src/HOL/BNF/Examples/Stream.thy
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use new coinduction method and primcorec in examples
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(*  Title:      HOL/BNF/Examples/Stream.thy
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    Author:     Dmitriy Traytel, TU Muenchen
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    Author:     Andrei Popescu, TU Muenchen
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    Copyright   2012, 2013
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Infinite streams.
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*)
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header {* Infinite Streams *}
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theory Stream
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imports "../BNF"
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begin
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codatatype (sset: 'a) stream (map: smap rel: stream_all2) =
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  Stream (shd: 'a) (stl: "'a stream") (infixr "##" 65)
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code_datatype Stream
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lemma stream_case_cert:
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  assumes "CASE \<equiv> stream_case c"
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  shows "CASE (a ## s) \<equiv> c a s"
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  using assms by simp_all
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setup {*
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  Code.add_case @{thm stream_case_cert}
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*}
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(*for code generation only*)
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definition smember :: "'a \<Rightarrow> 'a stream \<Rightarrow> bool" where
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  [code_abbrev]: "smember x s \<longleftrightarrow> x \<in> sset s"
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lemma smember_code[code, simp]: "smember x (Stream y s) = (if x = y then True else smember x s)"
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  unfolding smember_def by auto
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hide_const (open) smember
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(* TODO: Provide by the package*)
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theorem sset_induct:
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  "\<lbrakk>\<And>s. P (shd s) s; \<And>s y. \<lbrakk>y \<in> sset (stl s); P y (stl s)\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> P y s\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow>
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    \<forall>y \<in> sset s. P y s"
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  apply (rule stream.dtor_set_induct)
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  apply (auto simp add: shd_def stl_def fsts_def snds_def split_beta)
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  apply (metis Stream_def fst_conv stream.case stream.dtor_ctor stream.exhaust)
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  by (metis Stream_def sndI stl_def stream.collapse stream.dtor_ctor)
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lemma smap_simps[simp]:
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  "shd (smap f s) = f (shd s)" "stl (smap f s) = smap f (stl s)"
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  by (case_tac [!] s) auto
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theorem shd_sset: "shd s \<in> sset s"
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  by (case_tac s) auto
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theorem stl_sset: "y \<in> sset (stl s) \<Longrightarrow> y \<in> sset s"
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  by (case_tac s) auto
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(* only for the non-mutual case: *)
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theorem sset_induct1[consumes 1, case_names shd stl, induct set: "sset"]:
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  assumes "y \<in> sset s" and "\<And>s. P (shd s) s"
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  and "\<And>s y. \<lbrakk>y \<in> sset (stl s); P y (stl s)\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> P y s"
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  shows "P y s"
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  using assms sset_induct by blast
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(* end TODO *)
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subsection {* prepend list to stream *}
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primrec shift :: "'a list \<Rightarrow> 'a stream \<Rightarrow> 'a stream" (infixr "@-" 65) where
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  "shift [] s = s"
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| "shift (x # xs) s = x ## shift xs s"
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lemma smap_shift[simp]: "smap f (xs @- s) = map f xs @- smap f s"
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  by (induct xs) auto
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lemma shift_append[simp]: "(xs @ ys) @- s = xs @- ys @- s"
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  by (induct xs) auto
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lemma shift_simps[simp]:
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   "shd (xs @- s) = (if xs = [] then shd s else hd xs)"
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   "stl (xs @- s) = (if xs = [] then stl s else tl xs @- s)"
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  by (induct xs) auto
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lemma sset_shift[simp]: "sset (xs @- s) = set xs \<union> sset s"
