NEWS
author haftmann
Fri Oct 26 15:37:02 2007 +0200 (2007-10-26)
changeset 25199 e83c6c43f1e6
parent 25198 1e904070e9cb
child 25397 82deaaba928d
permissions -rw-r--r--
tuned
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Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
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==============================================
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New in Isabelle2007
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-------------------
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*** General ***
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* More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
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warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
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tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
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legacy features will disappear eventually.
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* Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
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discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
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fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
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discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
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with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
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function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
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'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
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quotes.
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* Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
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header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
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accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
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update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
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use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
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theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
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specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
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INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
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ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
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* Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
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identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
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path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
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(cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
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non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
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files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
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* Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
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file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
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feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
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no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
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* Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
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now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
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specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
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syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
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type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
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'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
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* Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
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'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
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``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
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really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
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ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
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trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
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translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
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@{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
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* Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
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to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
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functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
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by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
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Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
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these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
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used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
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* Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
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criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
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support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
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* The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
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by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
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suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
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settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
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older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
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limit is imposed.
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* Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
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``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
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contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
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that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
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generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
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and scalability.
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* Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
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discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
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*** Document preparation ***
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* Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
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after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
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current context.
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* Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
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check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
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* Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
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"c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
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arguments may be given on the LHS.)
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*** Pure ***
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* The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
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achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
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theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
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implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
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constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
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context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
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syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
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between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
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See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
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"isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
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* Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
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code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
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sketch:
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    internal compilation:
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        export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
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    writing SML code to a file:
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        export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
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    writing OCaml code to a file:
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        export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
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    writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
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        export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
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    evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
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        method ``eval''
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Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
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Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
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    [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
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    [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
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    [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
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    [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
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User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
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    code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
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      {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
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    code_type <and-list of type constructors>
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      {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
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    code_instance <and-list of instances>
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      {(target)}+
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        where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
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    code_class <and_list of classes>
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      {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
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        where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
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code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
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For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
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src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
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generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
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codegen".
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* Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
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referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
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annotations).
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* Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
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syntax.
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* Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
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dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
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that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
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correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
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INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
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exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
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Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
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instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
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declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
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c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
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as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
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recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
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impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
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LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
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Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
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equations, see section "definitions".
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* Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
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context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
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interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
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declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
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these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
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associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
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declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
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'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
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very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
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toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
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Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
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configuration options:
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  Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
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  Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
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  Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
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  Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
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  Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
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  Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
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  DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
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  fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
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  fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
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* Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
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data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
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src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
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attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
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just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
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for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
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order.
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* Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
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declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
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being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
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difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
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context encountered later on.
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* Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
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'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
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text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
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context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
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* Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
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abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
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which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
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the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
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declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
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'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
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* Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
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takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
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an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
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assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
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goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
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without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
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Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
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more permissive.
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* Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
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considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
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may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
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referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
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maintainability of proof texts.
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* Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
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the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
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  assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
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  then guess x and y by clarify
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This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
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proof tools being involved here.
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* Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
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propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
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named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
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methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
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according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
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provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
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theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
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`A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
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There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
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for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
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certain special cases of literal facts:
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  have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
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  have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
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  have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
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  have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
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* Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
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outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
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additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
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* Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
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both named and unnamed ones.
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* Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
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  def x == "t" and y == "u"
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* Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
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'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
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rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
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'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
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* Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
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and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
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(potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
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analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
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Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
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* Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
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premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
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* Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
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method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
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sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
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simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
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simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
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originally first one.
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* Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
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patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
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expected.
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* Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
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'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
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(essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
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assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
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adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
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  lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
wenzelm@18901
   331
    assumes "EX x. P x"
wenzelm@18901
   332
    obtains x where "P x"
wenzelm@18901
   333
wenzelm@18901
   334
  lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
wenzelm@18901
   335
    assumes "A & B"
wenzelm@18901
   336
    obtains A and B
wenzelm@18901
   337
wenzelm@18901
   338
  lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
wenzelm@18901
   339
    assumes "A | B"
wenzelm@18901
   340
    obtains
wenzelm@18901
   341
      A
wenzelm@18901
   342
    | B
wenzelm@18901
   343
wenzelm@18910
   344
The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
wenzelm@18901
   345
explicitly:
wenzelm@18901
   346
wenzelm@18901
   347
  lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
wenzelm@18901
   348
    obtains "~ thesis"
wenzelm@18901
   349
wenzelm@18910
   350
  lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
wenzelm@18910
   351
    obtains "thesis ==> something"
wenzelm@18901
   352
wenzelm@18901
   353
The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
wenzelm@18910
   354
Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
wenzelm@18910
   355
Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
wenzelm@18910
   356
available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
wenzelm@18910
   357
resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
wenzelm@18910
   358
case_names).
wenzelm@18901
   359
wenzelm@21447
   360
* Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
wenzelm@21447
   361
"assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
wenzelm@21447
   362
(historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
wenzelm@21447
   363
context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
wenzelm@21447
   364
wenzelm@19263
   365
* Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
wenzelm@19263
   366
proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
wenzelm@19263
   367
top-level lemma.
wenzelm@19263
   368
wenzelm@18901
   369
* Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
wenzelm@18901
   370
introduction rule (default "that").
wenzelm@18901
   371
wenzelm@19587
   372
* Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
wenzelm@19587
   373
explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
wenzelm@19587
   374
to occur.
wenzelm@19587
   375
wenzelm@19682
   376
* Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
wenzelm@19682
   377
according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
wenzelm@19682
   378
syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
wenzelm@19682
   379
representations independently of name spaces.
wenzelm@19682
   380
wenzelm@21537
   381
* Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
wenzelm@21537
   382
instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
wenzelm@21537
   383
in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@21537
   384
wenzelm@21209
   385
* Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
wenzelm@21209
   386
primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
wenzelm@24950
   387
fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
wenzelm@24950
   388
of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
wenzelm@24950
   389
'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
wenzelm@24950
   390
current context.
wenzelm@19682
   391
wenzelm@19665
   392
* Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
wenzelm@19665
   393
'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
wenzelm@19083
   394
object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
wenzelm@19083
   395
isar-ref manual.  Examples:
wenzelm@19081
   396
wenzelm@19665
   397
  axiomatization
wenzelm@21595
   398
    eq  (infix "===" 50) where
wenzelm@21595
   399
    eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
wenzelm@21595
   400
wenzelm@21595
   401
  definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
wenzelm@21595
   402
  definition g where "g x = f x x"
wenzelm@19081
   403
wenzelm@19363
   404
  abbreviation
wenzelm@21595
   405
    neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
wenzelm@19363
   406
    "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
wenzelm@19081
   407
wenzelm@19083
   408
These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
wenzelm@19083
   409
constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
wenzelm@19083
   410
constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
wenzelm@19083
   411
abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
wenzelm@19088
   412
parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
wenzelm@25177
   413
src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
wenzelm@19083
   414
entities from a monomorphic theory.
wenzelm@19083
   415
wenzelm@19083
   416
Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
wenzelm@19363
   417
not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
wenzelm@19363
   418
'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
wenzelm@24735
   419
'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
wenzelm@24735
   420
prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
wenzelm@19084
   421
wenzelm@19682
   422
Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
wenzelm@19682
   423
independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
wenzelm@21209
   424
slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
wenzelm@19682
   425
'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
wenzelm@19665
   426
wenzelm@24800
   427
* Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
wenzelm@24800
   428
(e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
wenzelm@24800
   429
full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
wenzelm@24735
   430
wenzelm@24735
   431
  definition "K x _ = x"
wenzelm@24735
   432
wenzelm@24738
   433
  inductive conj for A B
wenzelm@24738
   434
  where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
wenzelm@24738
   435
wenzelm@21735
   436
* Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
wenzelm@21735
   437
the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
wenzelm@21735
   438
abbreviations on output.
wenzelm@21735
   439
wenzelm@24800
   440
* Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
wenzelm@24800
   441
"struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
wenzelm@24800
   442
required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
wenzelm@24800
   443
endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
ballarin@19783
   444
ballarin@19931
   445
* Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
ballarin@19931
   446
Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
wenzelm@22126
   447
now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
wenzelm@22126
   448
locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
wenzelm@22126
   449
predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
wenzelm@22126
   450
removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
wenzelm@22126
   451
`unfold_locales'; see below.
wenzelm@22126
   452
wenzelm@22126
   453
* Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
wenzelm@22126
   454
provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
wenzelm@22126
   455
aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
wenzelm@22126
   456
`intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
wenzelm@22126
   457
unfold predicates to assumptions.
ballarin@19931
   458
ballarin@19931
   459
* Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
wenzelm@22126
   460
has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
wenzelm@22126
   461
to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
ballarin@19931
   462
ballarin@23920
   463
* Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
ballarin@23920
   464
extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
ballarin@23920
   465
unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
ballarin@23920
   466
defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
ballarin@23920
   467
concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
ballarin@23920
   468
ballarin@23920
   469
  interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
ballarin@23920
   470
    where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
ballarin@23920
   471
wenzelm@24800
   472
Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
wenzelm@24800
   473
definition specification element in the context of locale
wenzelm@24800
   474
partial_order.
wenzelm@24800
   475
wenzelm@24859
   476
* Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
wenzelm@24800
   477
local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
wenzelm@24800
   478
connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
wenzelm@24800
   479
(using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
wenzelm@24800
   480
obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
wenzelm@25177
   481
src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
wenzelm@25177
   482
src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
wenzelm@25177
   483
examples.
wenzelm@24606
   484
wenzelm@24859
   485
* Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
wenzelm@24606
   486
introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
wenzelm@24606
   487
several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
wenzelm@24606
   488
accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
wenzelm@25177
   489
see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
wenzelm@24606
   490
wenzelm@24859
   491
* Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
wenzelm@24800
   492
of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
wenzelm@24606
   493
foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
wenzelm@24859
   494
predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
wenzelm@24859
   495
mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
wenzelm@18506
   496
wenzelm@18506
   497
  (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
wenzelm@18506
   498
  (induct set: foo bar)
wenzelm@24859
   499
  (induct pred: foo bar)
wenzelm@18506
   500
  (induct type: foo bar)
wenzelm@18506
   501
wenzelm@18506
   502
The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
wenzelm@18506
   503
new format.
wenzelm@18506
   504
wenzelm@24859
   505
* Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
wenzelm@18399
   506
src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
wenzelm@18399
   507
wenzelm@24859
   508
* Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
wenzelm@24859
   509
considered a legacy feature.
wenzelm@24859
   510
wenzelm@20919
   511
* Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
wenzelm@20919
   512
variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@20919
   513
wenzelm@22126
   514
* Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
wenzelm@22126
   515
rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
wenzelm@22126
   516
default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
wenzelm@22126
   517
trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
nipkow@18674
   518
  
wenzelm@18536
   519
* Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
wenzelm@18536
   520
attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
wenzelm@18536
   521
manipulating the claset.
wenzelm@18536
   522
wenzelm@18694
   523
* Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
wenzelm@18694
   524
dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
wenzelm@18694
   525
least one premise.
wenzelm@18694
   526
wenzelm@18694
   527
* Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
wenzelm@18695
   528
weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
wenzelm@18696
   529
ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
wenzelm@18694
   530
rule steps.
paulson@18557
   531
wenzelm@18536
   532
* Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
wenzelm@18536
   533
where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
wenzelm@18536
   534
patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
wenzelm@18536
   535
"{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
wenzelm@18536
   536
INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
wenzelm@18536
   537
constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
wenzelm@18536
   538
wenzelm@18536
   539
* Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
wenzelm@18536
   540
parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
wenzelm@18536
   541
for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
wenzelm@17779
   542
wenzelm@20582
   543
* Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
wenzelm@20582
   544
the graph browser tool.
wenzelm@20582
   545
wenzelm@24800
   546
* Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
wenzelm@24800
   547
default; use '!' option for full details.
wenzelm@20620
   548
wenzelm@17865
   549
nipkow@17806
   550
*** HOL ***
nipkow@17806
   551
wenzelm@25129
   552
* Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
wenzelm@25129
   553
resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
wenzelm@25129
   554
Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
wenzelm@25129
   555
Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
wenzelm@25129
   556
multi-threading.
