
    full-typed mode.
blanchet@36929
   405
  - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
blanchet@36929
   406
blanchet@36928
   407
* Nitpick:
blanchet@36928
   408
  - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
blanchet@36928
   409
  - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
blanchet@36928
   410
  - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
blanchet@36928
   411
    of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
blanchet@36928
   412
  - Added support for quotient types.
blanchet@36928
   413
  - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
blanchet@36928
   414
    constructs.
blanchet@36928
   415
  - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
blanchet@36928
   416
    "termination" proofs).
blanchet@36928
   417
  - Added support for term postprocessors.
blanchet@36928
   418
  - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
blanchet@36928
   419
  - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
blanchet@36928
   420
  - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
blanchet@36928
   421
    record getters.
blanchet@36928
   422
  - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors
blanchet@36928
   423
  - Improved precision of set constructs.
blanchet@36928
   424
  - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
blanchet@36928
   425
    problems.
blanchet@36928
   426
  - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
blanchet@36928
   427
    "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
blanchet@36928
   428
    "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
blanchet@36928
   429
  - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
blanchet@36928
   430
    "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
blanchet@36928
   431
haftmann@33993
   432
huffman@36828
   433
*** HOLCF ***
huffman@36828
   434
huffman@36828
   435
* Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
huffman@36828
   436
changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
huffman@36828
   437
package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
huffman@36828
   438
huffman@36828
   439
* The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
huffman@36828
   440
recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
huffman@36828
   441
terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
huffman@36828
   442
be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
huffman@36828
   443
huffman@36828
   444
* Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
huffman@36828
   445
of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
huffman@36828
   446
like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
huffman@36828
   447
Proof scripts that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
huffman@36828
   448
potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
huffman@36828
   449
huffman@36828
   450
* Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
huffman@36828
   451
declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
huffman@36828
   452
constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
huffman@36828
   453
huffman@36828
   454
* For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
huffman@36828
   455
rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
huffman@36828
   456
huffman@36828
   457
  foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
huffman@36828
   458
  foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
huffman@36828
   459
huffman@36828
   460
* Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
huffman@36828
   461
consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
huffman@36828
   462
huffman@36828
   463
  foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
huffman@36828
   464
  foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
huffman@36828
   465
  foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
huffman@36828
   466
  foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
huffman@36828
   467
  foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
huffman@36828
   468
huffman@36828
   469
* For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
huffman@36828
   470
now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
huffman@36828
   471
huffman@36828
   472
  foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
huffman@36828
   473
  foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
huffman@36828
   474
  foo_induct ~> foo.induct
huffman@36828
   475
huffman@36828
   476
* The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
huffman@36828
   477
lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
huffman@36828
   478
huffman@36828
   479
* The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
huffman@36828
   480
huffman@36828
   481
* The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
huffman@36828
   482
Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
huffman@36828
   483
huffman@36828
   484
haftmann@33993
   485
*** ML ***
haftmann@33993
   486
wenzelm@36429
   487
* Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
wenzelm@36429
   488
no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
wenzelm@36429
   489
inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
wenzelm@36429
   490
which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
wenzelm@36429
   491
in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
wenzelm@36429
   492
system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
wenzelm@36429
   493
explicitly in rare situations.
wenzelm@36429
   494
wenzelm@35401
   495
* Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
wenzelm@35396
   496
wenzelm@35396
   497
    @{class NAME}         -- type class
wenzelm@35401
   498
    @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
wenzelm@35401
   499
wenzelm@35401
   500
    @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
wenzelm@35361
   501
    @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
wenzelm@35361
   502
    @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
wenzelm@35361
   503
    @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
wenzelm@35361
   504
wenzelm@35401
   505
    @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
wenzelm@35401
   506
    @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
wenzelm@35401
   507
    @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
wenzelm@35401
   508
wenzelm@35111
   509
* Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
wenzelm@35111
   510
syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
wenzelm@35111
   511
wenzelm@36162
   512
* Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
wenzelm@36162
   513
values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
wenzelm@36162
   514
and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
wenzelm@36162
   515
wenzelm@35021
   516
* Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
wenzelm@35021
   517
emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
wenzelm@35021
   518
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@35021
   519
wenzelm@34076
   520
* Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
wenzelm@34076
   521
as infinity (as in chop).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@34076
   522
wenzelm@34076
   523
* Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
wenzelm@34076
   524
usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@34076
   525
wenzelm@34259
   526
* Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
wenzelm@34259
   527
needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
wenzelm@34259
   528
Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
wenzelm@34259
   529
Theory_Data version.
wenzelm@34259
   530
wenzelm@35845
   531
* Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
wenzelm@35845
   532
to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
wenzelm@35845
   533
quite rare).
wenzelm@35845
   534
wenzelm@36000
   535
* Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
wenzelm@36000
   536
the context or even global references.
wenzelm@36000
   537
wenzelm@36612
   538
* Most operations that refer to a global context are named
wenzelm@36612
   539
accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
wenzelm@36612
   540
ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
wenzelm@36612
   541
context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
wenzelm@36612
   542
pass the proper local context through the code!
wenzelm@36612
   543
wenzelm@36961
   544
* Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
wenzelm@36961
   545
for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
wenzelm@36949
   546
wenzelm@36959
   547
  OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
wenzelm@36959
   548
  OuterLex      ~>  Token
wenzelm@36959
   549
  OuterParse    ~>  Parse
wenzelm@36953
   550
  OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
wenzelm@36952
   551
  SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
wenzelm@36949
   552
wenzelm@36961
   553
Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
wenzelm@36961
   554
to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
wenzelm@36961
   555
haftmann@33993
   556
wenzelm@34238
   557
*** System ***
wenzelm@34238
   558
wenzelm@34238
   559
* Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
wenzelm@34238
   560
ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
wenzelm@34238
   561
proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
wenzelm@34238
   562
wenzelm@34255
   563
* Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
wenzelm@34255
   564
feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
wenzelm@34255
   565
respectively.
wenzelm@34255
   566
wenzelm@36201
   567
* Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
wenzelm@36201
   568
ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
wenzelm@36201
   569
variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
wenzelm@36201
   570
prefers 64 bit if available:
wenzelm@36201
   571
wenzelm@36201
   572
  ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
wenzelm@36201
   573
wenzelm@34238
   574
haftmann@33993
   575
wenzelm@33842
   576
New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
wenzelm@33842
   577
-------------------------------------
wenzelm@30904
   578
wenzelm@31547
   579
*** General ***
wenzelm@31547
   580
wenzelm@31547
   581
* Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
wenzelm@31547
   582
one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
wenzelm@31547
   583
wenzelm@31547
   584
haftmann@30951
   585
*** Pure ***
haftmann@30951
   586
ballarin@32846
   587
* Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
ballarin@32846
   588
The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
ballarin@32846
   589
local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
ballarin@32846
   590
wenzelm@33842
   591
* Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
wenzelm@33842
   592
loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
wenzelm@33842
   593
Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
ballarin@32846
   594
ballarin@32983
   595
* Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
ballarin@32983
   596
interpretation.
ballarin@32983
   597
wenzelm@33843
   598
* On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
wenzelm@33843
   599
are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@33843
   600
haftmann@30951
   601
wenzelm@33842
   602
*** Document preparation ***
wenzelm@33842
   603
wenzelm@33842
   604
* New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
wenzelm@33842
   605
instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
wenzelm@33842
   606
backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
wenzelm@33842
   607
antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
haftmann@32891
   608
haftmann@32891
   609
haftmann@30930
   610
*** HOL ***
haftmann@30930
   611
wenzelm@33842
   612
* New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
wenzelm@33842
   613
equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
wenzelm@33842
   614
fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
wenzelm@33842
   615
features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
wenzelm@33842
   616
procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
wenzelm@33842
   617
for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
wenzelm@33842
   618
are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
wenzelm@33842
   619
re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
wenzelm@33842
   620
installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
wenzelm@33842
   621
wenzelm@33842
   622
* New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
wenzelm@33842
   623
the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
wenzelm@33842
   624
Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
wenzelm@33842
   625
wenzelm@33842
   626
* New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
wenzelm@33842
   627
relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
wenzelm@33842
   628
src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
wenzelm@33842
   629
haftmann@33860
   630
* New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
haftmann@33860
   631
compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
haftmann@33860
   632
haftmann@33860
   633
* A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
haftmann@33860
   634
haftmann@33860
   635
* New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
haftmann@33860
   636
default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
haftmann@33860
   637
and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
haftmann@33860
   638
Library/SML_Quickcheck.
haftmann@33860
   639
wenzelm@33843
   640
* New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
wenzelm@33843
   641
several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
wenzelm@33843
   642
every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
wenzelm@33843
   643
"mirabelle" utility.
wenzelm@33843
   644
wenzelm@33843
   645
* New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
wenzelm@33843
   646
arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
wenzelm@33843
   647
Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
wenzelm@33843
   648
works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
wenzelm@33843
   649
*, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
wenzelm@33843
   650
inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
wenzelm@33843
   651
semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
wenzelm@33843
   652
certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
wenzelm@33843
   653
to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
wenzelm@33843
   654
src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
wenzelm@33843
   655
wenzelm@33843
   656
* New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
wenzelm@33843
   657
procedure only.
wenzelm@33843
   658
wenzelm@33843
   659
* New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
wenzelm@33843
   660
wenzelm@33843
   661
* New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
wenzelm@33843
   662
Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
wenzelm@33843
   663
ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
wenzelm@33843
   664
that fail later.
wenzelm@33843
   665
wenzelm@33843
   666
* New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
wenzelm@33843
   667
information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
wenzelm@33843
   668
wenzelm@33843
   669
* New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
wenzelm@33843
   670
the same method as the approximation method.
wenzelm@33843
   671
wenzelm@33843
   672
* Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
wenzelm@33843
   673
boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
wenzelm@33843
   674
series expansion.
wenzelm@33843
   675
wenzelm@33843
   676
* ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
wenzelm@33843
   677
generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
wenzelm@33843
   678
haftmann@33860
   679
* New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
haftmann@33860
   680
reals.
haftmann@33860
   681
haftmann@33860
   682
* New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
haftmann@33860
   683
theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
haftmann@33860
   684
haftmann@33860
   685
* Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
haftmann@33860
   686
fixpoint theorem.
wenzelm@33843
   687
wenzelm@33842
   688
* Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
wenzelm@33873
   689
  - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
wenzelm@33873
   690
    and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
wenzelm@33873
   691
  - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
wenzelm@33873
   692
    accordingly
wenzelm@33873
   693
  - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
wenzelm@33873
   694
    theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
wenzelm@33842
   695
  - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
wenzelm@33842
   696
    src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
haftmann@32479
   697
wenzelm@33873
   698
* Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
wenzelm@33873
   699
lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
haftmann@32600
   700
lattice.