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  by (induct xs) auto
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lemma shift_left_inj[simp]: "xs @- s1 = xs @- s2 \<longleftrightarrow> s1 = s2"
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  by (induct xs) auto
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subsection {* set of streams with elements in some fixes set *}
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coinductive_set
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  streams :: "'a set => 'a stream set"
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  for A :: "'a set"
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where
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  Stream[intro!, simp, no_atp]: "\<lbrakk>a \<in> A; s \<in> streams A\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> a ## s \<in> streams A"
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lemma shift_streams: "\<lbrakk>w \<in> lists A; s \<in> streams A\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> w @- s \<in> streams A"
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  by (induct w) auto
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lemma sset_streams:
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  assumes "sset s \<subseteq> A"
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  shows "s \<in> streams A"
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using assms proof (coinduction arbitrary: s)
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  case streams then show ?case by (cases s) simp
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qed
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subsection {* nth, take, drop for streams *}
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primrec snth :: "'a stream \<Rightarrow> nat \<Rightarrow> 'a" (infixl "!!" 100) where
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  "s !! 0 = shd s"
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| "s !! Suc n = stl s !! n"
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lemma snth_smap[simp]: "smap f s !! n = f (s !! n)"
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  by (induct n arbitrary: s) auto
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lemma shift_snth_less[simp]: "p < length xs \<Longrightarrow> (xs @- s) !! p = xs ! p"
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  by (induct p arbitrary: xs) (auto simp: hd_conv_nth nth_tl)
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lemma shift_snth_ge[simp]: "p \<ge> length xs \<Longrightarrow> (xs @- s) !! p = s !! (p - length xs)"
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  by (induct p arbitrary: xs) (auto simp: Suc_diff_eq_diff_pred)
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lemma snth_sset[simp]: "s !! n \<in> sset s"
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  by (induct n arbitrary: s) (auto intro: shd_sset stl_sset)
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lemma sset_range: "sset s = range (snth s)"
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proof (intro equalityI subsetI)
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  fix x assume "x \<in> sset s"
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  thus "x \<in> range (snth s)"
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  proof (induct s)
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    case (stl s x)
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    then obtain n where "x = stl s !! n" by auto
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    thus ?case by (auto intro: range_eqI[of _ _ "Suc n"])
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  qed (auto intro: range_eqI[of _ _ 0])
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qed auto
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primrec stake :: "nat \<Rightarrow> 'a stream \<Rightarrow> 'a list" where
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  "stake 0 s = []"
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| "stake (Suc n) s = shd s # stake n (stl s)"
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lemma length_stake[simp]: "length (stake n s) = n"
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  by (induct n arbitrary: s) auto
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lemma stake_smap[simp]: "stake n (smap f s) = map f (stake n s)"
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  by (induct n arbitrary: s) auto
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primrec sdrop :: "nat \<Rightarrow> 'a stream \<Rightarrow> 'a stream" where
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  "sdrop 0 s = s"
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| "sdrop (Suc n) s = sdrop n (stl s)"
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lemma sdrop_simps[simp]:
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  "shd (sdrop n s) = s !! n" "stl (sdrop n s) = sdrop (Suc n) s"
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  by (induct n arbitrary: s)  auto
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lemma sdrop_smap[simp]: "sdrop n (smap f s) = smap f (sdrop n s)"
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  by (induct n arbitrary: s) auto
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lemma sdrop_stl: "sdrop n (stl s) = stl (sdrop n s)"
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  by (induct n) auto
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lemma stake_sdrop: "stake n s @- sdrop n s = s"
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  by (induct n arbitrary: s) auto
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lemma id_stake_snth_sdrop:
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  "s = stake i s @- s !! i ## sdrop (Suc i) s"
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  by (subst stake_sdrop[symmetric, of _ i]) (metis sdrop_simps stream.collapse)
