NEWS
author haftmann
Thu Apr 26 13:32:59 2007 +0200 (2007-04-26)
changeset 22799 ed7d53db2170
parent 22754 9947ae4792a0
child 22826 0f4c501a691e
permissions -rw-r--r--
moved code generation pretty integers and characters to separate theories
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Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
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==============================================
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New in this Isabelle version
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----------------------------
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*** General ***
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* Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
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discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
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fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
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discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
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with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
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function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. "class", "fun", "help",
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"if") are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double quotes.
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* Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
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to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
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functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
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by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
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Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
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these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
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used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
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* Command 'find_theorems': support "*" wildcard in "name:" criterion.
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* The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
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by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
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suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
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settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
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older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
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limit is imposed.
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* Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
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``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
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contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
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that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
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generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
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and scalability.
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* Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
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discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
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*** Document preparation ***
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* Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
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after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
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current context.
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* Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
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check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
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* Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
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"c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
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arguments may be given on the LHS.)
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*** Pure ***
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* code generator: 
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  - Isar "definition"s and primitive instance definitions are added explicitly
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    to the table of defining equations
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  - primitive definitions are not used as defining equations by default any longer
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  - defining equations are now definitly restricted to meta "==" and object
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        equality "="
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  - HOL theories have been adopted accordingly
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* class_package.ML offers a combination of axclasses and locales to
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achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle. See
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HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples.
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* Yet another code generator framework allows to generate executable
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code for ML and Haskell (including "class"es). A short usage sketch:
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    internal compilation:
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        code_gen <list of constants (term syntax)> (SML #)
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    writing SML code to a file:
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        code_gen <list of constants (term syntax)> (SML <filename>)
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    writing OCaml code to a file:
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        code_gen <list of constants (term syntax)> (OCaml <filename>)
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    writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
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        code_gen <list of constants (term syntax)> (Haskell <filename>)
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Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL/Main.
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Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
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    [code fun]:       select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
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    [code nofun]:     deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
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    [code inline]:    select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
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    [code noinline]:  deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
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User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
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    code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
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      {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
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    code_type <and-list of type constructors>
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      {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
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    code_instance <and-list of instances>
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      {(target)}+
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        where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
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    code_class <and_list of classes>
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      {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
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        where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
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code_instance and code_class only apply to target Haskell.
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See HOL theories and HOL/ex/Codegenerator*.thy for usage examples.
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Doc/Isar/Advanced/Codegen/ provides a tutorial.
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* Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
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syntax.
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* Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
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dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
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that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
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correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
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INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
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exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
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Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
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instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
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declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
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c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
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as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
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recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
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impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
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LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
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Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
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equations, see section "definitions".
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* Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
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the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
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  assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
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  then guess x and y by clarify
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This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
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proof tools being involved here.
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* Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
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propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
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named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
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methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
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according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
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provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
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theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
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`A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
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There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
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for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
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certain special cases of literal facts:
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  have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
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  have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
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  have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
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  have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
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* Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
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outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
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additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
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* Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
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both named and unnamed ones.
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* Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
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  def x == "t" and y == "u"
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* Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
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'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
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rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
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'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
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* Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
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and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
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(potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
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analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
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Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
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* Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
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method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
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sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
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simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
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simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
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originally first one.
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* Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
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patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
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expected.
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* Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
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'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
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(essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
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assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
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adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
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  lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
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    assumes "EX x. P x"
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    obtains x where "P x"
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  lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
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    assumes "A & B"
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    obtains A and B
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  lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
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    assumes "A | B"
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    obtains
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      A
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    | B
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The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
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explicitly:
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  lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
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    obtains "~ thesis"
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  lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
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    obtains "thesis ==> something"
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The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
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Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
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Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
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available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
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resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
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case_names).
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* Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
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"assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
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(historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
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context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
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* Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
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proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
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top-level lemma.
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* Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
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introduction rule (default "that").
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* Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
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explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
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to occur.
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* Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
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according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
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syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
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representations independently of name spaces.
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* Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
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instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
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in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
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primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
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fixed variables).  Type declaration and internal syntactic
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representation of given constants retrieved from the context.
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* Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
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'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
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object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
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isar-ref manual.  Examples:
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  axiomatization
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    eq  (infix "===" 50) where
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    eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
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  definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
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  definition g where "g x = f x x"
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  abbreviation
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    neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
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    "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
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These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
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constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
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constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
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abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
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parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
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HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
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entities from a monomorphic theory.
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Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
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not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
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'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
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'translations' in common applications.
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Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
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independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
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slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
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'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
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* Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
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the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
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abbreviations on output.
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* Isar/locales: improved parameter handling:
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- use of locales "var" and "struct" no longer necessary;
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- parameter renamings are no longer required to be injective.
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  This enables, for example, to define a locale for endomorphisms thus:
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  locale endom = homom mult mult h.
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* Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
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Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
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now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
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locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
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predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
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removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
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`unfold_locales'; see below.
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* Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
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provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
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aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
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`intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
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unfold predicates to assumptions.
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* Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
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has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
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to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
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* Provers/induct: improved internal context management to support
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local fixes and defines on-the-fly.  Thus explicit meta-level
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connectives !! and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
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(using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
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obsolete anyway).  The subsequent proof patterns illustrate advanced
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techniques of natural induction; general datatypes and inductive sets
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work analogously (see also src/HOL/Lambda for realistic examples).
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(1) This is how to ``strengthen'' an inductive goal wrt. certain
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parameters:
wenzelm@18233
   339
wenzelm@18233
   340
  lemma
wenzelm@18233
   341
    fixes n :: nat and x :: 'a
wenzelm@18233
   342
    assumes a: "A n x"
wenzelm@18233
   343
    shows "P n x"
wenzelm@18233
   344
    using a                     -- {* make induct insert fact a *}
wenzelm@20503
   345
  proof (induct n arbitrary: x) -- {* generalize goal to "!!x. A n x ==> P n x" *}
wenzelm@18248
   346
    case 0
wenzelm@18233
   347
    show ?case sorry
wenzelm@18233
   348
  next
wenzelm@18248
   349
    case (Suc n)
wenzelm@18239
   350
    note `!!x. A n x ==> P n x` -- {* induction hypothesis, according to induction rule *}
wenzelm@18239
   351
    note `A (Suc n) x`          -- {* induction premise, stemming from fact a *}
wenzelm@18233
   352
    show ?case sorry
wenzelm@18233
   353
  qed
wenzelm@18233
   354
wenzelm@18267
   355
(2) This is how to perform induction over ``expressions of a certain
wenzelm@18233
   356
form'', using a locally defined inductive parameter n == "a x"
wenzelm@18239
   357
together with strengthening (the latter is usually required to get
wenzelm@18267
   358
sufficiently flexible induction hypotheses):
wenzelm@18233
   359
wenzelm@18233
   360
  lemma
wenzelm@18233
   361
    fixes a :: "'a => nat"
wenzelm@18233
   362
    assumes a: "A (a x)"
wenzelm@18233
   363
    shows "P (a x)"
wenzelm@18233
   364
    using a
wenzelm@20503
   365
  proof (induct n == "a x" arbitrary: x)
wenzelm@18233
   366
    ...