haftmann@32600
   701
haftmann@32600
   702
* Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
haftmann@32600
   703
div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
haftmann@32600
   704
div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
haftmann@32600
   705
generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
haftmann@32600
   706
zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
haftmann@32600
   707
zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
haftmann@32600
   708
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@32600
   709
haftmann@32588
   710
* Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
haftmann@32064
   711
  - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
haftmann@32064
   712
    intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
wenzelm@33842
   713
  - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
wenzelm@33842
   714
    le_inf_iff
wenzelm@33842
   715
  - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
wenzelm@33842
   716
    sup_aci)
haftmann@32064
   717
  - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
haftmann@32600
   718
  - new class "boolean_algebra"
wenzelm@33842
   719
  - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
haftmann@33860
   720
    "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
wenzelm@33842
   721
    renamed and with authentic syntax:
haftmann@33860
   722
    Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
haftmann@33860
   723
    Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
haftmann@33860
   724
    Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
haftmann@33860
   725
    Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
haftmann@33860
   726
    Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
haftmann@33860
   727
    Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
haftmann@33860
   728
    Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
haftmann@33860
   729
    Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
haftmann@32600
   730
  - authentic syntax for
haftmann@32600
   731
    Set.Pow
haftmann@32600
   732
    Set.image
haftmann@32588
   733
  - mere abbreviations:
haftmann@32588
   734
    Set.empty               (for bot)
haftmann@32588
   735
    Set.UNIV                (for top)
haftmann@33860
   736
    Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
haftmann@33860
   737
    Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
haftmann@32588
   738
    Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
haftmann@32588
   739
    Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
haftmann@32606
   740
    Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
haftmann@32606
   741
    Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
haftmann@32600
   742
  - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
haftmann@32217
   743
haftmann@32691
   744
INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
wenzelm@33842
   745
Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
wenzelm@33842
   746
their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
haftmann@32691
   747
deleted to achieve the desired effect.
haftmann@32064
   748
wenzelm@33842
   749
* Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
wenzelm@33842
   750
rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
wenzelm@33842
   751
etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@33842
   752
wenzelm@33842
   753
* Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
wenzelm@33842
   754
pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@33842
   755
wenzelm@33842
   756
* Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
haftmann@32706
   757
constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
wenzelm@31547
   758
multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
wenzelm@31547
   759
in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@31547
   760
wenzelm@33842
   761
* Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
wenzelm@33842
   762
"R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
wenzelm@33842
   763
rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
wenzelm@33842
   764
break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
wenzelm@33842
   765
O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
wenzelm@32427
   766
nipkow@33057
   767
* Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
wenzelm@33842
   768
abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
nipkow@32988
   769
INCOMPATIBILITY.
nipkow@32988
   770
haftmann@33860
   771
* Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
haftmann@33860
   772
prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
nipkow@31790
   773
wenzelm@33842
   774
* Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
wenzelm@33842
   775
the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
wenzelm@33842
   776
DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
wenzelm@33842
   777
matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
wenzelm@33842
   778
Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
wenzelm@33873
   779
of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
wenzelm@33873
   780
Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
wenzelm@33873
   781
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@33860
   782
haftmann@33860
   783
* Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
haftmann@33860
   784
    code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
haftmann@33860
   785
    code_post       replaces    code post
haftmann@33860
   786
    etc.
haftmann@33860
   787
  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@31900
   788
krauss@33471
   789
* Renamed methods:
krauss@33471
   790
    sizechange -> size_change
krauss@33471
   791
    induct_scheme -> induction_schema
haftmann@33860
   792
  INCOMPATIBILITY.
nipkow@33673
   793
wenzelm@33843
   794
* Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
wenzelm@33843
   795
INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
wenzelm@33843
   796
haftmann@33860
   797
* Renamed theorems:
haftmann@33860
   798
    Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
haftmann@33860
   799
    Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
haftmann@33860
   800
    Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
haftmann@33860
   801
    *anti_sym -> *antisym*
haftmann@33860
   802
    vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
haftmann@33860
   803
  INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@33860
   804
haftmann@33860
   805
* Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
haftmann@33860
   806
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@33860
   807
haftmann@33860
   808
* Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
haftmann@33860
   809
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@33860
   810
hoelzl@31812
   811
huffman@33825
   812
*** HOLCF ***
huffman@33825
   813
wenzelm@33842
   814
* Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
wenzelm@33842
   815
representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
huffman@33825
   816
Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
huffman@33825
   817
huffman@33825
   818
* The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
huffman@33825
   819
domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
huffman@33825
   820
old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
huffman@33825
   821
recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
wenzelm@33842
   822
src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
wenzelm@33842
   823
wenzelm@33842
   824
* Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
huffman@33825
   825
on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
huffman@33825
   826
simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
wenzelm@33842
   827
"fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
wenzelm@33842
   828
replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
huffman@33825
   829
huffman@33825
   830
* The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
huffman@33825
   831
with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
huffman@33825
   832
constructor are pre-configured.
huffman@33825
   833
huffman@33825
   834
* The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
huffman@33825
   835
for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
huffman@33825
   836
of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
huffman@33825
   837
huffman@33825
   838
* The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
huffman@33825
   839
been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
wenzelm@33842
   840
theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
wenzelm@33842
   841
as well.)
huffman@33825
   842
huffman@33825
   843
* The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
huffman@33825
   844
patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
huffman@33825
   845
functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
wenzelm@33873
   846
Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
wenzelm@33873
   847
examples.
huffman@33825
   848
huffman@33825
   849
wenzelm@31304
   850
*** ML ***
wenzelm@31304
   851
wenzelm@33843
   852
* Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
wenzelm@33843
   853
errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
wenzelm@33843
   854
wenzelm@33843
   855
* Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
wenzelm@33843
   856
identified entries, with some additional information such as source
wenzelm@33843
   857
position, logical grouping etc.
wenzelm@33843
   858
wenzelm@33524
   859
* Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
wenzelm@33524
   860
modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
wenzelm@33524
   861
to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
wenzelm@33524
   862
copy operation) is still available for some time.
wenzelm@33524
   863
wenzelm@32742
   864
* Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
wenzelm@32742
   865
provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
wenzelm@32742
   866
variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
wenzelm@32742
   867
application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
wenzelm@32742
   868
short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
wenzelm@32742
   869
either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
wenzelm@32742
   870
wenzelm@32742
   871
* Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
wenzelm@32742
   872
wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
wenzelm@32742
   873
behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
wenzelm@32742
   874
accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
wenzelm@32742
   875
experiments with references.
wenzelm@32742
   876
wenzelm@32365
   877
* PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
wenzelm@32365
   878
parallel tactical reasoning.
wenzelm@32365
   879
wenzelm@32427
   880
* Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
wenzelm@32427
   881
are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
wenzelm@32427
   882
specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
wenzelm@32427
   883
body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
wenzelm@32427
   884
wenzelm@32427
   885
* Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
wenzelm@32427
   886
been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
wenzelm@32427
   887
or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
wenzelm@32216
   888
wenzelm@31971
   889
* Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
wenzelm@31971
   890
functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
wenzelm@31971
   891
separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@31971
   892
wenzelm@31901
   893
* Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@31901
   894
wenzelm@33842
   895
* Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
wenzelm@33842
   896
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@33842
   897
wenzelm@33843
   898
* Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
wenzelm@33843
   899
mode, which avoids critical setmp.
wenzelm@33843
   900
wenzelm@31306
   901
* Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
wenzelm@33842
   902
combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
wenzelm@31306
   903
Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
wenzelm@31304
   904
wenzelm@32151
   905
* Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
wenzelm@32151
   906
back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
wenzelm@32151
   907
last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@32151
   908
wenzelm@32092
   909
* Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
wenzelm@32092
   910
ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
wenzelm@32092
   911
or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
wenzelm@32092
   912
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@32092
   913
wenzelm@32433
   914
* Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
wenzelm@32433
   915
Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
wenzelm@32433
   916
instead of global theory.
wenzelm@32433
   917
wenzelm@31304
   918
wenzelm@31308
   919
*** System ***
wenzelm@31308
   920
wenzelm@33842
   921
* Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
wenzelm@33842
   922
(max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
wenzelm@33842
   923
usedir option -q.
wenzelm@33842
   924
wenzelm@32326
   925
* Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
wenzelm@32326
   926
also the system manual.
wenzelm@32326
   927
wenzelm@32326
   928
* The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
wenzelm@32326
   929
IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
wenzelm@32326
   930
wenzelm@33842
   931
* Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
wenzelm@33842
   932
this is always enabled.
kleing@33818
   933
wenzelm@31308
   934
* Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
wenzelm@31308
   935
wenzelm@33842
   936
* Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
wenzelm@33842
   937
on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
wenzelm@33842
   938
currently supported on Linux only.
wenzelm@32061
   939
wenzelm@31308
   940
wenzelm@31304
   941
wenzelm@30845
   942
New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
wenzelm@30845
   943
--------------------------------
haftmann@27104
   944
wenzelm@27599
   945
*** General ***
wenzelm@27599
   946
wenzelm@28504
   947
* Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
wenzelm@28504
   948
case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
wenzelm@28504
   949
wenzelm@28504
   950
  - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
wenzelm@28504
   951
    "isatool."
wenzelm@28504
   952
wenzelm@28504
   953
  - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
wenzelm@28504
   954
    removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
wenzelm@28504
   955
wenzelm@28915
   956
  - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
wenzelm@28915
   957
    removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
wenzelm@28504
   958
wenzelm@28504
   959
Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
wenzelm@28504
   960
ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
wenzelm@28504
   961
respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
wenzelm@28504
   962
wenzelm@28915
   963
The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
wenzelm@28915
   964
the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
wenzelm@28915
   965
interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
wenzelm@28915
   966
Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
wenzelm@28915
   967
via "isabelle emacs".
wenzelm@28504
   968
wenzelm@28504
   969
INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
wenzelm@28504
   970
purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
wenzelm@28504
   971
install -p ...", or use symlinks.
