NEWS
author wenzelm
Tue May 08 15:01:28 2007 +0200 (2007-05-08)
changeset 22863 e1d3fa78b8e1
parent 22848 f65a76867179
child 22871 9ffb43b19ec6
permissions -rw-r--r--
tuned context data;
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Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
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==============================================
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New in this Isabelle version
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----------------------------
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*** General ***
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* More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
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warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
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tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true).
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* Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
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discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
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fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
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discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
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with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
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function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. "class", "fun", "help",
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"if") are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double quotes.
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* Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
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to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
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functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
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by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
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Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
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these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
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used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
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* Command 'find_theorems': support "*" wildcard in "name:" criterion.
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* The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
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by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
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suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
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settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
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older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
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limit is imposed.
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* Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
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``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
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contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
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that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
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generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
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and scalability.
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* Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
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discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
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*** Document preparation ***
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* Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
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after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
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current context.
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* Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
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check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
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* Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
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"c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
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arguments may be given on the LHS.)
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*** Pure ***
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* code generator: 
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  - Isar "definition"s and primitive instance definitions are added explicitly
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    to the table of defining equations
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  - primitive definitions are not used as defining equations by default any longer
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  - defining equations are now definitly restricted to meta "==" and object
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        equality "="
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  - HOL theories have been adopted accordingly
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* class_package.ML offers a combination of axclasses and locales to
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achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle. See
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HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples.
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* Yet another code generator framework allows to generate executable
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code for ML and Haskell (including "class"es). A short usage sketch:
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    internal compilation:
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        code_gen <list of constants (term syntax)> (SML #)
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    writing SML code to a file:
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        code_gen <list of constants (term syntax)> (SML <filename>)
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    writing OCaml code to a file:
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        code_gen <list of constants (term syntax)> (OCaml <filename>)
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    writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
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        code_gen <list of constants (term syntax)> (Haskell <filename>)
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Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL/Main.
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Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
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    [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
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    [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
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    [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
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    [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
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User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
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    code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
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      {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
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    code_type <and-list of type constructors>
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      {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
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    code_instance <and-list of instances>
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      {(target)}+
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        where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
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    code_class <and_list of classes>
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      {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
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        where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
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code_instance and code_class only apply to target Haskell.
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See HOL theories and HOL/ex/Codegenerator*.thy for usage examples.
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Doc/Isar/Advanced/Codegen/ provides a tutorial.
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* Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
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syntax.
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* Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
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dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
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that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
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correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
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INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
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exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
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Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
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instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
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declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
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c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
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as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
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recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
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impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
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LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
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Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
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equations, see section "definitions".
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* Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
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the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
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  assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
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  then guess x and y by clarify
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This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
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proof tools being involved here.
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* Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
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propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
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named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
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methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
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according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
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provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
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theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
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`A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
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There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
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for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
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certain special cases of literal facts:
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  have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
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  have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
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  have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
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  have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
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* Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
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outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
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additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
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* Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
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both named and unnamed ones.
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* Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
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  def x == "t" and y == "u"
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* Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
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'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
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rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
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'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
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* Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
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and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
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(potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
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analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
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Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
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* Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
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method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
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sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
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simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
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simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
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originally first one.
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* Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
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patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
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expected.
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* Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
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'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
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(essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
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assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
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adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
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  lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
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    assumes "EX x. P x"
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    obtains x where "P x"
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  lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
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    assumes "A & B"
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    obtains A and B
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  lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
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    assumes "A | B"
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    obtains
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      A
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    | B
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The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
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explicitly:
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  lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
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    obtains "~ thesis"
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  lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
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    obtains "thesis ==> something"
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The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
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Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
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Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
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available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
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resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
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case_names).
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* Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
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"assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
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(historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
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context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
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* Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
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proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
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top-level lemma.
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* Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
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introduction rule (default "that").
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* Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
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explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
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to occur.
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* Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
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according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
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syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
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representations independently of name spaces.
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* Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
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instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
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in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
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primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
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fixed variables).  Type declaration and internal syntactic
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representation of given constants retrieved from the context.
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* Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
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'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
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object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
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isar-ref manual.  Examples:
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  axiomatization
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    eq  (infix "===" 50) where
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    eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
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  definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
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  definition g where "g x = f x x"
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  abbreviation
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    neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
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    "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
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These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
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constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
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constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
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abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
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parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
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HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
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entities from a monomorphic theory.
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Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
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not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
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'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
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'translations' in common applications.
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Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
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independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
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slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
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'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
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* Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
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the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
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abbreviations on output.
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* Isar/locales: improved parameter handling:
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- use of locales "var" and "struct" no longer necessary;
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- parameter renamings are no longer required to be injective.
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  This enables, for example, to define a locale for endomorphisms thus:
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  locale endom = homom mult mult h.
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* Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
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Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
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now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
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locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
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predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
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removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
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`unfold_locales'; see below.
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* Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
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provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
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aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
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`intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
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unfold predicates to assumptions.
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* Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
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has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
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to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
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* Provers/induct: improved internal context management to support
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local fixes and defines on-the-fly.  Thus explicit meta-level
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connectives !! and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
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(using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
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obsolete anyway).  The subsequent proof patterns illustrate advanced
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techniques of natural induction; general datatypes and inductive sets
wenzelm@18267
   339
work analogously (see also src/HOL/Lambda for realistic examples).
wenzelm@18267
   340
wenzelm@18267
   341
(1) This is how to ``strengthen'' an inductive goal wrt. certain
wenzelm@18239
   342
parameters:
wenzelm@18233
   343
wenzelm@18233
   344
  lemma
wenzelm@18233
   345
    fixes n :: nat and x :: 'a
wenzelm@18233
   346
    assumes a: "A n x"
wenzelm@18233
   347
    shows "P n x"
wenzelm@18233
   348
    using a                     -- {* make induct insert fact a *}
wenzelm@20503
   349
  proof (induct n arbitrary: x) -- {* generalize goal to "!!x. A n x ==> P n x" *}
wenzelm@18248
   350
    case 0
wenzelm@18233
   351
    show ?case sorry
wenzelm@18233
   352
  next
wenzelm@18248
   353
    case (Suc n)
wenzelm@18239
   354
    note `!!x. A n x ==> P n x` -- {* induction hypothesis, according to induction rule *}
wenzelm@18239
   355
    note `A (Suc n) x`          -- {* induction premise, stemming from fact a *}
wenzelm@18233
   356
    show ?case sorry
wenzelm@18233
   357
  qed
wenzelm@18233
   358
wenzelm@18267
   359
(2) This is how to perform induction over ``expressions of a certain
wenzelm@18233
   360
form'', using a locally defined inductive parameter n == "a x"
wenzelm@18239
   361
together with strengthening (the latter is usually required to get
wenzelm@18267
   362
sufficiently flexible induction hypotheses):
wenzelm@18233
   363
wenzelm@18233
   364
  lemma
wenzelm@18233
   365
    fixes a :: "'a => nat"
wenzelm@18233
   366
    assumes a: "A (a x)"
wenzelm@18233
   367
    shows "P (a x)"
wenzelm@18233
   368
    using a
wenzelm@20503
   369
  proof (induct n == "a x" arbitrary: x)
wenzelm@18233
   370
    ...
wenzelm@18233
   371
wenzelm@18267
   372
See also HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy for an application of the this
wenzelm@18267
   373
particular technique.
wenzelm@18267
   374
wenzelm@18901
   375
(3) This is how to perform existential reasoning ('obtains' or
wenzelm@18901
   376
'obtain') by induction, while avoiding explicit object-logic
wenzelm@18901
   377
encodings:
wenzelm@18901
   378
wenzelm@18901
   379
  lemma
wenzelm@18901
   380
    fixes n :: nat
wenzelm@18901
   381
    obtains x :: 'a where "P n x" and "Q n x"
wenzelm@20503
   382
  proof (induct n arbitrary: thesis)
wenzelm@18267
   383
    case 0
wenzelm@18267
   384
    obtain x where "P 0 x" and "Q 0 x" sorry
wenzelm@18399
   385
    then show thesis by (rule 0)
wenzelm@18267
   386
  next
wenzelm@18267
   387
    case (Suc n)
wenzelm@18267
   388
    obtain x where "P n x" and "Q n x" by (rule Suc.hyps)
wenzelm@18267
   389
    obtain x where "P (Suc n) x" and "Q (Suc n) x" sorry
wenzelm@18267
   390
    then show thesis by (rule Suc.prems)
wenzelm@18267
   391
  qed
wenzelm@18267
   392
wenzelm@20503
   393
Here the 'arbitrary: thesis' specification essentially modifies the
wenzelm@20503
   394
scope of the formal thesis parameter, in order to the get the whole
wenzelm@18267
   395
existence statement through the induction as expected.
wenzelm@18233
   396
wenzelm@18506
   397
* Provers/induct: mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
wenzelm@18506
   398
of rule sharing the same induction cases.  HOL packages usually
wenzelm@18506
   399
provide foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar
wenzelm@18506
   400
(e.g. inductive sets or datatypes).  INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to
wenzelm@18506
   401
specify mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
wenzelm@18506
   402
wenzelm@18506
   403
  (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
wenzelm@18506
   404
  (induct set: foo bar)
wenzelm@18506
   405
  (induct type: foo bar)
wenzelm@18506
   406
wenzelm@18506
   407
The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
wenzelm@18506
   408
new format.
wenzelm@18506
   409
wenzelm@18506
   410
* Provers/induct: improved handling of simultaneous goals.  Instead of
wenzelm@18506
   411
introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
wenzelm@18506
   412
several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are
wenzelm@18601
   413
nested accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured
wenzelm@18601
   414
explicitly.  For example:
wenzelm@18480
   415
wenzelm@18480
   416
  lemma
wenzelm@18480
   417
    fixes n :: nat
wenzelm@18480
   418
    shows "P n" and "Q n"
wenzelm@18480
   419
  proof (induct n)
wenzelm@18601
   420
    case 0 case 1
wenzelm@18480
   421
    show "P 0" sorry
wenzelm@18480
   422
  next
wenzelm@18601
   423
    case 0 case 2
wenzelm@18480
   424
    show "Q 0" sorry
wenzelm@18480
   425
  next
wenzelm@18601
   426
    case (Suc n) case 1
wenzelm@18480
   427
    note `P n` and `Q n`
wenzelm@18480
   428
    show "P (Suc n)" sorry
wenzelm@18480
   429
  next
wenzelm@18601
   430
    case (Suc n) case 2
wenzelm@18480
   431
    note `P n` and `Q n`
wenzelm@18480
   432
    show "Q (Suc n)" sorry
wenzelm@18480
   433
  qed
wenzelm@18480
   434
wenzelm@18601
   435
The split into subcases may be deferred as follows -- this is
wenzelm@18601
   436
particularly relevant for goal statements with local premises.
wenzelm@18601
   437
wenzelm@18601
   438
  lemma
wenzelm@18601
   439
    fixes n :: nat
wenzelm@18601
   440
    shows "A n ==> P n" and "B n ==> Q n"
wenzelm@18601
   441
  proof (induct n)
wenzelm@18601
   442
    case 0
wenzelm@18601
   443
    {
wenzelm@18601
   444
      case 1
wenzelm@18601
   445
      note `A 0`
wenzelm@18601
   446
      show "P 0" sorry
wenzelm@18601
   447
    next
wenzelm@18601
   448
      case 2
wenzelm@18601
   449
      note `B 0`
wenzelm@18601
   450
      show "Q 0" sorry
wenzelm@18601
   451
    }
wenzelm@18601
   452
  next
wenzelm@18601
   453
    case (Suc n)
wenzelm@18601
   454
    note `A n ==> P n` and `B n ==> Q n`
wenzelm@18601
   455
    {
wenzelm@18601
   456
      case 1
wenzelm@18601
   457
      note `A (Suc n)`
wenzelm@18601
   458
      show "P (Suc n)" sorry
wenzelm@18601
   459
    next
wenzelm@18601
   460
      case 2
wenzelm@18601
   461
      note `B (Suc n)`
wenzelm@18601
   462
      show "Q (Suc n)" sorry
wenzelm@18601
   463
    }
wenzelm@18601
   464
  qed
wenzelm@18601
   465
wenzelm@18506
   466
If simultaneous goals are to be used with mutual rules, the statement
wenzelm@18506
   467
needs to be structured carefully as a two-level conjunction, using
wenzelm@18506
   468
lists of propositions separated by 'and':
wenzelm@18506
   469
wenzelm@18507
   470
  lemma
wenzelm@18507
   471
    shows "a : A ==> P1 a"
wenzelm@18507
   472
          "a : A ==> P2 a"
wenzelm@18507
   473
      and "b : B ==> Q1 b"
wenzelm@18507
   474
          "b : B ==> Q2 b"
wenzelm@18507
   475
          "b : B ==> Q3 b"
wenzelm@18507
   476
  proof (induct set: A B)
wenzelm@18480
   477
wenzelm@18399
   478
* Provers/induct: support coinduction as well.  See
wenzelm@18399
   479
src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
wenzelm@18399
   480
wenzelm@20919
   481
* Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
wenzelm@20919
   482
variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@20919
   483
wenzelm@22126
   484
* Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
wenzelm@22126
   485
rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
wenzelm@22126
   486
default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
wenzelm@22126
   487
trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
nipkow@18674
   488
  
wenzelm@18536
   489
* Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
wenzelm@18536
   490
attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
wenzelm@18536
   491
manipulating the claset.
wenzelm@18536
   492
wenzelm@18694
   493
* Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
wenzelm@18694
   494
dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
wenzelm@18694
   495
least one premise.
wenzelm@18694
   496
wenzelm@18694
   497
* Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
wenzelm@18695
   498
weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
wenzelm@18696
   499
ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
wenzelm@18694
   500
rule steps.
paulson@18557
   501
wenzelm@18536
   502
* Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
wenzelm@18536
   503
where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
wenzelm@18536
   504
patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
wenzelm@18536
   505
"{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
wenzelm@18536
   506
INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
wenzelm@18536
   507
constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
wenzelm@18536
   508
wenzelm@18536
   509
* Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
wenzelm@18536
   510
parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
wenzelm@18536
   511
for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
wenzelm@17779
   512
wenzelm@20582
   513
* Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
wenzelm@20582
   514
the graph browser tool.