wenzelm@18233
   367
wenzelm@18267
   368
See also HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy for an application of the this
wenzelm@18267
   369
particular technique.
wenzelm@18267
   370
wenzelm@18901
   371
(3) This is how to perform existential reasoning ('obtains' or
wenzelm@18901
   372
'obtain') by induction, while avoiding explicit object-logic
wenzelm@18901
   373
encodings:
wenzelm@18901
   374
wenzelm@18901
   375
  lemma
wenzelm@18901
   376
    fixes n :: nat
wenzelm@18901
   377
    obtains x :: 'a where "P n x" and "Q n x"
wenzelm@20503
   378
  proof (induct n arbitrary: thesis)
wenzelm@18267
   379
    case 0
wenzelm@18267
   380
    obtain x where "P 0 x" and "Q 0 x" sorry
wenzelm@18399
   381
    then show thesis by (rule 0)
wenzelm@18267
   382
  next
wenzelm@18267
   383
    case (Suc n)
wenzelm@18267
   384
    obtain x where "P n x" and "Q n x" by (rule Suc.hyps)
wenzelm@18267
   385
    obtain x where "P (Suc n) x" and "Q (Suc n) x" sorry
wenzelm@18267
   386
    then show thesis by (rule Suc.prems)
wenzelm@18267
   387
  qed
wenzelm@18267
   388
wenzelm@20503
   389
Here the 'arbitrary: thesis' specification essentially modifies the
wenzelm@20503
   390
scope of the formal thesis parameter, in order to the get the whole
wenzelm@18267
   391
existence statement through the induction as expected.
wenzelm@18233
   392
wenzelm@18506
   393
* Provers/induct: mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
wenzelm@18506
   394
of rule sharing the same induction cases.  HOL packages usually
wenzelm@18506
   395
provide foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar
wenzelm@18506
   396
(e.g. inductive sets or datatypes).  INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to
wenzelm@18506
   397
specify mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
wenzelm@18506
   398
wenzelm@18506
   399
  (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
wenzelm@18506
   400
  (induct set: foo bar)
wenzelm@18506
   401
  (induct type: foo bar)
wenzelm@18506
   402
wenzelm@18506
   403
The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
wenzelm@18506
   404
new format.
wenzelm@18506
   405
wenzelm@18506
   406
* Provers/induct: improved handling of simultaneous goals.  Instead of
wenzelm@18506
   407
introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
wenzelm@18506
   408
several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are
wenzelm@18601
   409
nested accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured
wenzelm@18601
   410
explicitly.  For example:
wenzelm@18480
   411
wenzelm@18480
   412
  lemma
wenzelm@18480
   413
    fixes n :: nat
wenzelm@18480
   414
    shows "P n" and "Q n"
wenzelm@18480
   415
  proof (induct n)
wenzelm@18601
   416
    case 0 case 1
wenzelm@18480
   417
    show "P 0" sorry
wenzelm@18480
   418
  next
wenzelm@18601
   419
    case 0 case 2
wenzelm@18480
   420
    show "Q 0" sorry
wenzelm@18480
   421
  next
wenzelm@18601
   422
    case (Suc n) case 1
wenzelm@18480
   423
    note `P n` and `Q n`
wenzelm@18480
   424
    show "P (Suc n)" sorry
wenzelm@18480
   425
  next
wenzelm@18601
   426
    case (Suc n) case 2
wenzelm@18480
   427
    note `P n` and `Q n`
wenzelm@18480
   428
    show "Q (Suc n)" sorry
wenzelm@18480
   429
  qed
wenzelm@18480
   430
wenzelm@18601
   431
The split into subcases may be deferred as follows -- this is
wenzelm@18601
   432
particularly relevant for goal statements with local premises.
wenzelm@18601
   433
wenzelm@18601
   434
  lemma
wenzelm@18601
   435
    fixes n :: nat
wenzelm@18601
   436
    shows "A n ==> P n" and "B n ==> Q n"
wenzelm@18601
   437
  proof (induct n)
wenzelm@18601
   438
    case 0
wenzelm@18601
   439
    {
wenzelm@18601
   440
      case 1
wenzelm@18601
   441
      note `A 0`
wenzelm@18601
   442
      show "P 0" sorry
wenzelm@18601
   443
    next
wenzelm@18601
   444
      case 2
wenzelm@18601
   445
      note `B 0`
wenzelm@18601
   446
      show "Q 0" sorry
wenzelm@18601
   447
    }
wenzelm@18601
   448
  next
wenzelm@18601
   449
    case (Suc n)
wenzelm@18601
   450
    note `A n ==> P n` and `B n ==> Q n`
wenzelm@18601
   451
    {
wenzelm@18601
   452
      case 1
wenzelm@18601
   453
      note `A (Suc n)`
wenzelm@18601
   454
      show "P (Suc n)" sorry
wenzelm@18601
   455
    next
wenzelm@18601
   456
      case 2
wenzelm@18601
   457
      note `B (Suc n)`
wenzelm@18601
   458
      show "Q (Suc n)" sorry
wenzelm@18601
   459
    }
wenzelm@18601
   460
  qed
wenzelm@18601
   461
wenzelm@18506
   462
If simultaneous goals are to be used with mutual rules, the statement
wenzelm@18506
   463
needs to be structured carefully as a two-level conjunction, using
wenzelm@18506
   464
lists of propositions separated by 'and':
wenzelm@18506
   465
wenzelm@18507
   466
  lemma
wenzelm@18507
   467
    shows "a : A ==> P1 a"
wenzelm@18507
   468
          "a : A ==> P2 a"
wenzelm@18507
   469
      and "b : B ==> Q1 b"
wenzelm@18507
   470
          "b : B ==> Q2 b"
wenzelm@18507
   471
          "b : B ==> Q3 b"
wenzelm@18507
   472
  proof (induct set: A B)
wenzelm@18480
   473
wenzelm@18399
   474
* Provers/induct: support coinduction as well.  See
wenzelm@18399
   475
src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
wenzelm@18399
   476
wenzelm@20919
   477
* Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
wenzelm@20919
   478
variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@20919
   479
wenzelm@22126
   480
* Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
wenzelm@22126
   481
rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
wenzelm@22126
   482
default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
wenzelm@22126
   483
trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
nipkow@18674
   484
  
wenzelm@18536
   485
* Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
wenzelm@18536
   486
attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
wenzelm@18536
   487
manipulating the claset.
wenzelm@18536
   488
wenzelm@18694
   489
* Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
wenzelm@18694
   490
dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
wenzelm@18694
   491
least one premise.
wenzelm@18694
   492
wenzelm@18694
   493
* Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
wenzelm@18695
   494
weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
wenzelm@18696
   495
ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
wenzelm@18694
   496
rule steps.
paulson@18557
   497
wenzelm@18536
   498
* Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
wenzelm@18536
   499
where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
wenzelm@18536
   500
patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
wenzelm@18536
   501
"{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
wenzelm@18536
   502
INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
wenzelm@18536
   503
constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
wenzelm@18536
   504
wenzelm@18536
   505
* Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
wenzelm@18536
   506
parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
wenzelm@18536
   507
for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
wenzelm@17779
   508
wenzelm@20582
   509
* Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
wenzelm@20582
   510
the graph browser tool.