wenzelm@28504
   972
wenzelm@28914
   973
* The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
wenzelm@30845
   974
old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
wenzelm@30845
   975
surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
wenzelm@28914
   976
wenzelm@28914
   977
INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
wenzelm@28914
   978
~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
wenzelm@28914
   979
care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
wenzelm@28914
   980
ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
wenzelm@30845
   981
Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
wenzelm@28914
   982
wenzelm@29161
   983
* Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
wenzelm@30845
   984
multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
wenzelm@30845
   985
a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
wenzelm@30845
   986
large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
wenzelm@30845
   987
wenzelm@30845
   988
* The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
wenzelm@30845
   989
"system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
wenzelm@30845
   990
as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
wenzelm@30845
   991
wenzelm@30163
   992
wenzelm@27599
   993
*** Pure ***
wenzelm@27599
   994
wenzelm@30845
   995
* Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
wenzelm@30845
   996
respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
wenzelm@30845
   997
Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
ballarin@29253
   998
ballarin@29253
   999
- In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
ballarin@29253
  1000
must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
ballarin@29253
  1001
parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
ballarin@29253
  1002
'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
ballarin@29253
  1003
with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
ballarin@29253
  1004
ballarin@29253
  1005
- Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
ballarin@29253
  1006
locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
ballarin@29253
  1007
useful in locale declarations.
ballarin@29253
  1008
ballarin@29253
  1009
- More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
ballarin@29253
  1010
expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
wenzelm@30728
  1011
expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
wenzelm@30728
  1012
optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
wenzelm@30728
  1013
depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
wenzelm@30728
  1014
commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
wenzelm@30845
  1015
'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
wenzelm@30728
  1016
implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
wenzelm@30728
  1017
no longer generated.
wenzelm@30106
  1018
wenzelm@30845
  1019
- Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
wenzelm@30106
  1020
instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
wenzelm@30106
  1021
brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
ballarin@29253
  1022
wenzelm@30845
  1023
- When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
wenzelm@30728
  1024
'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
wenzelm@30845
  1025
if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
wenzelm@30845
  1026
worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
wenzelm@30845
  1027
in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
wenzelm@30845
  1028
wenzelm@30845
  1029
- Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
  1030
In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
wenzelm@30845
  1031
respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
wenzelm@30845
  1032
that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
wenzelm@30845
  1033
assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
wenzelm@30845
  1034
involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
wenzelm@30845
  1035
notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
wenzelm@30845
  1036
locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
wenzelm@30845
  1037
wenzelm@30845
  1038
If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
wenzelm@30845
  1039
parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
wenzelm@30845
  1040
consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
wenzelm@30845
  1041
the parameters (context element "constrains").
wenzelm@30845
  1042
wenzelm@30845
  1043
- Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
  1044
wenzelm@30845
  1045
- Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
wenzelm@30845
  1046
INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
wenzelm@30845
  1047
methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
wenzelm@30845
  1048
wenzelm@30845
  1049
- Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
wenzelm@30845
  1050
attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
  1051
wenzelm@30845
  1052
* Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
wenzelm@30845
  1053
list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
wenzelm@30845
  1054
in HOL, write
wenzelm@30845
  1055
wenzelm@30845
  1056
    class foo = ...
wenzelm@30845
  1057
wenzelm@30845
  1058
instead of
wenzelm@30845
  1059
wenzelm@30845
  1060
    class foo = type + ...
wenzelm@30845
  1061
wenzelm@30845
  1062
* Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
wenzelm@30845
  1063
parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
  1064
wenzelm@30845
  1065
* Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
wenzelm@30845
  1066
INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
wenzelm@30845
  1067
wenzelm@30845
  1068
* Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
wenzelm@30845
  1069
Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
wenzelm@30845
  1070
makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
wenzelm@30845
  1071
wenzelm@30845
  1072
* Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
wenzelm@30845
  1073
isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
wenzelm@30845
  1074
meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
wenzelm@30845
  1075
INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
wenzelm@30845
  1076
directly in regular applications.
wenzelm@30845
  1077
wenzelm@30845
  1078
* There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
wenzelm@30845
  1079
fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
wenzelm@30845
  1080
wenzelm@30845
  1081
* Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
wenzelm@30845
  1082
interface with 'setup' command instead.
wenzelm@30845
  1083
wenzelm@30845
  1084
* Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
wenzelm@30845
  1085
theory context.
haftmann@27104
  1086
wenzelm@28114
  1087
* The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
wenzelm@28114
  1088
context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@28114
  1089
wenzelm@30845
  1090
* Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
wenzelm@30845
  1091
hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
wenzelm@30845
  1092
covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
wenzelm@30845
  1093
type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
wenzelm@30845
  1094
hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
wenzelm@30845
  1095
vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
wenzelm@30845
  1096
wenzelm@30845
  1097
  lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
wenzelm@30845
  1098
wenzelm@30845
  1099
The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
wenzelm@30845
  1100
SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
wenzelm@30845
  1101
normalization.
wenzelm@30845
  1102
wenzelm@30845
  1103
* Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
wenzelm@30845
  1104
addressing etc.
wenzelm@30845
  1105
wenzelm@30845
  1106
* Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
wenzelm@30845
  1107
wenzelm@30845
  1108
  unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
wenzelm@30845
  1109
  unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
wenzelm@30845
  1110
wenzelm@30845
  1111
* Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
wenzelm@30845
  1112
wenzelm@30845
  1113
  a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
wenzelm@30845
  1114
     constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
wenzelm@30845
  1115
     parts of the code generator framework).
wenzelm@30845
  1116
wenzelm@30845
  1117
  b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
wenzelm@30845
  1118
     attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
wenzelm@30845
  1119
     from definition, primrec, fun etc.
wenzelm@30845
  1120
wenzelm@30845
  1121
* Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
  1122
haftmann@30965
  1123
* Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
wenzelm@30845
  1124
func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30577
  1125
wenzelm@30577
  1126
* Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
wenzelm@30577
  1127
patterns, e.g.
kleing@29883
  1128
kleing@29883
  1129
    find_consts "_ => bool"
kleing@29883
  1130
wenzelm@30106
  1131
By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
wenzelm@30728
  1132
the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
wenzelm@30106
  1133
conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
wenzelm@30106
  1134
hyphen:
kleing@29883
  1135
kleing@29883
  1136
    find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
kleing@29861
  1137
wenzelm@30845
  1138
* New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
wenzelm@30845
  1139
directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
wenzelm@30845
  1140
wenzelm@30845
  1141
* Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
wenzelm@30845
  1142
is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
wenzelm@30845
  1143
solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
wenzelm@30845
  1144
Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
wenzelm@30845
  1145
enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
wenzelm@30845
  1146
higher-order unification.
webertj@30415
  1147
haftmann@27104
  1148
wenzelm@27381
  1149
*** Document preparation ***
wenzelm@27381
  1150
wenzelm@27381
  1151
* Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
wenzelm@27392
  1152
demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
wenzelm@27519
  1153
syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
wenzelm@27381
  1154
wenzelm@27381
  1155
haftmann@27104
  1156
*** HOL ***
haftmann@27104
  1157
wenzelm@30845
  1158
* Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
wenzelm@30845
  1159
points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
wenzelm@30845
  1160
wenzelm@30845
  1161
* Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
wenzelm@30845
  1162
tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
wenzelm@30845
  1163
experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
wenzelm@30845
  1164
(and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
wenzelm@30845
  1165
Main, as before.
wenzelm@30845
  1166
wenzelm@30845
  1167
* Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
wenzelm@30845
  1168
experimentation due to shorter build times.
wenzelm@30845
  1169
wenzelm@30845
  1170
* Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
wenzelm@30845
  1171
were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
wenzelm@30845
  1172
remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
wenzelm@30845
  1173
new entry point Hypercomplex.
wenzelm@30845
  1174
wenzelm@30845
  1175
* Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
wenzelm@30845
  1176
Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
wenzelm@30845
  1177
process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
wenzelm@30845
  1178
platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
wenzelm@30845
  1179
within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
wenzelm@30845
  1180
commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
wenzelm@30845
  1181
wenzelm@30845
  1182
* Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
wenzelm@30845
  1183
sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
wenzelm@30845
  1184
provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
wenzelm@30845
  1185
src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
wenzelm@30845
  1186
wenzelm@30845
  1187
* ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
wenzelm@30845
  1188
menu.
wenzelm@30845
  1189
wenzelm@30845
  1190
* The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
wenzelm@30845
  1191
(contains the empty clause).
wenzelm@30845
  1192
wenzelm@30845
  1193
* The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
wenzelm@30845
  1194
an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
wenzelm@30845
  1195
wenzelm@30845
  1196
* Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
wenzelm@30845
  1197
src/Tools/coherent.ML).
wenzelm@30845
  1198
wenzelm@30845
  1199
* Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
wenzelm@30845
  1200
"undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
wenzelm@30845
  1201
logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
  1202
wenzelm@30845
  1203
* Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
wenzelm@30845
  1204
result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
wenzelm@30845
  1205
square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
wenzelm@30845
  1206
specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
wenzelm@30845
  1207
src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
wenzelm@30845
  1208
wenzelm@30845
  1209
* Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
wenzelm@30845
  1210
Declare with attribute [code nbe].
wenzelm@30845
  1211
wenzelm@30845
  1212
* Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
wenzelm@30845
  1213
as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
wenzelm@30845
  1214
corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
wenzelm@30845
  1215
are now presented as a list of individual projections
wenzelm@30845
  1216
(e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
wenzelm@30845
  1217
explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
wenzelm@30845
  1218
rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
wenzelm@30845
  1219
elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
wenzelm@30845
  1220
rule: prod.exhaust) here.
wenzelm@30845
  1221
wenzelm@30845
  1222
* Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
wenzelm@30845
  1223
wenzelm@30845
  1224
* Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
wenzelm@30845
  1225
wenzelm@30845
  1226
* The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
wenzelm@30845
  1227
option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
  1228
wenzelm@30845
  1229
* New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
wenzelm@30845
  1230
orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
wenzelm@30845
  1231
(in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
wenzelm@30845
  1232
"strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
wenzelm@30845
  1233
wenzelm@30845
  1234
* Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
wenzelm@30845
  1235
authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
haftmann@30304
  1236
haftmann@30304
  1237
    op Int ~>   Set.Int
haftmann@30304
  1238
    op Un ~>    Set.Un
haftmann@30304
  1239
    INTER ~>    Set.INTER
haftmann@30304
  1240
    UNION ~>    Set.UNION
haftmann@30304
  1241
    Inter ~>    Set.Inter
haftmann@30304
  1242
    Union ~>    Set.Union
haftmann@30304
  1243
    {} ~>       Set.empty
haftmann@30304
  1244
    UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
haftmann@30304
  1245
wenzelm@30845
  1246
* Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
wenzelm@30845
  1247
theory Set.