wenzelm@20582
   515
wenzelm@20620
   516
* Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses entities with internal name
wenzelm@20620
   517
(trailing "_") by default; use '!' option for full details.
wenzelm@20620
   518
wenzelm@17865
   519
nipkow@17806
   520
*** HOL ***
nipkow@17806
   521
haftmann@22845
   522
* case expressions and primrec: missing cases now mapped to "undefined"
haftmann@22845
   523
instead of "arbitrary"
haftmann@22845
   524
haftmann@22845
   525
* new constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined"
haftmann@22845
   526
haftmann@22845
   527
* new class "default" with associated constant "default"
haftmann@22845
   528
haftmann@22799
   529
* Library/Pretty_Int.thy: maps HOL numerals on target language integer literals
haftmann@22799
   530
    when generating code.
haftmann@22799
   531
haftmann@22799
   532
* Library/Pretty_Char.thy: maps HOL characters on target language character literals
haftmann@22799
   533
    when generating code.
haftmann@22799
   534
haftmann@22735
   535
* Library/Commutative_Ring.thy: switched from recdef to function package;
haftmann@22735
   536
    constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for algebraic operations.
haftmann@22735
   537
haftmann@22450
   538
* Some steps towards more uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
haftmann@22422
   539
haftmann@22422
   540
    constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
haftmann@22422
   541
    constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
haftmann@22422
   542
haftmann@22450
   543
    classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
haftmann@22450
   544
      "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
haftmann@22450
   545
    class "lorder" now named "lattice"
haftmann@22450
   546
    class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
haftmann@22450
   547
haftmann@22450
   548
    Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
haftmann@22450
   549
    for "inf" and "sup" operations.
haftmann@22450
   550
haftmann@22450
   551
  INCOMPATIBILITY. Theorem renames:
haftmann@22450
   552
haftmann@22422
   553
    meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
haftmann@22422
   554
    meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
haftmann@22422
   555
    join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
haftmann@22422
   556
    join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
haftmann@22422
   557
    meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
haftmann@22422
   558
    le_meetI                ~> le_infI
haftmann@22422
   559
    join_leI                ~> le_supI
haftmann@22422
   560
    le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
haftmann@22422
   561
    le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
haftmann@22422
   562
    meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
haftmann@22422
   563
    join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
haftmann@22422
   564
    meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
haftmann@22422
   565
    join_comm               ~> sup_commute
haftmann@22422
   566
    meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
haftmann@22422
   567
    meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
haftmann@22422
   568
    le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
haftmann@22422
   569
    le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
haftmann@22422
   570
    meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
haftmann@22422
   571
    join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
haftmann@22422
   572
    meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
haftmann@22422
   573
    meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
haftmann@22422
   574
    join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
haftmann@22422
   575
    join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
haftmann@22422
   576
    meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
haftmann@22422
   577
    join_aci                ~> sup_aci
haftmann@22422
   578
    le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
haftmann@22422
   579
    le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
haftmann@22422
   580
    join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
haftmann@22422
   581
    join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
haftmann@22422
   582
    meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
haftmann@22422
   583
    meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
haftmann@22422
   584
    meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
haftmann@22422
   585
    join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
haftmann@22422
   586
    distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
haftmann@22422
   587
    distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
haftmann@22422
   588
haftmann@22422
   589
    add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
haftmann@22422
   590
    add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
haftmann@22422
   591
    is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
haftmann@22422
   592
    is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
haftmann@22422
   593
    add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
haftmann@22422
   594
    add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
haftmann@22422
   595
    add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
haftmann@22422
   596
    join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
haftmann@22422
   597
    meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
haftmann@22422
   598
    add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
haftmann@22422
   599
    meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
haftmann@22422
   600
    join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
haftmann@22422
   601
    meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
haftmann@22422
   602
    join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
haftmann@22422
   603
    neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
haftmann@22422
   604
    neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
haftmann@22422
   605
    join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
haftmann@22422
   606
haftmann@22422
   607
    mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
haftmann@22422
   608
    mono_join               ~> mono_sup
haftmann@22422
   609
    meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
haftmann@22422
   610
    join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
haftmann@22422
   611
    meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
haftmann@22422
   612
    join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
haftmann@22422
   613
    meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
haftmann@22422
   614
    join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
haftmann@22422
   615
    meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
haftmann@22422
   616
    meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
haftmann@22422
   617
    meet1I                  ~> inf1I
haftmann@22422
   618
    meet2I                  ~> inf2I
haftmann@22422
   619
    meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
haftmann@22422
   620
    meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
haftmann@22422
   621
    meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
haftmann@22422
   622
    meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
haftmann@22422
   623
    meet1E                  ~> inf1E
haftmann@22422
   624
    meet2E                  ~> inf2E
haftmann@22422
   625
    join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
haftmann@22422
   626
    join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
haftmann@22422
   627
    join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
haftmann@22422
   628
    join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
haftmann@22422
   629
    join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
haftmann@22422
   630
    join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
haftmann@22422
   631
    join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
haftmann@22422
   632
    join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
haftmann@22422
   633
    join1E                  ~> sup1E
haftmann@22422
   634
    join2E                  ~> sup2E
haftmann@22422
   635
haftmann@22422
   636
    is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
haftmann@22422
   637
    Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
haftmann@22422
   638
    Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
haftmann@22422
   639
    Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
haftmann@22422
   640
    Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
haftmann@22422
   641
    Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
haftmann@22422
   642
haftmann@22422
   643
    listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
haftmann@22422
   644
    listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
haftmann@22422
   645
haftmann@22450
   646
    meet_min                ~> inf_min
haftmann@22450
   647
    join_max                ~> sup_max
haftmann@22450
   648
haftmann@22845
   649
* Classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
haftmann@22384
   650
"cases" renamed ro "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to
haftmann@22384
   651
avoid clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans". INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@22384
   652
haftmann@22845
   653
* Classes "order" and "linorder": 
haftmann@22316
   654
potential INCOMPATIBILITY: order of proof goals in order/linorder instance
haftmann@22316
   655
proofs changed.
haftmann@22316
   656
haftmann@22218
   657
* Dropped lemma duplicate def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
haftmann@22218
   658
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@22218
   659
haftmann@22218
   660
* Dropped lemma duplicate if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
haftmann@22218
   661
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@22218
   662
wenzelm@22126
   663
* Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
wenzelm@22126
   664
type "'a::size ==> bool"
wenzelm@22126
   665
wenzelm@22126
   666
* Renamed constants "Divides.op div", "Divides.op mod" and "Divides.op
haftmann@22316
   667
dvd" to "Divides.div", "Divides.mod" and "Divides.dvd". INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@22126
   668
wenzelm@22126
   669
* Added method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes
wenzelm@22126
   670
termination relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures
wenzelm@22126
   671
-- 'function' package.
wenzelm@22126
   672
wenzelm@22126
   673
* HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
wenzelm@22126
   674
field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
wenzelm@22126
   675
(K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
schirmer@21226
   676
INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
schirmer@21226
   677
adapted.
schirmer@21226
   678
 
wenzelm@22126
   679
* axclass "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and
wenzelm@22126
   680
0 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do
wenzelm@22126
   681
not inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a
wenzelm@22126
   682
theorem there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of
wenzelm@22126
   683
semiring_0, there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
wenzelm@22126
   684
wenzelm@22126
   685
* axclass "recpower" was generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
wenzelm@22126
   686
commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: If you use recpower and need
wenzelm@22126
   687
commutativity or a semiring property, add the corresponding classes.
wenzelm@22126
   688
wenzelm@22126
   689
* Unified locale partial_order with class definition (cf. theory
wenzelm@22126
   690
Orderings), added parameter ``less''.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@21215
   691
haftmann@21099
   692
* Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
wenzelm@22126
   693
INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong.  On
wenzelm@22126
   694
Isar level, use abbreviations instead.
wenzelm@22126
   695
wenzelm@22126
   696
* Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.memberl" INCOMPATIBILITY:
wenzelm@22126
   697
rarely occuring name references (e.g. ``List.op mem.simps'') require
wenzelm@22126
   698
renaming (e.g. ``List.memberl.simps'').
wenzelm@22126
   699
wenzelm@22126
   700
* Renamed constants "0" to "HOL.zero" and "1" to "HOL.one".
wenzelm@22126
   701
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@22126
   702
wenzelm@22126
   703
* Added theory Code_Generator providing class 'eq', allowing for code
wenzelm@22126
   704
generation with polymorphic equality.
wenzelm@22126
   705
wenzelm@22126
   706
* Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
wenzelm@22126
   707
been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'. INCOMPATIBILITY --
wenzelm@22126
   708
significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
haftmann@20485
   709
haftmann@20485
   710
  - new constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
haftmann@20485
   711
      of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
haftmann@20485
   712
  - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
haftmann@20485
   713
  - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
haftmann@20485
   714
  - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
haftmann@20485
   715
haftmann@20485
   716
See HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
haftmann@20485
   717
wenzelm@22126
   718
* New top level command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a
wenzelm@22126
   719
term that may contain free variables. For example ``normal_form
wenzelm@22126
   720
"rev[a,b,c]"'' produces ``[b,c,a]'' (without proof).  This command is
wenzelm@22126
   721
suitable for heavy-duty computations because the functions are
wenzelm@22126
   722
compiled to ML first.
nipkow@19895
   723
wenzelm@17996
   724
* Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
wenzelm@17996
   725
25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
wenzelm@17996
   726
"A = B" (with priority 50).
wenzelm@17996
   727
ballarin@19279
   728
* Renamed constants in HOL.thy and Orderings.thy:
haftmann@19233
   729
    op +   ~> HOL.plus
haftmann@19233
   730
    op -   ~> HOL.minus
haftmann@19233
   731
    uminus ~> HOL.uminus
haftmann@19233
   732
    op *   ~> HOL.times
haftmann@19277
   733
    op <   ~> Orderings.less
haftmann@19277
   734
    op <=  ~> Orderings.less_eq
haftmann@19233
   735
haftmann@19233
   736
Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
haftmann@19233
   737
nipkow@19377
   738
a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus", "times",
nipkow@19377
   739
"less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for "+", "-" and "*"
nipkow@19377
   740
may go wrong.
haftmann@19233
   741
INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
haftmann@19233
   742
haftmann@19277
   743
b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
haftmann@19233
   744
INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
haftmann@19233
   745
nipkow@19377
   746
c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
nipkow@19377
   747
Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
nipkow@19377
   748
rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows that
nipkow@19377
   749
this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
nipkow@19377
   750
distribution).
nipkow@19377
   751
INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
haftmann@19233
   752
haftmann@19233
   753
d) ML code directly refering to constant names
haftmann@19233
   754
This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and so on.
haftmann@19233
   755
INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
haftmann@19233
   756
wenzelm@21265
   757
* Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
wenzelm@21265
   758
Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
wenzelm@21265
   759
e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".
wenzelm@21265
   760
nipkow@18674
   761
* "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
nipkow@18674
   762
krauss@20716
   763
* Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
krauss@20716
   764
stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
krauss@20716
   765
wenzelm@22126
   766
* The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
wenzelm@22126
   767
removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
nipkow@19377
   768
wenzelm@17865
   769
* In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
wenzelm@17865
   770
"t = s" to False (by simproc "neq_simproc").  For backward
wenzelm@17865
   771
compatibility this can be disabled by ML "reset use_neq_simproc".
wenzelm@17779
   772
wenzelm@22126
   773
* "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to True/False by
wenzelm@22126
   774
simp.
wenzelm@22126
   775
wenzelm@22126
   776
* Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as ``simp''.
nipkow@19211
   777
ballarin@19279
   778
* Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
ballarin@19279
   779
nipkow@19211
   780
* Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
wenzelm@22126
   781
``rule'' method.
wenzelm@22126
   782
wenzelm@22126
   783
* Reimplemented methods ``sat'' and ``satx'', with several
wenzelm@22126
   784
improvements: goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==>
wenzelm@22126
   785
False", equivalences (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable
wenzelm@22126
   786
names of the form "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant
wenzelm@22126
   787
speedup.
wenzelm@22126
   788
wenzelm@22126
   789
* Methods ``sat'' and ``satx'' can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
wenzelm@22126
   790
zChaff is still supported as well.
wenzelm@22126
   791
wenzelm@22126
   792
* 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
wenzelm@22126
   793
bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
wenzelm@22126
   794
wenzelm@22126
   795
* Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
wenzelm@22126
   796
Library.
wenzelm@21256
   797
wenzelm@21256
   798
* Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
wenzelm@19572
   799
wenzelm@18446
   800
* Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
wenzelm@18446
   801
as greatest fixed-point.
wenzelm@18399
   802
wenzelm@19254
   803
* Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
schirmer@19252
   804
association lists.
webertj@17809
   805
wenzelm@22126
   806
* Added proof method ``evaluation'' for efficiently solving a goal
wenzelm@22126
   807
(i.e. a boolean expression) by compiling it to ML. The goal is
wenzelm@22126
   808
"proved" (via an oracle) if it evaluates to True.
wenzelm@20807
   809
wenzelm@20807
   810
* Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
wenzelm@20807
   811
also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the simplifier
haftmann@21056
   812
being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Set
wenzelm@20807
   813
fast_arith_split_limit to 0 to obtain the old behavior.
webertj@20217
   814
wenzelm@22126
   815
* Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
wenzelm@19254
   816
wenzelm@20807
   817
* New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
wenzelm@20807
   818
interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
wenzelm@20807
   819
parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
wenzelm@20807
   820
theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
wenzelm@20807
   821
resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
wenzelm@20807
   822
s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
wenzelm@20807
   823
wenzelm@20807
   824
* New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
wenzelm@20807
   825
are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
wenzelm@20807
   826
where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
wenzelm@20807
   827
generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
wenzelm@20807
   828
applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
wenzelm@20807
   829
r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
wenzelm@20807
   830
subgoal. An Example is available in HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
wenzelm@20807
   831
wenzelm@20807
   832
* Reflection: Automatic refification now handels binding, an example
wenzelm@20807
   833
is available in HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
wenzelm@20807
   834
wenzelm@20807
   835
ballarin@20169
   836
*** HOL-Algebra ***
ballarin@20169
   837
wenzelm@21170
   838
* Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
wenzelm@21170
   839
wenzelm@21170
   840
* Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
wenzelm@21170
   841
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@21170
   842
wenzelm@22126
   843
* Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
wenzelm@22126
   844
greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
ballarin@21896
   845
wenzelm@21170
   846
* Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
ballarin@21896
   847
Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
wenzelm@21170
   848
of algebraic structures.