wenzelm@20582
   511
wenzelm@20620
   512
* Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses entities with internal name
wenzelm@20620
   513
(trailing "_") by default; use '!' option for full details.
wenzelm@20620
   514
wenzelm@17865
   515
nipkow@17806
   516
*** HOL ***
nipkow@17806
   517
haftmann@22799
   518
* Library/Pretty_Int.thy: maps HOL numerals on target language integer literals
haftmann@22799
   519
    when generating code.
haftmann@22799
   520
haftmann@22799
   521
* Library/Pretty_Char.thy: maps HOL characters on target language character literals
haftmann@22799
   522
    when generating code.
haftmann@22799
   523
haftmann@22735
   524
* Library/Commutative_Ring.thy: switched from recdef to function package;
haftmann@22735
   525
    constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for algebraic operations.
haftmann@22735
   526
haftmann@22450
   527
* Some steps towards more uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
haftmann@22422
   528
haftmann@22422
   529
    constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
haftmann@22422
   530
    constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
haftmann@22422
   531
haftmann@22450
   532
    classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
haftmann@22450
   533
      "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
haftmann@22450
   534
    class "lorder" now named "lattice"
haftmann@22450
   535
    class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
haftmann@22450
   536
haftmann@22450
   537
    Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
haftmann@22450
   538
    for "inf" and "sup" operations.
haftmann@22450
   539
haftmann@22450
   540
  INCOMPATIBILITY. Theorem renames:
haftmann@22450
   541
haftmann@22422
   542
    meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
haftmann@22422
   543
    meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
haftmann@22422
   544
    join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
haftmann@22422
   545
    join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
haftmann@22422
   546
    meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
haftmann@22422
   547
    le_meetI                ~> le_infI
haftmann@22422
   548
    join_leI                ~> le_supI
haftmann@22422
   549
    le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
haftmann@22422
   550
    le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
haftmann@22422
   551
    meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
haftmann@22422
   552
    join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
haftmann@22422
   553
    meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
haftmann@22422
   554
    join_comm               ~> sup_commute
haftmann@22422
   555
    meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
haftmann@22422
   556
    meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
haftmann@22422
   557
    le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
haftmann@22422
   558
    le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
haftmann@22422
   559
    meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
haftmann@22422
   560
    join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
haftmann@22422
   561
    meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
haftmann@22422
   562
    meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
haftmann@22422
   563
    join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
haftmann@22422
   564
    join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
haftmann@22422
   565
    meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
haftmann@22422
   566
    join_aci                ~> sup_aci
haftmann@22422
   567
    le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
haftmann@22422
   568
    le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
haftmann@22422
   569
    join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
haftmann@22422
   570
    join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
haftmann@22422
   571
    meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
haftmann@22422
   572
    meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
haftmann@22422
   573
    meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
haftmann@22422
   574
    join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
haftmann@22422
   575
    distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
haftmann@22422
   576
    distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
haftmann@22422
   577
haftmann@22422
   578
    add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
haftmann@22422
   579
    add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
haftmann@22422
   580
    is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
haftmann@22422
   581
    is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
haftmann@22422
   582
    add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
haftmann@22422
   583
    add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
haftmann@22422
   584
    add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
haftmann@22422
   585
    join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
haftmann@22422
   586
    meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
haftmann@22422
   587
    add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
haftmann@22422
   588
    meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
haftmann@22422
   589
    join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
haftmann@22422
   590
    meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
haftmann@22422
   591
    join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
haftmann@22422
   592
    neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
haftmann@22422
   593
    neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
haftmann@22422
   594
    join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
haftmann@22422
   595
haftmann@22422
   596
    mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
haftmann@22422
   597
    mono_join               ~> mono_sup
haftmann@22422
   598
    meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
haftmann@22422
   599
    join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
haftmann@22422
   600
    meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
haftmann@22422
   601
    join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
haftmann@22422
   602
    meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
haftmann@22422
   603
    join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
haftmann@22422
   604
    meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
haftmann@22422
   605
    meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
haftmann@22422
   606
    meet1I                  ~> inf1I
haftmann@22422
   607
    meet2I                  ~> inf2I
haftmann@22422
   608
    meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
haftmann@22422
   609
    meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
haftmann@22422
   610
    meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
haftmann@22422
   611
    meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
haftmann@22422
   612
    meet1E                  ~> inf1E
haftmann@22422
   613
    meet2E                  ~> inf2E
haftmann@22422
   614
    join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
haftmann@22422
   615
    join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
haftmann@22422
   616
    join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
haftmann@22422
   617
    join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
haftmann@22422
   618
    join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
haftmann@22422
   619
    join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
haftmann@22422
   620
    join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
haftmann@22422
   621
    join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
haftmann@22422
   622
    join1E                  ~> sup1E
haftmann@22422
   623
    join2E                  ~> sup2E
haftmann@22422
   624
haftmann@22422
   625
    is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
haftmann@22422
   626
    Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
haftmann@22422
   627
    Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
haftmann@22422
   628
    Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
haftmann@22422
   629
    Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
haftmann@22422
   630
    Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
haftmann@22422
   631
haftmann@22422
   632
    listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
haftmann@22422
   633
    listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
haftmann@22422
   634
haftmann@22450
   635
    meet_min                ~> inf_min
haftmann@22450
   636
    join_max                ~> sup_max
haftmann@22450
   637
haftmann@22384
   638
* Class (axclass + locale) "preorder" and "linear": facts "refl", "trans" and
haftmann@22384
   639
"cases" renamed ro "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to
haftmann@22384
   640
avoid clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans". INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@22384
   641
haftmann@22316
   642
* Addes class (axclass + locale) "preorder" as superclass of "order";
haftmann@22316
   643
potential INCOMPATIBILITY: order of proof goals in order/linorder instance
haftmann@22316
   644
proofs changed.
haftmann@22316
   645
haftmann@22218
   646
* Dropped lemma duplicate def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
haftmann@22218
   647
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@22218
   648
haftmann@22218
   649
* Dropped lemma duplicate if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
haftmann@22218
   650
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@22218
   651
wenzelm@22126
   652
* Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
wenzelm@22126
   653
type "'a::size ==> bool"
wenzelm@22126
   654
wenzelm@22126
   655
* Renamed constants "Divides.op div", "Divides.op mod" and "Divides.op
haftmann@22316
   656
dvd" to "Divides.div", "Divides.mod" and "Divides.dvd". INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@22126
   657
wenzelm@22126
   658
* Added method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes
wenzelm@22126
   659
termination relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures
wenzelm@22126
   660
-- 'function' package.
wenzelm@22126
   661
wenzelm@22126
   662
* HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
wenzelm@22126
   663
field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
wenzelm@22126
   664
(K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
schirmer@21226
   665
INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
schirmer@21226
   666
adapted.