wenzelm@30845
  1248
wenzelm@30845
  1249
* Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
wenzelm@30845
  1250
parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
haftmann@29797
  1251
haftmann@29823
  1252
* Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
haftmann@29823
  1253
wenzelm@30845
  1254
* Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
wenzelm@30845
  1255
Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
wenzelm@30845
  1256
wenzelm@30845
  1257
* Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
wenzelm@30845
  1258
method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
wenzelm@30845
  1259
interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
wenzelm@30845
  1260
functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
wenzelm@30845
  1261
allowed. For examples see
wenzelm@30845
  1262
src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
haftmann@29823
  1263
haftmann@29823
  1264
* Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
haftmann@29650
  1265
wenzelm@30845
  1266
* Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
wenzelm@30845
  1267
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@29628
  1268
haftmann@29197
  1269
* Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
haftmann@29197
  1270
structure:
haftmann@28952
  1271
haftmann@28952
  1272
    src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
haftmann@28952
  1273
    src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
  1274
    src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
  1275
    src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
  1276
    src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
  1277
    src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
huffman@30176
  1278
    src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
haftmann@28952
  1279
    src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
  1280
    src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
  1281
    src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
  1282
    src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
  1283
    src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
  1284
    src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
  1285
    src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
  1286
    src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
  1287
    src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
huffman@30176
  1288
    src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
huffman@30176
  1289
    src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
haftmann@28952
  1290
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
  1291
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
  1292
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
  1293
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
  1294
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
  1295
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
  1296
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
  1297
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
  1298
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@29197
  1299
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
  1300
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
  1301
    src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
  1302
    src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
haftmann@29197
  1303
    src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
haftmann@29197
  1304
    src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
haftmann@28952
  1305
haftmann@28952
  1306
    src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
haftmann@28952
  1307
    src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
haftmann@28952
  1308
    src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
haftmann@28952
  1309
    src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
haftmann@28952
  1310
    src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
haftmann@28952
  1311
    src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
haftmann@28952
  1312
    src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
haftmann@28952
  1313
    src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
haftmann@28952
  1314
    src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
haftmann@28952
  1315
    src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
haftmann@28952
  1316
haftmann@29398
  1317
    src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
haftmann@29398
  1318
    src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
haftmann@29398
  1319
    src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
haftmann@29398
  1320
    src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
haftmann@29398
  1321
    src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
haftmann@29398
  1322
    src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
haftmann@29398
  1323
wenzelm@30845
  1324
* If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
wenzelm@30845
  1325
state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
wenzelm@30845
  1326
possible), avoiding strange error messages.
wenzelm@30845
  1327
wenzelm@30845
  1328
* Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
wenzelm@30845
  1329
modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
wenzelm@30845
  1330
src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
wenzelm@30845
  1331
wenzelm@30845
  1332
* Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
wenzelm@30845
  1333
variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
  1334
wenzelm@30845
  1335
* Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
wenzelm@30845
  1336
fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
wenzelm@30845
  1337
wenzelm@30845
  1338
* New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
wenzelm@30845
  1339
automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
wenzelm@30845
  1340
proofs, e.g.
wenzelm@30845
  1341
wenzelm@30845
  1342
  assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
wenzelm@30845
  1343
nipkow@30706
  1344
Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
nipkow@30706
  1345
wenzelm@30845
  1346
* New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
wenzelm@30845
  1347
"bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
wenzelm@30845
  1348
requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
  1349
wenzelm@30845
  1350
* Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
wenzelm@30845
  1351
instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
wenzelm@30845
  1352
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
  1353
wenzelm@30845
  1354
* Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
wenzelm@30845
  1355
induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
wenzelm@30845
  1356
"wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
wenzelm@30845
  1357
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
  1358
wenzelm@30845
  1359
* Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
wenzelm@27793
  1360
INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
wenzelm@27793
  1361
etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
wenzelm@27793
  1362
preorder_class.*.
wenzelm@27793
  1363
wenzelm@30845
  1364
* Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
wenzelm@30845
  1365
"diag" to "Id_on".
wenzelm@30845
  1366
wenzelm@30845
  1367
* Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
wenzelm@30845
  1368
nipkow@28855
  1369
  ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
wenzelm@30845
  1370
wenzelm@30845
  1371
Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
wenzelm@30845
  1372
which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
wenzelm@30845
  1373
fold_image.
wenzelm@30845
  1374
wenzelm@30845
  1375
* Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
wenzelm@30845
  1376
and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
wenzelm@30845
  1377
extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
wenzelm@30845
  1378
the former will disappear at some point.
wenzelm@30845
  1379
wenzelm@30845
  1380
* Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
wenzelm@30845
  1381
class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
wenzelm@30845
  1382
have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
huffman@30273
  1383
huffman@30273
  1384
rat_power_0    -> power_0
huffman@30273
  1385
rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
huffman@30273
  1386
realpow_0      -> power_0
huffman@30273
  1387
realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
huffman@30273
  1388
complexpow_0   -> power_0
huffman@30273
  1389
complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
huffman@30273
  1390
power_poly_0   -> power_0
huffman@30273
  1391
power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
huffman@30273
  1392
wenzelm@30845
  1393
* Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
wenzelm@27793
  1394
moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
wenzelm@27793
  1395
dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
wenzelm@27793
  1396
of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
wenzelm@27793
  1397
semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
wenzelm@27793
  1398
renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
haftmann@27651
  1399
haftmann@27651
  1400
    dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
haftmann@27651
  1401
    zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
haftmann@28559
  1402
    dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
haftmann@27651
  1403
    DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
haftmann@27651
  1404
    DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
haftmann@27651
  1405
    mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
haftmann@27651
  1406
    mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
haftmann@27651
  1407
wenzelm@30845
  1408
* Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
wenzelm@30845
  1409
generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
wenzelm@30845
  1410
rename old lemmas as follows:
nipkow@30044
  1411
nipkow@30044
  1412
dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
nipkow@30044
  1413
dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
nipkow@30224
  1414
mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
nipkow@30224
  1415
mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
nipkow@30224
  1416
mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
nipkow@30224
  1417
mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
nipkow@30044
  1418
nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
nipkow@30044
  1419
nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
nipkow@30044
  1420
nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
nipkow@30044
  1421
nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
nipkow@30044
  1422
zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
nipkow@30044
  1423
zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
nipkow@30181
  1424
zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
nipkow@30044
  1425
zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
nipkow@30044
  1426
zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
nipkow@30044
  1427
zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
nipkow@30044
  1428
zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
nipkow@30085
  1429
zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
nipkow@30044
  1430
zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
nipkow@30044
  1431
zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
nipkow@30044
  1432
zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
nipkow@30044
  1433
zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
nipkow@30224
  1434
zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
nipkow@30044
  1435
zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
nipkow@30044
  1436
zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
nipkow@30044
  1437
zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
nipkow@30044
  1438
zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
nipkow@30044
  1439
zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
nipkow@30044
  1440
zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
nipkow@30044
  1441
zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
nipkow@30044
  1442
zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
nipkow@30044
  1443
zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
nipkow@30044
  1444
zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
nipkow@30044
  1445
zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
nipkow@30044
  1446
zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
nipkow@30044
  1447
zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
nipkow@30044
  1448
zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
nipkow@30044
  1449
zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
nipkow@30044
  1450
zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
nipkow@30044
  1451
zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
nipkow@30044
  1452
zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
nipkow@30044
  1453
zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
nipkow@30044
  1454
zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
nipkow@30044
  1455
zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
nipkow@30044
  1456
zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
nipkow@30044
  1457
wenzelm@30845
  1458
* Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
  1459
wenzelm@30845
  1460
* The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
wenzelm@30845
  1461
into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
wenzelm@30845
  1462
wenzelm@30845
  1463
* Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
wenzelm@30845
  1464
univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
wenzelm@30845
  1465
the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
wenzelm@30845
  1466
generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
wenzelm@30845
  1467
wenzelm@30845
  1468
* Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
wenzelm@30845
  1469
inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
wenzelm@30845
  1470
=> real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
wenzelm@30845
  1471
theory RealVector.
wenzelm@30845
  1472
wenzelm@30845
  1473
* Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
wenzelm@30845
  1474
type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
wenzelm@30845
  1475
Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
wenzelm@30845
  1476
and inner products are included.
wenzelm@30845
  1477
wenzelm@30845
  1478
* Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
wenzelm@30845
  1479
addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
wenzelm@30845
  1480
supported.
wenzelm@30845
  1481
wenzelm@30845
  1482
* Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
wenzelm@30845
  1483
first diagonalization argument.
wenzelm@30845
  1484
wenzelm@30845
  1485
* Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
wenzelm@27599
  1486
zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
wenzelm@30845
  1487
the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
wenzelm@30845
  1488
ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
wenzelm@30845
  1489
may recover tupled syntax as follows:
haftmann@27556
  1490
haftmann@27556
  1491
    hide (open) const gcd
haftmann@27556
  1492
    abbreviation gcd where
haftmann@27556
  1493
      "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
haftmann@27556
  1494
    notation (output)
haftmann@27556
  1495
      GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
haftmann@27556
  1496
wenzelm@30845
  1497
The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
wenzelm@30845
  1498
wenzelm@30845
  1499
* Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
wenzelm@30845
  1500
instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
wenzelm@30845
  1501
theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
  1502
wenzelm@30845
  1503
* ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
haftmann@27651
  1504
corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
haftmann@27651
  1505
resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
haftmann@27651
  1506
All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
haftmann@27651
  1507
simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
wenzelm@30845
  1508
instrumentalizing code generation.  See
wenzelm@30845
  1509
src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
wenzelm@30845
  1510
In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
wenzelm@30845
  1511
code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
wenzelm@30845
  1512
cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
wenzelm@30845
  1513
set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
wenzelm@30845
  1514
cases.
wenzelm@27122
  1515
wenzelm@27122
  1516
* Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
wenzelm@27122
  1517
takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
wenzelm@27122
  1518
represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
wenzelm@27122
  1519
proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
wenzelm@27122
  1520
have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
wenzelm@27122
  1521
haftmann@27104
  1522
    unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
haftmann@27104
  1523
    prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
haftmann@27104
  1524
    sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
haftmann@27104
  1525
    Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
haftmann@27104
  1526
    Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
haftmann@27104
  1527
haftmann@27104
  1528
ballarin@27696
  1529
*** HOL-Algebra ***
ballarin@27696
  1530
ballarin@27713
  1531
* New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
wenzelm@30106
  1532
is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
wenzelm@30106
  1533
locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
ballarin@27713
  1534
ballarin@27713
  1535
* New theory of factorial domains.