ballarin@20318
   849
wenzelm@22126
   850
* Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
ballarin@20169
   851
wenzelm@20807
   852
wenzelm@19653
   853
*** HOL-Complex ***
wenzelm@19653
   854
wenzelm@19653
   855
* Theory Real: new method ferrack implements quantifier elimination
wenzelm@19653
   856
for linear arithmetic over the reals. The quantifier elimination
wenzelm@19653
   857
feature is used only for decision, for compatibility with arith. This
wenzelm@19653
   858
means a goal is either solved or left unchanged, no simplification.
wenzelm@19653
   859
huffman@21791
   860
* Real: New axiomatic classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
huffman@21791
   861
algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
huffman@21791
   862
and norm :: 'a => real.
huffman@21791
   863
wenzelm@22126
   864
* Real: New constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects
wenzelm@22126
   865
from reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set
wenzelm@22126
   866
is now defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@22126
   867
wenzelm@22126
   868
* Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
wenzelm@22126
   869
reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
wenzelm@22126
   870
spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
wenzelm@22126
   871
INCOMPATIBILITY.
huffman@21791
   872
huffman@21791
   873
  Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set"
huffman@21791
   874
  HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set"
huffman@21791
   875
  HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set"
huffman@21791
   876
  approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
huffman@21791
   877
  monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
huffman@21791
   878
  galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
huffman@21791
   879
  (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat, 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
huffman@21791
   880
  (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
huffman@21791
   881
  (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
huffman@21791
   882
  (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
huffman@21791
   883
  (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
huffman@21791
   884
  is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
huffman@21791
   885
  deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
huffman@21791
   886
huffman@21791
   887
* Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
wenzelm@22126
   888
overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
wenzelm@22126
   889
hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
wenzelm@22126
   890
polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
huffman@21791
   891
huffman@21791
   892
  approx        <-- capprox
huffman@21791
   893
  HFinite       <-- CFinite
huffman@21791
   894
  HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
huffman@21791
   895
  Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
huffman@21791
   896
  monad         <-- cmonad
huffman@21791
   897
  galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
huffman@21791
   898
  (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
huffman@21791
   899
  is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
huffman@21791
   900
  (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
huffman@21791
   901
wenzelm@19653
   902
wenzelm@17878
   903
*** ML ***
wenzelm@17878
   904
wenzelm@22848
   905
* Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
wenzelm@22863
   906
name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
wenzelm@22863
   907
init only required for impure data.  INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really
wenzelm@22863
   908
need to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
wenzelm@22848
   909
wenzelm@22138
   910
* ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
wenzelm@22138
   911
formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
wenzelm@22138
   912
compile-time.  For example:
wenzelm@22138
   913
wenzelm@22138
   914
ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
wenzelm@22138
   915
ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
wenzelm@22138
   916
ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
wenzelm@22138
   917
ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
wenzelm@22138
   918
ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
wenzelm@22138
   919
ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
wenzelm@22138
   920
ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
wenzelm@22138
   921
ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
wenzelm@22376
   922
ML {* @{const_name c} *}
wenzelm@22376
   923
ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
wenzelm@22138
   924
ML {* @{context} *}
wenzelm@22138
   925
ML {* @{theory} *}
wenzelm@22138
   926
ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
wenzelm@22138
   927
ML {* @{simpset} *}
wenzelm@22138
   928
ML {* @{claset} *}
wenzelm@22138
   929
ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
wenzelm@22138
   930
wenzelm@22151
   931
The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
wenzelm@22151
   932
wenzelm@22152
   933
* ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
wenzelm@22152
   934
Toplevel.debug enabled.
wenzelm@22152
   935
haftmann@20348
   936
* Pure/library:
haftmann@20348
   937
haftmann@18450
   938
  val burrow: ('a list -> 'b list) -> 'a list list -> 'b list list
haftmann@18549
   939
  val fold_burrow: ('a list -> 'c -> 'b list * 'd) -> 'a list list -> 'c -> 'b list list * 'd
haftmann@18450
   940
wenzelm@18540
   941
The semantics of "burrow" is: "take a function with *simulatanously*
wenzelm@18540
   942
transforms a list of value, and apply it *simulatanously* to a list of
wenzelm@22126
   943
list of values of the appropriate type". Compare this with "map" which
wenzelm@18540
   944
would *not* apply its argument function simulatanously but in
wenzelm@22126
   945
sequence; "fold_burrow" has an additional context.
haftmann@18450
   946
wenzelm@18446
   947
* Pure/library: functions map2 and fold2 with curried syntax for
wenzelm@18446
   948
simultanous mapping and folding:
wenzelm@18446
   949
haftmann@18422
   950
    val map2: ('a -> 'b -> 'c) -> 'a list -> 'b list -> 'c list
haftmann@18422
   951
    val fold2: ('a -> 'b -> 'c -> 'c) -> 'a list -> 'b list -> 'c -> 'c
haftmann@18422
   952
wenzelm@18446
   953
* Pure/library: indexed lists - some functions in the Isabelle library
wenzelm@18446
   954
treating lists over 'a as finite mappings from [0...n] to 'a have been
wenzelm@18446
   955
given more convenient names and signatures reminiscent of similar
wenzelm@18446
   956
functions for alists, tables, etc:
haftmann@18051
   957
haftmann@18051
   958
  val nth: 'a list -> int -> 'a 
haftmann@18051
   959
  val nth_map: int -> ('a -> 'a) -> 'a list -> 'a list
haftmann@18051
   960
  val fold_index: (int * 'a -> 'b -> 'b) -> 'a list -> 'b -> 'b
haftmann@18051
   961
wenzelm@18446
   962
Note that fold_index starts counting at index 0, not 1 like foldln
wenzelm@18446
   963
used to.
wenzelm@18446
   964
wenzelm@22126
   965
* Pure/library: added general ``divide_and_conquer'' combinator on
wenzelm@22126
   966
lists.
wenzelm@19032
   967
wenzelm@19032
   968
* Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
wenzelm@19081
   969
DUP/SAME instead of type option.  This is simpler in simple cases, and
wenzelm@19081
   970
admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
wenzelm@18446
   971
wenzelm@18642
   972
* Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
wenzelm@18644
   973
provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
wenzelm@18642
   974
context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
wenzelm@18642
   975
wenzelm@18862
   976
* Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
wenzelm@18862
   977
use Context.generic instead of just theory.
wenzelm@18862
   978
wenzelm@18737
   979
* Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
wenzelm@18737
   980
Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm.  Global (theory)
wenzelm@18737
   981
vs. local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
wenzelm@18738
   982
minimizing code duplication.  Thm.rule_attribute and
wenzelm@18738
   983
Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also
wenzelm@19006
   984
structure Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
wenzelm@19006
   985
GenericDataFun.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
wenzelm@19006
   986
declarations and definitions.
wenzelm@19006
   987
wenzelm@19508
   988
* Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
wenzelm@19508
   989
signature declarations.  (This information is not relevant to the
wenzelm@22126
   990
logic, but only for type inference.)  IMPORTANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
wenzelm@22126
   991
potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@19508
   992
wenzelm@19508
   993
* Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
wenzelm@19508
   994
explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
wenzelm@19508
   995
internally.  See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
wenzelm@19508
   996
notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
wenzelm@19508
   997
AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supercede
wenzelm@19508
   998
Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
wenzelm@19508
   999
wenzelm@19006
  1000
* Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
wenzelm@19006
  1001
global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
wenzelm@19006
  1002
discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
wenzelm@19006
  1003
accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
wenzelm@19006
  1004
attributes, methods, etc.
wenzelm@18642
  1005
wenzelm@18446
  1006
* Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
wenzelm@18446
  1007
have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
wenzelm@18446
  1008
allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
wenzelm@18446
  1009
fold_map combinators.
haftmann@18051
  1010
wenzelm@21647
  1011
* Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
wenzelm@21647
  1012
comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
wenzelm@21647
  1013
maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
wenzelm@21647
  1014
derivation.
wenzelm@21647
  1015
wenzelm@18020
  1016
* Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
wenzelm@18145
  1017
actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
wenzelm@18020
  1018
achieve the old behaviour.
wenzelm@18020
  1019
wenzelm@18020
  1020
* Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
wenzelm@18020
  1021
slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
wenzelm@18020
  1022
statements.
wenzelm@18020
  1023
wenzelm@20040
  1024
* Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
wenzelm@20040
  1025
enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
wenzelm@20040
  1026
Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
wenzelm@20040
  1027
wenzelm@20090
  1028
* Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
wenzelm@20090
  1029
internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
wenzelm@20090
  1030
some popular functions from term.ML:
wenzelm@20090
  1031
wenzelm@20090
  1032
  Term.variant		->  Name.variant
wenzelm@20090
  1033
  Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list  (*canonical argument order*)
wenzelm@20090
  1034
  Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
wenzelm@20090
  1035
wenzelm@20090
  1036
Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
wenzelm@20090
  1037
from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
wenzelm@20090
  1038
wenzelm@20040
  1039
* Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
wenzelm@20040
  1040
treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
wenzelm@20040
  1041
Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
wenzelm@20040
  1042
Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
wenzelm@20040
  1043
various freeze_thaw operations.
wenzelm@20040
  1044
wenzelm@18567
  1045
* Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
wenzelm@17981
  1046
init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
wenzelm@20040
  1047
Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
wenzelm@20040
  1048
within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
wenzelm@20040
  1049
theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
wenzelm@20040
  1050
OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
wenzelm@20040
  1051
ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
wenzelm@20040
  1052
in a locale context).
wenzelm@17981
  1053
wenzelm@18815
  1054
* Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
wenzelm@18687
  1055
ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
wenzelm@18686
  1056
without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
wenzelm@18686
  1057
care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
wenzelm@18686
  1058
handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
wenzelm@18686
  1059
wenzelm@18686
  1060
  ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
wenzelm@18686
  1061
wenzelm@18686
  1062
Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
wenzelm@18687
  1063
embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
wenzelm@18687
  1064
this:
wenzelm@18686
  1065
wenzelm@18686
  1066
  Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
wenzelm@18686
  1067
wenzelm@18686
  1068
INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
wenzelm@18686
  1069
obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
wenzelm@18686
  1070
Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
wenzelm@18686
  1071
-- use plain ERROR instead.
wenzelm@18686
  1072
wenzelm@18815
  1073
* Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
wenzelm@18722
  1074
list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
wenzelm@18722
  1075
wenzelm@18815
  1076
* Isar: installed ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context,
wenzelm@18815
  1077
subject to ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
wenzelm@18815
  1078
wenzelm@18815
  1079
* Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
wenzelm@18815
  1080
theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
wenzelm@18815
  1081
quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
wenzelm@18590
  1082
batch mode.
wenzelm@18567
  1083
wenzelm@17878
  1084
* Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
wenzelm@17878
  1085
contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
wenzelm@17878
  1086
very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
wenzelm@17890
  1087
simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
wenzelm@17878
  1088
(solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
wenzelm@17878
  1089
wenzelm@17878
  1090
* Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
wenzelm@17878
  1091
local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
wenzelm@17878
  1092
etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
wenzelm@17878
  1093
former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
wenzelm@17890
  1094
INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
wenzelm@17890
  1095
specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
wenzelm@17878
  1096
wenzelm@17878
  1097
* Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
wenzelm@17878
  1098
change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
wenzelm@17878
  1099
theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
wenzelm@17878
  1100
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@17878
  1101
wenzelm@18540
  1102
* Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
wenzelm@18540
  1103
"Trueprop" etc.
wenzelm@18540
  1104
wenzelm@17878
  1105
wenzelm@20988
  1106
*** System ***
wenzelm@20988
  1107
wenzelm@21471
  1108
* settings: ML_IDENTIFIER -- which is appended to user specific heap
wenzelm@21471
  1109
locations -- now includes the Isabelle version identifier as well.
wenzelm@21471
  1110
This simplifies use of multiple Isabelle installations.
wenzelm@21471
  1111
wenzelm@20988
  1112
* isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
wenzelm@20988
  1113
operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
wenzelm@20988
  1114
code.
wenzelm@20988
  1115
wenzelm@17754
  1116
wenzelm@17720
  1117
New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
wenzelm@17720
  1118
----------------------------------
wenzelm@14655
  1119
wenzelm@14655
  1120
*** General ***
wenzelm@14655
  1121
nipkow@15130
  1122
* Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
nipkow@15130
  1123
nipkow@15130
  1124
  theory <name>
wenzelm@16234
  1125
  imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
wenzelm@16234
  1126
  uses <file1> ... <fileM>
nipkow@15130
  1127
  begin
nipkow@15130
  1128
wenzelm@16234
  1129
where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
wenzelm@16234
  1130
wenzelm@16234
  1131
  theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
wenzelm@16234
  1132
wenzelm@16717
  1133
will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
wenzelm@16717
  1134
existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
wenzelm@17371
  1135
non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
nipkow@15130
  1136
berghofe@15475
  1137
* Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
wenzelm@16234
  1138
relative and absolute paths.
wenzelm@16234
  1139
wenzelm@17408
  1140
* Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
wenzelm@17408
  1141
list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
wenzelm@17408
  1142
simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
wenzelm@17408
  1143
theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
wenzelm@17408
  1144
match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
wenzelm@17408
  1145
name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
wenzelm@17408
  1146
lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
wenzelm@17408
  1147
all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
wenzelm@17408
  1148
'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
wenzelm@16234
  1149
wenzelm@17275
  1150
  C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
wenzelm@16234
  1151
wenzelm@16234
  1152
prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
wenzelm@16234
  1153
matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
wenzelm@16234
  1154
in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
wenzelm@16013
  1155
wenzelm@17408
  1156
* Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
wenzelm@17408
  1157
'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@17408
  1158
wenzelm@17385
  1159
* Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
wenzelm@17385
  1160
Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
wenzelm@17408
  1161
formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
wenzelm@17538
  1162
General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
wenzelm@17538
  1163
wenzelm@17538
  1164
  http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
wenzelm@17538
  1165
  http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
wenzelm@17385
  1166
wenzelm@17425
  1167
* Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
wenzelm@17425
  1168
Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
wenzelm@17425
  1169
faster.