schirmer@21226
   667
 
wenzelm@22126
   668
* axclass "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and
wenzelm@22126
   669
0 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do
wenzelm@22126
   670
not inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a
wenzelm@22126
   671
theorem there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of
wenzelm@22126
   672
semiring_0, there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
wenzelm@22126
   673
wenzelm@22126
   674
* axclass "recpower" was generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
wenzelm@22126
   675
commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: If you use recpower and need
wenzelm@22126
   676
commutativity or a semiring property, add the corresponding classes.
wenzelm@22126
   677
wenzelm@22126
   678
* Unified locale partial_order with class definition (cf. theory
wenzelm@22126
   679
Orderings), added parameter ``less''.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@21215
   680
haftmann@21099
   681
* Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
wenzelm@22126
   682
INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong.  On
wenzelm@22126
   683
Isar level, use abbreviations instead.
wenzelm@22126
   684
wenzelm@22126
   685
* Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.memberl" INCOMPATIBILITY:
wenzelm@22126
   686
rarely occuring name references (e.g. ``List.op mem.simps'') require
wenzelm@22126
   687
renaming (e.g. ``List.memberl.simps'').
wenzelm@22126
   688
wenzelm@22126
   689
* Renamed constants "0" to "HOL.zero" and "1" to "HOL.one".
wenzelm@22126
   690
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@22126
   691
wenzelm@22126
   692
* Added theory Code_Generator providing class 'eq', allowing for code
wenzelm@22126
   693
generation with polymorphic equality.
wenzelm@22126
   694
wenzelm@22126
   695
* Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
wenzelm@22126
   696
been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'. INCOMPATIBILITY --
wenzelm@22126
   697
significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
haftmann@20485
   698
haftmann@20485
   699
  - new constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
haftmann@20485
   700
      of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
haftmann@20485
   701
  - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
haftmann@20485
   702
  - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
haftmann@20485
   703
  - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
haftmann@20485
   704
haftmann@20485
   705
See HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
haftmann@20485
   706
wenzelm@22126
   707
* New top level command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a
wenzelm@22126
   708
term that may contain free variables. For example ``normal_form
wenzelm@22126
   709
"rev[a,b,c]"'' produces ``[b,c,a]'' (without proof).  This command is
wenzelm@22126
   710
suitable for heavy-duty computations because the functions are
wenzelm@22126
   711
compiled to ML first.
nipkow@19895
   712
wenzelm@17996
   713
* Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
wenzelm@17996
   714
25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
wenzelm@17996
   715
"A = B" (with priority 50).
wenzelm@17996
   716
ballarin@19279
   717
* Renamed constants in HOL.thy and Orderings.thy:
haftmann@19233
   718
    op +   ~> HOL.plus
haftmann@19233
   719
    op -   ~> HOL.minus
haftmann@19233
   720
    uminus ~> HOL.uminus
haftmann@19233
   721
    op *   ~> HOL.times
haftmann@19277
   722
    op <   ~> Orderings.less
haftmann@19277
   723
    op <=  ~> Orderings.less_eq
haftmann@19233
   724
haftmann@19233
   725
Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
haftmann@19233
   726
nipkow@19377
   727
a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus", "times",
nipkow@19377
   728
"less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for "+", "-" and "*"
nipkow@19377
   729
may go wrong.
haftmann@19233
   730
INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
haftmann@19233
   731
haftmann@19277
   732
b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
haftmann@19233
   733
INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
haftmann@19233
   734
nipkow@19377
   735
c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
nipkow@19377
   736
Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
nipkow@19377
   737
rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows that
nipkow@19377
   738
this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
nipkow@19377
   739
distribution).
nipkow@19377
   740
INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
haftmann@19233
   741
haftmann@19233
   742
d) ML code directly refering to constant names
haftmann@19233
   743
This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and so on.
haftmann@19233
   744
INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
haftmann@19233
   745
wenzelm@21265
   746
* Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
wenzelm@21265
   747
Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
wenzelm@21265
   748
e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".
wenzelm@21265
   749
nipkow@18674
   750
* "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
nipkow@18674
   751
krauss@20716
   752
* Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
krauss@20716
   753
stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
krauss@20716
   754
wenzelm@22126
   755
* The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
wenzelm@22126
   756
removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
nipkow@19377
   757
wenzelm@17865
   758
* In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
wenzelm@17865
   759
"t = s" to False (by simproc "neq_simproc").  For backward
wenzelm@17865
   760
compatibility this can be disabled by ML "reset use_neq_simproc".
wenzelm@17779
   761
wenzelm@22126
   762
* "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to True/False by
wenzelm@22126
   763
simp.
wenzelm@22126
   764
wenzelm@22126
   765
* Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as ``simp''.
nipkow@19211
   766
ballarin@19279
   767
* Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
ballarin@19279
   768
nipkow@19211
   769
* Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
wenzelm@22126
   770
``rule'' method.
wenzelm@22126
   771
wenzelm@22126
   772
* Reimplemented methods ``sat'' and ``satx'', with several
wenzelm@22126
   773
improvements: goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==>
wenzelm@22126
   774
False", equivalences (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable
wenzelm@22126
   775
names of the form "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant
wenzelm@22126
   776
speedup.
wenzelm@22126
   777
wenzelm@22126
   778
* Methods ``sat'' and ``satx'' can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
wenzelm@22126
   779
zChaff is still supported as well.
wenzelm@22126
   780
wenzelm@22126
   781
* 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
wenzelm@22126
   782
bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
wenzelm@22126
   783
wenzelm@22126
   784
* Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
wenzelm@22126
   785
Library.
wenzelm@21256
   786
wenzelm@21256
   787
* Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
wenzelm@19572
   788
wenzelm@18446
   789
* Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
wenzelm@18446
   790
as greatest fixed-point.
wenzelm@18399
   791
wenzelm@19254
   792
* Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
schirmer@19252
   793
association lists.
webertj@17809
   794
wenzelm@22126
   795
* Added proof method ``evaluation'' for efficiently solving a goal
wenzelm@22126
   796
(i.e. a boolean expression) by compiling it to ML. The goal is
wenzelm@22126
   797
"proved" (via an oracle) if it evaluates to True.
wenzelm@20807
   798
wenzelm@20807
   799
* Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
wenzelm@20807
   800
also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the simplifier
haftmann@21056
   801
being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Set
wenzelm@20807
   802
fast_arith_split_limit to 0 to obtain the old behavior.
webertj@20217
   803
wenzelm@22126
   804
* Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
wenzelm@19254
   805
wenzelm@20807
   806
* New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
wenzelm@20807
   807
interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
wenzelm@20807
   808
parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
wenzelm@20807
   809
theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
wenzelm@20807
   810
resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
wenzelm@20807
   811
s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
wenzelm@20807
   812
wenzelm@20807
   813
* New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
wenzelm@20807
   814
are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
wenzelm@20807
   815
where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
wenzelm@20807
   816
generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
wenzelm@20807
   817
applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
wenzelm@20807
   818
r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
wenzelm@20807
   819
subgoal. An Example is available in HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
wenzelm@20807
   820
wenzelm@20807
   821
* Reflection: Automatic refification now handels binding, an example
wenzelm@20807
   822
is available in HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
wenzelm@20807
   823
wenzelm@20807
   824
ballarin@20169
   825
*** HOL-Algebra ***
ballarin@20169
   826
wenzelm@21170
   827
* Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
wenzelm@21170
   828
wenzelm@21170
   829
* Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
wenzelm@21170
   830
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@21170
   831
wenzelm@22126
   832
* Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
wenzelm@22126
   833
greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
ballarin@21896
   834
wenzelm@21170
   835
* Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
ballarin@21896
   836
Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
wenzelm@21170
   837
of algebraic structures.