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lemma smap_alt: "smap f s = s' \<longleftrightarrow> (\<forall>n. f (s !! n) = s' !! n)" (is "?L = ?R")
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proof
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  assume ?R
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  then have "\<And>n. smap f (sdrop n s) = sdrop n s'"
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    by coinduction (auto intro: exI[of _ 0] simp del: sdrop.simps(2))
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  then show ?L using sdrop.simps(1) by metis
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qed auto
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lemma stake_invert_Nil[iff]: "stake n s = [] \<longleftrightarrow> n = 0"
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  by (induct n) auto
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lemma sdrop_shift: "\<lbrakk>s = w @- s'; length w = n\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> sdrop n s = s'"
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  by (induct n arbitrary: w s) auto
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lemma stake_shift: "\<lbrakk>s = w @- s'; length w = n\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> stake n s = w"
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  by (induct n arbitrary: w s) auto
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lemma stake_add[simp]: "stake m s @ stake n (sdrop m s) = stake (m + n) s"
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  by (induct m arbitrary: s) auto
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lemma sdrop_add[simp]: "sdrop n (sdrop m s) = sdrop (m + n) s"
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  by (induct m arbitrary: s) auto
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partial_function (tailrec) sdrop_while :: "('a \<Rightarrow> bool) \<Rightarrow> 'a stream \<Rightarrow> 'a stream" where 
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  "sdrop_while P s = (if P (shd s) then sdrop_while P (stl s) else s)"
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lemma sdrop_while_Stream[code]:
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  "sdrop_while P (Stream a s) = (if P a then sdrop_while P s else Stream a s)"
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  by (subst sdrop_while.simps) simp
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lemma sdrop_while_sdrop_LEAST:
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  assumes "\<exists>n. P (s !! n)"
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  shows "sdrop_while (Not o P) s = sdrop (LEAST n. P (s !! n)) s"
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proof -
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  from assms obtain m where "P (s !! m)" "\<And>n. P (s !! n) \<Longrightarrow> m \<le> n"
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    and *: "(LEAST n. P (s !! n)) = m" by atomize_elim (auto intro: LeastI Least_le)
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  thus ?thesis unfolding *
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  proof (induct m arbitrary: s)
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    case (Suc m)
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    hence "sdrop_while (Not \<circ> P) (stl s) = sdrop m (stl s)"
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      by (metis (full_types) not_less_eq_eq snth.simps(2))
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    moreover from Suc(3) have "\<not> (P (s !! 0))" by blast
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    ultimately show ?case by (subst sdrop_while.simps) simp
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  qed (metis comp_apply sdrop.simps(1) sdrop_while.simps snth.simps(1))
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qed
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primcorec sfilter where
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  "shd (sfilter P s) = shd (sdrop_while (Not o P) s)"
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| "stl (sfilter P s) = sfilter P (stl (sdrop_while (Not o P) s))"
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lemma sfilter_Stream: "sfilter P (x ## s) = (if P x then x ## sfilter P s else sfilter P s)"
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proof (cases "P x")
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  case True thus ?thesis by (subst sfilter.ctr) (simp add: sdrop_while_Stream)
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next
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  case False thus ?thesis by (subst (1 2) sfilter.ctr) (simp add: sdrop_while_Stream)
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qed
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subsection {* unary predicates lifted to streams *}
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definition "stream_all P s = (\<forall>p. P (s !! p))"
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lemma stream_all_iff[iff]: "stream_all P s \<longleftrightarrow> Ball (sset s) P"
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  unfolding stream_all_def sset_range by auto
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lemma stream_all_shift[simp]: "stream_all P (xs @- s) = (list_all P xs \<and> stream_all P s)"
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  unfolding stream_all_iff list_all_iff by auto
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subsection {* recurring stream out of a list *}
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primcorec cycle :: "'a list \<Rightarrow> 'a stream" where
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  "shd (cycle xs) = hd xs"
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| "stl (cycle xs) = cycle (tl xs @ [hd xs])"
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lemma cycle_decomp: "u \<noteq> [] \<Longrightarrow> cycle u = u @- cycle u"
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proof (coinduction arbitrary: u)