wenzelm@17425
  1170
wenzelm@15703
  1171
wenzelm@15703
  1172
*** Document preparation ***
wenzelm@15703
  1173
wenzelm@16234
  1174
* Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
wenzelm@16234
  1175
of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
wenzelm@16234
  1176
LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
wenzelm@16234
  1177
displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
wenzelm@16234
  1178
and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
wenzelm@16234
  1179
DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
wenzelm@16234
  1180
wenzelm@17047
  1181
* Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
wenzelm@17047
  1182
notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
wenzelm@17047
  1183
theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
wenzelm@17047
  1184
commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
wenzelm@17047
  1185
"invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
wenzelm@17047
  1186
specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
wenzelm@17047
  1187
interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
wenzelm@17047
  1188
preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
wenzelm@17047
  1189
isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
wenzelm@17047
  1190
\isadroptag.
wenzelm@17047
  1191
wenzelm@17047
  1192
Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
wenzelm@17047
  1193
usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
wenzelm@17047
  1194
specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
wenzelm@17047
  1195
theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
wenzelm@17047
  1196
proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
wenzelm@17047
  1197
these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
wenzelm@17047
  1198
default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
wenzelm@17047
  1199
specified above.
wenzelm@16234
  1200
haftmann@17402
  1201
* Several new antiquotations:
wenzelm@15979
  1202
wenzelm@15979
  1203
  @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
wenzelm@15979
  1204
wenzelm@15979
  1205
  @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
wenzelm@15979
  1206
wenzelm@16234
  1207
  @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
wenzelm@16234
  1208
  argument is a known logical constant;
wenzelm@15979
  1209
wenzelm@15979
  1210
  @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
wenzelm@16234
  1211
  theorem applying a "style" to it
wenzelm@16234
  1212
wenzelm@17117
  1213
  @{ML text}
wenzelm@17117
  1214
wenzelm@16234
  1215
Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
wenzelm@16234
  1216
definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
schirmer@17393
  1217
conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
wenzelm@16234
  1218
to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
wenzelm@16234
  1219
interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
wenzelm@17117
  1220
document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
wenzelm@17117
  1221
type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
wenzelm@16234
  1222
wenzelm@17259
  1223
* Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
wenzelm@17259
  1224
and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
wenzelm@17269
  1225
specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
wenzelm@17269
  1226
example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
wenzelm@17259
  1227
wenzelm@17259
  1228
* Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
wenzelm@17259
  1229
context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
wenzelm@17269
  1230
[locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.
wenzelm@17259
  1231
wenzelm@17097
  1232
* Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within
wenzelm@17097
  1233
a proof context.
wenzelm@17097
  1234
wenzelm@17097
  1235
* Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a
wenzelm@17097
  1236
proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').
wenzelm@17097
  1237
wenzelm@17193
  1238
* Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX
wenzelm@17193
  1239
macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).
wenzelm@17193
  1240
wenzelm@17193
  1241
* isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option
wenzelm@17193
  1242
-D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false
wenzelm@17193
  1243
prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.
wenzelm@17193
  1244
wenzelm@16234
  1245
wenzelm@16234
  1246
*** Pure ***
wenzelm@16234
  1247
wenzelm@16234
  1248
* Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command.  Now performs
wenzelm@16234
  1249
automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for
wenzelm@16234
  1250
local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also
wenzelm@16234
  1251
isar-ref manual.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly
wenzelm@16234
  1252
sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'
wenzelm@16234
  1253
section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier.  If
wenzelm@16234
  1254
all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.
wenzelm@16234
  1255
wenzelm@16234
  1256
* Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures.  First of all,
wenzelm@16234
  1257
indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted
wenzelm@16234
  1258
application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary
wenzelm@16234
  1259
expressions.  Secondly, in a local context with structure
wenzelm@16234
  1260
declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default
wenzelm@16234
  1261
number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option
wenzelm@16234
  1262
show_structs controls printing of implicit structures.  Typical
wenzelm@16234
  1263
applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.
wenzelm@16234
  1264
wenzelm@16234
  1265
* New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and
wenzelm@16234
  1266
translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is
wenzelm@16234
  1267
interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.
wenzelm@16234
  1268
wenzelm@16234
  1269
* 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend
wenzelm@16234
  1270
on the signature of the theory context being presently used for
wenzelm@16234
  1271
parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.
wenzelm@16234
  1272
wenzelm@16856
  1273
* Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an
wenzelm@16856
  1274
ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of
wenzelm@16856
  1275
type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle
wenzelm@16856
  1276
is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;
wenzelm@16856
  1277
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@16856
  1278
wenzelm@17275
  1279
* axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"
wenzelm@17275
  1280
before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.
wenzelm@17275
  1281
INCOMPATIBILITY.  This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for
wenzelm@17275
  1282
axclasses vs. locales.
wenzelm@17275
  1283
wenzelm@16234
  1284
* Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes
wenzelm@16234
  1285
instead of base 26 numbers.
wenzelm@16234
  1286
wenzelm@16234
  1287
* New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question
wenzelm@16234
  1288
marks in schematic variable names.
wenzelm@16234
  1289
wenzelm@16234
  1290
* In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or
wenzelm@16234
  1291
\<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name.  For example, the
wenzelm@16234
  1292
following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:
wenzelm@16234
  1293
wenzelm@16234
  1294
  lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"
wenzelm@16234
  1295
    by simp
wenzelm@16234
  1296
wenzelm@16234
  1297
* Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).
wenzelm@16234
  1298
wenzelm@17548
  1299
* Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix
wenzelm@16234
  1300
annotations as "(00...)".
wenzelm@16234
  1301
wenzelm@16234
  1302
* Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter
wenzelm@16234
  1303
may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.
wenzelm@16234
  1304
Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class
wenzelm@16234
  1305
"logic" vs. "{}".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper
wenzelm@16234
  1306
use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'.  Some very
wenzelm@16234
  1307
exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption
wenzelm@17691
  1308
(e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).
wenzelm@16234
  1309
wenzelm@16234
  1310
* Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.
wenzelm@16234
  1311
Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'
wenzelm@16234
  1312
rather than 'types'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic
wenzelm@16234
  1313
specifications.
wenzelm@16234
  1314
ballarin@17095
  1315
* Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be
ballarin@17095
  1316
locally fixed variables as well.
ballarin@17095
  1317
wenzelm@16234
  1318
* Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting
wenzelm@16234
  1319
is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth
wenzelm@16234
  1320
Limit.
wenzelm@16234
  1321
wenzelm@16234
  1322
* Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current
wenzelm@16234
  1323
simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc
wenzelm@16234
  1324
interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier
wenzelm@16234
  1325
recursively.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs
wenzelm@16234
  1326
is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead.  Moreover, the
wenzelm@16234
  1327
low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to
wenzelm@16234
  1328
allow for use in a context of fixed variables.
wenzelm@16234
  1329
wenzelm@16234
  1330
* thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!
wenzelm@16234
  1331
or ==>.  More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of
wenzelm@16234
  1332
the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.
wenzelm@16234
  1333
wenzelm@17597
  1334
* Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
nipkow@17590
  1335
wenzelm@16234
  1336
* Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived
wenzelm@16234
  1337
from Pure, which contains all common declarations already.  Both
wenzelm@16234
  1338
theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.
wenzelm@16234
  1339
INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /
wenzelm@16234
  1340
CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;
wenzelm@16234
  1341
use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.
wenzelm@16234
  1342
wenzelm@16234
  1343
* New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific
wenzelm@16234
  1344
selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.
wenzelm@16234
  1345
wenzelm@17097
  1346
* 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference
wenzelm@17097
  1347
wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),
wenzelm@17097
  1348
in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');
wenzelm@17097
  1349
wenzelm@17397
  1350
* 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.
wenzelm@17397
  1351
wenzelm@17275
  1352
* More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive
wenzelm@17275
  1353
theory development.
wenzelm@17275
  1354
berghofe@17663
  1355
* Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code
wenzelm@17664
  1356
generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures
wenzelm@17664
  1357
for each theory).  INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'
wenzelm@17664
  1358
must be quoted when used as identifiers.
wenzelm@17664
  1359
wenzelm@17664
  1360
* New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using
wenzelm@17664
  1361
the code generator.  INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be
wenzelm@17664
  1362
quoted when used as identifier.
berghofe@17663
  1363
wenzelm@16234
  1364
wenzelm@16234
  1365
*** Locales ***
ballarin@17095
  1366
wenzelm@17385
  1367
* New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in
wenzelm@17385
  1368
theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3).  These generate
wenzelm@17385
  1369
proof obligations from the expression specification.  After the
wenzelm@17385
  1370
obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added
wenzelm@17385
  1371
to the theory, target locale or proof context.  The synopsis of the
wenzelm@17385
  1372
commands is a follows:
wenzelm@17385
  1373
ballarin@17095
  1374
  (1) interpretation expr inst
ballarin@17095
  1375
  (2) interpretation target < expr
ballarin@17095
  1376
  (3) interpret expr inst
wenzelm@17385
  1377
ballarin@17095
  1378
Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter
ballarin@17095
  1379
instantiation of terms from the current context.  This is applied to
wenzelm@17385
  1380
specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.
wenzelm@17385
  1381
Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the
wenzelm@17385
  1382
locale expression.  Interpretation is smart in that interpretations
wenzelm@17385
  1383
that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are
wenzelm@17385
  1384
instantiated theorems stored in duplicate.  Use 'print_interps' to
wenzelm@17385
  1385
inspect active interpretations of a particular locale.  For details,
ballarin@17436
  1386
see the Isar Reference manual.  Examples can be found in
ballarin@17436
  1387
HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.
wenzelm@16234
  1388
wenzelm@16234
  1389
INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use
wenzelm@16234
  1390
'interpret' instead.
wenzelm@16234
  1391
wenzelm@17385
  1392
* New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to
wenzelm@17385
  1393
parameters.
wenzelm@17385
  1394
wenzelm@17385
  1395
* Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax
wenzelm@17385
  1396
redeclaration.
ballarin@17095
  1397
ballarin@17095
  1398
* Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.
ballarin@17095
  1399
wenzelm@16234
  1400
* Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /
wenzelm@16234
  1401
facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition
wenzelm@16234
  1402
context, independently of the context of later invocations.  Moreover,
wenzelm@16234
  1403
locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied
wenzelm@16234
  1404
to attribute arguments as expected.
wenzelm@16234
  1405
wenzelm@16234
  1406
INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of
wenzelm@16234
  1407
actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to
wenzelm@16234
  1408
embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.
wenzelm@16234
  1409
Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static
wenzelm@16234
  1410
binding mechanism.  Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and
wenzelm@16234
  1411
Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further
wenzelm@16234
  1412
intervention.  Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"
wenzelm@16234
  1413
(cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both
wenzelm@16234
  1414
on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed
wenzelm@16234
  1415
values to argument tokens explicitly.
wenzelm@16234
  1416
wenzelm@16234
  1417
* Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal
wenzelm@16234
  1418
statements with 'includes'.  INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different
wenzelm@16234
  1419
theorem statement in rare situations.
wenzelm@16234
  1420
ballarin@17228
  1421
* Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements.  Use
ballarin@17228
  1422
'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.
ballarin@17228
  1423
wenzelm@16234
  1424
wenzelm@16234
  1425
*** Provers ***
wenzelm@16234
  1426
wenzelm@16234
  1427
* Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for
wenzelm@16234
  1428
single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is
wenzelm@16234
  1429
'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may
wenzelm@16234
  1430
rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is
wenzelm@16234
  1431
still available as 'simplesubst'.
wenzelm@16234
  1432
wenzelm@16234
  1433
* Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only
wenzelm@16234
  1434
and quasi orders.
wenzelm@16234
  1435
wenzelm@16234
  1436
* Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and
wenzelm@16234
  1437
reflexive-transitive closure of relations.
wenzelm@16234
  1438
wenzelm@16234
  1439
* Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth
wenzelm@16234
  1440
limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.
wenzelm@16234
  1441
wenzelm@16234
  1442
* Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup
wenzelm@16234
  1443
is peformed already.  Object-logics merely need to finish their
wenzelm@16234
  1444
initial simpset configuration as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@15703
  1445
berghofe@15475
  1446
schirmer@14700
  1447
*** HOL ***
schirmer@14700
  1448
wenzelm@16234
  1449
* Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:
wenzelm@14878
  1450
wenzelm@14878
  1451
  syntax (epsilon)
wenzelm@14878
  1452
    "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a"    ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)
wenzelm@14878
  1453
wenzelm@16234
  1454
The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX
wenzelm@16234
  1455
and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.
wenzelm@16234
  1456
Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>
wenzelm@16234
  1457
becomes available as variable, constant etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
wenzelm@16234
  1458
wenzelm@16234
  1459
* "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".
wenzelm@16234
  1460
Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc.  The x-symbol for >=
wenzelm@17371
  1461
is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to
avigad@17016
  1462
support corresponding Isar calculations.
wenzelm@16234
  1463
wenzelm@16234
  1464
* "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"
wenzelm@16234
  1465
instead of ":".