wenzelm@25129
   557
  
wenzelm@25129
   558
* Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
wenzelm@25129
   559
background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
wenzelm@25129
   560
successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
wenzelm@25129
   561
wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
wenzelm@25129
   562
work with multi-threading.
wenzelm@25129
   563
wenzelm@24804
   564
* New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
wenzelm@24804
   565
potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
wenzelm@24804
   566
auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
wenzelm@25129
   567
5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
wenzelm@25129
   568
executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
wenzelm@24804
   569
haftmann@25184
   570
* New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
haftmann@25184
   571
haftmann@25184
   572
* Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
haftmann@25184
   573
equality.
haftmann@25184
   574
haftmann@25184
   575
* Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
haftmann@25184
   576
the new 'class' package:
haftmann@25184
   577
haftmann@25184
   578
    HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
haftmann@25184
   579
    HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
haftmann@25184
   580
    0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
haftmann@25184
   581
    1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
haftmann@25184
   582
    op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
haftmann@25184
   583
    op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
haftmann@25184
   584
    uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
haftmann@25184
   585
    op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
haftmann@25184
   586
    op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
haftmann@25184
   587
    op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
haftmann@25184
   588
    Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
haftmann@25184
   589
    Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
haftmann@25184
   590
    Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
haftmann@25184
   591
    FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
haftmann@25184
   592
    FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
haftmann@25184
   593
    Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
haftmann@25184
   594
    Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
haftmann@25184
   595
    Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
haftmann@25184
   596
    Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
haftmann@25184
   597
    Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
haftmann@25184
   598
haftmann@25184
   599
INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
haftmann@25184
   600
haftmann@25184
   601
a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
haftmann@25184
   602
"times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
haftmann@25184
   603
"+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
haftmann@25184
   604
names.
haftmann@25184
   605
haftmann@25184
   606
b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
haftmann@25184
   607
INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
haftmann@25184
   608
haftmann@25184
   609
c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
haftmann@25184
   610
Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
haftmann@25184
   611
rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
haftmann@25184
   612
that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
haftmann@25184
   613
distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
haftmann@25184
   614
haftmann@25184
   615
d) ML code directly refering to constant names
haftmann@25184
   616
This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
haftmann@25184
   617
so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
haftmann@25184
   618
Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
haftmann@25184
   619
haftmann@25184
   620
* New class "default" with associated constant "default".
haftmann@25184
   621
haftmann@25184
   622
* Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
haftmann@25184
   623
(and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
haftmann@25184
   624
sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
haftmann@25184
   625
sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
haftmann@25184
   626
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@25184
   627
haftmann@25184
   628
* Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
haftmann@25184
   629
Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@25184
   630
haftmann@25184
   631
* Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
haftmann@25184
   632
"cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
haftmann@25184
   633
clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@25184
   634
haftmann@25184
   635
* Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
haftmann@25184
   636
changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
haftmann@25184
   637
haftmann@25184
   638
* The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
haftmann@25184
   639
for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
haftmann@25184
   640
in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
haftmann@25184
   641
Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
haftmann@25184
   642
is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
haftmann@25184
   643
command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
haftmann@25184
   644
in the current context.
haftmann@25184
   645
haftmann@25184
   646
* Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
haftmann@25184
   647
lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
haftmann@25184
   648
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@25184
   649
haftmann@25184
   650
* Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
haftmann@25184
   651
with new class dense_linear_order.
haftmann@25184
   652
haftmann@25184
   653
* Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
haftmann@25184
   654
haftmann@25184
   655
    constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
haftmann@25184
   656
    constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
haftmann@25184
   657
haftmann@25184
   658
    classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
haftmann@25184
   659
      "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
haftmann@25184
   660
    class "lorder" now named "lattice"
haftmann@25184
   661
    class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
haftmann@25184
   662
haftmann@25184
   663
    Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
haftmann@25184
   664
    for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
haftmann@25184
   665
haftmann@25184
   666
  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
haftmann@25184
   667
haftmann@25184
   668
    meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
haftmann@25184
   669
    meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
haftmann@25184
   670
    join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
haftmann@25184
   671
    join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
haftmann@25184
   672
    meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
haftmann@25184
   673
    le_meetI                ~> le_infI
haftmann@25184
   674
    join_leI                ~> le_supI
haftmann@25184
   675
    le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
haftmann@25184
   676
    le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
haftmann@25184
   677
    meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
haftmann@25184
   678
    join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
haftmann@25184
   679
    meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
haftmann@25184
   680
    join_comm               ~> sup_commute
haftmann@25184
   681
    meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
haftmann@25184
   682
    meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
haftmann@25184
   683
    le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
haftmann@25184
   684
    le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
haftmann@25184
   685
    meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
haftmann@25184
   686
    join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
haftmann@25184
   687
    meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
haftmann@25184
   688
    meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
haftmann@25184
   689
    join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
haftmann@25184
   690
    join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
haftmann@25184
   691
    meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
haftmann@25184
   692
    join_aci                ~> sup_aci
haftmann@25184
   693
    le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
haftmann@25184
   694
    le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
haftmann@25184
   695
    join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
haftmann@25184
   696
    join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
haftmann@25184
   697
    meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
haftmann@25184
   698
    meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
haftmann@25184
   699
    meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
haftmann@25184
   700
    join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
haftmann@25184
   701
    distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
haftmann@25184
   702
    distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
haftmann@25184
   703
haftmann@25184
   704
    add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
haftmann@25184
   705
    add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
haftmann@25184
   706
    is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
haftmann@25184
   707
    is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
haftmann@25184
   708
    add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
haftmann@25184
   709
    add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
haftmann@25184
   710
    add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
haftmann@25184
   711
    join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
haftmann@25184
   712
    meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
haftmann@25184
   713
    add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
haftmann@25184
   714
    meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
haftmann@25184
   715
    join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
haftmann@25184
   716
    meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
haftmann@25184
   717
    join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
haftmann@25184
   718
    neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
haftmann@25184
   719
    neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
haftmann@25184
   720
    join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
haftmann@25184
   721
haftmann@25184
   722
    mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
haftmann@25184
   723
    mono_join               ~> mono_sup
haftmann@25184
   724
    meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
haftmann@25184
   725
    join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
haftmann@25184
   726
    meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
haftmann@25184
   727
    join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
haftmann@25184
   728
    meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
haftmann@25184
   729
    join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
haftmann@25184
   730
    meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
haftmann@25184
   731
    meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
haftmann@25184
   732
    meet1I                  ~> inf1I
haftmann@25184
   733
    meet2I                  ~> inf2I
haftmann@25184
   734
    meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
haftmann@25184
   735
    meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
haftmann@25184
   736
    meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
haftmann@25184
   737
    meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
haftmann@25184
   738
    meet1E                  ~> inf1E
haftmann@25184
   739
    meet2E                  ~> inf2E
haftmann@25184
   740
    join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
haftmann@25184
   741
    join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
haftmann@25184
   742
    join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
haftmann@25184
   743
    join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
haftmann@25184
   744
    join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
haftmann@25184
   745
    join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
haftmann@25184
   746
    join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
haftmann@25184
   747
    join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
haftmann@25184
   748
    join1E                  ~> sup1E
haftmann@25184
   749
    join2E                  ~> sup2E
haftmann@25184
   750
haftmann@25184
   751
    is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
haftmann@25184
   752
    Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
haftmann@25184
   753
    Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
haftmann@25184
   754
    Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
haftmann@25184
   755
    Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
haftmann@25184
   756
    Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
haftmann@25184
   757
haftmann@25184
   758
    Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
haftmann@25184
   759
    Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
haftmann@25184
   760
    Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
haftmann@25184
   761
    Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
haftmann@25184
   762
haftmann@25184
   763
    listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
haftmann@25184
   764
    listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
haftmann@25184
   765
haftmann@25184
   766
    meet_min                ~> inf_min
haftmann@25184
   767
    join_max                ~> sup_max
haftmann@25184
   768
haftmann@25184
   769
* Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
haftmann@25184
   770
type "'a::size ==> bool"
haftmann@25184
   771
wenzelm@24800
   772
* Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
wenzelm@24800
   773
"foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
wenzelm@24800
   774
simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
haftmann@25184
   775
"*.size".
haftmann@25184
   776
haftmann@25184
   777
* Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
haftmann@25184
   778
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
   779
wenzelm@24800
   780
* HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
wenzelm@24800
   781
Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
wenzelm@24800
   782
fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
   783
wenzelm@25129
   784
* HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@25129
   785
wenzelm@24800
   786
* HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
wenzelm@24800
   787
machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
wenzelm@24800
   788
operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
wenzelm@24800
   789
linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
wenzelm@24800
   790
lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
wenzelm@24800
   791
arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
wenzelm@24800
   792
numerals on all operations.
kleing@24333
   793
kleing@24333
   794
* Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
kleing@24333
   795
kleing@24333
   796
* Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
kleing@24333
   797
haftmann@23850
   798
* Code generator library theories:
haftmann@24993
   799
  - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
haftmann@23850
   800
    languages.
haftmann@24993
   801
  - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
haftmann@23850
   802
    languages.
haftmann@24993
   803
  - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
haftmann@24993
   804
    codes; includes Code_Integer.
wenzelm@24800
   805
  - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
wenzelm@24800
   806
  - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
haftmann@23850
   807
    denominator).
wenzelm@24800
   808
  - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
haftmann@23850
   809
    representable by rational numbers.
wenzelm@24800
   810
  - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
haftmann@23850
   811
    result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
haftmann@24993
   812
    includes Code_Integer.
haftmann@24993
   813
  - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
haftmann@24993
   814
    target-language built-in integers.
haftmann@24993
   815
  - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string} which is isomorphic to
haftmann@24993
   816
    strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
haftmann@23850
   817
berghofe@23783
   818
* New package for inductive predicates
berghofe@23783
   819
berghofe@23783
   820
  An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
berghofe@23783
   821
berghofe@23783
   822
    inductive
berghofe@23783
   823
      p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
berghofe@23783
   824
      for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
berghofe@23783
   825
    where
berghofe@23783
   826
      rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
berghofe@23783
   827
    | ...
berghofe@23783
   828
wenzelm@24800
   829
  with full support for type-inference, rather than
berghofe@23783
   830
berghofe@23783
   831
    consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
berghofe@23783
   832
berghofe@23783
   833
    abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
berghofe@23783
   834
    where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
berghofe@23783
   835
berghofe@23783
   836
    inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
berghofe@23783
   837
    intros
berghofe@23783
   838
      rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
berghofe@23783
   839
      ...
berghofe@23783
   840
berghofe@23783
   841
  For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
berghofe@23783
   842
  sets to be defined with the new package via
berghofe@23783
   843
berghofe@23783
   844
    inductive_set
berghofe@23783
   845
      s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
berghofe@23783
   846
      for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
berghofe@23783
   847
    where
berghofe@23783
   848
      rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
berghofe@23783
   849
    | ...
berghofe@23783
   850
berghofe@23783
   851
  or
berghofe@23783
   852
berghofe@23783
   853
    inductive_set
berghofe@23783
   854
      s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
berghofe@23783
   855
      and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
berghofe@23783
   856
      for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
berghofe@23783
   857
    where
berghofe@23783
   858
      "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
berghofe@23783
   859
    | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
berghofe@23783
   860
    | ...
berghofe@23783
   861
berghofe@23783
   862
  if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
berghofe@23783
   863
wenzelm@25177
   864
  Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
wenzelm@25177
   865
  src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
berghofe@23783
   866
berghofe@23783
   867
  INCOMPATIBILITIES:
berghofe@23783
   868
berghofe@23783
   869
  - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
wenzelm@24800
   870
    is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
wenzelm@24800
   871
    introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
wenzelm@24800
   872
    introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
wenzelm@24800
   873
    than before the actual inductive definition.