ballarin@27713
  1536
wenzelm@30845
  1537
* Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
ballarin@27696
  1538
INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
ballarin@27696
  1539
and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
ballarin@27696
  1540
wenzelm@30845
  1541
* Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
wenzelm@30845
  1542
ballarin@27696
  1543
UpperD ~> Upper_memD
ballarin@27696
  1544
LowerD ~> Lower_memD
ballarin@27696
  1545
least_carrier ~> least_closed
ballarin@27696
  1546
greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
ballarin@27696
  1547
greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
ballarin@27717
  1548
one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
ballarin@27717
  1549
one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
ballarin@27696
  1550
wenzelm@27793
  1551
wenzelm@30849
  1552
*** HOL-Nominal ***
wenzelm@30849
  1553
wenzelm@30855
  1554
* Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
wenzelm@30855
  1555
wenzelm@30855
  1556
* Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
wenzelm@30855
  1557
theory targets.
wenzelm@30855
  1558
wenzelm@30855
  1559
* Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
wenzelm@30855
  1560
specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
wenzelm@30855
  1561
'inductive' etc.
wenzelm@30855
  1562
wenzelm@30855
  1563
* Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
wenzelm@30855
  1564
(no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
wenzelm@30855
  1565
wenzelm@30855
  1566
* The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
wenzelm@30855
  1567
left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
wenzelm@30855
  1568
wenzelm@30855
  1569
* Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
wenzelm@30855
  1570
principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
wenzelm@30855
  1571
'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
wenzelm@30855
  1572
binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
wenzelm@30855
  1573
atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
wenzelm@30855
  1574
moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
wenzelm@30855
  1575
the algorithm W:
wenzelm@30855
  1576
wenzelm@30855
  1577
 Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
wenzelm@30855
  1578
 -----------------------------------------------------------------
wenzelm@30855
  1579
         Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
wenzelm@30855
  1580
wenzelm@30855
  1581
In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
wenzelm@30855
  1582
"close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
wenzelm@30855
  1583
feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
wenzelm@30849
  1584
wenzelm@30849
  1585
huffman@30176
  1586
*** HOLCF ***
huffman@30176
  1587
huffman@30176
  1588
* Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
huffman@30176
  1589
subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
huffman@30176
  1590
continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
huffman@30176
  1591
huffman@30176
  1592
* The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
huffman@30176
  1593
solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
huffman@30176
  1594
some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
huffman@30176
  1595
old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
huffman@30176
  1596
Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
huffman@30176
  1597
wenzelm@30847
  1598
* Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
wenzelm@30855
  1599
format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
wenzelm@30855
  1600
examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
  1601
wenzelm@30845
  1602
wenzelm@30845
  1603
*** ZF ***
wenzelm@30845
  1604
wenzelm@30845
  1605
* Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
huffman@30176
  1606
huffman@30176
  1607
wenzelm@27246
  1608
*** ML ***
wenzelm@28088
  1609
wenzelm@30845
  1610
* Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
wenzelm@30845
  1611
Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
wenzelm@30845
  1612
depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
wenzelm@30845
  1613
5.2.1!
wenzelm@30845
  1614
wenzelm@29161
  1615
* High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
wenzelm@29161
  1616
src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
wenzelm@29161
  1617
particularly convenient to organize independent functional
wenzelm@29161
  1618
computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
wenzelm@29161
  1619
higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
wenzelm@30845
  1620
delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
wenzelm@30845
  1621
Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
wenzelm@30845
  1622
wenzelm@30845
  1623
* ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
wenzelm@30845
  1624
context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
wenzelm@30845
  1625
become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
wenzelm@30845
  1626
top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
wenzelm@30845
  1627
INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
wenzelm@30845
  1628
compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
wenzelm@30845
  1629
theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
wenzelm@30845
  1630
wenzelm@30845
  1631
* Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
wenzelm@30845
  1632
context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
wenzelm@30845
  1633
a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
wenzelm@30845
  1634
ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
wenzelm@30845
  1635
proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
wenzelm@29161
  1636
wenzelm@30530
  1637
* Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
wenzelm@30845
  1638
and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
wenzelm@30547
  1639
'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
wenzelm@30547
  1640
existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
wenzelm@30547
  1641
Method.add_method.
wenzelm@30530
  1642
wenzelm@28294
  1643
* Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
wenzelm@28294
  1644
to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
wenzelm@28294
  1645
name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
wenzelm@28294
  1646
is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
wenzelm@28294
  1647
accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
wenzelm@28294
  1648
the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
wenzelm@28294
  1649
wenzelm@30845
  1650
* Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
wenzelm@30845
  1651
ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
wenzelm@30845
  1652
ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
wenzelm@30845
  1653
antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
wenzelm@30845
  1654
examples.
wenzelm@28099
  1655
wenzelm@30395
  1656
* More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
wenzelm@30395
  1657
name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
wenzelm@30399
  1658
move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
wenzelm@30395
  1659
Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
wenzelm@30395
  1660
abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
wenzelm@30845
  1661
qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
wenzelm@30845
  1662
tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
wenzelm@30845
  1663
bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
wenzelm@30399
  1664
bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
wenzelm@30395
  1665
src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
wenzelm@30395
  1666
wenzelm@28089
  1667
* Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
wenzelm@28089
  1668
LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
wenzelm@28089
  1669
bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
wenzelm@28089
  1670
wenzelm@27287
  1671
* Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
wenzelm@27287
  1672
Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
wenzelm@27287
  1673
Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
wenzelm@27287
  1674
use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
wenzelm@27269
  1675
Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
wenzelm@27269
  1676
resort for legacy applications.
wenzelm@27269
  1677
wenzelm@30609
  1678
* Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
wenzelm@30609
  1679
the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
wenzelm@30609
  1680
Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
wenzelm@30609
  1681
embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
wenzelm@30609
  1682
explicit runtime argument.
wenzelm@30609
  1683
wenzelm@30845
  1684
* Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
wenzelm@30845
  1685
res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
wenzelm@30845
  1686
context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
wenzelm@30845
  1687
the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
wenzelm@30845
  1688
thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@30845
  1689
wenzelm@30845
  1690
* Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
wenzelm@30845
  1691
transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
wenzelm@30845
  1692
for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
wenzelm@30845
  1693
theory state.
wenzelm@30845
  1694
wenzelm@30845
  1695
* ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
wenzelm@27391
  1696
\<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
wenzelm@27391
  1697
wenzelm@30845
  1698
  @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
wenzelm@27519
  1699
  @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
wenzelm@27519
  1700
  @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
wenzelm@27519
  1701
  @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
wenzelm@27519
  1702
  @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
wenzelm@27519
  1703
  @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
wenzelm@27519
  1704
  @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
wenzelm@27519
  1705
  @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
wenzelm@27519
  1706
  @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
wenzelm@27519
  1707
  @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
wenzelm@27380
  1708
wenzelm@27246
  1709
wenzelm@27979
  1710
*** System ***
wenzelm@27979
  1711
wenzelm@28248
  1712
* The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
wenzelm@28248
  1713
Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
wenzelm@28248
  1714
installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
wenzelm@28248
  1715
isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
wenzelm@28248
  1716
installation location of the Proof General distribution.
wenzelm@28248
  1717
wenzelm@27979
  1718
* Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
wenzelm@27979
  1719
the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
wenzelm@27979
  1720
Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
wenzelm@27979
  1721
process wrapper has been discontinued.)
wenzelm@27979
  1722
wenzelm@30845
  1723
* Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
wenzelm@30845
  1724
wenzelm@30845
  1725
* Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
wenzelm@27979
  1726
emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
wenzelm@27979
  1727
user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
wenzelm@27979
  1728
prover operations.
wenzelm@27979
  1729
wenzelm@27979
  1730
wenzelm@27143
  1731
wenzelm@27008
  1732
New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
wenzelm@27008
  1733
-------------------------------
wenzelm@25464
  1734
wenzelm@25522
  1735
*** General ***
wenzelm@25522
  1736
wenzelm@27061
  1737
* The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
wenzelm@27061
  1738
and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
wenzelm@27061
  1739
wenzelm@25994
  1740
* Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
wenzelm@25994
  1741
implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
wenzelm@25994
  1742
conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
wenzelm@25994
  1743
provides a proper context already.
wenzelm@25994
  1744
wenzelm@26323
  1745
* Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
wenzelm@26323
  1746
file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
wenzelm@26323
  1747
'use' within a theory file will do the job.
wenzelm@26323
  1748
wenzelm@26650
  1749
* Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
wenzelm@26650
  1750
is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
wenzelm@26659
  1751
space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
wenzelm@26650
  1752
swap theory imports.
wenzelm@26650
  1753
wenzelm@27067
  1754
* Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
wenzelm@27067
  1755
INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
wenzelm@27067
  1756
wenzelm@27067
  1757
* Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
wenzelm@27067
  1758
which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
wenzelm@27067
  1759
white space without escapes.
wenzelm@27067
  1760
wenzelm@27067
  1761
* Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
wenzelm@27067
  1762
specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
wenzelm@27067
  1763
"foo_bar".
wenzelm@27067
  1764
wenzelm@25522
  1765
haftmann@25502
  1766
*** Pure ***
haftmann@25502
  1767
wenzelm@26718
  1768
* Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
wenzelm@26718
  1769
fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
wenzelm@26718
  1770
berghofe@26681
  1771
* Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
berghofe@26681
  1772
There are three ways of invoking it:
berghofe@26681
  1773
berghofe@26681
  1774
(1) unused_thms
berghofe@26681
  1775
     Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
berghofe@26681
  1776
berghofe@26681
  1777
(2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
berghofe@26681
  1778
     Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
berghofe@26681
  1779
     excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
berghofe@26681
  1780
berghofe@26681
  1781
(3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
berghofe@26681
  1782
     Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
berghofe@26681
  1783
     their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
berghofe@26681
  1784
     their ancestors.
berghofe@26681
  1785
wenzelm@26718
  1786
In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
wenzelm@26718
  1787
unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
wenzelm@26874
  1788
of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
wenzelm@26874
  1789
to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
wenzelm@26718
  1790
this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
wenzelm@26718
  1791
reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
wenzelm@26718
  1792
unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
wenzelm@26718
  1793
wenzelm@26718
  1794
Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
wenzelm@26718
  1795
unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
wenzelm@26874
  1796
usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
berghofe@26681
  1797
wenzelm@26650
  1798
* Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
wenzelm@26650
  1799
theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
wenzelm@26650
  1800
duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
wenzelm@26650
  1801
that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
wenzelm@26650
  1802
PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
wenzelm@26650
  1803
wenzelm@26660
  1804
* Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
wenzelm@26660
  1805
wenzelm@26496
  1806
* Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
wenzelm@26496
  1807
clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
wenzelm@26496
  1808
update of theories within ML code.