wenzelm@16234
  1466
wenzelm@16234
  1467
* theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:
wenzelm@16234
  1468
wenzelm@16234
  1469
  Old       New
wenzelm@16234
  1470
  {..n(}    {..<n}
wenzelm@16234
  1471
  {)n..}    {n<..}
wenzelm@16234
  1472
  {m..n(}   {m..<n}
wenzelm@16234
  1473
  {)m..n}   {m<..n}
wenzelm@16234
  1474
  {)m..n(}  {m<..<n}
wenzelm@16234
  1475
wenzelm@16234
  1476
The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next
wenzelm@16234
  1477
release.  For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace
wenzelm@16234
  1478
patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):
nipkow@15046
  1479
nipkow@15046
  1480
  {)\([^\.]*\)\.\.  ->  {\1<\.\.}
nipkow@15046
  1481
  \.\.\([^(}]*\)(}  ->  \.\.<\1}
nipkow@15046
  1482
wenzelm@17533
  1483
* Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving
wenzelm@17533
  1484
equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic
wenzelm@17533
  1485
interface.
wenzelm@17389
  1486
wenzelm@17389
  1487
* Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over
wenzelm@16234
  1488
finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is
wenzelm@17371
  1489
now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can
paulson@17189
  1490
be a tuple pattern.
wenzelm@16234
  1491
wenzelm@16234
  1492
Some new syntax forms are available:
wenzelm@16234
  1493
wenzelm@16234
  1494
  "\<Sum>x | P. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"
wenzelm@16234
  1495
  "\<Sum>x = a..b. e"   for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"
wenzelm@16234
  1496
  "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e"  for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"
wenzelm@16234
  1497
  "\<Sum>x < k. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"
wenzelm@16234
  1498
wenzelm@16234
  1499
The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate
wenzelm@16234
  1500
function "Summation", which has been discontinued.
wenzelm@16234
  1501
wenzelm@16234
  1502
* theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case
wenzelm@16234
  1503
is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case
wenzelm@16234
  1504
(insert F x)'.
wenzelm@16234
  1505
wenzelm@16234
  1506
* The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger
wenzelm@16234
  1507
fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and
wenzelm@16234
  1508
typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.
wenzelm@16234
  1509
webertj@17700
  1510
* New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.
webertj@17700
  1511
Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed.  See
webertj@17700
  1512
HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.
webertj@17619
  1513
wenzelm@16234
  1514
* Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the
wenzelm@16234
  1515
induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by
wenzelm@16234
  1516
induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather
wenzelm@16234
  1517
than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
wenzelm@16234
  1518
in unstructured proof scripts.
wenzelm@16234
  1519
wenzelm@16234
  1520
* Reworked implementation of records.  Improved scalability for
wenzelm@16234
  1521
records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type
wenzelm@16234
  1522
inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but
wenzelm@16234
  1523
of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear
wenzelm@16234
  1524
in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields.  The
wenzelm@16234
  1525
top-level (users) view on records is preserved.  Potential
wenzelm@16234
  1526
INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the
wenzelm@16234
  1527
old record representation. The type generated for a record is called
wenzelm@16234
  1528
<record_name>_ext_type.
wenzelm@16234
  1529
wenzelm@16234
  1530
Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the
wenzelm@16234
  1531
proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if
wenzelm@16234
  1532
quick_and_dirty is enabled).  Definitions of large records can take
wenzelm@16234
  1533
quite long.
wenzelm@16234
  1534
wenzelm@16234
  1535
New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record
wenzelm@16234
  1536
updates enabled by default.  Moreover, trivial updates are also
wenzelm@16234
  1537
removed: r(|x := x r|) = r.  INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break
wenzelm@16234
  1538
occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.
wenzelm@16234
  1539
wenzelm@17275
  1540
* typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra
wenzelm@17275
  1541
type-variables in the term.
wenzelm@17275
  1542
wenzelm@16234
  1543
* Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains
wenzelm@16234
  1544
involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics
wenzelm@16234
  1545
provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
wenzelm@16234
  1546
old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more
wenzelm@16234
  1547
goals than previously.
wenzelm@16234
  1548
wenzelm@16234
  1549
* Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is
wenzelm@16234
  1550
present.  Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular
wenzelm@16234
  1551
numbers and sets.  For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y
wenzelm@16234
  1552
just like y <= x.
wenzelm@16234
  1553
wenzelm@16234
  1554
* Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x".  If a is a free or
wenzelm@16234
  1555
bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded.  Otherwise
wenzelm@16234
  1556
first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If
wenzelm@16234
  1557
possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",
wenzelm@16234
  1558
otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g.  The simproc can be
wenzelm@16234
  1559
enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc.  Potential
wenzelm@16234
  1560
INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.
webertj@15776
  1561
paulson@16563
  1562
* Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.
paulson@16563
  1563
paulson@17595
  1564
* Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background
paulson@17595
  1565
jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.
paulson@17595
  1566
wenzelm@16891
  1567
* Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and
wenzelm@16891
  1568
improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and
wenzelm@16891
  1569
inequalities.
wenzelm@16891
  1570
wenzelm@16891
  1571
The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
wenzelm@16891
  1572
(INCOMPATIBILITY):
avigad@16888
  1573
avigad@16888
  1574
  abs_eq             now named abs_of_nonneg
wenzelm@17371
  1575
  abs_of_ge_0        now named abs_of_nonneg
wenzelm@17371
  1576
  abs_minus_eq       now named abs_of_nonpos
avigad@16888
  1577
  imp_abs_id         now named abs_of_nonneg
avigad@16888
  1578
  imp_abs_neg_id     now named abs_of_nonpos
avigad@16888
  1579
  mult_pos           now named mult_pos_pos
avigad@16888
  1580
  mult_pos_le        now named mult_nonneg_nonneg
avigad@16888
  1581
  mult_pos_neg_le    now named mult_nonneg_nonpos
avigad@16888
  1582
  mult_pos_neg2_le   now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2
avigad@16888
  1583
  mult_neg           now named mult_neg_neg
avigad@16888
  1584
  mult_neg_le        now named mult_nonpos_nonpos
avigad@16888
  1585
wenzelm@16891
  1586
* Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.
wenzelm@16891
  1587
nipkow@17092
  1588
* Theory List:
nipkow@17092
  1589
nipkow@17092
  1590
The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
nipkow@17092
  1591
(INCOMPATIBILITY):
nipkow@17092
  1592
nipkow@17092
  1593
  list_all_Nil       now named list_all.simps(1)
nipkow@17092
  1594
  list_all_Cons      now named list_all.simps(2)
nipkow@17092
  1595
  list_all_conv      now named list_all_iff
nipkow@17092
  1596
  set_mem_eq         now named mem_iff
nipkow@17092
  1597
wenzelm@16929
  1598
* Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support
wenzelm@16929
  1599
asymptotic "big O" calculations.  See the notes in BigO.thy.
wenzelm@16929
  1600
avigad@16888
  1601
avigad@16888
  1602
*** HOL-Complex ***
avigad@16888
  1603
wenzelm@16891
  1604
* Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and
wenzelm@16891
  1605
integers in the reals.
wenzelm@16891
  1606
wenzelm@16891
  1607
The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
wenzelm@16891
  1608
(INCOMPATIBILITY):
wenzelm@16891
  1609
avigad@17016
  1610
  exp_ge_add_one_self  now requires no hypotheses
avigad@17016
  1611
  real_of_int_add      reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
avigad@17016
  1612
  real_of_int_minus    reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
avigad@17016
  1613
  real_of_int_diff     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
avigad@17016
  1614
  real_of_int_mult     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
wenzelm@16891
  1615
wenzelm@16891
  1616
* Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.
avigad@16888
  1617
avigad@16962
  1618
* Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm
avigad@16962
  1619
wenzelm@17423
  1620
* Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making
wenzelm@17423
  1621
nonstandard types.  The old type names are now type synonyms:
wenzelm@17423
  1622
wenzelm@17423
  1623
  hypreal = real star
wenzelm@17423
  1624
  hypnat = nat star
wenzelm@17423
  1625
  hcomplex = complex star
wenzelm@17423
  1626
wenzelm@17423
  1627
* Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been
huffman@17442
  1628
replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
wenzelm@17423
  1629
wenzelm@17423
  1630
  star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex
wenzelm@17423
  1631
wenzelm@17423
  1632
  starset      <-- starsetNat, starsetC
wenzelm@17423
  1633
  *s*          <-- *sNat*, *sc*
wenzelm@17423
  1634
  starset_n    <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n
wenzelm@17423
  1635
  *sn*         <-- *sNatn*, *scn*
wenzelm@17423
  1636
  InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets
wenzelm@17423
  1637
huffman@17442
  1638
  starfun      <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
wenzelm@17423
  1639
  *f*          <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*
huffman@17442
  1640
  starfun_n    <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n
wenzelm@17423
  1641
  *fn*         <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*
huffman@17442
  1642
  InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs
wenzelm@17423
  1643
wenzelm@17423
  1644
* Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of
huffman@17442
  1645
theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):
huffman@17442
  1646
huffman@17442
  1647
  add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute
huffman@17442
  1648
  add_assoc   <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs
huffman@17442
  1649
  OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left
huffman@17442
  1650
  OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right
wenzelm@17423
  1651
  right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus
huffman@17442
  1652
  left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left
huffman@17442
  1653
  mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute
huffman@17442
  1654
  mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc
huffman@17442
  1655
  mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left
wenzelm@17423
  1656
  mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right
wenzelm@17423
  1657
  mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left
huffman@17442
  1658
  left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib
wenzelm@17423
  1659
  right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2
huffman@17442
  1660
  zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one
wenzelm@17423
  1661
  right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse
wenzelm@17423
  1662
  left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left
huffman@17442
  1663
  order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl
huffman@17442
  1664
  order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans
huffman@17442
  1665
  order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym
huffman@17442
  1666
  order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le
huffman@17442
  1667
  linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear
huffman@17442
  1668
  add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono
huffman@17442
  1669
  mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2
wenzelm@17423
  1670
  add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order
wenzelm@17423
  1671
wenzelm@17423
  1672
* Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific
wenzelm@17423
  1673
versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the
huffman@17442
  1674
new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):
huffman@17442
  1675
huffman@17442
  1676
  STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set
huffman@17442
  1677
  STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set
huffman@17442
  1678
  STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un
huffman@17442
  1679
  STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int
huffman@17442
  1680
  STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl
huffman@17442
  1681
  STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset
huffman@17442
  1682
  STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem
huffman@17442
  1683
  STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl
huffman@17442
  1684
  STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff
huffman@17442
  1685
  STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,
huffman@17442
  1686
    STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset
huffman@17442
  1687
  starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un
huffman@17442
  1688
  starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int
huffman@17442
  1689
  starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl
huffman@17442
  1690
  starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff
huffman@17442
  1691
  InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un
huffman@17442
  1692
  InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int
huffman@17442
  1693
  InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl
huffman@17442
  1694
  InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff
huffman@17442
  1695
  InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff
huffman@17442
  1696
  InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n
huffman@17442
  1697
  starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq
huffman@17442
  1698
  starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}
huffman@17442
  1699
  starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
huffman@17442
  1700
  starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
huffman@17442
  1701
  starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult
huffman@17442
  1702
  starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add
huffman@17442
  1703
  starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus
huffman@17442
  1704
  starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff
huffman@17442
  1705
  starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o
huffman@17442
  1706
  starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2
huffman@17442
  1707
  starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun
huffman@17442
  1708
  starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse
huffman@17442
  1709
  starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq
huffman@17442
  1710
  starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff
wenzelm@17423
  1711
  starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id
huffman@17442
  1712
  starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx
huffman@17442
  1713
  starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox
wenzelm@17423
  1714
  starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs
huffman@17442
  1715
  starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel
huffman@17442
  1716
  starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2
wenzelm@17423
  1717
  starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox
huffman@17442
  1718
  starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox
huffman@17442
  1719
  starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox
wenzelm@17423
  1720
  starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx
wenzelm@17423
  1721
  starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse
huffman@17442
  1722
  starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide
huffman@17442
  1723
  starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n
huffman@17442
  1724
  starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult
huffman@17442
  1725
  starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add
wenzelm@17423
  1726
  starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus
huffman@17442
  1727
  starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun
huffman@17442
  1728
  starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus
huffman@17442
  1729
  starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq
huffman@17442
  1730
huffman@17442
  1731
  star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add
huffman@17442
  1732
  star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus
huffman@17442
  1733
  star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff
huffman@17442
  1734
  star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult
huffman@17442
  1735
  star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse
huffman@17442
  1736
  star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le
huffman@17442
  1737
  star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less
huffman@17442
  1738
  star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num
huffman@17442
  1739
  star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num
wenzelm@17423
  1740
  star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs
wenzelm@17423
  1741
  star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide
wenzelm@17423
  1742
huffman@17442
  1743
  star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add
huffman@17442
  1744
  star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus
wenzelm@17423
  1745
  star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff
huffman@17442
  1746
  star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult
huffman@17442
  1747
  star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one
huffman@17442
  1748
  star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero
huffman@17442
  1749
  star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff
huffman@17442
  1750
  star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff
huffman@17442
  1751
  star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff
huffman@17442
  1752
  star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse
huffman@17442
  1753
  star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide
huffman@17442
  1754
  star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat
huffman@17442
  1755
  star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int
huffman@17442
  1756
  star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of
wenzelm@17423
  1757
  star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff
wenzelm@17423
  1758
  star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff
wenzelm@17423
  1759
  star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff
wenzelm@17423
  1760
  star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff
wenzelm@17423
  1761
  star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff
wenzelm@17423
  1762
  star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power
wenzelm@17423
  1763
  star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff
wenzelm@17423
  1764
huffman@17442
  1765
* Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer
huffman@17442
  1766
principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions
huffman@17442
  1767
nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"
huffman@17442
  1768
replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.
huffman@17442
  1769
To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-
huffman@17442
  1770
standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.
huffman@17442
  1771
wenzelm@17641
  1772
* Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.
wenzelm@17641
  1773
wenzelm@14655
  1774
wenzelm@14682
  1775
*** HOLCF ***
wenzelm@14682
  1776
wenzelm@17533
  1777
* Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support
wenzelm@17533
  1778
continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full
wenzelm@17533
  1779
type-inference.
wenzelm@17533
  1780
wenzelm@17533
  1781
* New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it
wenzelm@17533
  1782
is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic
huffman@17442
  1783
instead of exponential time).