wenzelm@24800
   874
wenzelm@24800
   875
  - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
wenzelm@24800
   876
    quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
wenzelm@24800
   877
    rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
wenzelm@24800
   878
    some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
wenzelm@24800
   879
    reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
wenzelm@24800
   880
    statements of the form
berghofe@23783
   881
berghofe@23783
   882
      case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
berghofe@23783
   883
berghofe@23783
   884
    or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
berghofe@23783
   885
    meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
berghofe@23783
   886
berghofe@23783
   887
      | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
berghofe@23783
   888
berghofe@23783
   889
  - The format of the elimination rules is now
berghofe@23783
   890
berghofe@23783
   891
      p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
berghofe@23783
   892
        (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
berghofe@23783
   893
        ==> ... ==> P
berghofe@23783
   894
berghofe@23783
   895
    for predicates and
berghofe@23783
   896
berghofe@23783
   897
      (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
berghofe@23783
   898
        (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
berghofe@23783
   899
        ==> ... ==> P
berghofe@23783
   900
berghofe@23783
   901
    for sets rather than
berghofe@23783
   902
berghofe@23783
   903
      x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
berghofe@23783
   904
        (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
berghofe@23783
   905
        ==> ... ==> P
berghofe@23783
   906
wenzelm@24800
   907
    This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
wenzelm@24800
   908
    (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
wenzelm@24800
   909
    rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
wenzelm@24800
   910
wenzelm@24800
   911
  - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
wenzelm@24800
   912
    sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
wenzelm@24800
   913
    list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
berghofe@23783
   914
krauss@25198
   915
* New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
krauss@25198
   916
supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
krauss@25198
   917
more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
krauss@25198
   918
for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
krauss@25198
   919
package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
krauss@25198
   920
users are encouraged to use the new package.
krauss@25198
   921
krauss@25198
   922
* Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
krauss@25198
   923
relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
krauss@25198
   924
wenzelm@24800
   925
* Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
wenzelm@24800
   926
"_") and take their order into account, like in functional
wenzelm@24800
   927
programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
wenzelm@24800
   928
case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
wenzelm@24800
   929
constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
wenzelm@24800
   930
the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
wenzelm@24800
   931
the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
wenzelm@24800
   932
abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
wenzelm@24800
   933
variable.
nipkow@23564
   934
huffman@23468
   935
* IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
wenzelm@24800
   936
is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
wenzelm@24800
   937
rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
wenzelm@24800
   938
previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
huffman@23468
   939
  - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
huffman@23468
   940
  - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
huffman@23377
   941
chaieb@23295
   942
* Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
wenzelm@24800
   943
Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
wenzelm@24800
   944
tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
wenzelm@24800
   945
a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
wenzelm@24800
   946
declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
wenzelm@24800
   947
already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
wenzelm@24800
   948
of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
wenzelm@24800
   949
CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
wenzelm@24800
   950
architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
wenzelm@24800
   951
wenzelm@25033
   952
* Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
wenzelm@25033
   953
special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
wenzelm@25033
   954
"algebra"). The method is already installed for class
wenzelm@25033
   955
{ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
wenzelm@25033
   956
rat, etc.
wenzelm@25033
   957
wenzelm@24800
   958
* Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
wenzelm@24800
   959
antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
wenzelm@24800
   960
circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
wenzelm@24800
   961
haftmann@24996
   962
* primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
haftmann@22845
   963
wenzelm@24800
   964
* New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
wenzelm@24800
   965
Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
wenzelm@24800
   966
wenzelm@24800
   967
* New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
wenzelm@25177
   968
[(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
wenzelm@24800
   969
wenzelm@24800
   970
* The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
wenzelm@24800
   971
xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
wenzelm@24800
   972
comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
   973
wenzelm@24800
   974
* [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
wenzelm@24800
   975
defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
wenzelm@24800
   976
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
   977
wenzelm@24800
   978
* Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
wenzelm@24800
   979
wenzelm@25177
   980
* New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
wenzelm@24800
   981
wenzelm@24800
   982
* New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
wenzelm@24800
   983
manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
wenzelm@24800
   984
denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
wenzelm@24800
   985
positive/negative (in inequations).
nipkow@23480
   986
nipkow@23480
   987
* Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
wenzelm@24800
   988
have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
wenzelm@24800
   989
ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
wenzelm@24800
   990
because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
   991
wenzelm@25177
   992
* Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
wenzelm@24800
   993
package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
wenzelm@24800
   994
algebraic operations.
haftmann@22735
   995
wenzelm@24800
   996
* Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
haftmann@22218
   997
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@22218
   998
wenzelm@24800
   999
* Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
haftmann@22218
  1000
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@22218
  1001
wenzelm@22126
  1002
* HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
wenzelm@22126
  1003
field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
wenzelm@22126
  1004
(K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
schirmer@21226
  1005
INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
schirmer@21226
  1006
adapted.
schirmer@21226
  1007
 
wenzelm@24800
  1008
* Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
wenzelm@24800
  1009
* x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
wenzelm@24800
  1010
inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
wenzelm@24800
  1011
there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
wenzelm@24800
  1012
there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
wenzelm@24800
  1013
wenzelm@24800
  1014
* Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
wenzelm@24800
  1015
commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
haftmann@25163
  1016
commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
haftmann@21215
  1017
haftmann@21099
  1018
* Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
wenzelm@24800
  1019
INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
wenzelm@24800
  1020
better use 'abbreviation'.
wenzelm@24800
  1021
wenzelm@24800
  1022
* Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
  1023
wenzelm@22126
  1024
* Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
wenzelm@24800
  1025
been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
wenzelm@22126
  1026
significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
wenzelm@24800
  1027
  - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
haftmann@20485
  1028
      of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
haftmann@20485
  1029
  - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
haftmann@20485
  1030
  - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
haftmann@20485
  1031
  - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
haftmann@20485
  1032
wenzelm@25177
  1033
See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
wenzelm@25177
  1034
wenzelm@25177
  1035
* Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
wenzelm@25177
  1036
contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
wenzelm@25177
  1037
produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
wenzelm@25177
  1038
heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
wenzelm@25177
  1039
first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
wenzelm@25177
  1040
further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
nipkow@19895
  1041
wenzelm@17996
  1042
* Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
wenzelm@17996
  1043
25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
wenzelm@17996
  1044
"A = B" (with priority 50).
wenzelm@17996
  1045
wenzelm@21265
  1046
* Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
wenzelm@21265
  1047
Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
wenzelm@24800
  1048
e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
wenzelm@24800
  1049
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@21265
  1050
nipkow@18674
  1051
* "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
nipkow@18674
  1052
krauss@20716
  1053
* Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
krauss@20716
  1054
stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
krauss@20716
  1055
wenzelm@22126
  1056
* The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
wenzelm@22126
  1057
removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
nipkow@19377
  1058
wenzelm@17865
  1059
* In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
wenzelm@24800
  1060
"t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
wenzelm@24800
  1061
``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
wenzelm@24800
  1062
wenzelm@24800
  1063
* Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
wenzelm@24800
  1064
True/False.
wenzelm@24800
  1065
wenzelm@24800
  1066
* Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
nipkow@19211
  1067
ballarin@19279
  1068
* Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
ballarin@19279
  1069
nipkow@19211
  1070
* Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
wenzelm@22126
  1071
``rule'' method.
wenzelm@22126
  1072
wenzelm@24800
  1073
* Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
wenzelm@24800
  1074
goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
wenzelm@24800
  1075
(i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
wenzelm@24800
  1076
"lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
wenzelm@24800
  1077
wenzelm@24800
  1078
* Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
wenzelm@22126
  1079
zChaff is still supported as well.
wenzelm@22126
  1080
wenzelm@22126
  1081
* 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
wenzelm@22126
  1082
bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
wenzelm@22126
  1083
wenzelm@22126
  1084
* Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
wenzelm@22126
  1085
Library.
wenzelm@21256
  1086
wenzelm@21256
  1087
* Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
wenzelm@19572
  1088
wenzelm@18446
  1089
* Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
wenzelm@18446
  1090
as greatest fixed-point.
wenzelm@18399
  1091
wenzelm@19254
  1092
* Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
schirmer@19252
  1093
association lists.
webertj@17809
  1094
wenzelm@24800
  1095
* Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
wenzelm@24800
  1096
efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
wenzelm@24800
  1097
oracle) if it evaluates to True.
wenzelm@20807
  1098
wenzelm@20807
  1099
* Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
wenzelm@24800
  1100
also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
wenzelm@24800
  1101
being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
  1102
Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
wenzelm@24800
  1103
behavior.
webertj@20217
  1104
wenzelm@22126
  1105
* Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
wenzelm@19254
  1106
wenzelm@20807
  1107
* New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
wenzelm@20807
  1108
interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
wenzelm@20807
  1109
parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
wenzelm@20807
  1110
theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
wenzelm@20807
  1111
resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
wenzelm@20807
  1112
s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
wenzelm@20807
  1113
wenzelm@20807
  1114
* New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
wenzelm@20807
  1115
are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
wenzelm@20807
  1116
where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
wenzelm@20807
  1117
generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
wenzelm@20807
  1118
applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
wenzelm@20807
  1119
r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
wenzelm@25177
  1120
subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
wenzelm@25177
  1121
wenzelm@25177
  1122
* Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
wenzelm@25177
  1123
available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
wenzelm@20807
  1124
wenzelm@20807
  1125
wenzelm@19653
  1126
*** HOL-Complex ***
wenzelm@19653
  1127
huffman@22971
  1128
* Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
huffman@22971
  1129
inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
huffman@22971
  1130
Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
huffman@22971
  1131
that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
huffman@22971
  1132
INCOMPATIBILITY.
huffman@22971
  1133
wenzelm@24800
  1134
* Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
huffman@21791
  1135
algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
huffman@21791
  1136
and norm :: 'a => real.
huffman@21791
  1137
wenzelm@24800
  1138
* Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
wenzelm@24800
  1139
reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
wenzelm@24800
  1140
defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24800
  1141
wenzelm@24800
  1142
* Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
nipkow@23013
  1143
Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
nipkow@23013
  1144
wenzelm@22126
  1145
* Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
wenzelm@22126
  1146
reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
wenzelm@22126
  1147
spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
wenzelm@22126
  1148
INCOMPATIBILITY.
huffman@21791
  1149
huffman@22972
  1150
  Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
huffman@22972
  1151
  HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
huffman@22972
  1152
  HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
huffman@21791
  1153
  approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
huffman@21791
  1154
  monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
huffman@21791
  1155
  galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
huffman@22972
  1156
  (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
huffman@21791
  1157
  (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
huffman@21791
  1158
  (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
huffman@21791
  1159
  (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
huffman@21791
  1160
  (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
huffman@21791
  1161
  is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
huffman@21791
  1162
  deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
huffman@22972
  1163
  sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
huffman@23116
  1164
  exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
huffman@21791
  1165
huffman@21791
  1166
* Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
wenzelm@22126
  1167
overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
wenzelm@22126
  1168
hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
wenzelm@22126
  1169
polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
huffman@21791
  1170
huffman@21791
  1171
  approx        <-- capprox
huffman@21791
  1172
  HFinite       <-- CFinite
huffman@21791
  1173
  HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
huffman@21791
  1174
  Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
huffman@21791
  1175
  monad         <-- cmonad
huffman@21791
  1176
  galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
huffman@21791
  1177
  (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
huffman@21791
  1178
  is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
huffman@21791
  1179
  (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
huffman@21791
  1180
wenzelm@19653
  1181
wenzelm@24801
  1182
*** HOL-Algebra ***
wenzelm@24801
  1183
wenzelm@24801
  1184
* Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
wenzelm@24801
  1185
wenzelm@24801
  1186
* Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
wenzelm@24801
  1187
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24801
  1188
wenzelm@24801
  1189
* Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
wenzelm@24801
  1190
greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24801
  1191
wenzelm@24801
  1192
* Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
wenzelm@24801
  1193
Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
wenzelm@24801
  1194
of algebraic structures.
wenzelm@24801
  1195
wenzelm@24801
  1196
* Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
wenzelm@24801
  1197
wenzelm@24801
  1198
wenzelm@24801
  1199
*** HOL-Nominal ***
wenzelm@24801
  1200
wenzelm@25148
  1201
* Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
wenzelm@25177
  1202
structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
wenzelm@25177
  1203
src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
wenzelm@25148
  1204
http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
wenzelm@25148
  1205
wenzelm@24801
  1206
wenzelm@17878
  1207
*** ML ***
wenzelm@17878
  1208
wenzelm@24643
  1209
* ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
wenzelm@24643
  1210
(even on SML/NJ).