ballarin@20318
   838
wenzelm@22126
   839
* Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
ballarin@20169
   840
wenzelm@20807
   841
wenzelm@19653
   842
*** HOL-Complex ***
wenzelm@19653
   843
wenzelm@19653
   844
* Theory Real: new method ferrack implements quantifier elimination
wenzelm@19653
   845
for linear arithmetic over the reals. The quantifier elimination
wenzelm@19653
   846
feature is used only for decision, for compatibility with arith. This
wenzelm@19653
   847
means a goal is either solved or left unchanged, no simplification.
wenzelm@19653
   848
huffman@21791
   849
* Real: New axiomatic classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
huffman@21791
   850
algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
huffman@21791
   851
and norm :: 'a => real.
huffman@21791
   852
wenzelm@22126
   853
* Real: New constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects
wenzelm@22126
   854
from reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set
wenzelm@22126
   855
is now defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@22126
   856
wenzelm@22126
   857
* Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
wenzelm@22126
   858
reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
wenzelm@22126
   859
spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
wenzelm@22126
   860
INCOMPATIBILITY.
huffman@21791
   861
huffman@21791
   862
  Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set"
huffman@21791
   863
  HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set"
huffman@21791
   864
  HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set"
huffman@21791
   865
  approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
huffman@21791
   866
  monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
huffman@21791
   867
  galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
huffman@21791
   868
  (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat, 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
huffman@21791
   869
  (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
huffman@21791
   870
  (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
huffman@21791
   871
  (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
huffman@21791
   872
  (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
huffman@21791
   873
  is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
huffman@21791
   874
  deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
huffman@21791
   875
huffman@21791
   876
* Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
wenzelm@22126
   877
overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
wenzelm@22126
   878
hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
wenzelm@22126
   879
polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
huffman@21791
   880
huffman@21791
   881
  approx        <-- capprox
huffman@21791
   882
  HFinite       <-- CFinite
huffman@21791
   883
  HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
huffman@21791
   884
  Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
huffman@21791
   885
  monad         <-- cmonad
huffman@21791
   886
  galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
huffman@21791
   887
  (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
huffman@21791
   888
  is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
huffman@21791
   889
  (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
huffman@21791
   890
wenzelm@19653
   891
wenzelm@17878
   892
*** ML ***
wenzelm@17878
   893
wenzelm@22138
   894
* ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
wenzelm@22138
   895
formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
wenzelm@22138
   896
compile-time.  For example:
wenzelm@22138
   897
wenzelm@22138
   898
ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
wenzelm@22138
   899
ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
wenzelm@22138
   900
ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
wenzelm@22138
   901
ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
wenzelm@22138
   902
ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
wenzelm@22138
   903
ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
wenzelm@22138
   904
ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
wenzelm@22138
   905
ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
wenzelm@22376
   906
ML {* @{const_name c} *}
wenzelm@22376
   907
ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
wenzelm@22138
   908
ML {* @{context} *}
wenzelm@22138
   909
ML {* @{theory} *}
wenzelm@22138
   910
ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
wenzelm@22138
   911
ML {* @{simpset} *}
wenzelm@22138
   912
ML {* @{claset} *}
wenzelm@22138
   913
ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
wenzelm@22138
   914
wenzelm@22151
   915
The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
wenzelm@22151
   916
wenzelm@22152
   917
* ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
wenzelm@22152
   918
Toplevel.debug enabled.
wenzelm@22152
   919
haftmann@20348
   920
* Pure/library:
haftmann@20348
   921
haftmann@18450
   922
  val burrow: ('a list -> 'b list) -> 'a list list -> 'b list list
haftmann@18549
   923
  val fold_burrow: ('a list -> 'c -> 'b list * 'd) -> 'a list list -> 'c -> 'b list list * 'd
haftmann@18450
   924
wenzelm@18540
   925
The semantics of "burrow" is: "take a function with *simulatanously*
wenzelm@18540
   926
transforms a list of value, and apply it *simulatanously* to a list of
wenzelm@22126
   927
list of values of the appropriate type". Compare this with "map" which
wenzelm@18540
   928
would *not* apply its argument function simulatanously but in
wenzelm@22126
   929
sequence; "fold_burrow" has an additional context.
haftmann@18450
   930
wenzelm@18446
   931
* Pure/library: functions map2 and fold2 with curried syntax for
wenzelm@18446
   932
simultanous mapping and folding:
wenzelm@18446
   933
haftmann@18422
   934
    val map2: ('a -> 'b -> 'c) -> 'a list -> 'b list -> 'c list
haftmann@18422
   935
    val fold2: ('a -> 'b -> 'c -> 'c) -> 'a list -> 'b list -> 'c -> 'c
haftmann@18422
   936
wenzelm@18446
   937
* Pure/library: indexed lists - some functions in the Isabelle library
wenzelm@18446
   938
treating lists over 'a as finite mappings from [0...n] to 'a have been
wenzelm@18446
   939
given more convenient names and signatures reminiscent of similar
wenzelm@18446
   940
functions for alists, tables, etc:
haftmann@18051
   941
haftmann@18051
   942
  val nth: 'a list -> int -> 'a 
haftmann@18051
   943
  val nth_map: int -> ('a -> 'a) -> 'a list -> 'a list
haftmann@18051
   944
  val fold_index: (int * 'a -> 'b -> 'b) -> 'a list -> 'b -> 'b
haftmann@18051
   945
wenzelm@18446
   946
Note that fold_index starts counting at index 0, not 1 like foldln
wenzelm@18446
   947
used to.
wenzelm@18446
   948
wenzelm@22126
   949
* Pure/library: added general ``divide_and_conquer'' combinator on
wenzelm@22126
   950
lists.
wenzelm@19032
   951
wenzelm@19032
   952
* Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
wenzelm@19081
   953
DUP/SAME instead of type option.  This is simpler in simple cases, and
wenzelm@19081
   954
admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
wenzelm@18446
   955
wenzelm@18642
   956
* Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
wenzelm@18644
   957
provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
wenzelm@18642
   958
context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
wenzelm@18642
   959
wenzelm@18862
   960
* Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
wenzelm@18862
   961
use Context.generic instead of just theory.
wenzelm@18862
   962
wenzelm@18737
   963
* Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
wenzelm@18737
   964
Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm.  Global (theory)
wenzelm@18737
   965
vs. local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
wenzelm@18738
   966
minimizing code duplication.  Thm.rule_attribute and
wenzelm@18738
   967
Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also
wenzelm@19006
   968
structure Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
wenzelm@19006
   969
GenericDataFun.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
wenzelm@19006
   970
declarations and definitions.