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  case Eq_stream then show ?case using stream.collapse[of "cycle u"]
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    by (auto intro!: exI[of _ "tl u @ [hd u]"])
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qed
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lemma cycle_Cons[code]: "cycle (x # xs) = x ## cycle (xs @ [x])"
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  by (subst cycle.ctr) simp
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lemma cycle_rotated: "\<lbrakk>v \<noteq> []; cycle u = v @- s\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> cycle (tl u @ [hd u]) = tl v @- s"
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  by (auto dest: arg_cong[of _ _ stl])
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lemma stake_append: "stake n (u @- s) = take (min (length u) n) u @ stake (n - length u) s"
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proof (induct n arbitrary: u)
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  case (Suc n) thus ?case by (cases u) auto
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qed auto
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lemma stake_cycle_le[simp]:
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  assumes "u \<noteq> []" "n < length u"
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  shows "stake n (cycle u) = take n u"
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using min_absorb2[OF less_imp_le_nat[OF assms(2)]]
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  by (subst cycle_decomp[OF assms(1)], subst stake_append) auto
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lemma stake_cycle_eq[simp]: "u \<noteq> [] \<Longrightarrow> stake (length u) (cycle u) = u"
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  by (metis cycle_decomp stake_shift)
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lemma sdrop_cycle_eq[simp]: "u \<noteq> [] \<Longrightarrow> sdrop (length u) (cycle u) = cycle u"
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  by (metis cycle_decomp sdrop_shift)
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lemma stake_cycle_eq_mod_0[simp]: "\<lbrakk>u \<noteq> []; n mod length u = 0\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow>
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   stake n (cycle u) = concat (replicate (n div length u) u)"
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  by (induct "n div length u" arbitrary: n u) (auto simp: stake_add[symmetric])
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lemma sdrop_cycle_eq_mod_0[simp]: "\<lbrakk>u \<noteq> []; n mod length u = 0\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow>
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   sdrop n (cycle u) = cycle u"
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  by (induct "n div length u" arbitrary: n u) (auto simp: sdrop_add[symmetric])
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lemma stake_cycle: "u \<noteq> [] \<Longrightarrow>
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   stake n (cycle u) = concat (replicate (n div length u) u) @ take (n mod length u) u"
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  by (subst mod_div_equality[of n "length u", symmetric], unfold stake_add[symmetric]) auto
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lemma sdrop_cycle: "u \<noteq> [] \<Longrightarrow> sdrop n (cycle u) = cycle (rotate (n mod length u) u)"
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  by (induct n arbitrary: u) (auto simp: rotate1_rotate_swap rotate1_hd_tl rotate_conv_mod[symmetric])
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subsection {* stream repeating a single element *}
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primcorec same where
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  "shd (same x) = x"
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| "stl (same x) = same x"
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lemma snth_same[simp]: "same x !! n = x"
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  unfolding same_def by (induct n) auto
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lemma stake_same[simp]: "stake n (same x) = replicate n x"
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  unfolding same_def by (induct n) (auto simp: upt_rec)
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lemma sdrop_same[simp]: "sdrop n (same x) = same x"
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  unfolding same_def by (induct n) auto
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lemma shift_replicate_same[simp]: "replicate n x @- same x = same x"
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  by (metis sdrop_same stake_same stake_sdrop)
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lemma stream_all_same[simp]: "stream_all P (same x) \<longleftrightarrow> P x"
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  unfolding stream_all_def by auto
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lemma same_cycle: "same x = cycle [x]"
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  by coinduction auto
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subsection {* stream of natural numbers *}
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primcorec fromN :: "nat \<Rightarrow> nat stream" where
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  "fromN n = n ## fromN (n + 1)"
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lemma snth_fromN[simp]: "fromN n !! m = n + m"
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  unfolding fromN_def by (induct m arbitrary: n) auto
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lemma stake_fromN[simp]: "stake m (fromN n) = [n ..< m + n]"
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  unfolding fromN_def by (induct m arbitrary: n) (auto simp: upt_rec)
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lemma sdrop_fromN[simp]: "sdrop m (fromN n) = fromN (n + m)"