wenzelm@24643
  1211
wenzelm@22138
  1212
* ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
wenzelm@22138
  1213
formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
wenzelm@22138
  1214
compile-time.  For example:
wenzelm@22138
  1215
wenzelm@25142
  1216
ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1217
ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1218
ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1219
ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1220
ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1221
ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1222
ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1223
ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1224
ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
wenzelm@24692
  1225
ML {* @{type_name c} *}
wenzelm@25142
  1226
ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
wenzelm@22376
  1227
ML {* @{const_name c} *}
wenzelm@22376
  1228
ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1229
ML {* @{context} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1230
ML {* @{theory} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1231
ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
wenzelm@24692
  1232
ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
wenzelm@24692
  1233
ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1234
ML {* @{simpset} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1235
ML {* @{claset} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1236
ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
wenzelm@22138
  1237
wenzelm@22151
  1238
The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
wenzelm@22151
  1239
wenzelm@22152
  1240
* ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
wenzelm@24706
  1241
ML_Context.trace enabled.
wenzelm@22152
  1242
wenzelm@19032
  1243
* Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
wenzelm@24706
  1244
DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
wenzelm@19081
  1245
admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
wenzelm@18446
  1246
wenzelm@24800
  1247
* Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
wenzelm@24800
  1248
use Context.generic instead of just theory.
wenzelm@24800
  1249
wenzelm@18642
  1250
* Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
wenzelm@18644
  1251
provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
wenzelm@18642
  1252
context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
wenzelm@18642
  1253
wenzelm@18737
  1254
* Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
wenzelm@24706
  1255
Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
wenzelm@24706
  1256
local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
wenzelm@24706
  1257
minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
wenzelm@24706
  1258
Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
wenzelm@24706
  1259
Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
wenzelm@24706
  1260
GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
wenzelm@19006
  1261
declarations and definitions.
wenzelm@19006
  1262
wenzelm@24800
  1263
* Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
wenzelm@24800
  1264
name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
wenzelm@24800
  1265
init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
wenzelm@24800
  1266
to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
wenzelm@24800
  1267
wenzelm@19508
  1268
* Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
wenzelm@24800
  1269
signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
wenzelm@24800
  1270
logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
wenzelm@24800
  1271
potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@19508
  1272
wenzelm@19508
  1273
* Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
wenzelm@19508
  1274
explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
wenzelm@24706
  1275
internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
wenzelm@19508
  1276
notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
wenzelm@24706
  1277
AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
wenzelm@19508
  1278
Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
wenzelm@19508
  1279
wenzelm@19006
  1280
* Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
wenzelm@19006
  1281
global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
wenzelm@19006
  1282
discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
wenzelm@19006
  1283
accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
wenzelm@19006
  1284
attributes, methods, etc.
wenzelm@18642
  1285
wenzelm@18446
  1286
* Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
wenzelm@18446
  1287
have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
wenzelm@18446
  1288
allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
wenzelm@18446
  1289
fold_map combinators.
haftmann@18051
  1290
wenzelm@21647
  1291
* Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
wenzelm@21647
  1292
comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
wenzelm@21647
  1293
maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
wenzelm@21647
  1294
derivation.
wenzelm@21647
  1295
wenzelm@18020
  1296
* Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
wenzelm@18145
  1297
actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
wenzelm@18020
  1298
achieve the old behaviour.
wenzelm@18020
  1299
wenzelm@18020
  1300
* Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
wenzelm@18020
  1301
slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
wenzelm@18020
  1302
statements.
wenzelm@18020
  1303
wenzelm@20040
  1304
* Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
wenzelm@20040
  1305
enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
wenzelm@20040
  1306
Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
wenzelm@20040
  1307
wenzelm@20090
  1308
* Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
wenzelm@20090
  1309
internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
wenzelm@20090
  1310
some popular functions from term.ML:
wenzelm@20090
  1311
wenzelm@20090
  1312
  Term.variant		->  Name.variant
wenzelm@24800
  1313
  Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
wenzelm@20090
  1314
  Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
wenzelm@20090
  1315
wenzelm@20090
  1316
Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
wenzelm@20090
  1317
from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
wenzelm@20090
  1318
wenzelm@20040
  1319
* Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
wenzelm@20040
  1320
treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
wenzelm@20040
  1321
Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
wenzelm@20040
  1322
Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
wenzelm@20040
  1323
various freeze_thaw operations.
wenzelm@20040
  1324
wenzelm@18567
  1325
* Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
wenzelm@17981
  1326
init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
wenzelm@20040
  1327
Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
wenzelm@20040
  1328
within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
wenzelm@20040
  1329
theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
wenzelm@20040
  1330
OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
wenzelm@20040
  1331
ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
wenzelm@20040
  1332
in a locale context).
wenzelm@17981
  1333
wenzelm@24706
  1334
* Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
wenzelm@24706
  1335
and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
wenzelm@24706
  1336
(Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
wenzelm@24706
  1337
which are considered legacy and await removal.
wenzelm@24706
  1338
wenzelm@24920
  1339
* Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
wenzelm@24920
  1340
(Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
wenzelm@24920
  1341
with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
wenzelm@24920
  1342
etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
wenzelm@24924
  1343
available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
wenzelm@24924
  1344
a mere theory instead of a full context.
wenzelm@24920
  1345
wenzelm@18815
  1346
* Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
wenzelm@18687
  1347
ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
wenzelm@18686
  1348
without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
wenzelm@18686
  1349
care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
wenzelm@18686
  1350
handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
wenzelm@18686
  1351
wenzelm@18686
  1352
  ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
wenzelm@18686
  1353
wenzelm@18686
  1354
Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
wenzelm@18687
  1355
embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
wenzelm@18687
  1356
this:
wenzelm@18686
  1357
wenzelm@18686
  1358
  Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
wenzelm@18686
  1359
wenzelm@18686
  1360
INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
wenzelm@18686
  1361
obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
wenzelm@18686
  1362
Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
wenzelm@18686
  1363
-- use plain ERROR instead.
wenzelm@18686
  1364
wenzelm@18815
  1365
* Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
wenzelm@18722
  1366
list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
wenzelm@18722
  1367
wenzelm@24706
  1368
* Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
wenzelm@24706
  1369
ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
wenzelm@18815
  1370
wenzelm@18815
  1371
* Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
wenzelm@18815
  1372
theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
wenzelm@18815
  1373
quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
wenzelm@18590
  1374
batch mode.
wenzelm@18567
  1375
wenzelm@24867
  1376
* Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
wenzelm@24867
  1377
OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
wenzelm@24867
  1378
OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
wenzelm@24867
  1379
OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@24867
  1380
wenzelm@17878
  1381
* Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
wenzelm@17878
  1382
contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
wenzelm@17878
  1383
very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
wenzelm@17890
  1384
simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
wenzelm@17878
  1385
(solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
wenzelm@17878
  1386
wenzelm@17878
  1387
* Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
wenzelm@17878
  1388
local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
wenzelm@17878
  1389
etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
wenzelm@17878
  1390
former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
wenzelm@17890
  1391
INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
wenzelm@17890
  1392
specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
wenzelm@17878
  1393
wenzelm@17878
  1394
* Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
wenzelm@17878
  1395
change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
wenzelm@17878
  1396
theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
wenzelm@17878
  1397
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@17878
  1398
wenzelm@18540
  1399
* Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
wenzelm@18540
  1400
"Trueprop" etc.
wenzelm@18540
  1401
wenzelm@17878
  1402
wenzelm@20988
  1403
*** System ***
wenzelm@20988
  1404
wenzelm@21471
  1405
* settings: ML_IDENTIFIER -- which is appended to user specific heap
wenzelm@21471
  1406
locations -- now includes the Isabelle version identifier as well.
wenzelm@21471
  1407
This simplifies use of multiple Isabelle installations.
wenzelm@21471
  1408
wenzelm@20988
  1409
* isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
wenzelm@20988
  1410
operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
wenzelm@20988
  1411
code.
wenzelm@20988
  1412
wenzelm@24891
  1413
* Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
wenzelm@24891
  1414
wenzelm@24801
  1415
* Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
wenzelm@24800
  1416
Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
wenzelm@24800
  1417
independent theories, according to the given theory header
wenzelm@24800
  1418
specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
wenzelm@24800
  1419
usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
wenzelm@24800
  1420
speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
wenzelm@24800
  1421
to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
wenzelm@24800
  1422
guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
wenzelm@24800
  1423
Implementation manual.
wenzelm@24210
  1424
wenzelm@17754
  1425
wenzelm@17720
  1426
New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
wenzelm@17720
  1427
----------------------------------
wenzelm@14655
  1428
wenzelm@14655
  1429
*** General ***
wenzelm@14655
  1430
nipkow@15130
  1431
* Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
nipkow@15130
  1432
nipkow@15130
  1433
  theory <name>
wenzelm@16234
  1434
  imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
wenzelm@16234
  1435
  uses <file1> ... <fileM>
nipkow@15130
  1436
  begin
nipkow@15130
  1437
wenzelm@16234
  1438
where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
wenzelm@16234
  1439
wenzelm@16234
  1440
  theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
wenzelm@16234
  1441
wenzelm@16717
  1442
will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
wenzelm@16717
  1443
existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
wenzelm@17371
  1444
non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
nipkow@15130
  1445
berghofe@15475
  1446
* Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
wenzelm@16234
  1447
relative and absolute paths.
wenzelm@16234
  1448
wenzelm@17408
  1449
* Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
wenzelm@17408
  1450
list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
wenzelm@17408
  1451
simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
wenzelm@17408
  1452
theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
wenzelm@17408
  1453
match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
wenzelm@17408
  1454
name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
wenzelm@17408
  1455
lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
wenzelm@17408
  1456
all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
wenzelm@17408
  1457
'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
wenzelm@16234
  1458
wenzelm@17275
  1459
  C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
wenzelm@16234
  1460
wenzelm@16234
  1461
prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
wenzelm@16234
  1462
matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
wenzelm@16234
  1463
in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
wenzelm@16013
  1464
wenzelm@17408
  1465
* Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
wenzelm@17408
  1466
'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@17408
  1467
wenzelm@17385
  1468
* Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
wenzelm@17385
  1469
Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
wenzelm@17408
  1470
formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
wenzelm@17538
  1471
General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
wenzelm@17538
  1472
wenzelm@17538
  1473
  http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
wenzelm@17538
  1474
  http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
wenzelm@17385
  1475
wenzelm@17425
  1476
* Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
wenzelm@17425
  1477
Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
wenzelm@17425
  1478
faster.
wenzelm@17425
  1479
wenzelm@15703
  1480
wenzelm@15703
  1481
*** Document preparation ***
wenzelm@15703
  1482
wenzelm@16234
  1483
* Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
wenzelm@16234
  1484
of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
wenzelm@16234
  1485
LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
wenzelm@16234
  1486
displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
wenzelm@16234
  1487
and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
wenzelm@16234
  1488
DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
wenzelm@16234
  1489
wenzelm@17047
  1490
* Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
wenzelm@17047
  1491
notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
wenzelm@17047
  1492
theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
wenzelm@17047
  1493
commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
wenzelm@17047
  1494
"invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
wenzelm@17047
  1495
specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
wenzelm@17047
  1496
interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
wenzelm@17047
  1497
preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
wenzelm@17047
  1498
isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
wenzelm@17047
  1499
\isadroptag.
wenzelm@17047
  1500
wenzelm@17047
  1501
Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
wenzelm@17047
  1502
usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
wenzelm@17047
  1503
specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
wenzelm@17047
  1504
theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
wenzelm@17047
  1505
proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
wenzelm@17047
  1506
these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
wenzelm@17047
  1507
default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
wenzelm@17047
  1508
specified above.