huffman@17442
  1784
wenzelm@17533
  1785
* New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.
huffman@17442
  1786
Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:
huffman@17442
  1787
huffman@17442
  1788
  domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")
huffman@17442
  1789
wenzelm@17533
  1790
* New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern
wenzelm@17533
  1791
matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also
wenzelm@17533
  1792
supported.  Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,
wenzelm@17533
  1793
sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given
wenzelm@17533
  1794
equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
wenzelm@17533
  1795
syntax and examples.
wenzelm@17533
  1796
wenzelm@17533
  1797
* New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes
wenzelm@17533
  1798
of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,
wenzelm@17533
  1799
but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility
wenzelm@17533
  1800
requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,
wenzelm@17533
  1801
with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.
huffman@17442
  1802
huffman@17584
  1803
* HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming
huffman@17584
  1804
scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):
huffman@17584
  1805
huffman@17584
  1806
  foo_inject:  "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"
huffman@17584
  1807
  foo_eq:      "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"
huffman@17584
  1808
  foo_less:    "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"
huffman@17584
  1809
  foo_strict:  "foo$UU = UU"
huffman@17584
  1810
  foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"
huffman@17584
  1811
  foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"
huffman@17584
  1812
wenzelm@14682
  1813
paulson@14885
  1814
*** ZF ***
paulson@14885
  1815
wenzelm@16234
  1816
* ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,
wenzelm@16234
  1817
including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel
wenzelm@16234
  1818
of a homomorphism).
wenzelm@15089
  1819
wenzelm@15089
  1820
* ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually
wenzelm@16234
  1821
makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);
wenzelm@16234
  1822
the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.
wenzelm@15703
  1823
wenzelm@15703
  1824
wenzelm@17445
  1825
*** Cube ***
wenzelm@17445
  1826
wenzelm@17445
  1827
* Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic
wenzelm@17445
  1828
theories.
wenzelm@17445
  1829
wenzelm@17445
  1830
wenzelm@15703
  1831
*** ML ***
wenzelm@15703
  1832
haftmann@21339
  1833
* Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts
haftmann@21339
  1834
for ||>, ||>>, |>>,
haftmann@21339
  1835
wenzelm@15973
  1836
* Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses
wenzelm@16234
  1837
that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of
wenzelm@16234
  1838
None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.
wenzelm@16234
  1839
The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted
wenzelm@16234
  1840
accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.
wenzelm@15973
  1841
wenzelm@16860
  1842
* Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of
wenzelm@16860
  1843
the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as
wenzelm@16860
  1844
Library.UnequalLengths.  Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are
wenzelm@16860
  1845
superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.
wenzelm@16860
  1846
wenzelm@16860
  1847
A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML
wenzelm@16860
  1848
toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions.  The following
wenzelm@16234
  1849
suggests how one can translate existing code:
wenzelm@15973
  1850
wenzelm@15973
  1851
    rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)
wenzelm@15973
  1852
    nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)
wenzelm@15973
  1853
    last_elem xs = List.last xs
wenzelm@15973
  1854
    flat xss = List.concat xss
wenzelm@16234
  1855
    seq fs = List.app fs
wenzelm@15973
  1856
    partition P xs = List.partition P xs
wenzelm@15973
  1857
    mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs
wenzelm@15973
  1858
wenzelm@16860
  1859
* Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional
wenzelm@16860
  1860
transformations, notably reverse application and composition:
wenzelm@16860
  1861
wenzelm@17371
  1862
  x |> f                f #> g
wenzelm@17371
  1863
  (x, y) |-> f          f #-> g
wenzelm@16860
  1864
haftmann@17495
  1865
* Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:
haftmann@17495
  1866
haftmann@17495
  1867
  infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;
haftmann@17495
  1868
  infix 2 ?;
haftmann@17495
  1869
  infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;
haftmann@17495
  1870
  infix 4 ~~ upto downto;
haftmann@17495
  1871
haftmann@17495
  1872
Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other
haftmann@17495
  1873
infix operators.
haftmann@17495
  1874
wenzelm@17408
  1875
* Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and
haftmann@16869
  1876
fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting.  For
wenzelm@16860
  1877
example:
wenzelm@16860
  1878
wenzelm@16860
  1879
  fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =
wenzelm@16860
  1880
    y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN
wenzelm@16860
  1881
wenzelm@16860
  1882
  (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =
wenzelm@16860
  1883
    y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN
wenzelm@16860
  1884
wenzelm@16860
  1885
  fold f [x1, ..., xN] =
wenzelm@16860
  1886
    f x1 #> ... #> f xN
wenzelm@16860
  1887
wenzelm@16860
  1888
  (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =
wenzelm@16860
  1889
    fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN
wenzelm@16860
  1890
wenzelm@17408
  1891
* Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are
wenzelm@17408
  1892
available:
wenzelm@17408
  1893
wenzelm@17408
  1894
  the:               'a option -> 'a  (*partial*)
wenzelm@17408
  1895
  these:             'a option -> 'a  where 'a = 'b list
haftmann@17402
  1896
  the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a
haftmann@17402
  1897
  the_list:          'a option -> 'a list
haftmann@17402
  1898
wenzelm@17408
  1899
* Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
wenzelm@17408
  1900
basic operations for association lists, following natural argument
haftmann@17564
  1901
order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids
haftmann@17495
  1902
potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.
haftmann@17495
  1903
The old functions may be expressed as follows:
wenzelm@17408
  1904
wenzelm@17408
  1905
  assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))
wenzelm@17408
  1906
  assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)
wenzelm@17408
  1907
  overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap
wenzelm@17408
  1908
haftmann@17564
  1909
* Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
haftmann@17564
  1910
haftmann@17564
  1911
  val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list
haftmann@17564
  1912
  val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list
haftmann@17564
  1913
haftmann@17564
  1914
replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)
haftmann@17564
  1915
Naive rewrites:
haftmann@17564
  1916
haftmann@17564
  1917
  make_keylist = AList.make
haftmann@17564
  1918
  keyfilter = AList.find (op =)
haftmann@17564
  1919
haftmann@17564
  1920
* eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus
haftmann@17564
  1921
  avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:
haftmann@17564
  1922
haftmann@17564
  1923
    eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)
haftmann@17564
  1924
    eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)
haftmann@17564
  1925
haftmann@17564
  1926
* Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).
haftmann@17564
  1927
  Naive rewrites:
haftmann@17564
  1928
haftmann@17564
  1929
    apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n
haftmann@17564
  1930
    apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)
haftmann@17564
  1931
wenzelm@17408
  1932
* Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)
wenzelm@17408
  1933
provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as
wenzelm@17408
  1934
lists.
wenzelm@17408
  1935
wenzelm@17408
  1936
* Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a
wenzelm@17408
  1937
few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to
wenzelm@17408
  1938
follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);
wenzelm@17408
  1939
INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.
wenzelm@17408
  1940
wenzelm@17408
  1941
* Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of
wenzelm@17408
  1942
writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a
wenzelm@17408
  1943
hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode
wenzelm@17408
  1944
(cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output
wenzelm@17408
  1945
function wins).  Already formatted output may be embedded into further
wenzelm@17408
  1946
text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived
wenzelm@17408
  1947
functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to
wenzelm@17408
  1948
accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc.  Programmers
wenzelm@17408
  1949
rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with
wenzelm@17408
  1950
some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the
wenzelm@17408
  1951
standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce
wenzelm@17408
  1952
properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing
wenzelm@17408
  1953
already output material that will eventually be presented to the user
wenzelm@17408
  1954
a second time.  For the default print mode, both Output.output and
wenzelm@17408
  1955
Output.raw have no effect.
wenzelm@17408
  1956
wenzelm@17408
  1957
* Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a
wenzelm@17408
  1958
-> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the
wenzelm@17408
  1959
cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.
wenzelm@17408
  1960
wenzelm@17408
  1961
* Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been
wenzelm@17408
  1962
replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate
wenzelm@17408
  1963
hooks).  This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the
wenzelm@17408
  1964
internal and external process view of file names are different.
wenzelm@17408
  1965
wenzelm@16689
  1966
* Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added
wenzelm@16689
  1967
fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord
wenzelm@16689
  1968
and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is
wenzelm@16689
  1969
NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast
wenzelm@16689
  1970
orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a
wenzelm@16689
  1971
particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using
wenzelm@16689
  1972
Library.sort_strings on result).
wenzelm@16689
  1973
wenzelm@17408
  1974
* Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,
wenzelm@17408
  1975
fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural
wenzelm@17408
  1976
argument order.  Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,
wenzelm@17408
  1977
add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@17408
  1978
wenzelm@16151
  1979
* Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the
wenzelm@16234
  1980
internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY.  Renamed cond_extern(_table)
wenzelm@16234
  1981
to extern(_table).  The plain name entry path is superceded by a
wenzelm@16234
  1982
general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce
wenzelm@16234
  1983
a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified
wenzelm@16234
  1984
name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent
wenzelm@16234
  1985
Sign.declare_name.  Several theory and proof context operations modify
wenzelm@16234
  1986
the naming context.  Especially note Theory.restore_naming and
wenzelm@16234
  1987
ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that
wenzelm@16234
  1988
Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from
wenzelm@16234
  1989
Theory.absolute_path in particular.
wenzelm@16234
  1990
wenzelm@16234
  1991
* Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names
wenzelm@16234
  1992
(default true) for controlling output of qualified names.  If
wenzelm@16234
  1993
short_names is set, names are printed unqualified.  If unique_names is
wenzelm@16234
  1994
reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve
wenzelm@16234
  1995
the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap
wenzelm@16234
  1996
with earlier declarations.
wenzelm@16151
  1997
wenzelm@16456
  1998
* Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is
wenzelm@16456
  1999
now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument
wenzelm@16456
  2000
(useful for printing error messages).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@16456
  2001
wenzelm@16456
  2002
* Pure: major reorganization of the theory context.  Type Sign.sg and
wenzelm@16456
  2003
Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal
wenzelm@16456
  2004
Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML).  Actual signature and theory
wenzelm@16456
  2005
content is managed as theory data.  The old code and interfaces were
wenzelm@16456
  2006
spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces
wenzelm@16456
  2007
considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:
wenzelm@16456
  2008
wenzelm@16456
  2009
  Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,
wenzelm@16456
  2010
    parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;
wenzelm@16456
  2011
wenzelm@16456
  2012
  Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,
wenzelm@16456
  2013
    types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;
wenzelm@16456
  2014
wenzelm@16456
  2015
  Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,
wenzelm@16456
  2016
    oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,
wenzelm@16456
  2017
    types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,
wenzelm@16456
  2018
    Theory.merge, etc.)
wenzelm@16456
  2019
wenzelm@16456
  2020
The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm
wenzelm@16456
  2021
etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained
wenzelm@16456
  2022
for convenience -- they merely return the theory.
wenzelm@16456
  2023
wenzelm@17193
  2024
* Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.
wenzelm@17193
  2025
wenzelm@16547
  2026
* Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure
wenzelm@16547
  2027
as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are
wenzelm@16547
  2028
aliases, where the latter is the preferred name).  This enables other
wenzelm@16547
  2029
Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.
wenzelm@16547
  2030
wenzelm@16373
  2031
* Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,
wenzelm@16373
  2032
typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for
wenzelm@16373
  2033
any of these kinds.  For example, Sign.intern typeK is now
wenzelm@16373
  2034
Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now
wenzelm@16373
  2035
Theory.hide_types.  Also note that former
wenzelm@16373
  2036
Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now
wenzelm@16373
  2037
Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions
wenzelm@16373
  2038
internalize their arguments!  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@16373
  2039
wenzelm@16506
  2040
* Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects
wenzelm@16506
  2041
datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of
wenzelm@16506
  2042
plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;
wenzelm@16506
  2043
wenzelm@16151
  2044
* Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE
wenzelm@16234
  2045
means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in
wenzelm@16234
  2046
(RAW_)METHOD_CASES.
wenzelm@16151
  2047
wenzelm@16373
  2048
* Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a
wenzelm@16373
  2049
theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:
wenzelm@16373
  2050
wenzelm@16373
  2051
  Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
wenzelm@16373
  2052
  Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
wenzelm@16373
  2053
  PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
wenzelm@16373
  2054
  PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
wenzelm@16373
  2055
wenzelm@16718
  2056
* Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.
wenzelm@16718
  2057
wenzelm@17408
  2058
* Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.
wenzelm@17408
  2059
Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing
wenzelm@17408
  2060
and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)
wenzelm@17408
  2061
controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space
wenzelm@17408
  2062
(both increase the runtime).
wenzelm@17408
  2063
wenzelm@17408
  2064
* Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,
wenzelm@17408
  2065
i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the
wenzelm@17408
  2066
elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.
wenzelm@17408
  2067
wenzelm@17408
  2068
* Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless
wenzelm@16997
  2069
representation, avoid allocating new strings).  Simprocs that invoke
wenzelm@16997
  2070
the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to
wenzelm@17720
  2071
avoid local name clashes.  Failure to do so produces warnings
wenzelm@17720
  2072
"Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds
wenzelm@17720
  2073
for further details.
wenzelm@16234
  2074
wenzelm@17166
  2075
* ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact
wenzelm@17166
  2076
bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help
wenzelm@17166
  2077
in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof
wenzelm@17166
  2078
scripts for the time being.
wenzelm@17166
  2079
wenzelm@17457
  2080
* ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for
wenzelm@17457
  2081
generated HTML files.  For example:
wenzelm@17457
  2082
wenzelm@17457
  2083
  HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";
wenzelm@17538
  2084
  HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";
wenzelm@17457
  2085
wenzelm@16234
  2086
wenzelm@16234
  2087
*** System ***
wenzelm@16234
  2088
wenzelm@16234
  2089
* Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,
wenzelm@16234
  2090
isabelle, isatool etc.).
wenzelm@16234
  2091
wenzelm@16234
  2092
* ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for
wenzelm@16234
  2093
isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).
wenzelm@16234
  2094
wenzelm@16234
  2095
* isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be
wenzelm@16234
  2096
used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.