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  unfolding fromN_def by (induct m arbitrary: n) auto
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   326
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lemma sset_fromN[simp]: "sset (fromN n) = {n ..}" (is "?L = ?R")
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   328
proof safe
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   329
  fix m assume "m \<in> ?L"
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   330
  moreover
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   331
  { fix s assume "m \<in> sset s" "\<exists>n'\<ge>n. s = fromN n'"
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   332
    hence "n \<le> m"  by (induct arbitrary: n rule: sset_induct1) fastforce+
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   333
  }
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   334
  ultimately show "n \<le> m" by auto
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   335
next
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   336
  fix m assume "n \<le> m" thus "m \<in> ?L" by (metis le_iff_add snth_fromN snth_sset)
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   337
qed
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   338
51141
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abbreviation "nats \<equiv> fromN 0"
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   340
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   341
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   342
subsection {* flatten a stream of lists *}
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   343
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primcorec flat where
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  "shd (flat ws) = hd (shd ws)"
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   346
| "stl (flat ws) = flat (if tl (shd ws) = [] then stl ws else tl (shd ws) ## stl ws)"
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   347
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   348
lemma flat_Cons[simp, code]: "flat ((x # xs) ## ws) = x ## flat (if xs = [] then ws else xs ## ws)"
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   349
  by (subst flat.ctr) simp
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   350
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   351
lemma flat_Stream[simp]: "xs \<noteq> [] \<Longrightarrow> flat (xs ## ws) = xs @- flat ws"
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   352
  by (induct xs) auto
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diff changeset
   353
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   354
lemma flat_unfold: "shd ws \<noteq> [] \<Longrightarrow> flat ws = shd ws @- flat (stl ws)"
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   355
  by (cases ws) auto
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diff changeset
   356
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   357
lemma flat_snth: "\<forall>xs \<in> sset s. xs \<noteq> [] \<Longrightarrow> flat s !! n = (if n < length (shd s) then 
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   358
  shd s ! n else flat (stl s) !! (n - length (shd s)))"
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diff changeset
   359
  by (metis flat_unfold not_less shd_sset shift_snth_ge shift_snth_less)
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diff changeset
   360
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   361
lemma sset_flat[simp]: "\<forall>xs \<in> sset s. xs \<noteq> [] \<Longrightarrow> 
d2b265ebc1fa specify nicer names for map, set and rel in the stream library
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parents: 51766
diff changeset
   362
  sset (flat s) = (\<Union>xs \<in> sset s. set xs)" (is "?P \<Longrightarrow> ?L = ?R")
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   363
proof safe
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diff changeset
   364
  fix x assume ?P "x : ?L"
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parents: 51766
diff changeset
   365
  then obtain m where "x = flat s !! m" by (metis image_iff sset_range)
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diff changeset
   366
  with `?P` obtain n m' where "x = s !! n ! m'" "m' < length (s !! n)"
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diff changeset
   367
  proof (atomize_elim, induct m arbitrary: s rule: less_induct)
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diff changeset
   368
    case (less y)
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diff changeset
   369
    thus ?case
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diff changeset
   370
    proof (cases "y < length (shd s)")
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diff changeset
   371
      case True thus ?thesis by (metis flat_snth less(2,3) snth.simps(1))
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diff changeset
   372
    next
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   373
      case False
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diff changeset
   374
      hence "x = flat (stl s) !! (y - length (shd s))" by (metis less(2,3) flat_snth)
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parents: 51430
diff changeset
   375
      moreover
53374
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wenzelm
parents: 53290
diff changeset
   376
      { from less(2) have *: "length (shd s) > 0" by (cases s) simp_all
a14d2a854c02 tuned proofs -- clarified flow of facts wrt. calculation;
wenzelm
parents: 53290
diff changeset
   377
        with False have "y > 0" by (cases y) simp_all
a14d2a854c02 tuned proofs -- clarified flow of facts wrt. calculation;
wenzelm
parents: 53290
diff changeset
   378
        with * have "y - length (shd s) < y" by simp
51462
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diff changeset
   379
      }
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d2b265ebc1fa specify nicer names for map, set and rel in the stream library