wenzelm@16234
  1509
haftmann@17402
  1510
* Several new antiquotations:
wenzelm@15979
  1511
wenzelm@15979
  1512
  @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
wenzelm@15979
  1513
wenzelm@15979
  1514
  @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
wenzelm@15979
  1515
wenzelm@16234
  1516
  @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
wenzelm@16234
  1517
  argument is a known logical constant;
wenzelm@15979
  1518
wenzelm@15979
  1519
  @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
wenzelm@16234
  1520
  theorem applying a "style" to it
wenzelm@16234
  1521
wenzelm@17117
  1522
  @{ML text}
wenzelm@17117
  1523
wenzelm@16234
  1524
Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
wenzelm@16234
  1525
definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
schirmer@17393
  1526
conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
wenzelm@16234
  1527
to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
wenzelm@16234
  1528
interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
wenzelm@17117
  1529
document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
wenzelm@17117
  1530
type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
wenzelm@16234
  1531
wenzelm@17259
  1532
* Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
wenzelm@17259
  1533
and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
wenzelm@17269
  1534
specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
wenzelm@17269
  1535
example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
wenzelm@17259
  1536
wenzelm@17259
  1537
* Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
wenzelm@17259
  1538
context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
wenzelm@17269
  1539
[locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.
wenzelm@17259
  1540
wenzelm@17097
  1541
* Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within
wenzelm@17097
  1542
a proof context.
wenzelm@17097
  1543
wenzelm@17097
  1544
* Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a
wenzelm@17097
  1545
proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').
wenzelm@17097
  1546
wenzelm@17193
  1547
* Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX
wenzelm@17193
  1548
macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).
wenzelm@17193
  1549
wenzelm@17193
  1550
* isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option
wenzelm@17193
  1551
-D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false
wenzelm@17193
  1552
prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.
wenzelm@17193
  1553
wenzelm@16234
  1554
wenzelm@16234
  1555
*** Pure ***
wenzelm@16234
  1556
wenzelm@16234
  1557
* Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command.  Now performs
wenzelm@16234
  1558
automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for
wenzelm@16234
  1559
local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also
wenzelm@16234
  1560
isar-ref manual.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly
wenzelm@16234
  1561
sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'
wenzelm@16234
  1562
section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier.  If
wenzelm@16234
  1563
all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.
wenzelm@16234
  1564
wenzelm@16234
  1565
* Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures.  First of all,
wenzelm@16234
  1566
indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted
wenzelm@16234
  1567
application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary
wenzelm@16234
  1568
expressions.  Secondly, in a local context with structure
wenzelm@16234
  1569
declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default
wenzelm@16234
  1570
number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option
wenzelm@16234
  1571
show_structs controls printing of implicit structures.  Typical
wenzelm@16234
  1572
applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.
wenzelm@16234
  1573
wenzelm@16234
  1574
* New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and
wenzelm@16234
  1575
translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is
wenzelm@16234
  1576
interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.
wenzelm@16234
  1577
wenzelm@16234
  1578
* 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend
wenzelm@16234
  1579
on the signature of the theory context being presently used for
wenzelm@16234
  1580
parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.
wenzelm@16234
  1581
wenzelm@16856
  1582
* Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an
wenzelm@16856
  1583
ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of
wenzelm@16856
  1584
type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle
wenzelm@16856
  1585
is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;
wenzelm@16856
  1586
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@16856
  1587
wenzelm@17275
  1588
* axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"
wenzelm@17275
  1589
before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.
wenzelm@17275
  1590
INCOMPATIBILITY.  This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for
wenzelm@17275
  1591
axclasses vs. locales.
wenzelm@17275
  1592
wenzelm@16234
  1593
* Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes
wenzelm@16234
  1594
instead of base 26 numbers.
wenzelm@16234
  1595
wenzelm@16234
  1596
* New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question
wenzelm@16234
  1597
marks in schematic variable names.
wenzelm@16234
  1598
wenzelm@16234
  1599
* In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or
wenzelm@16234
  1600
\<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name.  For example, the
wenzelm@16234
  1601
following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:
wenzelm@16234
  1602
wenzelm@16234
  1603
  lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"
wenzelm@16234
  1604
    by simp
wenzelm@16234
  1605
wenzelm@16234
  1606
* Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).
wenzelm@16234
  1607
wenzelm@17548
  1608
* Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix
wenzelm@16234
  1609
annotations as "(00...)".
wenzelm@16234
  1610
wenzelm@16234
  1611
* Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter
wenzelm@16234
  1612
may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.
wenzelm@16234
  1613
Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class
wenzelm@16234
  1614
"logic" vs. "{}".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper
wenzelm@16234
  1615
use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'.  Some very
wenzelm@16234
  1616
exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption
wenzelm@17691
  1617
(e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).
wenzelm@16234
  1618
wenzelm@16234
  1619
* Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.
wenzelm@16234
  1620
Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'
wenzelm@16234
  1621
rather than 'types'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic
wenzelm@16234
  1622
specifications.
wenzelm@16234
  1623
ballarin@17095
  1624
* Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be
ballarin@17095
  1625
locally fixed variables as well.
ballarin@17095
  1626
wenzelm@16234
  1627
* Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting
wenzelm@16234
  1628
is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth
wenzelm@16234
  1629
Limit.
wenzelm@16234
  1630
wenzelm@16234
  1631
* Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current
wenzelm@16234
  1632
simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc
wenzelm@16234
  1633
interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier
wenzelm@16234
  1634
recursively.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs
wenzelm@16234
  1635
is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead.  Moreover, the
wenzelm@16234
  1636
low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to
wenzelm@16234
  1637
allow for use in a context of fixed variables.
wenzelm@16234
  1638
wenzelm@16234
  1639
* thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!
wenzelm@16234
  1640
or ==>.  More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of
wenzelm@16234
  1641
the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.
wenzelm@16234
  1642
wenzelm@17597
  1643
* Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
nipkow@17590
  1644
wenzelm@16234
  1645
* Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived
wenzelm@16234
  1646
from Pure, which contains all common declarations already.  Both
wenzelm@16234
  1647
theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.
wenzelm@16234
  1648
INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /
wenzelm@16234
  1649
CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;
wenzelm@16234
  1650
use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.
wenzelm@16234
  1651
wenzelm@16234
  1652
* New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific
wenzelm@16234
  1653
selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.
wenzelm@16234
  1654
wenzelm@17097
  1655
* 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference
wenzelm@17097
  1656
wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),
wenzelm@17097
  1657
in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');
wenzelm@17097
  1658
wenzelm@17397
  1659
* 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.
wenzelm@17397
  1660
wenzelm@17275
  1661
* More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive
wenzelm@17275
  1662
theory development.
wenzelm@17275
  1663
berghofe@17663
  1664
* Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code
wenzelm@17664
  1665
generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures
wenzelm@17664
  1666
for each theory).  INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'
wenzelm@17664
  1667
must be quoted when used as identifiers.
wenzelm@17664
  1668
wenzelm@17664
  1669
* New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using
wenzelm@17664
  1670
the code generator.  INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be
wenzelm@17664
  1671
quoted when used as identifier.
berghofe@17663
  1672
wenzelm@16234
  1673
wenzelm@16234
  1674
*** Locales ***
ballarin@17095
  1675
wenzelm@17385
  1676
* New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in
wenzelm@17385
  1677
theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3).  These generate
wenzelm@17385
  1678
proof obligations from the expression specification.  After the
wenzelm@17385
  1679
obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added
wenzelm@17385
  1680
to the theory, target locale or proof context.  The synopsis of the
wenzelm@17385
  1681
commands is a follows:
wenzelm@17385
  1682
ballarin@17095
  1683
  (1) interpretation expr inst
ballarin@17095
  1684
  (2) interpretation target < expr
ballarin@17095
  1685
  (3) interpret expr inst
wenzelm@17385
  1686
ballarin@17095
  1687
Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter
ballarin@17095
  1688
instantiation of terms from the current context.  This is applied to
wenzelm@17385
  1689
specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.
wenzelm@17385
  1690
Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the
wenzelm@17385
  1691
locale expression.  Interpretation is smart in that interpretations
wenzelm@17385
  1692
that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are
wenzelm@17385
  1693
instantiated theorems stored in duplicate.  Use 'print_interps' to
wenzelm@17385
  1694
inspect active interpretations of a particular locale.  For details,
ballarin@17436
  1695
see the Isar Reference manual.  Examples can be found in
ballarin@17436
  1696
HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.
wenzelm@16234
  1697
wenzelm@16234
  1698
INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use
wenzelm@16234
  1699
'interpret' instead.
wenzelm@16234
  1700
wenzelm@17385
  1701
* New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to
wenzelm@17385
  1702
parameters.
wenzelm@17385
  1703
wenzelm@17385
  1704
* Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax
wenzelm@17385
  1705
redeclaration.
ballarin@17095
  1706
ballarin@17095
  1707
* Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.
ballarin@17095
  1708
wenzelm@16234
  1709
* Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /
wenzelm@16234
  1710
facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition
wenzelm@16234
  1711
context, independently of the context of later invocations.  Moreover,
wenzelm@16234
  1712
locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied
wenzelm@16234
  1713
to attribute arguments as expected.
wenzelm@16234
  1714
wenzelm@16234
  1715
INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of
wenzelm@16234
  1716
actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to
wenzelm@16234
  1717
embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.
wenzelm@16234
  1718
Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static
wenzelm@16234
  1719
binding mechanism.  Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and
wenzelm@16234
  1720
Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further
wenzelm@16234
  1721
intervention.  Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"
wenzelm@16234
  1722
(cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both
wenzelm@16234
  1723
on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed
wenzelm@16234
  1724
values to argument tokens explicitly.
wenzelm@16234
  1725
wenzelm@16234
  1726
* Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal
wenzelm@16234
  1727
statements with 'includes'.  INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different
wenzelm@16234
  1728
theorem statement in rare situations.
wenzelm@16234
  1729
ballarin@17228
  1730
* Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements.  Use
ballarin@17228
  1731
'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.
ballarin@17228
  1732
wenzelm@16234
  1733
wenzelm@16234
  1734
*** Provers ***
wenzelm@16234
  1735
wenzelm@16234
  1736
* Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for
wenzelm@16234
  1737
single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is
wenzelm@16234
  1738
'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may
wenzelm@16234
  1739
rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is
wenzelm@16234
  1740
still available as 'simplesubst'.
wenzelm@16234
  1741
wenzelm@16234
  1742
* Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only
wenzelm@16234
  1743
and quasi orders.
wenzelm@16234
  1744
wenzelm@16234
  1745
* Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and
wenzelm@16234
  1746
reflexive-transitive closure of relations.
wenzelm@16234
  1747
wenzelm@16234
  1748
* Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth
wenzelm@16234
  1749
limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.
wenzelm@16234
  1750
wenzelm@16234
  1751
* Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup
wenzelm@16234
  1752
is peformed already.  Object-logics merely need to finish their
wenzelm@16234
  1753
initial simpset configuration as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@15703
  1754
berghofe@15475
  1755
schirmer@14700
  1756
*** HOL ***
schirmer@14700
  1757
wenzelm@16234
  1758
* Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:
wenzelm@14878
  1759
wenzelm@14878
  1760
  syntax (epsilon)
wenzelm@14878
  1761
    "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a"    ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)
wenzelm@14878
  1762
wenzelm@16234
  1763
The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX
wenzelm@16234
  1764
and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.
wenzelm@16234
  1765
Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>
wenzelm@16234
  1766
becomes available as variable, constant etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
wenzelm@16234
  1767
wenzelm@16234
  1768
* "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".
wenzelm@16234
  1769
Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc.  The x-symbol for >=
wenzelm@17371
  1770
is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to
avigad@17016
  1771
support corresponding Isar calculations.
wenzelm@16234
  1772
wenzelm@16234
  1773
* "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"
wenzelm@16234
  1774
instead of ":".