wenzelm@19006
   971
wenzelm@19508
   972
* Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
wenzelm@19508
   973
signature declarations.  (This information is not relevant to the
wenzelm@22126
   974
logic, but only for type inference.)  IMPORTANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
wenzelm@22126
   975
potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@19508
   976
wenzelm@19508
   977
* Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
wenzelm@19508
   978
explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
wenzelm@19508
   979
internally.  See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
wenzelm@19508
   980
notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
wenzelm@19508
   981
AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supercede
wenzelm@19508
   982
Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
wenzelm@19508
   983
wenzelm@19006
   984
* Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
wenzelm@19006
   985
global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
wenzelm@19006
   986
discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
wenzelm@19006
   987
accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
wenzelm@19006
   988
attributes, methods, etc.
wenzelm@18642
   989
wenzelm@18446
   990
* Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
wenzelm@18446
   991
have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
wenzelm@18446
   992
allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
wenzelm@18446
   993
fold_map combinators.
haftmann@18051
   994
wenzelm@21647
   995
* Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
wenzelm@21647
   996
comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
wenzelm@21647
   997
maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
wenzelm@21647
   998
derivation.
wenzelm@21647
   999
wenzelm@18020
  1000
* Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
wenzelm@18145
  1001
actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
wenzelm@18020
  1002
achieve the old behaviour.
wenzelm@18020
  1003
wenzelm@18020
  1004
* Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
wenzelm@18020
  1005
slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
wenzelm@18020
  1006
statements.
wenzelm@18020
  1007
wenzelm@20040
  1008
* Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
wenzelm@20040
  1009
enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
wenzelm@20040
  1010
Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
wenzelm@20040
  1011
wenzelm@20090
  1012
* Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
wenzelm@20090
  1013
internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
wenzelm@20090
  1014
some popular functions from term.ML:
wenzelm@20090
  1015
wenzelm@20090
  1016
  Term.variant		->  Name.variant
wenzelm@20090
  1017
  Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list  (*canonical argument order*)
wenzelm@20090
  1018
  Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
wenzelm@20090
  1019
wenzelm@20090
  1020
Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
wenzelm@20090
  1021
from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
wenzelm@20090
  1022
wenzelm@20040
  1023
* Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
wenzelm@20040
  1024
treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
wenzelm@20040
  1025
Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
wenzelm@20040
  1026
Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
wenzelm@20040
  1027
various freeze_thaw operations.
wenzelm@20040
  1028
wenzelm@18567
  1029
* Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
wenzelm@17981
  1030
init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
wenzelm@20040
  1031
Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
wenzelm@20040
  1032
within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
wenzelm@20040
  1033
theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
wenzelm@20040
  1034
OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
wenzelm@20040
  1035
ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
wenzelm@20040
  1036
in a locale context).
wenzelm@17981
  1037
wenzelm@18815
  1038
* Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
wenzelm@18687
  1039
ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
wenzelm@18686
  1040
without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
wenzelm@18686
  1041
care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
wenzelm@18686
  1042
handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
wenzelm@18686
  1043
wenzelm@18686
  1044
  ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
wenzelm@18686
  1045
wenzelm@18686
  1046
Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
wenzelm@18687
  1047
embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
wenzelm@18687
  1048
this:
wenzelm@18686
  1049
wenzelm@18686
  1050
  Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
wenzelm@18686
  1051
wenzelm@18686
  1052
INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
wenzelm@18686
  1053
obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
wenzelm@18686
  1054
Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
wenzelm@18686
  1055
-- use plain ERROR instead.
wenzelm@18686
  1056
wenzelm@18815
  1057
* Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
wenzelm@18722
  1058
list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
wenzelm@18722
  1059
wenzelm@18815
  1060
* Isar: installed ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context,
wenzelm@18815
  1061
subject to ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
wenzelm@18815
  1062
wenzelm@18815
  1063
* Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
wenzelm@18815
  1064
theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
wenzelm@18815
  1065
quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
wenzelm@18590
  1066
batch mode.
wenzelm@18567
  1067
wenzelm@17878
  1068
* Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
wenzelm@17878
  1069
contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
wenzelm@17878
  1070
very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
wenzelm@17890
  1071
simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
wenzelm@17878
  1072
(solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
wenzelm@17878
  1073
wenzelm@17878
  1074
* Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
wenzelm@17878
  1075
local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
wenzelm@17878
  1076
etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
wenzelm@17878
  1077
former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
wenzelm@17890
  1078
INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
wenzelm@17890
  1079
specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
wenzelm@17878
  1080
wenzelm@17878
  1081
* Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
wenzelm@17878
  1082
change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
wenzelm@17878
  1083
theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
wenzelm@17878
  1084
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@17878
  1085
wenzelm@18540
  1086
* Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
wenzelm@18540
  1087
"Trueprop" etc.
wenzelm@18540
  1088
wenzelm@17878
  1089
wenzelm@20988
  1090
*** System ***
wenzelm@20988
  1091
wenzelm@21471
  1092
* settings: ML_IDENTIFIER -- which is appended to user specific heap
wenzelm@21471
  1093
locations -- now includes the Isabelle version identifier as well.
wenzelm@21471
  1094
This simplifies use of multiple Isabelle installations.
wenzelm@21471
  1095
wenzelm@20988
  1096
* isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
wenzelm@20988
  1097
operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
wenzelm@20988
  1098
code.
wenzelm@20988
  1099
wenzelm@17754
  1100
wenzelm@17720
  1101
New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
wenzelm@17720
  1102
----------------------------------
wenzelm@14655
  1103
wenzelm@14655
  1104
*** General ***
wenzelm@14655
  1105
nipkow@15130
  1106
* Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
nipkow@15130
  1107
nipkow@15130
  1108
  theory <name>
wenzelm@16234
  1109
  imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
wenzelm@16234
  1110
  uses <file1> ... <fileM>
nipkow@15130
  1111
  begin
nipkow@15130
  1112
wenzelm@16234
  1113
where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
wenzelm@16234
  1114
wenzelm@16234
  1115
  theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
wenzelm@16234
  1116
wenzelm@16717
  1117
will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
wenzelm@16717
  1118
existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
wenzelm@17371
  1119
non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
nipkow@15130
  1120
berghofe@15475
  1121
* Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
wenzelm@16234
  1122
relative and absolute paths.
wenzelm@16234
  1123
wenzelm@17408
  1124
* Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
wenzelm@17408
  1125
list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
wenzelm@17408
  1126
simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
wenzelm@17408
  1127
theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
wenzelm@17408
  1128
match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
wenzelm@17408
  1129
name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
wenzelm@17408
  1130
lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
wenzelm@17408
  1131
all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
wenzelm@17408
  1132
'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
wenzelm@16234
  1133
wenzelm@17275
  1134
  C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
wenzelm@16234
  1135
wenzelm@16234
  1136
prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
wenzelm@16234
  1137
matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
wenzelm@16234
  1138
in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
wenzelm@16013
  1139
wenzelm@17408
  1140
* Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
wenzelm@17408
  1141
'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@17408
  1142
wenzelm@17385
  1143
* Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
wenzelm@17385
  1144
Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
wenzelm@17408
  1145
formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
wenzelm@17538
  1146
General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
wenzelm@17538
  1147
wenzelm@17538
  1148
  http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
wenzelm@17538
  1149
  http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
wenzelm@17385
  1150
wenzelm@17425
  1151
* Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
wenzelm@17425
  1152
Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
wenzelm@17425
  1153
faster.