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parents: 51766
diff changeset
   380
      moreover have "\<forall>xs \<in> sset (stl s). xs \<noteq> []" using less(2) by (cases s) auto
51462
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traytel
parents: 51430
diff changeset
   381
      ultimately have "\<exists>n m'. x = stl s !! n ! m' \<and> m' < length (stl s !! n)" by (intro less(1)) auto
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parents: 51430
diff changeset
   382
      thus ?thesis by (metis snth.simps(2))
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parents: 51430
diff changeset
   383
    qed
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diff changeset
   384
  qed
51772
d2b265ebc1fa specify nicer names for map, set and rel in the stream library
traytel
parents: 51766
diff changeset
   385
  thus "x \<in> ?R" by (auto simp: sset_range dest!: nth_mem)
51462
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traytel
parents: 51430
diff changeset
   386
next
51772
d2b265ebc1fa specify nicer names for map, set and rel in the stream library
traytel
parents: 51766
diff changeset
   387
  fix x xs assume "xs \<in> sset s" ?P "x \<in> set xs" thus "x \<in> ?L"
d2b265ebc1fa specify nicer names for map, set and rel in the stream library
traytel
parents: 51766
diff changeset
   388
    by (induct rule: sset_induct1)
d2b265ebc1fa specify nicer names for map, set and rel in the stream library
traytel
parents: 51766
diff changeset
   389
      (metis UnI1 flat_unfold shift.simps(1) sset_shift,
d2b265ebc1fa specify nicer names for map, set and rel in the stream library
traytel
parents: 51766
diff changeset
   390
       metis UnI2 flat_unfold shd_sset stl_sset sset_shift)
51462
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diff changeset
   391
qed
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parents: 51430
diff changeset
   392
e239856ca8a2 extended stream library
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diff changeset
   393
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diff changeset
   394
subsection {* merge a stream of streams *}
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diff changeset
   395
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diff changeset
   396
definition smerge :: "'a stream stream \<Rightarrow> 'a stream" where
51772
d2b265ebc1fa specify nicer names for map, set and rel in the stream library
traytel
parents: 51766
diff changeset
   397
  "smerge ss = flat (smap (\<lambda>n. map (\<lambda>s. s !! n) (stake (Suc n) ss) @ stake n (ss !! n)) nats)"
51462
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parents: 51430
diff changeset
   398
e239856ca8a2 extended stream library
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diff changeset
   399
lemma stake_nth[simp]: "m < n \<Longrightarrow> stake n s ! m = s !! m"
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parents: 51430
diff changeset
   400
  by (induct n arbitrary: s m) (auto simp: nth_Cons', metis Suc_pred snth.simps(2))
e239856ca8a2 extended stream library
traytel
parents: 51430
diff changeset
   401
51772
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diff changeset
   402
lemma snth_sset_smerge: "ss !! n !! m \<in> sset (smerge ss)"
51462
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parents: 51430
diff changeset
   403
proof (cases "n \<le> m")
e239856ca8a2 extended stream library
traytel
parents: 51430
diff changeset
   404
  case False thus ?thesis unfolding smerge_def
51772
d2b265ebc1fa specify nicer names for map, set and rel in the stream library
traytel
parents: 51766
diff changeset
   405
    by (subst sset_flat)
53290
b6c3be868217 renamed BNF fact
blanchet
parents: 52991
diff changeset
   406
      (auto simp: stream.set_map in_set_conv_nth simp del: stake.simps
51462
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traytel
parents: 51430
diff changeset
   407
        intro!: exI[of _ n, OF disjI2] exI[of _ m, OF mp])
e239856ca8a2 extended stream library
traytel
parents: 51430
diff changeset
   408
next
e239856ca8a2 extended stream library
traytel
parents: 51430
diff changeset
   409
  case True thus ?thesis unfolding smerge_def
51772
d2b265ebc1fa specify nicer names for map, set and rel in the stream library
traytel
parents: 51766
diff changeset
   410
    by (subst sset_flat)
53290
b6c3be868217 renamed BNF fact
blanchet
parents: 52991
diff changeset
   411
      (auto simp: stream.set_map in_set_conv_nth image_iff simp del: stake.simps snth.simps
51462
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traytel
parents: 51430
diff changeset
   412
        intro!: exI[of _ m, OF disjI1] bexI[of _ "ss !! n"] exI[of _ n, OF mp])
e239856ca8a2 extended stream library
traytel
parents: 51430
diff changeset
   413
qed
e239856ca8a2 extended stream library
traytel
parents: 51430
diff changeset
   414
51772
d2b265ebc1fa specify nicer names for map, set and rel in the stream library
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diff changeset
   415
lemma sset_smerge: "sset (smerge ss) = UNION (sset ss) sset"
51462
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traytel
parents: 51430
diff changeset
   416
proof safe
51772
d2b265ebc1fa specify nicer names for map, set and rel in the stream library
traytel
parents: 51766
diff changeset
   417
  fix x assume "x \<in> sset (smerge ss)"
d2b265ebc1fa specify nicer names for map, set and rel in the stream library
traytel
parents: 51766
diff changeset
   418
  thus "x \<in> UNION (sset ss) sset"
d2b265ebc1fa specify nicer names for map, set and rel in the stream library
traytel
parents: 51766
diff changeset
   419
    unfolding smerge_def by (subst (asm) sset_flat)
53290
b6c3be868217 renamed BNF fact
blanchet
parents: 52991
diff changeset
   420
      (auto simp: stream.set_map in_set_conv_nth sset_range simp del: stake.simps, fast+)
51462
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traytel
parents: 51430
diff changeset
   421