wenzelm@26479
  1809
wenzelm@26955
  1810
* Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
wenzelm@26955
  1811
INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
wenzelm@26955
  1812
additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
wenzelm@26955
  1813
depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
wenzelm@26650
  1814
wenzelm@26495
  1815
* Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
wenzelm@26479
  1816
theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
wenzelm@26479
  1817
instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
wenzelm@26479
  1818
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@26479
  1819
wenzelm@26874
  1820
* Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
wenzelm@26434
  1821
wenzelm@25970
  1822
* Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
wenzelm@25970
  1823
instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
wenzelm@25970
  1824
Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
wenzelm@27067
  1825
See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
wenzelm@27067
  1826
src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
haftmann@25502
  1827
wenzelm@26201
  1828
* Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
wenzelm@26201
  1829
facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
wenzelm@26201
  1830
background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
wenzelm@26201
  1831
"fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
wenzelm@26201
  1832
situations.
wenzelm@26201
  1833
wenzelm@26925
  1834
* Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
wenzelm@26925
  1835
"(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
wenzelm@26925
  1836
proof text.
wenzelm@26925
  1837
wenzelm@26925
  1838
* Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
wenzelm@26925
  1839
INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
wenzelm@26925
  1840
wenzelm@26874
  1841
* Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
wenzelm@26874
  1842
hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
wenzelm@26874
  1843
predicates.
ballarin@26765
  1844
ballarin@26765
  1845
haftmann@26762
  1846
*** Document preparation ***
haftmann@26762
  1847
wenzelm@26914
  1848
* Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
wenzelm@26914
  1849
both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
wenzelm@26914
  1850
obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
wenzelm@26914
  1851
spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
wenzelm@26920
  1852
value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
wenzelm@26920
  1853
"a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
wenzelm@26914
  1854
wenzelm@27008
  1855
* Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
wenzelm@27008
  1856
method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
wenzelm@27008
  1857
arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
haftmann@26762
  1858
haftmann@26762
  1859
wenzelm@25464
  1860
*** HOL ***
wenzelm@25464
  1861
wenzelm@27067
  1862
* New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
wenzelm@27067
  1863
definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
wenzelm@27067
  1864
"primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
wenzelm@27067
  1865
by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
wenzelm@27067
  1866
When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
wenzelm@27067
  1867
primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
wenzelm@27067
  1868
wenzelm@27067
  1869
* Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
wenzelm@27067
  1870
with multithreading.
wenzelm@27067
  1871
wenzelm@27067
  1872
* Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
wenzelm@27067
  1873
theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
wenzelm@27067
  1874
exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
wenzelm@27067
  1875
wenzelm@27067
  1876
* Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
wenzelm@27067
  1877
enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
wenzelm@27067
  1878
reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
wenzelm@27067
  1879
sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@27067
  1880
haftmann@27104
  1881
* Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
wenzelm@27067
  1882
from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
wenzelm@27067
  1883
out some operations that are done internally by the function package
wenzelm@27067
  1884
and makes them available separately.  See
wenzelm@27067
  1885
src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
wenzelm@27067
  1886
wenzelm@27067
  1887
* More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
wenzelm@27067
  1888
proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
wenzelm@27067
  1889
form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
wenzelm@27067
  1890
The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
wenzelm@27067
  1891
just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
wenzelm@27067
  1892
termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
wenzelm@27067
  1893
type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
wenzelm@27067
  1894
the declared rules.
wenzelm@27067
  1895
wenzelm@27067
  1896
This setup also deals with rules like 
wenzelm@27067
  1897
wenzelm@27067
  1898
  "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
wenzelm@27067
  1899
wenzelm@27067
  1900
which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
wenzelm@27067
  1901
Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
wenzelm@27067
  1902
berghofe@26964
  1903
* Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
berghofe@26964
  1904
berghofe@26964
  1905
  INCOMPATIBILITIES:
berghofe@26964
  1906
wenzelm@27008
  1907
  - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
wenzelm@27008
  1908
    definitions on => and bool.
berghofe@26964
  1909
berghofe@26964
  1910
  - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
wenzelm@27008
  1911
    using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
wenzelm@27008
  1912
    the following theorems have been renamed:
berghofe@26964
  1913
berghofe@26964
  1914
      subset_def   -> subset_eq
berghofe@26964
  1915
      psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
berghofe@26964
  1916
      set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
berghofe@26964
  1917
      Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
berghofe@26964
  1918
      Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
berghofe@26964
  1919
      Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
berghofe@26964
  1920
      sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
berghofe@26964
  1921
      inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
berghofe@26964
  1922
berghofe@26964
  1923
  - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
berghofe@26964
  1924
    rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
berghofe@26964
  1925
    the unknowns in the rule is a set.
berghofe@26964
  1926
berghofe@26964
  1927
  - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
berghofe@26964
  1928
    The proof pattern
berghofe@26964
  1929
berghofe@26964
  1930
      have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
berghofe@26964
  1931
      then have "EX S. P S" ..
berghofe@26964
  1932
wenzelm@27008
  1933
    no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
wenzelm@27008
  1934
    algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
berghofe@26964
  1935
berghofe@26964
  1936
      have "EX S. P S"
berghofe@26964
  1937
      proof
berghofe@26964
  1938
        show "P S" <...>
berghofe@26964
  1939
      qed
berghofe@26964
  1940
berghofe@26964
  1941
  - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
berghofe@26964
  1942
    The proof pattern
berghofe@26964
  1943
berghofe@26964
  1944
      have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
berghofe@26964
  1945
      also have "S = T" <...>
berghofe@26964
  1946
      finally have "P T" .
berghofe@26964
  1947
wenzelm@27008
  1948
    no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
wenzelm@27008
  1949
    must be replaced by something like
berghofe@26964
  1950
berghofe@26964
  1951
      have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
berghofe@26964
  1952
      moreover have "S = T" <...>
berghofe@26964
  1953
      ultimately have "P T" by simp
berghofe@26964
  1954
berghofe@26964
  1955
  - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
berghofe@26964
  1956
    Code performing pattern matching on types via
berghofe@26964
  1957
berghofe@26964
  1958
      Type ("set", [T]) => ...
berghofe@26964
  1959
wenzelm@27008
  1960
    must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
wenzelm@27008
  1961
    binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
wenzelm@27008
  1962
    type of the form
berghofe@26964
  1963
berghofe@26964
  1964
      T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
berghofe@26964
  1965
berghofe@26964
  1966
    rather than
berghofe@26964
  1967
berghofe@26964
  1968
      T1 => ... => Tn => U set
berghofe@26964
  1969
wenzelm@26874
  1970
* Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
wenzelm@27067
  1971
Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
krauss@26748
  1972
haftmann@26513
  1973
* Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@26513
  1974
wenzelm@26874
  1975
* Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
wenzelm@26874
  1976
enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
haftmann@26445
  1977
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@26445
  1978
wenzelm@26874
  1979
* Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
wenzelm@26874
  1980
and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@26874
  1981
wenzelm@26422
  1982
* HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
wenzelm@26422
  1983
Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@26422
  1984
wenzelm@26874
  1985
* Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
wenzelm@26874
  1986
injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
wenzelm@26874
  1987
Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@26355
  1988
wenzelm@26335
  1989
* Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
wenzelm@26335
  1990
the same name in theory Orderings:
wenzelm@26335
  1991
wenzelm@26335
  1992
  less_trans
wenzelm@26335
  1993
  less_linear
wenzelm@26335
  1994
  le_imp_less_or_eq
wenzelm@26335
  1995
  le_less_trans
wenzelm@26335
  1996
  less_le_trans
wenzelm@26335
  1997
  less_not_sym
wenzelm@26335
  1998
  less_asym
wenzelm@26335
  1999
wenzelm@26335
  2000
Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
wenzelm@26335
  2001
less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
wenzelm@26335
  2002
and different variable names.
wenzelm@26315
  2003
haftmann@26231
  2004
* Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
haftmann@26231
  2005
wenzelm@27008
  2006
* Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
wenzelm@27008
  2007
finite maps.
krauss@26197
  2008
haftmann@26231
  2009
* Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
haftmann@26231
  2010
wenzelm@26180
  2011
* Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
wenzelm@26180
  2012
operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
wenzelm@26180
  2013
disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
wenzelm@26180
  2014
place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
wenzelm@26180
  2015
involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
wenzelm@26180
  2016
accordingly.
wenzelm@26180
  2017
wenzelm@26180
  2018
* Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
wenzelm@26180
  2019
depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
wenzelm@26180
  2020
le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
wenzelm@26180
  2021
[symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
wenzelm@26180
  2022
wenzelm@26180
  2023
* Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
wenzelm@26180
  2024
(whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
wenzelm@26874
  2025
abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
wenzelm@26180
  2026
ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
wenzelm@26180
  2027
lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
haftmann@26139
  2028
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@26041
  2029
wenzelm@26180
  2030
* Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
wenzelm@26180
  2031
case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@26180
  2032
wenzelm@26180
  2033
* Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
wenzelm@26180
  2034
lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
wenzelm@26180
  2035
Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
haftmann@26013
  2036
wenzelm@26874
  2037
* Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
wenzelm@27067
  2038
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@25961
  2039
wenzelm@26180
  2040
* Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
haftmann@25942
  2041
with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
haftmann@25942
  2042
wenzelm@26180
  2043
* Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
wenzelm@26180
  2044
Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@26180
  2045
wenzelm@26180
  2046
* Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
wenzelm@26180
  2047
numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@26180
  2048
wenzelm@26180
  2049
* New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
wenzelm@26180
  2050
"minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
haftmann@25919
  2051
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@25919
  2052
wenzelm@25522
  2053
* Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
haftmann@25919
  2054
syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@25522
  2055
wenzelm@25522
  2056
* Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
wenzelm@25522
  2057
le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
wenzelm@25522
  2058
sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
wenzelm@25522
  2059
Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
wenzelm@25522
  2060
Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
haftmann@25919
  2061
equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@25464
  2062
schirmer@25705
  2063
* Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
wenzelm@25726
  2064
%x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
schirmer@25705
  2065
INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
wenzelm@25464
  2066
wenzelm@27067
  2067
* Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
wenzelm@27067
  2068
wenzelm@27067
  2069
* Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
wenzelm@27067
  2070
wenzelm@27067
  2071
* Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
wenzelm@27067
  2072
pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
wenzelm@27067
  2073
well-orders on sets and on types.