wenzelm@16234
  1775
wenzelm@16234
  1776
* theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:
wenzelm@16234
  1777
wenzelm@16234
  1778
  Old       New
wenzelm@16234
  1779
  {..n(}    {..<n}
wenzelm@16234
  1780
  {)n..}    {n<..}
wenzelm@16234
  1781
  {m..n(}   {m..<n}
wenzelm@16234
  1782
  {)m..n}   {m<..n}
wenzelm@16234
  1783
  {)m..n(}  {m<..<n}
wenzelm@16234
  1784
wenzelm@16234
  1785
The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next
wenzelm@16234
  1786
release.  For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace
wenzelm@16234
  1787
patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):
nipkow@15046
  1788
nipkow@15046
  1789
  {)\([^\.]*\)\.\.  ->  {\1<\.\.}
nipkow@15046
  1790
  \.\.\([^(}]*\)(}  ->  \.\.<\1}
nipkow@15046
  1791
wenzelm@17533
  1792
* Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving
wenzelm@17533
  1793
equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic
wenzelm@17533
  1794
interface.
wenzelm@17389
  1795
wenzelm@17389
  1796
* Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over
wenzelm@16234
  1797
finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is
wenzelm@17371
  1798
now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can
paulson@17189
  1799
be a tuple pattern.
wenzelm@16234
  1800
wenzelm@16234
  1801
Some new syntax forms are available:
wenzelm@16234
  1802
wenzelm@16234
  1803
  "\<Sum>x | P. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"
wenzelm@16234
  1804
  "\<Sum>x = a..b. e"   for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"
wenzelm@16234
  1805
  "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e"  for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"
wenzelm@16234
  1806
  "\<Sum>x < k. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"
wenzelm@16234
  1807
wenzelm@16234
  1808
The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate
wenzelm@16234
  1809
function "Summation", which has been discontinued.
wenzelm@16234
  1810
wenzelm@16234
  1811
* theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case
wenzelm@16234
  1812
is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case
wenzelm@16234
  1813
(insert F x)'.
wenzelm@16234
  1814
wenzelm@16234
  1815
* The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger
wenzelm@16234
  1816
fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and
wenzelm@16234
  1817
typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.
wenzelm@16234
  1818
webertj@17700
  1819
* New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.
webertj@17700
  1820
Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed.  See
webertj@17700
  1821
HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.
webertj@17619
  1822
wenzelm@16234
  1823
* Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the
wenzelm@16234
  1824
induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by
wenzelm@16234
  1825
induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather
wenzelm@16234
  1826
than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
wenzelm@16234
  1827
in unstructured proof scripts.
wenzelm@16234
  1828
wenzelm@16234
  1829
* Reworked implementation of records.  Improved scalability for
wenzelm@16234
  1830
records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type
wenzelm@16234
  1831
inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but
wenzelm@16234
  1832
of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear
wenzelm@16234
  1833
in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields.  The
wenzelm@16234
  1834
top-level (users) view on records is preserved.  Potential
wenzelm@16234
  1835
INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the
wenzelm@16234
  1836
old record representation. The type generated for a record is called
wenzelm@16234
  1837
<record_name>_ext_type.
wenzelm@16234
  1838
wenzelm@16234
  1839
Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the
wenzelm@16234
  1840
proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if
wenzelm@16234
  1841
quick_and_dirty is enabled).  Definitions of large records can take
wenzelm@16234
  1842
quite long.
wenzelm@16234
  1843
wenzelm@16234
  1844
New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record
wenzelm@16234
  1845
updates enabled by default.  Moreover, trivial updates are also
wenzelm@16234
  1846
removed: r(|x := x r|) = r.  INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break
wenzelm@16234
  1847
occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.
wenzelm@16234
  1848
wenzelm@17275
  1849
* typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra
wenzelm@17275
  1850
type-variables in the term.
wenzelm@17275
  1851
wenzelm@16234
  1852
* Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains
wenzelm@16234
  1853
involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics
wenzelm@16234
  1854
provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
wenzelm@16234
  1855
old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more
wenzelm@16234
  1856
goals than previously.
wenzelm@16234
  1857
wenzelm@16234
  1858
* Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is
wenzelm@16234
  1859
present.  Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular
wenzelm@16234
  1860
numbers and sets.  For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y
wenzelm@16234
  1861
just like y <= x.
wenzelm@16234
  1862
wenzelm@16234
  1863
* Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x".  If a is a free or
wenzelm@16234
  1864
bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded.  Otherwise
wenzelm@16234
  1865
first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If
wenzelm@16234
  1866
possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",
wenzelm@16234
  1867
otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g.  The simproc can be
wenzelm@16234
  1868
enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc.  Potential
wenzelm@16234
  1869
INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.
webertj@15776
  1870
paulson@16563
  1871
* Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.
paulson@16563
  1872
paulson@17595
  1873
* Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background
paulson@17595
  1874
jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.
paulson@17595
  1875
wenzelm@16891
  1876
* Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and
wenzelm@16891
  1877
improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and
wenzelm@16891
  1878
inequalities.
wenzelm@16891
  1879
wenzelm@16891
  1880
The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
wenzelm@16891
  1881
(INCOMPATIBILITY):
avigad@16888
  1882
avigad@16888
  1883
  abs_eq             now named abs_of_nonneg
wenzelm@17371
  1884
  abs_of_ge_0        now named abs_of_nonneg
wenzelm@17371
  1885
  abs_minus_eq       now named abs_of_nonpos
avigad@16888
  1886
  imp_abs_id         now named abs_of_nonneg
avigad@16888
  1887
  imp_abs_neg_id     now named abs_of_nonpos
avigad@16888
  1888
  mult_pos           now named mult_pos_pos
avigad@16888
  1889
  mult_pos_le        now named mult_nonneg_nonneg
avigad@16888
  1890
  mult_pos_neg_le    now named mult_nonneg_nonpos
avigad@16888
  1891
  mult_pos_neg2_le   now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2
avigad@16888
  1892
  mult_neg           now named mult_neg_neg
avigad@16888
  1893
  mult_neg_le        now named mult_nonpos_nonpos
avigad@16888
  1894
obua@23495
  1895
* The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:
obua@23495
  1896
     
obua@23495
  1897
     zero_le_square
obua@23495
  1898
     not_square_less_zero 
obua@23495
  1899
obua@23495
  1900
  The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:
obua@23495
  1901
  
obua@23495
  1902
     realpow_zero_zero
obua@23495
  1903
     realpow_two
obua@23495
  1904
     realpow_less
obua@23495
  1905
     zero_le_power
obua@23495
  1906
     realpow_two_le
obua@23495
  1907
     abs_realpow_two
obua@23495
  1908
     realpow_two_abs     
obua@23495
  1909
wenzelm@16891
  1910
* Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.
wenzelm@16891
  1911
nipkow@17092
  1912
* Theory List:
nipkow@17092
  1913
nipkow@17092
  1914
The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
nipkow@17092
  1915
(INCOMPATIBILITY):
nipkow@17092
  1916
nipkow@17092
  1917
  list_all_Nil       now named list_all.simps(1)
nipkow@17092
  1918
  list_all_Cons      now named list_all.simps(2)
nipkow@17092
  1919
  list_all_conv      now named list_all_iff
nipkow@17092
  1920
  set_mem_eq         now named mem_iff
nipkow@17092
  1921
wenzelm@16929
  1922
* Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support
wenzelm@16929
  1923
asymptotic "big O" calculations.  See the notes in BigO.thy.
wenzelm@16929
  1924
avigad@16888
  1925
avigad@16888
  1926
*** HOL-Complex ***
avigad@16888
  1927
wenzelm@16891
  1928
* Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and
wenzelm@16891
  1929
integers in the reals.
wenzelm@16891
  1930
wenzelm@16891
  1931
The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
wenzelm@16891
  1932
(INCOMPATIBILITY):
wenzelm@16891
  1933
avigad@17016
  1934
  exp_ge_add_one_self  now requires no hypotheses
avigad@17016
  1935
  real_of_int_add      reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
avigad@17016
  1936
  real_of_int_minus    reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
avigad@17016
  1937
  real_of_int_diff     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
avigad@17016
  1938
  real_of_int_mult     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
wenzelm@16891
  1939
wenzelm@16891
  1940
* Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.
avigad@16888
  1941
avigad@16962
  1942
* Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm
avigad@16962
  1943
wenzelm@17423
  1944
* Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making
wenzelm@17423
  1945
nonstandard types.  The old type names are now type synonyms:
wenzelm@17423
  1946
wenzelm@17423
  1947
  hypreal = real star
wenzelm@17423
  1948
  hypnat = nat star
wenzelm@17423
  1949
  hcomplex = complex star
wenzelm@17423
  1950
wenzelm@17423
  1951
* Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been
huffman@17442
  1952
replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
wenzelm@17423
  1953
wenzelm@17423
  1954
  star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex
wenzelm@17423
  1955
wenzelm@17423
  1956
  starset      <-- starsetNat, starsetC
wenzelm@17423
  1957
  *s*          <-- *sNat*, *sc*
wenzelm@17423
  1958
  starset_n    <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n
wenzelm@17423
  1959
  *sn*         <-- *sNatn*, *scn*
wenzelm@17423
  1960
  InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets
wenzelm@17423
  1961
huffman@17442
  1962
  starfun      <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
wenzelm@17423
  1963
  *f*          <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*
huffman@17442
  1964
  starfun_n    <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n
wenzelm@17423
  1965
  *fn*         <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*
huffman@17442
  1966
  InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs
wenzelm@17423
  1967
wenzelm@17423
  1968
* Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of
huffman@17442
  1969
theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):
huffman@17442
  1970
huffman@17442
  1971
  add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute
huffman@17442
  1972
  add_assoc   <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs
huffman@17442
  1973
  OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left
huffman@17442
  1974
  OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right
wenzelm@17423
  1975
  right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus
huffman@17442
  1976
  left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left
huffman@17442
  1977
  mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute
huffman@17442
  1978
  mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc
huffman@17442
  1979
  mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left
wenzelm@17423
  1980
  mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right
wenzelm@17423
  1981
  mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left
huffman@17442
  1982
  left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib
wenzelm@17423
  1983
  right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2
huffman@17442
  1984
  zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one
wenzelm@17423
  1985
  right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse
wenzelm@17423
  1986
  left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left
huffman@17442
  1987
  order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl
huffman@17442
  1988
  order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans
huffman@17442
  1989
  order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym
huffman@17442
  1990
  order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le
huffman@17442
  1991
  linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear
huffman@17442
  1992
  add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono
huffman@17442
  1993
  mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2
wenzelm@17423
  1994
  add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order
wenzelm@17423
  1995
wenzelm@17423
  1996
* Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific
wenzelm@17423
  1997
versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the
huffman@17442
  1998
new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):
huffman@17442
  1999
huffman@17442
  2000
  STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set
huffman@17442
  2001
  STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set
huffman@17442
  2002
  STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un
huffman@17442
  2003
  STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int
huffman@17442
  2004
  STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl
huffman@17442
  2005
  STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset
huffman@17442
  2006
  STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem
huffman@17442
  2007
  STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl
huffman@17442
  2008
  STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff
huffman@17442
  2009
  STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,
huffman@17442
  2010
    STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset
huffman@17442
  2011
  starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un
huffman@17442
  2012
  starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int
huffman@17442
  2013
  starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl
huffman@17442
  2014
  starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff
huffman@17442
  2015
  InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un
huffman@17442
  2016
  InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int
huffman@17442
  2017
  InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl
huffman@17442
  2018
  InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff
huffman@17442
  2019
  InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff
huffman@17442
  2020
  InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n
huffman@17442
  2021
  starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq
huffman@17442
  2022
  starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}
huffman@17442
  2023
  starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
huffman@17442
  2024
  starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
huffman@17442
  2025
  starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult
huffman@17442
  2026
  starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add
huffman@17442
  2027
  starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus
huffman@17442
  2028
  starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff
huffman@17442
  2029
  starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o
huffman@17442
  2030
  starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2
huffman@17442
  2031
  starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun
huffman@17442
  2032
  starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse
huffman@17442
  2033
  starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq
huffman@17442
  2034
  starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff
wenzelm@17423
  2035
  starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id
huffman@17442
  2036
  starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx
huffman@17442
  2037
  starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox
wenzelm@17423
  2038
  starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs
huffman@17442
  2039
  starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel
huffman@17442
  2040
  starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2
wenzelm@17423
  2041
  starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox
huffman@17442
  2042
  starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox
huffman@17442
  2043
  starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox
wenzelm@17423
  2044
  starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx
wenzelm@17423
  2045
  starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse
huffman@17442
  2046
  starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide
huffman@17442
  2047
  starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n
huffman@17442
  2048
  starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult
huffman@17442
  2049
  starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add
wenzelm@17423
  2050
  starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus
huffman@17442
  2051
  starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun
huffman@17442
  2052
  starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus
huffman@17442
  2053
  starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq
huffman@17442
  2054
huffman@17442
  2055
  star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add
huffman@17442
  2056
  star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus
huffman@17442
  2057
  star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff
huffman@17442
  2058
  star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult
huffman@17442
  2059
  star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse
huffman@17442
  2060
  star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le
huffman@17442
  2061
  star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less
huffman@17442
  2062
  star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num
huffman@17442
  2063
  star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num
wenzelm@17423
  2064
  star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs
wenzelm@17423
  2065
  star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide
wenzelm@17423
  2066
huffman@17442
  2067
  star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add
huffman@17442
  2068
  star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus
wenzelm@17423
  2069
  star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff
huffman@17442
  2070
  star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult
huffman@17442
  2071
  star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one
huffman@17442
  2072
  star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero
huffman@17442
  2073
  star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff
huffman@17442
  2074
  star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff
huffman@17442
  2075
  star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff
huffman@17442
  2076
  star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse
huffman@17442
  2077
  star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide
huffman@17442
  2078
  star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat
huffman@17442
  2079
  star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int
huffman@17442
  2080
  star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of
wenzelm@17423
  2081
  star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff
wenzelm@17423
  2082
  star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff
wenzelm@17423
  2083
  star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff
wenzelm@17423
  2084
  star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff
wenzelm@17423
  2085
  star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff
wenzelm@17423
  2086
  star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power
wenzelm@17423
  2087
  star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff
wenzelm@17423
  2088
huffman@17442
  2089
* Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer
huffman@17442
  2090
principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions
huffman@17442
  2091
nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"
huffman@17442
  2092
replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.