wenzelm@16234
  2097
wenzelm@16251
  2098
* New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle
wenzelm@16251
  2099
distribution being used.
wenzelm@16251
  2100
wenzelm@16251
  2101
* HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format
wenzelm@16234
  2102
(containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL
wenzelm@16234
  2103
theories.
wenzelm@15703
  2104
wenzelm@15703
  2105
wenzelm@14655
  2106
wenzelm@14606
  2107
New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)
wenzelm@14606
  2108
--------------------------------
wenzelm@13280
  2109
skalberg@14171
  2110
*** General ***
skalberg@14171
  2111
ballarin@14398
  2112
* Provers/order.ML:  new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.
ballarin@14398
  2113
  Replaces linorder.ML.
ballarin@14398
  2114
wenzelm@14606
  2115
* Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic
wenzelm@14606
  2116
  (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler
skalberg@14173
  2117
  (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore
skalberg@14173
  2118
  be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until
skalberg@14173
  2119
  now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some
skalberg@14173
  2120
  terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say
skalberg@14173
  2121
  '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed
skalberg@14173
  2122
  as an identifier.  Fix it by inserting a space around former
skalberg@14173
  2123
  symbols.  Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in
skalberg@14173
  2124
  existing theory and ML files.
skalberg@14171
  2125
paulson@14237
  2126
* Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.
paulson@14237
  2127
wenzelm@14731
  2128
* Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now
wenzelm@14731
  2129
  allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered
wenzelm@14731
  2130
  a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat
wenzelm@14731
  2131
  \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.
kleing@14233
  2132
kleing@14333
  2133
* Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one
kleing@14333
  2134
  character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in
wenzelm@14606
  2135
  ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in
wenzelm@14606
  2136
  superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.
kleing@14333
  2137
schirmer@14561
  2138
* Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the
wenzelm@14606
  2139
  content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."
wenzelm@14606
  2140
  may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.
schirmer@14361
  2141
paulson@14237
  2142
* Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions
paulson@14237
  2143
  Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to
paulson@14237
  2144
  declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition
paulson@14237
  2145
  later.  It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically
skalberg@14224
  2146
  rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.
skalberg@14224
  2147
wenzelm@14606
  2148
* Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts
wenzelm@14606
  2149
  (i.e. intersections of classes),
skalberg@14503
  2150
kleing@14547
  2151
* Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout
wenzelm@14731
  2152
  (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.
kleing@14547
  2153
  It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.
kleing@14547
  2154
wenzelm@14556
  2155
ballarin@14175
  2156
*** Isar ***
ballarin@14175
  2157
ballarin@14508
  2158
* Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,
ballarin@14508
  2159
  cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:
ballarin@14175
  2160
  - Now understand static (Isar) contexts.  As a consequence, users of Isar
ballarin@14175
  2161
    locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.
ballarin@14175
  2162
    For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic
ballarin@14175
  2163
    emulations.
ballarin@14175
  2164
  - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no
ballarin@14211
  2165
    longer be enclosed in quotes.  Instead, precede variable name with `?'.
ballarin@14211
  2166
    This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".
ballarin@14211
  2167
ballarin@14257
  2168
* Attributes "where" and "of":
ballarin@14285
  2169
  - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading
ballarin@14285
  2170
    the instantiation string.  This fixes a bug that caused instantiated
ballarin@14285
  2171
    theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.
ballarin@14285
  2172
  - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.
ballarin@14257
  2173
wenzelm@14556
  2174
* Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with
wenzelm@14556
  2175
  current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"
wenzelm@14556
  2176
  and derived forms.
kleing@14283
  2177
ballarin@14211
  2178
* Locales:
ballarin@14211
  2179
  - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer
ballarin@14211
  2180
    generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on
ballarin@14211
  2181
    "_axioms") in the premise.
ballarin@14211
  2182
    Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.
ballarin@14211
  2183
  - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target
ballarin@14211
  2184
    specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.
ballarin@14254
  2185
  - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as
ballarin@14254
  2186
    [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.
ballarin@14508
  2187
  - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:
ballarin@14551
  2188
        instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>
ballarin@14508
  2189
    Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context
ballarin@14551
  2190
    taking into account their attributes.  Label and attrs are optional
ballarin@14551
  2191
    modifiers, like in theorem declarations.  If present, names of
ballarin@14551
  2192
    instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes
ballarin@14551
  2193
    <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.
ballarin@14551
  2194
      If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form
ballarin@14508
  2195
    "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters
ballarin@14551
  2196
    are derived.  The command does not support old-style locales declared
ballarin@14551
  2197
    with "locale (open)".
ballarin@14551
  2198
      A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.
ballarin@14175
  2199
ballarin@14175
  2200
* HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static
ballarin@14175
  2201
  (Isar) contexts.
ballarin@14175
  2202
wenzelm@14556
  2203
kleing@14136
  2204
*** HOL ***
kleing@14136
  2205
kleing@14624
  2206
* Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from
kleing@14624
  2207
  the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by
kleing@14624
  2208
  replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image
kleing@14624
  2209
  can be used like any other Isabelle image.  See
kleing@14624
  2210
  HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.
kleing@14624
  2211
ballarin@14398
  2212
* Simplifier:
ballarin@14398
  2213
  - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.
ballarin@14398
  2214
    Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes
ballarin@14398
  2215
    "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset
ballarin@14398
  2216
    as solvers.  This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains
ballarin@14398
  2217
    to solve goals from the assumptions.
ballarin@14398
  2218
  - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally.  Typically, applications
ballarin@14398
  2219
    of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal
ballarin@14398
  2220
    is solved by simplification already.
ballarin@14398
  2221
wenzelm@14731
  2222
* Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,
paulson@14389
  2223
    all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.
paulson@14389
  2224
paulson@14389
  2225
* Numerics:
paulson@14389
  2226
  - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are
wenzelm@14731
  2227
    now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.
paulson@14389
  2228
  - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently
paulson@14389
  2229
    than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.
wenzelm@14731
  2230
  - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.
paulson@14480
  2231
    Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern
paulson@14480
  2232
    exponentiation).
paulson@14389
  2233
paulson@14401
  2234
* Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.
paulson@14389
  2235
schirmer@14255
  2236
* Records:
schirmer@14255
  2237
  - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation
schirmer@14255
  2238
    instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via
schirmer@14255
  2239
    the reference "print_record_type_abbr".
wenzelm@14731
  2240
  - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added
schirmer@14255
  2241
    (not enabled by default).
schirmer@14427
  2242
  - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.
schirmer@14427
  2243
    EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).
schirmer@14255
  2244
  - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.
wenzelm@14731
  2245
kleing@14136
  2246
* 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by
skalberg@14224
  2247
  specification.  There is also an 'ax_specification' command that
skalberg@14224
  2248
  introduces the new constants axiomatically.
kleing@14136
  2249
nipkow@14375
  2250
* arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.
nipkow@14375
  2251
ballarin@14399
  2252
* HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.
ballarin@14399
  2253
paulson@14243
  2254
* HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function
kleing@14610
  2255
  definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.
kleing@14610
  2256
wenzelm@14731
  2257
* HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of
kleing@14610
  2258
  matrix theory to linear programming.
kleing@14136
  2259
nipkow@14380
  2260
* Unions and Intersections:
nipkow@15119
  2261
  The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed
nipkow@15119
  2262
  from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"
nipkow@15119
  2263
  i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.
nipkow@15119
  2264
  Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.
nipkow@14380
  2265
kleing@14418
  2266
* Unions and Intersections over Intervals:
wenzelm@14731
  2267
  There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is
wenzelm@14731
  2268
  also an x-symbol version with subscripts "\<Union>\<^bsub>i <= n\<^esub>. A"
kleing@14418
  2269
  like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.
kleing@14418
  2270
nipkow@15677
  2271
* HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard
nipkow@15677
  2272
  lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".
nipkow@15677
  2273
paulson@14401
  2274
* ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had
paulson@14401
  2275
  conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.
nipkow@14380
  2276
webertj@14464
  2277
* 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels.  Only works
webertj@14464
  2278
  for a fragment of HOL.  The installation of an external SAT solver is
webertj@14464
  2279
  highly recommended.  See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.
webertj@14464
  2280
berghofe@14602
  2281
* 'quickcheck' command: Allows to find counterexamples by evaluating
berghofe@14602
  2282
  formulae under an assignment of free variables to random values.
berghofe@14602
  2283
  In contrast to 'refute', it can deal with inductive datatypes,
berghofe@14602
  2284
  but cannot handle quantifiers. See "HOL/ex/Quickcheck_Examples.thy"
berghofe@14602
  2285
  for examples.
webertj@14464
  2286
wenzelm@14606
  2287
oheimb@14536
  2288
*** HOLCF ***
oheimb@14536
  2289
oheimb@14536
  2290
* Streams now come with concatenation and are part of the HOLCF image
oheimb@14536
  2291
wenzelm@14572
  2292
wenzelm@14572
  2293
kleing@14136
  2294
New in Isabelle2003 (May 2003)
wenzelm@14606
  2295
------------------------------
kleing@14136
  2296
wenzelm@13280
  2297
*** General ***
wenzelm@13280
  2298
berghofe@13618
  2299
* Provers/simplifier:
berghofe@13618
  2300
nipkow@13781
  2301
  - Completely reimplemented method simp (ML: Asm_full_simp_tac):
berghofe@13618
  2302
    Assumptions are now subject to complete mutual simplification,
berghofe@13618
  2303
    not just from left to right. The simplifier now preserves
berghofe@13618
  2304
    the order of assumptions.
berghofe@13618
  2305
berghofe@13618
  2306
    Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
berghofe@13618
  2307
nipkow@13781
  2308
    -- simp sometimes diverges where the old version did
nipkow@13781
  2309
       not, e.g. invoking simp on the goal
berghofe@13618
  2310
berghofe@13618
  2311
        [| P (f x); y = x; f x = f y |] ==> Q
berghofe@13618
  2312
nipkow@13781
  2313
       now gives rise to the infinite reduction sequence
nipkow@13781
  2314
nipkow@13781
  2315
        P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> P(f y) --(y = x)--> P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> ...
nipkow@13781
  2316
nipkow@13781
  2317
       Using "simp (asm_lr)" (ML: Asm_lr_simp_tac) instead often solves this
nipkow@13781
  2318
       kind of problem.
nipkow@13781
  2319
nipkow@13781
  2320
    -- Tactics combining classical reasoner and simplification (such as auto)
nipkow@13781
  2321
       are also affected by this change, because many of them rely on
nipkow@13781
  2322
       simp. They may sometimes diverge as well or yield a different numbers
nipkow@13781
  2323
       of subgoals. Try to use e.g. force, fastsimp, or safe instead of auto
nipkow@13781
  2324
       in case of problems. Sometimes subsequent calls to the classical
nipkow@13781
  2325
       reasoner will fail because a preceeding call to the simplifier too
nipkow@13781
  2326
       eagerly simplified the goal, e.g. deleted redundant premises.
berghofe@13618
  2327
berghofe@13618
  2328
  - The simplifier trace now shows the names of the applied rewrite rules
berghofe@13618
  2329
nipkow@13829
  2330
  - You can limit the number of recursive invocations of the simplifier
nipkow@13829
  2331
    during conditional rewriting (where the simplifie tries to solve the
nipkow@13829
  2332
    conditions before applying the rewrite rule):
nipkow@13829
  2333
    ML "simp_depth_limit := n"
nipkow@13829
  2334
    where n is an integer. Thus you can force termination where previously
nipkow@13829
  2335
    the simplifier would diverge.
nipkow@13829
  2336
ballarin@13835
  2337
  - Accepts free variables as head terms in congruence rules.  Useful in Isar.
nipkow@13829
  2338
ballarin@13938
  2339
  - No longer aborts on failed congruence proof.  Instead, the
ballarin@13938
  2340
    congruence is ignored.
ballarin@13938
  2341
berghofe@14008
  2342
* Pure: New generic framework for extracting programs from constructive
berghofe@14008
  2343
  proofs. See HOL/Extraction.thy for an example instantiation, as well
berghofe@14008
  2344
  as HOL/Extraction for some case studies.
berghofe@14008
  2345
nipkow@13868
  2346
* Pure: The main goal of the proof state is no longer shown by default, only
nipkow@13868
  2347
the subgoals. This behaviour is controlled by a new flag.
ballarin@13835
  2348
   PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Settings -> Show Main Goal
nipkow@13815
  2349
(ML: Proof.show_main_goal).
nipkow@13815
  2350
nipkow@13815
  2351
* Pure: You can find all matching introduction rules for subgoal 1, i.e. all
nipkow@13815
  2352
rules whose conclusion matches subgoal 1:
nipkow@13815
  2353
      PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Show me -> matching rules
nipkow@13815
  2354
The rules are ordered by how closely they match the subgoal.
nipkow@13815
  2355
In particular, rules that solve a subgoal outright are displayed first
nipkow@13815
  2356
(or rather last, the way they are printed).
nipkow@13815
  2357
(ML: ProofGeneral.print_intros())
nipkow@13815
  2358
nipkow@13815
  2359
* Pure: New flag trace_unify_fail causes unification to print
nipkow@13781
  2360
diagnostic information (PG: in trace buffer) when it fails. This is
nipkow@13781
  2361
useful for figuring out why single step proofs like rule, erule or
nipkow@13781
  2362
assumption failed.