next
51772
d2b265ebc1fa specify nicer names for map, set and rel in the stream library
traytel
parents: 51766
diff changeset
   422
  fix s x assume "s \<in> sset ss" "x \<in> sset s"
d2b265ebc1fa specify nicer names for map, set and rel in the stream library
traytel
parents: 51766
diff changeset
   423
  thus "x \<in> sset (smerge ss)" using snth_sset_smerge by (auto simp: sset_range)
51462
e239856ca8a2 extended stream library
traytel
parents: 51430
diff changeset
   424
qed
e239856ca8a2 extended stream library
traytel
parents: 51430
diff changeset
   425
e239856ca8a2 extended stream library
traytel
parents: 51430
diff changeset
   426
e239856ca8a2 extended stream library
traytel
parents: 51430
diff changeset
   427
subsection {* product of two streams *}
e239856ca8a2 extended stream library
traytel
parents: 51430
diff changeset
   428
e239856ca8a2 extended stream library
traytel
parents: 51430
diff changeset
   429
definition sproduct :: "'a stream \<Rightarrow> 'b stream \<Rightarrow> ('a \<times> 'b) stream" where
51772
d2b265ebc1fa specify nicer names for map, set and rel in the stream library
traytel
parents: 51766
diff changeset
   430
  "sproduct s1 s2 = smerge (smap (\<lambda>x. smap (Pair x) s2) s1)"
51462
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traytel
parents: 51430
diff changeset
   431
51772
d2b265ebc1fa specify nicer names for map, set and rel in the stream library
traytel
parents: 51766
diff changeset
   432
lemma sset_sproduct: "sset (sproduct s1 s2) = sset s1 \<times> sset s2"
53290
b6c3be868217 renamed BNF fact
blanchet
parents: 52991
diff changeset
   433
  unfolding sproduct_def sset_smerge by (auto simp: stream.set_map)
51462
e239856ca8a2 extended stream library
traytel
parents: 51430
diff changeset
   434
e239856ca8a2 extended stream library
traytel
parents: 51430
diff changeset
   435
e239856ca8a2 extended stream library
traytel
parents: 51430
diff changeset
   436
subsection {* interleave two streams *}
e239856ca8a2 extended stream library
traytel
parents: 51430
diff changeset
   437
54027
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traytel
parents: 53808
diff changeset
   438
primcorec sinterleave where
e5853a648b59 use new coinduction method and primcorec in examples
traytel
parents: 53808
diff changeset
   439
  "shd (sinterleave s1 s2) = shd s1"
e5853a648b59 use new coinduction method and primcorec in examples
traytel
parents: 53808
diff changeset
   440
| "stl (sinterleave s1 s2) = sinterleave s2 (stl s1)"
51462
e239856ca8a2 extended stream library
traytel
parents: 51430
diff changeset
   441
e239856ca8a2 extended stream library
traytel
parents: 51430
diff changeset
   442
lemma sinterleave_code[code]:
e239856ca8a2 extended stream library
traytel
parents: 51430
diff changeset
   443
  "sinterleave (x ## s1) s2 = x ## sinterleave s2 s1"
54027
e5853a648b59 use new coinduction method and primcorec in examples
traytel
parents: 53808
diff changeset
   444
  by (subst sinterleave.ctr) simp
51462
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traytel
parents: 51430
diff changeset
   445
e239856ca8a2 extended stream library
traytel
parents: 51430
diff changeset
   446
lemma sinterleave_snth[simp]:
e239856ca8a2 extended stream library
traytel
parents: 51430
diff changeset
   447
  "even n \<Longrightarrow> sinterleave s1 s2 !! n = s1 !! (n div 2)"
e239856ca8a2 extended stream library
traytel
parents: 51430
diff changeset
   448
   "odd n \<Longrightarrow> sinterleave s1 s2 !! n = s2 !! (n div 2)"
e239856ca8a2 extended stream library
traytel
parents: 51430
diff changeset
   449
  by (induct n arbitrary: s1 s2)
e239856ca8a2 extended stream library
traytel
parents: 51430
diff changeset
   450
    (auto dest: even_nat_Suc_div_2 odd_nat_plus_one_div_two[folded nat_2])
e239856ca8a2 extended stream library
traytel
parents: 51430
diff changeset
   451
51772
d2b265ebc1fa specify nicer names for map, set and rel in the stream library
traytel
parents: 51766
diff changeset
   452
lemma sset_sinterleave: "sset (sinterleave s1 s2) = sset s1 \<union> sset s2"
51462
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traytel
parents: 51430
diff changeset
   453
proof (intro equalityI subsetI)
51772
d2b265ebc1fa specify nicer names for map, set and rel in the stream library
traytel
parents: 51766
diff changeset
   454
  fix x assume "x \<in> sset (sinterleave s1 s2)"
d2b265ebc1fa specify nicer names for map, set and rel in the stream library
traytel
parents: 51766
diff changeset
   455
  then obtain n where "x = sinterleave s1 s2 !! n" unfolding sset_range by blast
d2b265ebc1fa specify nicer names for map, set and rel in the stream library
traytel
parents: 51766
diff changeset
   456
  thus "x \<in> sset s1 \<union> sset s2" by (cases "even n") auto
51462
e239856ca8a2 extended stream library
traytel
parents: 51430
diff changeset
   457
next
51772
d2b265ebc1fa specify nicer names for map, set and rel in the stream library
traytel
parents: 51766
diff changeset
   458
  fix x assume "x \<in> sset s1 \<union> sset s2"
d2b265ebc1fa specify nicer names for map, set and rel in the stream library
traytel
parents: 51766
diff changeset
   459
  thus "x \<in> sset (sinterleave s1 s2)"
51462
e239856ca8a2 extended stream library
traytel
parents: 51430
diff changeset
   460
  proof
51772
d2b265ebc1fa specify nicer names for map, set and rel in the stream library
traytel
parents: 51766
diff changeset
   461
    assume "x \<in> sset s1"
d2b265ebc1fa specify nicer names for map, set and rel in the stream library
traytel
parents: 51766
diff changeset
   462
    then obtain n where "x = s1 !! n" unfolding sset_range by blast
51462
e239856ca8a2 extended stream library
traytel
parents: 51430
diff changeset
   463
    hence "sinterleave s1 s2 !! (2 * n) = x" by simp
51772
d2b265ebc1fa specify nicer names for map, set and rel in the stream library
traytel
parents: 51766
diff changeset
   464
    thus ?thesis unfolding sset_range by blast
51462
e239856ca8a2 extended stream library
traytel
parents: 51430
diff changeset
   465
  next
51772