wenzelm@17425
  1154
wenzelm@15703
  1155
wenzelm@15703
  1156
*** Document preparation ***
wenzelm@15703
  1157
wenzelm@16234
  1158
* Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
wenzelm@16234
  1159
of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
wenzelm@16234
  1160
LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
wenzelm@16234
  1161
displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
wenzelm@16234
  1162
and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
wenzelm@16234
  1163
DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
wenzelm@16234
  1164
wenzelm@17047
  1165
* Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
wenzelm@17047
  1166
notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
wenzelm@17047
  1167
theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
wenzelm@17047
  1168
commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
wenzelm@17047
  1169
"invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
wenzelm@17047
  1170
specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
wenzelm@17047
  1171
interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
wenzelm@17047
  1172
preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
wenzelm@17047
  1173
isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
wenzelm@17047
  1174
\isadroptag.
wenzelm@17047
  1175
wenzelm@17047
  1176
Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
wenzelm@17047
  1177
usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
wenzelm@17047
  1178
specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
wenzelm@17047
  1179
theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
wenzelm@17047
  1180
proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
wenzelm@17047
  1181
these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
wenzelm@17047
  1182
default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
wenzelm@17047
  1183
specified above.
wenzelm@16234
  1184
haftmann@17402
  1185
* Several new antiquotations:
wenzelm@15979
  1186
wenzelm@15979
  1187
  @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
wenzelm@15979
  1188
wenzelm@15979
  1189
  @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
wenzelm@15979
  1190
wenzelm@16234
  1191
  @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
wenzelm@16234
  1192
  argument is a known logical constant;
wenzelm@15979
  1193
wenzelm@15979
  1194
  @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
wenzelm@16234
  1195
  theorem applying a "style" to it
wenzelm@16234
  1196
wenzelm@17117
  1197
  @{ML text}
wenzelm@17117
  1198
wenzelm@16234
  1199
Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
wenzelm@16234
  1200
definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
schirmer@17393
  1201
conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
wenzelm@16234
  1202
to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
wenzelm@16234
  1203
interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
wenzelm@17117
  1204
document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
wenzelm@17117
  1205
type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
wenzelm@16234
  1206
wenzelm@17259
  1207
* Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
wenzelm@17259
  1208
and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
wenzelm@17269
  1209
specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
wenzelm@17269
  1210
example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
wenzelm@17259
  1211
wenzelm@17259
  1212
* Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
wenzelm@17259
  1213
context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
wenzelm@17269
  1214
[locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.
wenzelm@17259
  1215
wenzelm@17097
  1216
* Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within
wenzelm@17097
  1217
a proof context.
wenzelm@17097
  1218
wenzelm@17097
  1219
* Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a
wenzelm@17097
  1220
proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').
wenzelm@17097
  1221
wenzelm@17193
  1222
* Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX
wenzelm@17193
  1223
macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).
wenzelm@17193
  1224
wenzelm@17193
  1225
* isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option
wenzelm@17193
  1226
-D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false
wenzelm@17193
  1227
prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.
wenzelm@17193
  1228
wenzelm@16234
  1229
wenzelm@16234
  1230
*** Pure ***
wenzelm@16234
  1231
wenzelm@16234
  1232
* Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command.  Now performs
wenzelm@16234
  1233
automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for
wenzelm@16234
  1234
local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also
wenzelm@16234
  1235
isar-ref manual.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly
wenzelm@16234
  1236
sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'
wenzelm@16234
  1237
section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier.  If
wenzelm@16234
  1238
all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.
wenzelm@16234
  1239
wenzelm@16234
  1240
* Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures.  First of all,
wenzelm@16234
  1241
indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted
wenzelm@16234
  1242
application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary
wenzelm@16234
  1243
expressions.  Secondly, in a local context with structure
wenzelm@16234
  1244
declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default
wenzelm@16234
  1245
number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option
wenzelm@16234
  1246
show_structs controls printing of implicit structures.  Typical
wenzelm@16234
  1247
applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.
wenzelm@16234
  1248
wenzelm@16234
  1249
* New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and
wenzelm@16234
  1250
translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is
wenzelm@16234
  1251
interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.
wenzelm@16234
  1252
wenzelm@16234
  1253
* 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend
wenzelm@16234
  1254
on the signature of the theory context being presently used for
wenzelm@16234
  1255
parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.
wenzelm@16234
  1256
wenzelm@16856
  1257
* Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an
wenzelm@16856
  1258
ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of
wenzelm@16856
  1259
type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle
wenzelm@16856
  1260
is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;
wenzelm@16856
  1261
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@16856
  1262
wenzelm@17275
  1263
* axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"
wenzelm@17275
  1264
before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.
wenzelm@17275
  1265
INCOMPATIBILITY.  This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for
wenzelm@17275
  1266
axclasses vs. locales.
wenzelm@17275
  1267
wenzelm@16234
  1268
* Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes
wenzelm@16234
  1269
instead of base 26 numbers.
wenzelm@16234
  1270
wenzelm@16234
  1271
* New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question
wenzelm@16234
  1272
marks in schematic variable names.
wenzelm@16234
  1273
wenzelm@16234
  1274
* In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or
wenzelm@16234
  1275
\<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name.  For example, the
wenzelm@16234
  1276
following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:
wenzelm@16234
  1277
wenzelm@16234
  1278
  lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"
wenzelm@16234
  1279
    by simp
wenzelm@16234
  1280
wenzelm@16234
  1281
* Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).
wenzelm@16234
  1282
wenzelm@17548
  1283
* Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix
wenzelm@16234
  1284
annotations as "(00...)".
wenzelm@16234
  1285
wenzelm@16234
  1286
* Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter
wenzelm@16234
  1287
may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.
wenzelm@16234
  1288
Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class
wenzelm@16234
  1289
"logic" vs. "{}".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper
wenzelm@16234
  1290
use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'.  Some very
wenzelm@16234
  1291
exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption
wenzelm@17691
  1292
(e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).
wenzelm@16234
  1293
wenzelm@16234
  1294
* Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.
wenzelm@16234
  1295
Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'
wenzelm@16234
  1296
rather than 'types'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic
wenzelm@16234
  1297
specifications.
wenzelm@16234
  1298
ballarin@17095
  1299
* Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be
ballarin@17095
  1300
locally fixed variables as well.
ballarin@17095
  1301
wenzelm@16234
  1302
* Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting
wenzelm@16234
  1303
is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth
wenzelm@16234
  1304
Limit.
wenzelm@16234
  1305
wenzelm@16234
  1306
* Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current
wenzelm@16234
  1307
simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc
wenzelm@16234
  1308
interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier
wenzelm@16234
  1309
recursively.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs
wenzelm@16234
  1310
is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead.  Moreover, the
wenzelm@16234
  1311
low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to
wenzelm@16234
  1312
allow for use in a context of fixed variables.
wenzelm@16234
  1313
wenzelm@16234
  1314
* thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!
wenzelm@16234
  1315
or ==>.  More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of
wenzelm@16234
  1316
the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.