nipkow@13781
  2363
nipkow@13815
  2364
* Pure: Locale specifications now produce predicate definitions
wenzelm@13410
  2365
according to the body of text (covering assumptions modulo local
wenzelm@13410
  2366
definitions); predicate "loc_axioms" covers newly introduced text,
wenzelm@13410
  2367
while "loc" is cumulative wrt. all included locale expressions; the
wenzelm@13410
  2368
latter view is presented only on export into the global theory
wenzelm@13410
  2369
context; potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use "(open)" option to fall back
wenzelm@13410
  2370
on the old view without predicates;
wenzelm@13410
  2371
wenzelm@13459
  2372
* Pure: predefined locales "var" and "struct" are useful for sharing
wenzelm@13459
  2373
parameters (as in CASL, for example); just specify something like
wenzelm@13459
  2374
``var x + var y + struct M'' as import;
wenzelm@13459
  2375
wenzelm@13463
  2376
* Pure: improved thms_containing: proper indexing of facts instead of
wenzelm@13463
  2377
raw theorems; check validity of results wrt. current name space;
wenzelm@13463
  2378
include local facts of proof configuration (also covers active
wenzelm@13541
  2379
locales), cover fixed variables in index; may use "_" in term
wenzelm@13541
  2380
specification; an optional limit for the number of printed facts may
wenzelm@13541
  2381
be given (the default is 40);
wenzelm@13541
  2382
wenzelm@13541
  2383
* Pure: disallow duplicate fact bindings within new-style theory files
wenzelm@13541
  2384
(batch-mode only);
wenzelm@13540
  2385
wenzelm@13463
  2386
* Provers: improved induct method: assumptions introduced by case
wenzelm@13463
  2387
"foo" are split into "foo.hyps" (from the rule) and "foo.prems" (from
wenzelm@13463
  2388
the goal statement); "foo" still refers to all facts collectively;
wenzelm@13463
  2389
paulson@13550
  2390
* Provers: the function blast.overloaded has been removed: all constants
paulson@13550
  2391
are regarded as potentially overloaded, which improves robustness in exchange
paulson@13550
  2392
for slight decrease in efficiency;
paulson@13550
  2393
nipkow@13781
  2394
* Provers/linorder: New generic prover for transitivity reasoning over
nipkow@13781
  2395
linear orders.  Note: this prover is not efficient!
nipkow@13781
  2396
wenzelm@13522
  2397
* Isar: preview of problems to finish 'show' now produce an error
wenzelm@13522
  2398
rather than just a warning (in interactive mode);
wenzelm@13522
  2399
wenzelm@13280
  2400
nipkow@13158
  2401
*** HOL ***
nipkow@13158
  2402
nipkow@13899
  2403
* arith(_tac)
nipkow@13899
  2404
nipkow@13899
  2405
 - Produces a counter example if it cannot prove a goal.
nipkow@13899
  2406
   Note that the counter example may be spurious if the goal is not a formula
nipkow@13899
  2407
   of quantifier-free linear arithmetic.
nipkow@13899
  2408
   In ProofGeneral the counter example appears in the trace buffer.
nipkow@13899
  2409
nipkow@13899
  2410
 - Knows about div k and mod k where k is a numeral of type nat or int.
nipkow@13899
  2411
nipkow@13899
  2412
 - Calls full Presburger arithmetic (by Amine Chaieb) if quantifier-free
nipkow@13899
  2413
   linear arithmetic fails. This takes account of quantifiers and divisibility.
wenzelm@14731
  2414
   Presburger arithmetic can also be called explicitly via presburger(_tac).
nipkow@13899
  2415
nipkow@13899
  2416
* simp's arithmetic capabilities have been enhanced a bit: it now
nipkow@13899
  2417
takes ~= in premises into account (by performing a case split);
nipkow@13899
  2418
nipkow@13899
  2419
* simp reduces "m*(n div m) + n mod m" to n, even if the two summands
nipkow@13899
  2420
are distributed over a sum of terms;
nipkow@13899
  2421
ballarin@13735
  2422
* New tactic "trans_tac" and method "trans" instantiate
ballarin@13735
  2423
Provers/linorder.ML for axclasses "order" and "linorder" (predicates
wenzelm@14731
  2424
"<=", "<" and "=").
wenzelm@14731
  2425
wenzelm@14731
  2426
* function INCOMPATIBILITIES: Pi-sets have been redefined and moved from main
paulson@13587
  2427
HOL to Library/FuncSet; constant "Fun.op o" is now called "Fun.comp";
paulson@13587
  2428
wenzelm@13443
  2429
* 'typedef' command has new option "open" to suppress the set
wenzelm@13443
  2430
definition;
wenzelm@13443
  2431
wenzelm@13522
  2432
* functions Min and Max on finite sets have been introduced (theory
wenzelm@13522
  2433
Finite_Set);
nipkow@13492
  2434
wenzelm@13443
  2435
* attribute [symmetric] now works for relations as well; it turns
wenzelm@13443
  2436
(x,y) : R^-1 into (y,x) : R, and vice versa;
wenzelm@13443
  2437
nipkow@13613
  2438
* induct over a !!-quantified statement (say !!x1..xn):
nipkow@13613
  2439
  each "case" automatically performs "fix x1 .. xn" with exactly those names.
nipkow@13613
  2440
nipkow@13899
  2441
* Map: `empty' is no longer a constant but a syntactic abbreviation for
nipkow@13899
  2442
%x. None. Warning: empty_def now refers to the previously hidden definition
nipkow@13899
  2443
of the empty set.
nipkow@13899
  2444
ballarin@14018
  2445
* Algebra: formalization of classical algebra.  Intended as base for
ballarin@14018
  2446
any algebraic development in Isabelle.  Currently covers group theory
ballarin@14018
  2447
(up to Sylow's theorem) and ring theory (Universal Property of
ballarin@14018
  2448
Univariate Polynomials).  Contributions welcome;
paulson@13960
  2449
paulson@13960
  2450
* GroupTheory: deleted, since its material has been moved to Algebra;
paulson@13960
  2451
wenzelm@14731
  2452
* Complex: new directory of the complex numbers with numeric constants,
wenzelm@14731
  2453
nonstandard complex numbers, and some complex analysis, standard and
paulson@13966
  2454
nonstandard (Jacques Fleuriot);
paulson@13966
  2455
paulson@13966
  2456
* HOL-Complex: new image for analysis, replacing HOL-Real and HOL-Hyperreal;
paulson@13966
  2457
wenzelm@14731
  2458
* Hyperreal: introduced Gauge integration and hyperreal logarithms (Jacques
paulson@13966
  2459
Fleuriot);
paulson@13960
  2460
wenzelm@13549
  2461
* Real/HahnBanach: updated and adapted to locales;
wenzelm@13549
  2462
ballarin@13995
  2463
* NumberTheory: added Gauss's law of quadratic reciprocity (by Avigad,
ballarin@13995
  2464
Gray and Kramer);
paulson@13872
  2465
paulson@13872
  2466
* UNITY: added the Meier-Sanders theory of progress sets;
paulson@13872
  2467
kleing@14011
  2468
* MicroJava: bytecode verifier and lightweight bytecode verifier
kleing@14011
  2469
as abstract algorithms, instantiated to the JVM;
kleing@14011
  2470
schirmer@14010
  2471
* Bali: Java source language formalization. Type system, operational
schirmer@14010
  2472
semantics, axiomatic semantics. Supported language features:
schirmer@14010
  2473
classes, interfaces, objects,virtual methods, static methods,
schirmer@14010
  2474
static/instance fields, arrays, access modifiers, definite
schirmer@14010
  2475
assignment, exceptions.
wenzelm@13549
  2476
kleing@14011
  2477
wenzelm@13549
  2478
*** ZF ***
wenzelm@13549
  2479
webertj@15154
  2480
* ZF/Constructible: consistency proof for AC (Gdel's constructible
wenzelm@13549
  2481
universe, etc.);
wenzelm@13549
  2482
paulson@13872
  2483
* Main ZF: virtually all theories converted to new-style format;
nipkow@13518
  2484
wenzelm@13280
  2485
wenzelm@13478
  2486
*** ML ***
wenzelm@13478
  2487
wenzelm@13478
  2488
* Pure: Tactic.prove provides sane interface for internal proofs;
wenzelm@13478
  2489
omits the infamous "standard" operation, so this is more appropriate
wenzelm@13478
  2490
than prove_goalw_cterm in many situations (e.g. in simprocs);
wenzelm@13478
  2491
wenzelm@13478
  2492
* Pure: improved error reporting of simprocs;
wenzelm@13478
  2493
wenzelm@13478
  2494
* Provers: Simplifier.simproc(_i) provides sane interface for setting
wenzelm@13478
  2495
up simprocs;
wenzelm@13478
  2496
wenzelm@13478
  2497
kleing@13953
  2498
*** Document preparation ***
kleing@13953
  2499
kleing@13953
  2500
* uses \par instead of \\ for line breaks in theory text. This may
kleing@13953
  2501
shift some page breaks in large documents. To get the old behaviour
kleing@13953
  2502
use \renewcommand{\isanewline}{\mbox{}\\\mbox{}} in root.tex.
kleing@13953
  2503
wenzelm@14731
  2504
* minimized dependencies of isabelle.sty and isabellesym.sty on
kleing@13953
  2505
other packages
kleing@13953
  2506
kleing@13953
  2507
* \<euro> now needs package babel/greek instead of marvosym (which
kleing@13953
  2508
broke \Rightarrow)
kleing@13953
  2509
wenzelm@14731
  2510
* normal size for \<zero>...\<nine> (uses \mathbf instead of
kleing@13954
  2511
textcomp package)
kleing@13953
  2512
wenzelm@13280
  2513
wenzelm@14572
  2514
wenzelm@12984
  2515
New in Isabelle2002 (March 2002)
wenzelm@12984
  2516
--------------------------------
wenzelm@11474
  2517
wenzelm@11572
  2518
*** Document preparation ***
wenzelm@11572
  2519
wenzelm@11842
  2520
* greatly simplified document preparation setup, including more
wenzelm@11842
  2521
graceful interpretation of isatool usedir -i/-d/-D options, and more
wenzelm@11842
  2522
instructive isatool mkdir; users should basically be able to get
wenzelm@12899
  2523
started with "isatool mkdir HOL Test && isatool make"; alternatively,
wenzelm@12899
  2524
users may run a separate document processing stage manually like this:
wenzelm@12899
  2525
"isatool usedir -D output HOL Test && isatool document Test/output";
wenzelm@11842
  2526
wenzelm@11842
  2527
* theory dependency graph may now be incorporated into documents;
wenzelm@11842
  2528
isatool usedir -g true will produce session_graph.eps/.pdf for use
wenzelm@11842
  2529
with \includegraphics of LaTeX;
wenzelm@11842
  2530
wenzelm@11864
  2531
* proper spacing of consecutive markup elements, especially text
wenzelm@11864
  2532
blocks after section headings;
wenzelm@11864
  2533
wenzelm@11572
  2534
* support bold style (for single symbols only), input syntax is like
wenzelm@11572
  2535
this: "\<^bold>\<alpha>" or "\<^bold>A";
wenzelm@11572
  2536
wenzelm@11814
  2537
* \<bullet> is now output as bold \cdot by default, which looks much
wenzelm@11572
  2538
better in printed text;
wenzelm@11572
  2539
wenzelm@11712
  2540
* added default LaTeX bindings for \<tturnstile> and \<TTurnstile>;
wenzelm@11712
  2541
note that these symbols are currently unavailable in Proof General /
wenzelm@12769
  2542
X-Symbol; new symbols \<zero>, \<one>, ..., \<nine>, and \<euro>;
wenzelm@12690
  2543
wenzelm@12690
  2544
* isatool latex no longer depends on changed TEXINPUTS, instead
wenzelm@12690
  2545
isatool document copies the Isabelle style files to the target
wenzelm@12690
  2546
location;
wenzelm@11712
  2547
wenzelm@11572
  2548
wenzelm@11633
  2549
*** Isar ***
wenzelm@11633
  2550
wenzelm@12312
  2551
* Pure/Provers: improved proof by cases and induction;
wenzelm@12280
  2552
  - 'case' command admits impromptu naming of parameters (such as
wenzelm@12280
  2553
    "case (Suc n)");
wenzelm@12280
  2554
  - 'induct' method divinates rule instantiation from the inductive
wenzelm@12280
  2555
    claim; no longer requires excessive ?P bindings for proper
wenzelm@12280
  2556
    instantiation of cases;
wenzelm@12280
  2557
  - 'induct' method properly enumerates all possibilities of set/type
wenzelm@12280
  2558
    rules; as a consequence facts may be also passed through *type*
wenzelm@12280
  2559
    rules without further ado;
wenzelm@12280
  2560
  - 'induct' method now derives symbolic cases from the *rulified*
wenzelm@12280
  2561
    rule (before it used to rulify cases stemming from the internal
wenzelm@12280
  2562
    atomized version); this means that the context of a non-atomic
wenzelm@12280
  2563
    statement becomes is included in the hypothesis, avoiding the
wenzelm@12280
  2564
    slightly cumbersome show "PROP ?case" form;
wenzelm@12280
  2565
  - 'induct' may now use elim-style induction rules without chaining
wenzelm@12280
  2566
    facts, using ``missing'' premises from the goal state; this allows
wenzelm@12280
  2567
    rules stemming from inductive sets to be applied in unstructured
wenzelm@12280
  2568
    scripts, while still benefitting from proper handling of non-atomic
wenzelm@12280
  2569
    statements; NB: major inductive premises need to be put first, all
wenzelm@12280
  2570
    the rest of the goal is passed through the induction;
wenzelm@12280
  2571
  - 'induct' proper support for mutual induction involving non-atomic
wenzelm@12280
  2572
    rule statements (uses the new concept of simultaneous goals, see
wenzelm@12280
  2573
    below);
wenzelm@12853
  2574
  - append all possible rule selections, but only use the first
wenzelm@12853
  2575
    success (no backtracking);
wenzelm@11995
  2576
  - removed obsolete "(simplified)" and "(stripped)" options of methods;
wenzelm@12754
  2577
  - undeclared rule case names default to numbers 1, 2, 3, ...;
wenzelm@12754
  2578
  - added 'print_induct_rules' (covered by help item in recent Proof
wenzelm@12754
  2579
    General versions);
wenzelm@11995
  2580
  - moved induct/cases attributes to Pure, methods to Provers;
wenzelm@11995
  2581
  - generic method setup instantiated for FOL and HOL;
wenzelm@11986
  2582
wenzelm@12163
  2583
* Pure: support multiple simultaneous goal statements, for example
wenzelm@12163
  2584
"have a: A and b: B" (same for 'theorem' etc.); being a pure
wenzelm@12163
  2585
meta-level mechanism, this acts as if several individual goals had
wenzelm@12163
  2586
been stated separately; in particular common proof methods need to be