krauss@26877
  2074
wenzelm@25726
  2075
krauss@26197
  2076
*** ZF ***
krauss@26197
  2077
wenzelm@26874
  2078
* Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
wenzelm@26874
  2079
same session:
wenzelm@26874
  2080
wenzelm@26874
  2081
  Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
wenzelm@26874
  2082
  Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
wenzelm@26874
  2083
  Int       -> Int_ZF
wenzelm@26874
  2084
  IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
wenzelm@26874
  2085
  Nat       -> Nat_ZF
wenzelm@26874
  2086
  List      -> List_ZF
wenzelm@26874
  2087
  Main      -> Main_ZF
wenzelm@26874
  2088
wenzelm@26874
  2089
INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
wenzelm@26874
  2090
Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
wenzelm@26874
  2091
available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
krauss@26197
  2092
krauss@26197
  2093
wenzelm@25737
  2094
*** ML ***
wenzelm@25737
  2095
wenzelm@27067
  2096
* ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
wenzelm@27067
  2097
name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
wenzelm@27067
  2098
wenzelm@26401
  2099
* Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
wenzelm@26724
  2100
(of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
wenzelm@26401
  2101
wenzelm@27067
  2102
* Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
wenzelm@26188
  2103
wenzelm@25737
  2104
* The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
wenzelm@25737
  2105
template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
wenzelm@25737
  2106
non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
wenzelm@25737
  2107
management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
wenzelm@25737
  2108
print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@25737
  2109
wenzelm@26874
  2110
* Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
wenzelm@29161
  2111
shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
wenzelm@29161
  2112
5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
wenzelm@26222
  2113
wenzelm@25737
  2114
wenzelm@25626
  2115
*** System ***
wenzelm@25626
  2116
wenzelm@25971
  2117
* Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
wenzelm@25971
  2118
in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
wenzelm@25970
  2119
wenzelm@25626
  2120
* isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
wenzelm@25626
  2121
optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
wenzelm@25626
  2122
setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
wenzelm@25626
  2123
wenzelm@25651
  2124
* isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
wenzelm@25651
  2125
"javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
wenzelm@25651
  2126
wenzelm@27067
  2127
* YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
wenzelm@27067
  2128
standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
wenzelm@27067
  2129
isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
wenzelm@25651
  2130
wenzelm@25652
  2131
* JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
wenzelm@25651
  2132
provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
wenzelm@25651
  2133
fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
wenzelm@25651
  2134
wenzelm@25855
  2135
* Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
wenzelm@25855
  2136
based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
wenzelm@25855
  2137
wenzelm@27067
  2138
* Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
wenzelm@27067
  2139
way of changing the user's settings is via
wenzelm@27067
  2140
ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
wenzelm@27067
  2141
script.
wenzelm@27067
  2142
wenzelm@27067
  2143
* Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
wenzelm@27067
  2144
cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
wenzelm@27067
  2145
optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
wenzelm@27067
  2146
"max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
wenzelm@27067
  2147
of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
wenzelm@27067
  2148
wenzelm@27067
  2149
* isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
wenzelm@27067
  2150
adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
wenzelm@27067
  2151
ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
wenzelm@27067
  2152
wenzelm@25626
  2153
wenzelm@25464
  2154
wenzelm@25429
  2155
New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
wenzelm@25429
  2156
-----------------------------------
wenzelm@17754
  2157
wenzelm@17754
  2158
*** General ***
wenzelm@17754
  2159
wenzelm@22826
  2160
* More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
wenzelm@22826
  2161
warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
wenzelm@23367
  2162
tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
wenzelm@23367
  2163
legacy features will disappear eventually.
wenzelm@22826
  2164
wenzelm@17918
  2165
* Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
wenzelm@17918
  2166
discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
wenzelm@17918
  2167
fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@17918
  2168
wenzelm@17918
  2169
* Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
wenzelm@17918
  2170
discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
wenzelm@17918
  2171
with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
wenzelm@17918
  2172
function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@17918
  2173
wenzelm@22871
  2174
* Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
wenzelm@22871
  2175
'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
wenzelm@22871
  2176
quotes.
wenzelm@19814
  2177
wenzelm@23888
  2178
* Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
wenzelm@23888
  2179
header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
wenzelm@24172
  2180
accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
wenzelm@24172
  2181
update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
wenzelm@24172
  2182
use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
wenzelm@24172
  2183
theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
wenzelm@24172
  2184
specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
wenzelm@24172
  2185
INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
wenzelm@24172
  2186
ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
wenzelm@23888
  2187
wenzelm@23888
  2188
* Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
wenzelm@23888
  2189
identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
wenzelm@23889
  2190
path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
wenzelm@23888
  2191
(cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
wenzelm@23888
  2192
non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
wenzelm@23888
  2193
files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
wenzelm@23888
  2194
wenzelm@24187
  2195
* Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
wenzelm@24187
  2196
file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
wenzelm@24800
  2197
feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
wenzelm@24800
  2198
no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
wenzelm@24800
  2199
wenzelm@24800
  2200
* Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
wenzelm@24800
  2201
now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
wenzelm@24234
  2202
specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
wenzelm@24234
  2203
syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
wenzelm@24234
  2204
type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
wenzelm@24234
  2205
'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
wenzelm@24234
  2206
wenzelm@25034
  2207
* Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
wenzelm@25034
  2208
'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
wenzelm@25034
  2209
``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
wenzelm@25034
  2210
really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
wenzelm@25034
  2211
ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
wenzelm@25034
  2212
trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
wenzelm@25034
  2213
translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
wenzelm@25034
  2214
@{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
wenzelm@25034
  2215
wenzelm@17981
  2216
* Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
wenzelm@17981
  2217
to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
wenzelm@17981
  2218
functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
wenzelm@17981
  2219
by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
wenzelm@17981
  2220
Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
wenzelm@17981
  2221
these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
wenzelm@17981
  2222
used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
wenzelm@17918
  2223
wenzelm@23379
  2224
* Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
wenzelm@23379
  2225
criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
wenzelm@23379
  2226
support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
webertj@22965
  2227
wenzelm@20370
  2228
* The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
wenzelm@20370
  2229
by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
wenzelm@20370
  2230
suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
wenzelm@20370
  2231
settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
wenzelm@20370
  2232
older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
wenzelm@20370
  2233
limit is imposed.
wenzelm@20370
  2234
wenzelm@21308
  2235
* Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
wenzelm@21308
  2236
``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
wenzelm@21308
  2237
contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
wenzelm@21308
  2238
that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
wenzelm@21308
  2239
generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
wenzelm@21308
  2240
and scalability.
wenzelm@21308
  2241
wenzelm@21960
  2242
* Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
wenzelm@21960
  2243
discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
wenzelm@21960
  2244
wenzelm@17754
  2245
wenzelm@17865
  2246
*** Document preparation ***
wenzelm@17865
  2247
wenzelm@21717
  2248
* Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
wenzelm@21717
  2249
after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
wenzelm@21717
  2250
current context.
haftmann@21339
  2251
wenzelm@17869
  2252
* Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
wenzelm@17869
  2253
check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
wenzelm@17865
  2254
wenzelm@21717
  2255
* Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
wenzelm@21717
  2256
"c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
wenzelm@21735
  2257
arguments may be given on the LHS.)
wenzelm@21717
  2258
wenzelm@21717
  2259
wenzelm@17779
  2260
*** Pure ***
wenzelm@17779
  2261
wenzelm@24800
  2262
* The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
wenzelm@25129
  2263
achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
wenzelm@25129
  2264
theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
wenzelm@25129
  2265
implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
wenzelm@25129
  2266
constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
wenzelm@25129
  2267
context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
wenzelm@25129
  2268
syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
wenzelm@25129
  2269
between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
wenzelm@25177
  2270
See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
haftmann@25184
  2271
"isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
wenzelm@20807
  2272
haftmann@25199
  2273
* Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
wenzelm@24800
  2274
code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
wenzelm@24800
  2275
sketch:
haftmann@20188
  2276
haftmann@20188
  2277
    internal compilation:
haftmann@25199
  2278
        export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
haftmann@20453
  2279
    writing SML code to a file:
haftmann@25199
  2280
        export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
haftmann@22735
  2281
    writing OCaml code to a file:
haftmann@25199
  2282
        export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
haftmann@20188
  2283
    writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
haftmann@25199
  2284
        export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
haftmann@25199
  2285
haftmann@25199
  2286
    evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
haftmann@25184
  2287
        method ``eval''
haftmann@25184
  2288
haftmann@25184
  2289
Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
haftmann@20453
  2290
haftmann@20453
  2291
Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
haftmann@20453
  2292
haftmann@22845
  2293
    [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
haftmann@22845
  2294
    [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
haftmann@22845
  2295
    [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
haftmann@22845
  2296
    [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
haftmann@20453
  2297
haftmann@22735
  2298
User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
haftmann@20453
  2299
haftmann@20453
  2300
    code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
haftmann@20453
  2301
      {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
haftmann@20453
  2302
haftmann@20453
  2303
    code_type <and-list of type constructors>
haftmann@20453
  2304
      {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
haftmann@20453
  2305
haftmann@20453
  2306
    code_instance <and-list of instances>
haftmann@20453
  2307
      {(target)}+
haftmann@20453
  2308
        where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
haftmann@20453
  2309
haftmann@20453
  2310
    code_class <and_list of classes>
haftmann@20453
  2311
      {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
haftmann@20453
  2312
        where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
haftmann@20453
  2313
haftmann@25199
  2314
code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
haftmann@22735
  2315
wenzelm@25177
  2316
For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
wenzelm@25177
  2317
src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
wenzelm@24800
  2318
generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
wenzelm@24800
  2319
codegen".
haftmann@20188
  2320
wenzelm@25129
  2321
* Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
wenzelm@25129
  2322
referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
wenzelm@25129
  2323
annotations).
wenzelm@25129
  2324
wenzelm@19254
  2325
* Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
wenzelm@19254
  2326
syntax.
wenzelm@19254
  2327
wenzelm@19625
  2328
* Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
wenzelm@19714
  2329
dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
wenzelm@19714
  2330
that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
wenzelm@19714
  2331
correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
wenzelm@19714
  2332
INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
wenzelm@19714
  2333
exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
wenzelm@19711
  2334
wenzelm@19711
  2335
Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
wenzelm@19711
  2336
instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
wenzelm@19711
  2337
declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
wenzelm@19711
  2338
c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
wenzelm@19711
  2339
as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
wenzelm@19711
  2340
recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
wenzelm@19714
  2341
impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
wenzelm@19715
  2342
LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
wenzelm@19714
  2343
Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
wenzelm@19714
  2344
equations, see section "definitions".