huffman@17442
  2093
To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-
huffman@17442
  2094
standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.
huffman@17442
  2095
wenzelm@17641
  2096
* Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.
wenzelm@17641
  2097
wenzelm@14655
  2098
wenzelm@14682
  2099
*** HOLCF ***
wenzelm@14682
  2100
wenzelm@17533
  2101
* Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support
wenzelm@17533
  2102
continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full
wenzelm@17533
  2103
type-inference.
wenzelm@17533
  2104
wenzelm@17533
  2105
* New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it
wenzelm@17533
  2106
is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic
huffman@17442
  2107
instead of exponential time).
huffman@17442
  2108
wenzelm@17533
  2109
* New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.
huffman@17442
  2110
Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:
huffman@17442
  2111
huffman@17442
  2112
  domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")
huffman@17442
  2113
wenzelm@17533
  2114
* New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern
wenzelm@17533
  2115
matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also
wenzelm@17533
  2116
supported.  Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,
wenzelm@17533
  2117
sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given
wenzelm@17533
  2118
equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
wenzelm@17533
  2119
syntax and examples.
wenzelm@17533
  2120
wenzelm@17533
  2121
* New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes
wenzelm@17533
  2122
of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,
wenzelm@17533
  2123
but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility
wenzelm@17533
  2124
requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,
wenzelm@17533
  2125
with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.
huffman@17442
  2126
huffman@17584
  2127
* HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming
huffman@17584
  2128
scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):
huffman@17584
  2129
huffman@17584
  2130
  foo_inject:  "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"
huffman@17584
  2131
  foo_eq:      "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"
huffman@17584
  2132
  foo_less:    "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"
huffman@17584
  2133
  foo_strict:  "foo$UU = UU"
huffman@17584
  2134
  foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"
huffman@17584
  2135
  foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"
huffman@17584
  2136
wenzelm@14682
  2137
paulson@14885
  2138
*** ZF ***
paulson@14885
  2139
wenzelm@16234
  2140
* ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,
wenzelm@16234
  2141
including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel
wenzelm@16234
  2142
of a homomorphism).
wenzelm@15089
  2143
wenzelm@15089
  2144
* ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually
wenzelm@16234
  2145
makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);
wenzelm@16234
  2146
the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.
wenzelm@15703
  2147
wenzelm@15703
  2148
wenzelm@17445
  2149
*** Cube ***
wenzelm@17445
  2150
wenzelm@17445
  2151
* Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic
wenzelm@17445
  2152
theories.
wenzelm@17445
  2153
wenzelm@17445
  2154
wenzelm@15703
  2155
*** ML ***
wenzelm@15703
  2156
haftmann@21339
  2157
* Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts
haftmann@21339
  2158
for ||>, ||>>, |>>,
haftmann@21339
  2159
wenzelm@15973
  2160
* Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses
wenzelm@16234
  2161
that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of
wenzelm@16234
  2162
None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.
wenzelm@16234
  2163
The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted
wenzelm@16234
  2164
accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.
wenzelm@15973
  2165
wenzelm@16860
  2166
* Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of
wenzelm@16860
  2167
the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as
wenzelm@16860
  2168
Library.UnequalLengths.  Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are
wenzelm@16860
  2169
superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.
wenzelm@16860
  2170
wenzelm@16860
  2171
A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML
wenzelm@16860
  2172
toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions.  The following
wenzelm@16234
  2173
suggests how one can translate existing code:
wenzelm@15973
  2174
wenzelm@15973
  2175
    rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)
wenzelm@15973
  2176
    nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)
wenzelm@15973
  2177
    last_elem xs = List.last xs
wenzelm@15973
  2178
    flat xss = List.concat xss
wenzelm@16234
  2179
    seq fs = List.app fs
wenzelm@15973
  2180
    partition P xs = List.partition P xs
wenzelm@15973
  2181
    mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs
wenzelm@15973
  2182
wenzelm@16860
  2183
* Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional
wenzelm@16860
  2184
transformations, notably reverse application and composition:
wenzelm@16860
  2185
wenzelm@17371
  2186
  x |> f                f #> g
wenzelm@17371
  2187
  (x, y) |-> f          f #-> g
wenzelm@16860
  2188
haftmann@17495
  2189
* Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:
haftmann@17495
  2190
haftmann@17495
  2191
  infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;
haftmann@17495
  2192
  infix 2 ?;
haftmann@17495
  2193
  infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;
haftmann@17495
  2194
  infix 4 ~~ upto downto;
haftmann@17495
  2195
haftmann@17495
  2196
Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other
haftmann@17495
  2197
infix operators.
haftmann@17495
  2198
wenzelm@17408
  2199
* Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and
haftmann@16869
  2200
fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting.  For
wenzelm@16860
  2201
example:
wenzelm@16860
  2202
wenzelm@16860
  2203
  fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =
wenzelm@16860
  2204
    y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN
wenzelm@16860
  2205
wenzelm@16860
  2206
  (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =
wenzelm@16860
  2207
    y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN
wenzelm@16860
  2208
wenzelm@16860
  2209
  fold f [x1, ..., xN] =
wenzelm@16860
  2210
    f x1 #> ... #> f xN
wenzelm@16860
  2211
wenzelm@16860
  2212
  (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =
wenzelm@16860
  2213
    fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN
wenzelm@16860
  2214
wenzelm@17408
  2215
* Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are
wenzelm@17408
  2216
available:
wenzelm@17408
  2217
wenzelm@17408
  2218
  the:               'a option -> 'a  (*partial*)
wenzelm@17408
  2219
  these:             'a option -> 'a  where 'a = 'b list
haftmann@17402
  2220
  the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a
haftmann@17402
  2221
  the_list:          'a option -> 'a list
haftmann@17402
  2222
wenzelm@17408
  2223
* Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
wenzelm@17408
  2224
basic operations for association lists, following natural argument
haftmann@17564
  2225
order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids
haftmann@17495
  2226
potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.
haftmann@17495
  2227
The old functions may be expressed as follows:
wenzelm@17408
  2228
wenzelm@17408
  2229
  assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))
wenzelm@17408
  2230
  assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)
wenzelm@17408
  2231
  overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap
wenzelm@17408
  2232
haftmann@17564
  2233
* Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
haftmann@17564
  2234
haftmann@17564
  2235
  val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list
haftmann@17564
  2236
  val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list
haftmann@17564
  2237
haftmann@17564
  2238
replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)
haftmann@17564
  2239
Naive rewrites:
haftmann@17564
  2240
haftmann@17564
  2241
  make_keylist = AList.make
haftmann@17564
  2242
  keyfilter = AList.find (op =)
haftmann@17564
  2243
haftmann@17564
  2244
* eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus
haftmann@17564
  2245
  avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:
haftmann@17564
  2246
haftmann@17564
  2247
    eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)
haftmann@17564
  2248
    eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)
haftmann@17564
  2249
haftmann@17564
  2250
* Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).
haftmann@17564
  2251
  Naive rewrites:
haftmann@17564
  2252
haftmann@17564
  2253
    apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n
haftmann@17564
  2254
    apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)
haftmann@17564
  2255
wenzelm@17408
  2256
* Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)
wenzelm@17408
  2257
provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as
wenzelm@17408
  2258
lists.
wenzelm@17408
  2259
wenzelm@17408
  2260
* Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a
wenzelm@17408
  2261
few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to
wenzelm@17408
  2262
follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);
wenzelm@17408
  2263
INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.
wenzelm@17408
  2264
wenzelm@17408
  2265
* Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of
wenzelm@17408
  2266
writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a
wenzelm@17408
  2267
hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode
wenzelm@17408
  2268
(cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output
wenzelm@17408
  2269
function wins).  Already formatted output may be embedded into further
wenzelm@17408
  2270
text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived
wenzelm@17408
  2271
functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to
wenzelm@17408
  2272
accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc.  Programmers
wenzelm@17408
  2273
rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with
wenzelm@17408
  2274
some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the
wenzelm@17408
  2275
standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce
wenzelm@17408
  2276
properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing
wenzelm@17408
  2277
already output material that will eventually be presented to the user
wenzelm@17408
  2278
a second time.  For the default print mode, both Output.output and
wenzelm@17408
  2279
Output.raw have no effect.
wenzelm@17408
  2280
wenzelm@17408
  2281
* Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a
wenzelm@17408
  2282
-> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the
wenzelm@17408
  2283
cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.
wenzelm@17408
  2284
wenzelm@17408
  2285
* Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been
wenzelm@17408
  2286
replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate
wenzelm@17408
  2287
hooks).  This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the
wenzelm@17408
  2288
internal and external process view of file names are different.
wenzelm@17408
  2289
wenzelm@16689
  2290
* Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added
wenzelm@16689
  2291
fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord
wenzelm@16689
  2292
and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is
wenzelm@16689
  2293
NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast
wenzelm@16689
  2294
orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a
wenzelm@16689
  2295
particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using
wenzelm@16689
  2296
Library.sort_strings on result).
wenzelm@16689
  2297
wenzelm@17408
  2298
* Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,
wenzelm@17408
  2299
fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural
wenzelm@17408
  2300
argument order.  Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,
wenzelm@17408
  2301
add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@17408
  2302
wenzelm@16151
  2303
* Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the
wenzelm@16234
  2304
internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY.  Renamed cond_extern(_table)
wenzelm@16234
  2305
to extern(_table).  The plain name entry path is superceded by a
wenzelm@16234
  2306
general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce
wenzelm@16234
  2307
a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified
wenzelm@16234
  2308
name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent
wenzelm@16234
  2309
Sign.declare_name.  Several theory and proof context operations modify
wenzelm@16234
  2310
the naming context.  Especially note Theory.restore_naming and
wenzelm@16234
  2311
ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that
wenzelm@16234
  2312
Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from
wenzelm@16234
  2313
Theory.absolute_path in particular.