d2b265ebc1fa specify nicer names for map, set and rel in the stream library
traytel
parents: 51766
diff changeset
   466
    assume "x \<in> sset s2"
d2b265ebc1fa specify nicer names for map, set and rel in the stream library
traytel
parents: 51766
diff changeset
   467
    then obtain n where "x = s2 !! n" unfolding sset_range by blast
51462
e239856ca8a2 extended stream library
traytel
parents: 51430
diff changeset
   468
    hence "sinterleave s1 s2 !! (2 * n + 1) = x" by simp
51772
d2b265ebc1fa specify nicer names for map, set and rel in the stream library
traytel
parents: 51766
diff changeset
   469
    thus ?thesis unfolding sset_range by blast
51462
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traytel
parents: 51430
diff changeset
   470
  qed
e239856ca8a2 extended stream library
traytel
parents: 51430
diff changeset
   471
qed
e239856ca8a2 extended stream library
traytel
parents: 51430
diff changeset
   472
e239856ca8a2 extended stream library
traytel
parents: 51430
diff changeset
   473
51141
cc7423ce6774 extended stream library
traytel
parents: 51023
diff changeset
   474
subsection {* zip *}
cc7423ce6774 extended stream library
traytel
parents: 51023
diff changeset
   475
54027
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   476
primcorec szip where
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   477
  "shd (szip s1 s2) = (shd s1, shd s2)"
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   478
| "stl (szip s1 s2) = szip (stl s1) (stl s2)"
51141
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diff changeset
   479
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   480
lemma szip_unfold[code]: "szip (Stream a s1) (Stream b s2) = Stream (a, b) (szip s1 s2)"
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   481
  by (subst szip.ctr) simp
51409
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diff changeset
   482
51141
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   483
lemma snth_szip[simp]: "szip s1 s2 !! n = (s1 !! n, s2 !! n)"
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   484
  by (induct n arbitrary: s1 s2) auto
cc7423ce6774 extended stream library
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diff changeset
   485
cc7423ce6774 extended stream library
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   486
cc7423ce6774 extended stream library
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   487
subsection {* zip via function *}
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diff changeset
   488
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diff changeset
   489
primcorec smap2 where
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   490
  "shd (smap2 f s1 s2) = f (shd s1) (shd s2)"
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diff changeset
   491
| "stl (smap2 f s1 s2) = smap2 f (stl s1) (stl s2)"
51141
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diff changeset
   492
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   493
lemma smap2_unfold[code]:
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   494
  "smap2 f (Stream a s1) (Stream b s2) = Stream (f a b) (smap2 f s1 s2)"
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diff changeset
   495
  by (subst smap2.ctr) simp
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diff changeset
   496
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diff changeset
   497
lemma smap2_szip:
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   498
  "smap2 f s1 s2 = smap (split f) (szip s1 s2)"
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diff changeset
   499
  by (coinduction arbitrary: s1 s2) auto
50518
d4fdda801e19 short library for streams
traytel
parents:
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   500
51462
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diff changeset
   501
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diff changeset
   502
subsection {* iterated application of a function *}
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diff changeset
   503
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   504
primcorec siterate where
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   505
  "shd (siterate f x) = x"
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   506
| "stl (siterate f x) = siterate f (f x)"
51462
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   507
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   508
lemma stake_Suc: "stake (Suc n) s = stake n s @ [s !! n]"
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   509
  by (induct n arbitrary: s) auto
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diff changeset
   510
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   511
lemma snth_siterate[simp]: "siterate f x !! n = (f^^n) x"
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   512
  by (induct n arbitrary: x) (auto simp: funpow_swap1)
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   513
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   514
lemma sdrop_siterate[simp]: "sdrop n (siterate f x) = siterate f ((f^^n) x)"
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   515
  by (induct n arbitrary: x) (auto simp: funpow_swap1)
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diff changeset
   516
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   517
lemma stake_siterate[simp]: "stake n (siterate f x) = map (\<lambda>n. (f^^n) x) [0 ..< n]"
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   518
  by (induct n arbitrary: x) (auto simp del: stake.simps(2) simp: stake_Suc)
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diff changeset
   519
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   520
lemma sset_siterate: "sset (siterate f x) = {(f^^n) x | n. True}"
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diff changeset
   521
  by (auto simp: sset_range)
51462
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diff changeset
   522
50518
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   523
end