wenzelm@19625
  2345
wenzelm@24086
  2346
* Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
wenzelm@24086
  2347
context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
wenzelm@24086
  2348
interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
wenzelm@24110
  2349
declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
wenzelm@24110
  2350
these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
wenzelm@24110
  2351
associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
wenzelm@24110
  2352
declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
wenzelm@24110
  2353
'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
wenzelm@24110
  2354
very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
wenzelm@24110
  2355
toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
wenzelm@24086
  2356
wenzelm@24172
  2357
Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
wenzelm@24172
  2358
configuration options:
wenzelm@24172
  2359
wenzelm@24172
  2360
  Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
wenzelm@24172
  2361
  Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
wenzelm@24172
  2362
  Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
wenzelm@24172
  2363
  Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
wenzelm@24172
  2364
  Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
wenzelm@24172
  2365
  Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
wenzelm@24172
  2366
  DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
wenzelm@24172
  2367
  fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
wenzelm@24172
  2368
  fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
wenzelm@24172
  2369
wenzelm@24086
  2370
* Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
wenzelm@24800
  2371
data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
wenzelm@24086
  2372
src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
wenzelm@24110
  2373
attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
wenzelm@24110
  2374
just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
wenzelm@24110
  2375
for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
wenzelm@24110
  2376
order.
wenzelm@24086
  2377
wenzelm@24032
  2378
* Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
wenzelm@24032
  2379
declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
wenzelm@24032
  2380
being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
wenzelm@24032
  2381
difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
wenzelm@24032
  2382
context encountered later on.
wenzelm@24032
  2383
wenzelm@24032
  2384
* Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
wenzelm@24032
  2385
'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
wenzelm@24032
  2386
text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
wenzelm@24032
  2387
context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
wenzelm@24032
  2388
wenzelm@24032
  2389
* Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
wenzelm@24032
  2390
abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
wenzelm@24032
  2391
which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
wenzelm@24032
  2392
the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
wenzelm@24032
  2393
declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
wenzelm@24032
  2394
'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
wenzelm@24032
  2395
wenzelm@23369
  2396
* Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
wenzelm@23369
  2397
takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
wenzelm@23369
  2398
an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
wenzelm@23369
  2399
assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
wenzelm@23369
  2400
goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
wenzelm@23369
  2401
without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
wenzelm@23369
  2402
Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
wenzelm@23369
  2403
more permissive.
wenzelm@23369
  2404
wenzelm@23369
  2405
* Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
wenzelm@23369
  2406
considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
wenzelm@23369
  2407
may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
wenzelm@23369
  2408
referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
wenzelm@23369
  2409
maintainability of proof texts.
wenzelm@23369
  2410
wenzelm@17865
  2411
* Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
wenzelm@17865
  2412
the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
wenzelm@17865
  2413
wenzelm@17865
  2414
  assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
wenzelm@17865
  2415
  then guess x and y by clarify
wenzelm@17865
  2416
wenzelm@17865
  2417
This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
wenzelm@17865
  2418
proof tools being involved here.
wenzelm@17865
  2419
wenzelm@18020
  2420
* Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
wenzelm@18020
  2421
propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
wenzelm@18020
  2422
named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
wenzelm@18020
  2423
methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
wenzelm@18020
  2424
according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
wenzelm@18020
  2425
provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
wenzelm@18020
  2426
theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
wenzelm@18020
  2427
`A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
wenzelm@18020
  2428
wenzelm@18020
  2429
There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
wenzelm@18044
  2430
for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
wenzelm@18044
  2431
certain special cases of literal facts:
wenzelm@18020
  2432
wenzelm@18020
  2433
  have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
wenzelm@18020
  2434
  have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
wenzelm@18020
  2435
  have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
wenzelm@18020
  2436
  have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
wenzelm@18020
  2437
wenzelm@20118
  2438
* Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
wenzelm@20118
  2439
outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
wenzelm@20118
  2440
additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
wenzelm@20118
  2441
wenzelm@20013
  2442
* Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
wenzelm@20013
  2443
both named and unnamed ones.
wenzelm@20013
  2444
wenzelm@18308
  2445
* Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
wenzelm@18308
  2446
wenzelm@18308
  2447
  def x == "t" and y == "u"
wenzelm@18308
  2448
wenzelm@18540
  2449
* Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
wenzelm@18540
  2450
'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
wenzelm@18815
  2451
rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
wenzelm@18540
  2452
'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
wenzelm@18540
  2453
wenzelm@18815
  2454
* Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
wenzelm@18815
  2455
and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
wenzelm@18815
  2456
(potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
wenzelm@18815
  2457
analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
wenzelm@18815
  2458
Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
wenzelm@18815
  2459
kleing@24238
  2460
* Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
kleing@24238
  2461
premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
kleing@24238
  2462
wenzelm@19220
  2463
* Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
wenzelm@19220
  2464
method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
wenzelm@19240
  2465
sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
wenzelm@19240
  2466
simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
wenzelm@19240
  2467
simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
wenzelm@19240
  2468
originally first one.
wenzelm@19220
  2469
wenzelm@19814
  2470
* Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
wenzelm@19814
  2471
patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
wenzelm@19814
  2472
expected.
wenzelm@19814
  2473
wenzelm@18901
  2474
* Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
wenzelm@18901
  2475
'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
wenzelm@18901
  2476
(essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
wenzelm@18901
  2477
assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
wenzelm@18910
  2478
adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
wenzelm@18901
  2479
wenzelm@18901
  2480
  lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
wenzelm@18901
  2481
    assumes "EX x. P x"
wenzelm@18901
  2482
    obtains x where "P x"
wenzelm@18901
  2483
wenzelm@18901
  2484
  lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
wenzelm@18901
  2485
    assumes "A & B"
wenzelm@18901
  2486
    obtains A and B
wenzelm@18901
  2487
wenzelm@18901
  2488
  lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
wenzelm@18901
  2489
    assumes "A | B"
wenzelm@18901
  2490
    obtains
wenzelm@18901
  2491
      A
wenzelm@18901
  2492
    | B
wenzelm@18901
  2493
wenzelm@18910
  2494
The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
wenzelm@18901
  2495
explicitly:
wenzelm@18901
  2496
wenzelm@18901
  2497
  lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
wenzelm@18901
  2498
    obtains "~ thesis"
wenzelm@18901
  2499
wenzelm@18910
  2500
  lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
wenzelm@18910
  2501
    obtains "thesis ==> something"
wenzelm@18901
  2502
wenzelm@18901
  2503
The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
wenzelm@18910
  2504
Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
wenzelm@18910
  2505
Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
wenzelm@18910
  2506
available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
wenzelm@18910
  2507
resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
wenzelm@18910
  2508
case_names).
wenzelm@18901
  2509
wenzelm@21447
  2510
* Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
wenzelm@21447
  2511
"assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
wenzelm@21447
  2512
(historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
wenzelm@21447
  2513
context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
wenzelm@21447
  2514
wenzelm@19263
  2515
* Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
wenzelm@19263
  2516
proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
wenzelm@19263
  2517
top-level lemma.
wenzelm@19263
  2518
wenzelm@18901
  2519
* Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
wenzelm@18901
  2520
introduction rule (default "that").
wenzelm@18901
  2521
wenzelm@19587
  2522
* Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
wenzelm@19587
  2523
explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
wenzelm@19587
  2524
to occur.
wenzelm@19587
  2525
wenzelm@19682
  2526
* Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
wenzelm@19682
  2527
according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
wenzelm@19682
  2528
syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
wenzelm@19682
  2529
representations independently of name spaces.
wenzelm@19682
  2530
wenzelm@21537
  2531
* Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
wenzelm@21537
  2532
instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
wenzelm@21537
  2533
in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@21537
  2534
wenzelm@21209
  2535
* Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
wenzelm@21209
  2536
primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
wenzelm@24950
  2537
fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
wenzelm@24950
  2538
of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
wenzelm@24950
  2539
'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
wenzelm@24950
  2540
current context.
wenzelm@19682
  2541
wenzelm@19665
  2542
* Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
wenzelm@19665
  2543
'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
wenzelm@19083
  2544
object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
wenzelm@19083
  2545
isar-ref manual.  Examples:
wenzelm@19081
  2546
wenzelm@19665
  2547
  axiomatization
wenzelm@21595
  2548
    eq  (infix "===" 50) where
wenzelm@21595
  2549
    eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
wenzelm@21595
  2550
wenzelm@21595
  2551
  definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
wenzelm@21595
  2552
  definition g where "g x = f x x"
wenzelm@19081
  2553
wenzelm@19363
  2554
  abbreviation
wenzelm@21595
  2555
    neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
wenzelm@19363
  2556
    "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
wenzelm@19081
  2557
wenzelm@19083
  2558
These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
wenzelm@19083
  2559
constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
wenzelm@19083
  2560
constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
wenzelm@19083
  2561
abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
wenzelm@19088
  2562
parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
wenzelm@25177
  2563
src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
wenzelm@19083
  2564
entities from a monomorphic theory.
wenzelm@19083
  2565
wenzelm@19083
  2566
Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
wenzelm@19363
  2567
not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
wenzelm@19363
  2568
'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
wenzelm@24735
  2569
'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
wenzelm@24735
  2570
prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
wenzelm@19084
  2571
wenzelm@19682
  2572
Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
wenzelm@19682
  2573
independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
wenzelm@21209
  2574
slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
wenzelm@19682
  2575
'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
wenzelm@19665
  2576
wenzelm@24800
  2577
* Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
wenzelm@24800
  2578
(e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
wenzelm@24800
  2579
full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
wenzelm@24735
  2580
wenzelm@24735
  2581
  definition "K x _ = x"
wenzelm@24735
  2582
wenzelm@24738
  2583
  inductive conj for A B
wenzelm@24738
  2584
  where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
wenzelm@24738
  2585
wenzelm@21735
  2586
* Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
wenzelm@21735
  2587
the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
wenzelm@21735
  2588
abbreviations on output.
wenzelm@21735
  2589
wenzelm@24800
  2590
* Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
wenzelm@24800
  2591
"struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
wenzelm@24800
  2592
required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
wenzelm@24800
  2593
endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
ballarin@19783
  2594
ballarin@19931
  2595
* Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
ballarin@19931
  2596
Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
wenzelm@22126
  2597
now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
wenzelm@22126
  2598
locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
wenzelm@22126
  2599
predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
wenzelm@22126
  2600
removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
wenzelm@22126
  2601
`unfold_locales'; see below.
wenzelm@22126
  2602
wenzelm@22126
  2603
* Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
wenzelm@22126
  2604
provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
wenzelm@22126
  2605
aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
wenzelm@22126
  2606
`intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
wenzelm@22126
  2607
unfold predicates to assumptions.
ballarin@19931
  2608
ballarin@19931
  2609
* Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
wenzelm@22126
  2610
has changed.  This enables to override declarations from f