wenzelm@16234
  2314
wenzelm@16234
  2315
* Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names
wenzelm@16234
  2316
(default true) for controlling output of qualified names.  If
wenzelm@16234
  2317
short_names is set, names are printed unqualified.  If unique_names is
wenzelm@16234
  2318
reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve
wenzelm@16234
  2319
the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap
wenzelm@16234
  2320
with earlier declarations.
wenzelm@16151
  2321
wenzelm@16456
  2322
* Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is
wenzelm@16456
  2323
now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument
wenzelm@16456
  2324
(useful for printing error messages).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@16456
  2325
wenzelm@16456
  2326
* Pure: major reorganization of the theory context.  Type Sign.sg and
wenzelm@16456
  2327
Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal
wenzelm@16456
  2328
Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML).  Actual signature and theory
wenzelm@16456
  2329
content is managed as theory data.  The old code and interfaces were
wenzelm@16456
  2330
spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces
wenzelm@16456
  2331
considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:
wenzelm@16456
  2332
wenzelm@16456
  2333
  Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,
wenzelm@16456
  2334
    parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;
wenzelm@16456
  2335
wenzelm@16456
  2336
  Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,
wenzelm@16456
  2337
    types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;
wenzelm@16456
  2338
wenzelm@16456
  2339
  Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,
wenzelm@16456
  2340
    oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,
wenzelm@16456
  2341
    types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,
wenzelm@16456
  2342
    Theory.merge, etc.)
wenzelm@16456
  2343
wenzelm@16456
  2344
The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm
wenzelm@16456
  2345
etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained
wenzelm@16456
  2346
for convenience -- they merely return the theory.
wenzelm@16456
  2347
wenzelm@17193
  2348
* Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.
wenzelm@17193
  2349
wenzelm@16547
  2350
* Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure
wenzelm@16547
  2351
as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are
wenzelm@16547
  2352
aliases, where the latter is the preferred name).  This enables other
wenzelm@16547
  2353
Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.
wenzelm@16547
  2354
wenzelm@16373
  2355
* Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,
wenzelm@16373
  2356
typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for
wenzelm@16373
  2357
any of these kinds.  For example, Sign.intern typeK is now
wenzelm@16373
  2358
Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now
wenzelm@16373
  2359
Theory.hide_types.  Also note that former
wenzelm@16373
  2360
Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now
wenzelm@16373
  2361
Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions
wenzelm@16373
  2362
internalize their arguments!  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@16373
  2363
wenzelm@16506
  2364
* Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects
wenzelm@16506
  2365
datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of
wenzelm@16506
  2366
plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;
wenzelm@16506
  2367
wenzelm@16151
  2368
* Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE
wenzelm@16234
  2369
means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in
wenzelm@16234
  2370
(RAW_)METHOD_CASES.
wenzelm@16151
  2371
wenzelm@16373
  2372
* Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a
wenzelm@16373
  2373
theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:
wenzelm@16373
  2374
wenzelm@16373
  2375
  Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
wenzelm@16373
  2376
  Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
wenzelm@16373
  2377
  PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
wenzelm@16373
  2378
  PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
wenzelm@16373
  2379
wenzelm@16718
  2380
* Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.
wenzelm@16718
  2381
wenzelm@17408
  2382
* Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.
wenzelm@17408
  2383
Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing
wenzelm@17408
  2384
and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)
wenzelm@17408
  2385
controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space
wenzelm@17408
  2386
(both increase the runtime).
wenzelm@17408
  2387
wenzelm@17408
  2388
* Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,
wenzelm@17408
  2389
i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the
wenzelm@17408
  2390
elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.
wenzelm@17408
  2391
wenzelm@17408
  2392
* Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless
wenzelm@16997
  2393
representation, avoid allocating new strings).  Simprocs that invoke
wenzelm@16997
  2394
the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to
wenzelm@17720
  2395
avoid local name clashes.  Failure to do so produces warnings
wenzelm@17720
  2396
"Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds
wenzelm@17720
  2397
for further details.
wenzelm@16234
  2398
wenzelm@17166
  2399
* ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact
wenzelm@17166
  2400
bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help
wenzelm@17166
  2401
in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof
wenzelm@17166
  2402
scripts for the time being.
wenzelm@17166
  2403
wenzelm@17457
  2404
* ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for
wenzelm@17457
  2405
generated HTML files.  For example:
wenzelm@17457
  2406
wenzelm@17457
  2407
  HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";
wenzelm@17538
  2408
  HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";
wenzelm@17457
  2409
wenzelm@16234
  2410
wenzelm@16234
  2411
*** System ***
wenzelm@16234
  2412
wenzelm@16234
  2413
* Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,
wenzelm@16234
  2414
isabelle, isatool etc.).
wenzelm@16234
  2415
wenzelm@16234
  2416
* ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for
wenzelm@16234
  2417
isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).
wenzelm@16234
  2418
wenzelm@16234
  2419
* isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be
wenzelm@16234
  2420
used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.
wenzelm@16234
  2421
wenzelm@16251
  2422
* New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle
wenzelm@16251
  2423
distribution being used.
wenzelm@16251
  2424
wenzelm@16251
  2425
* HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format
wenzelm@16234
  2426
(containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL
wenzelm@16234
  2427
theories.
wenzelm@15703
  2428
wenzelm@15703
  2429
wenzelm@14655
  2430
wenzelm@14606
  2431
New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)
wenzelm@14606
  2432
--------------------------------
wenzelm@13280
  2433
skalberg@14171
  2434
*** General ***
skalberg@14171
  2435
ballarin@14398
  2436
* Provers/order.ML:  new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.
ballarin@14398
  2437
  Replaces linorder.ML.
ballarin@14398
  2438
wenzelm@14606
  2439
* Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic
wenzelm@14606
  2440
  (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler
skalberg@14173
  2441
  (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore
skalberg@14173
  2442
  be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until
skalberg@14173
  2443
  now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some
skalberg@14173
  2444
  terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say
skalberg@14173
  2445
  '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed
skalberg@14173
  2446
  as an identifier.  Fix it by inserting a space around former
skalberg@14173
  2447
  symbols.  Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in
skalberg@14173
  2448
  existing theory and ML files.
skalberg@14171
  2449
paulson@14237
  2450
* Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.
paulson@14237
  2451
wenzelm@14731
  2452
* Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now
wenzelm@14731
  2453
  allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered
wenzelm@14731
  2454
  a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat
wenzelm@14731
  2455
  \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.
kleing@14233
  2456
kleing@14333
  2457
* Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one
kleing@14333
  2458
  character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in
wenzelm@14606
  2459
  ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in
wenzelm@14606
  2460
  superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.
kleing@14333
  2461
schirmer@14561
  2462
* Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the
wenzelm@14606
  2463
  content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."
wenzelm@14606
  2464
  may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.
schirmer@14361
  2465
paulson@14237
  2466
* Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions
paulson@14237
  2467
  Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to
paulson@14237
  2468
  declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition
paulson@14237
  2469
  later.  It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically
skalberg@14224
  2470
  rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.
skalberg@14224
  2471
wenzelm@14606
  2472
* Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts
wenzelm@14606
  2473
  (i.e. intersections of classes),
skalberg@14503
  2474
kleing@14547
  2475
* Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout
wenzelm@14731
  2476
  (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.
kleing@14547
  2477
  It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.
kleing@14547
  2478
wenzelm@14556
  2479
ballarin@14175
  2480
*** Isar ***
ballarin@14175
  2481
ballarin@14508
  2482
* Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,
ballarin@14508
  2483
  cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:
ballarin@14175
  2484
  - Now understand static (Isar) contexts.  As a consequence, users of Isar
ballarin@14175
  2485
    locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.
ballarin@14175
  2486
    For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic
ballarin@14175
  2487
    emulations.
ballarin@14175
  2488
  - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no
ballarin@14211
  2489
    longer be enclosed in quotes.  Instead, precede variable name with `?'.
ballarin@14211
  2490
    This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".
ballarin@14211
  2491
ballarin@14257
  2492
* Attributes "where" and "of":
ballarin@14285
  2493
  - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading
ballarin@14285
  2494
    the instantiation string.  This fixes a bug that caused instantiated
ballarin@14285
  2495
    theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.
ballarin@14285
  2496
  - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.
ballarin@14257
  2497
wenzelm@14556
  2498
* Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with
wenzelm@14556
  2499
  current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"
wenzelm@14556
  2500
  and derived forms.
kleing@14283
  2501
ballarin@14211
  2502
* Locales:
ballarin@14211
  2503
  - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer
ballarin@14211
  2504
    generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on
ballarin@14211
  2505
    "_axioms") in the premise.
ballarin@14211
  2506
    Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.
ballarin@14211
  2507
  - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target
ballarin@14211
  2508
    specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.
ballarin@14254
  2509
  - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as
ballarin@14254
  2510
    [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.
ballarin@14508
  2511
  - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:
ballarin@14551
  2512
        instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>
ballarin@14508
  2513
    Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context
ballarin@14551
  2514
    taking into account their attributes.  Label and attrs are optional
ballarin@14551
  2515
    modifiers, like in theorem declarations.  If present, names of
ballarin@14551
  2516
    instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes
ballarin@14551
  2517
    <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.
ballarin@14551
  2518
      If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form
ballarin@14508
  2519
    "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters
ballarin@14551
  2520
    are derived.  The command does not support old-style locales declared
ballarin@14551
  2521
    with "locale (open)".
ballarin@14551
  2522
      A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.
ballarin@14175
  2523
ballarin@14175
  2524
* HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static
ballarin@14175
  2525
  (Isar) contexts.
ballarin@14175
  2526
wenzelm@14556
  2527
kleing@14136
  2528
*** HOL ***
kleing@14136
  2529
kleing@14624
  2530
* Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from
kleing@14624
  2531
  the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by
kleing@14624
  2532
  replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image
kleing@14624
  2533
  can be used like any other Isabelle image.  See
kleing@14624
  2534
  HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.
kleing@14624
  2535
ballarin@14398
  2536
* Simplifier:
ballarin@14398
  2537
  - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.
ballarin@14398
  2538
    Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes
ballarin@14398
  2539
    "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset
ballarin@14398
  2540
    as solvers.  This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains
ballarin@14398
  2541
    to solve goals from the assumptions.
ballarin@14398
  2542
  - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally.  Typically, applications
ballarin@14398
  2543
    of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal
ballarin@14398
  2544
    is solved by simplification already.
ballarin@14398
  2545
wenzelm@14731
  2546
* Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,
paulson@14389
  2547
    all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.
paulson@14389
  2548
paulson@14389
  2549
* Numerics:
paulson@14389
  2550
  - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are
wenzelm@14731
  2551
    now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.
paulson@14389
  2552
  - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently
paulson@14389
  2553
    than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.
wenzelm@14731
  2554
  - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.
paulson@14480
  2555
    Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern
paulson@14480
  2556
    exponentiation).
paulson@14389
  2557
paulson@14401
  2558
* Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.
paulson@14389
  2559
schirmer@14255
  2560
* Records:
schirmer@14255
  2561
  - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation
schirmer@14255
  2562
    instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via
schirmer@14255
  2563
    the reference "print_record_type_abbr".
wenzelm@14731
  2564
  - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added
schirmer@14255
  2565
    (not enabled by default).
schirmer@14427
  2566
  - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.
schirmer@14427
  2567
    EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).
schirmer@14255
  2568
  - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.
wenzelm@14731
  2569
kleing@14136
  2570
* 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by
skalberg@14224
  2571
  specification.  There is also an 'ax_specification' command that
skalberg@14224
  2572
  introduces the new constants axiomatically.
kleing@14136
  2573
nipkow@14375
  2574
* arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.
nipkow@14375
  2575
ballarin@14399
  2576
* HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.
ballarin@14399
  2577
paulson@14243
  2578
* HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function
kleing@14610
  2579
  definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.
kleing@14610
  2580
wenzelm@14731
  2581
* HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of
kleing@14610
  2582
  matrix theory to linear programming.
kleing@14136