wenzelm@16234
  1317
wenzelm@17597
  1318
* Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
nipkow@17590
  1319
wenzelm@16234
  1320
* Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived
wenzelm@16234
  1321
from Pure, which contains all common declarations already.  Both
wenzelm@16234
  1322
theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.
wenzelm@16234
  1323
INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /
wenzelm@16234
  1324
CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;
wenzelm@16234
  1325
use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.
wenzelm@16234
  1326
wenzelm@16234
  1327
* New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific
wenzelm@16234
  1328
selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.
wenzelm@16234
  1329
wenzelm@17097
  1330
* 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference
wenzelm@17097
  1331
wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),
wenzelm@17097
  1332
in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');
wenzelm@17097
  1333
wenzelm@17397
  1334
* 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.
wenzelm@17397
  1335
wenzelm@17275
  1336
* More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive
wenzelm@17275
  1337
theory development.
wenzelm@17275
  1338
berghofe@17663
  1339
* Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code
wenzelm@17664
  1340
generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures
wenzelm@17664
  1341
for each theory).  INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'
wenzelm@17664
  1342
must be quoted when used as identifiers.
wenzelm@17664
  1343
wenzelm@17664
  1344
* New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using
wenzelm@17664
  1345
the code generator.  INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be
wenzelm@17664
  1346
quoted when used as identifier.
berghofe@17663
  1347
wenzelm@16234
  1348
wenzelm@16234
  1349
*** Locales ***
ballarin@17095
  1350
wenzelm@17385
  1351
* New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in
wenzelm@17385
  1352
theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3).  These generate
wenzelm@17385
  1353
proof obligations from the expression specification.  After the
wenzelm@17385
  1354
obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added
wenzelm@17385
  1355
to the theory, target locale or proof context.  The synopsis of the
wenzelm@17385
  1356
commands is a follows:
wenzelm@17385
  1357
ballarin@17095
  1358
  (1) interpretation expr inst
ballarin@17095
  1359
  (2) interpretation target < expr
ballarin@17095
  1360
  (3) interpret expr inst
wenzelm@17385
  1361
ballarin@17095
  1362
Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter
ballarin@17095
  1363
instantiation of terms from the current context.  This is applied to
wenzelm@17385
  1364
specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.
wenzelm@17385
  1365
Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the
wenzelm@17385
  1366
locale expression.  Interpretation is smart in that interpretations
wenzelm@17385
  1367
that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are
wenzelm@17385
  1368
instantiated theorems stored in duplicate.  Use 'print_interps' to
wenzelm@17385
  1369
inspect active interpretations of a particular locale.  For details,
ballarin@17436
  1370
see the Isar Reference manual.  Examples can be found in
ballarin@17436
  1371
HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.
wenzelm@16234
  1372
wenzelm@16234
  1373
INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use
wenzelm@16234
  1374
'interpret' instead.
wenzelm@16234
  1375
wenzelm@17385
  1376
* New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to
wenzelm@17385
  1377
parameters.
wenzelm@17385
  1378
wenzelm@17385
  1379
* Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax
wenzelm@17385
  1380
redeclaration.
ballarin@17095
  1381
ballarin@17095
  1382
* Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.
ballarin@17095
  1383
wenzelm@16234
  1384
* Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /
wenzelm@16234
  1385
facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition
wenzelm@16234
  1386
context, independently of the context of later invocations.  Moreover,
wenzelm@16234
  1387
locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied
wenzelm@16234
  1388
to attribute arguments as expected.
wenzelm@16234
  1389
wenzelm@16234
  1390
INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of
wenzelm@16234
  1391
actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to
wenzelm@16234
  1392
embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.
wenzelm@16234
  1393
Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static
wenzelm@16234
  1394
binding mechanism.  Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and
wenzelm@16234
  1395
Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further
wenzelm@16234
  1396
intervention.  Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"
wenzelm@16234
  1397
(cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both
wenzelm@16234
  1398
on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed
wenzelm@16234
  1399
values to argument tokens explicitly.
wenzelm@16234
  1400
wenzelm@16234
  1401
* Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal
wenzelm@16234
  1402
statements with 'includes'.  INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different
wenzelm@16234
  1403
theorem statement in rare situations.
wenzelm@16234
  1404
ballarin@17228
  1405
* Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements.  Use
ballarin@17228
  1406
'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.
ballarin@17228
  1407
wenzelm@16234
  1408
wenzelm@16234
  1409
*** Provers ***
wenzelm@16234
  1410
wenzelm@16234
  1411
* Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for
wenzelm@16234
  1412
single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is
wenzelm@16234
  1413
'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may
wenzelm@16234
  1414
rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is
wenzelm@16234
  1415
still available as 'simplesubst'.
wenzelm@16234
  1416
wenzelm@16234
  1417
* Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only
wenzelm@16234
  1418
and quasi orders.
wenzelm@16234
  1419
wenzelm@16234
  1420
* Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and
wenzelm@16234
  1421
reflexive-transitive closure of relations.
wenzelm@16234
  1422
wenzelm@16234
  1423
* Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth
wenzelm@16234
  1424
limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.
wenzelm@16234
  1425
wenzelm@16234
  1426
* Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup
wenzelm@16234
  1427
is peformed already.  Object-logics merely need to finish their
wenzelm@16234
  1428
initial simpset configuration as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@15703
  1429
berghofe@15475
  1430
schirmer@14700
  1431
*** HOL ***
schirmer@14700
  1432
wenzelm@16234
  1433
* Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:
wenzelm@14878
  1434
wenzelm@14878
  1435
  syntax (epsilon)
wenzelm@14878
  1436
    "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a"    ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)
wenzelm@14878
  1437
wenzelm@16234
  1438
The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX
wenzelm@16234
  1439
and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.
wenzelm@16234
  1440
Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>
wenzelm@16234
  1441
becomes available as variable, constant etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
wenzelm@16234
  1442
wenzelm@16234
  1443
* "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".
wenzelm@16234
  1444
Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc.  The x-symbol for >=
wenzelm@17371
  1445
is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to
avigad@17016
  1446
support corresponding Isar calculations.
wenzelm@16234
  1447
wenzelm@16234
  1448
* "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"
wenzelm@16234
  1449
instead of ":".
wenzelm@16234
  1450
wenzelm@16234
  1451
* theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:
wenzelm@16234
  1452
wenzelm@16234
  1453
  Old       New
wenzelm@16234
  1454
  {..n(}    {..<n}
wenzelm@16234
  1455
  {)n..}    {n<..}
wenzelm@16234
  1456
  {m..n(}   {m..<n}
wenzelm@16234
  1457
  {)m..n}   {m<..n}
wenzelm@16234
  1458
  {)m..n(}  {m<..<n}
wenzelm@16234
  1459
wenzelm@16234
  1460
The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next
wenzelm@16234
  1461
release.  For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace
wenzelm@16234
  1462
patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):
nipkow@15046
  1463
nipkow@15046
  1464
  {)\([^\.]*\)\.\.  ->  {\1<\.\.}
nipkow@15046
  1465
  \.\.\([^(}]*\)(}  ->  \.\.<\1}
nipkow@15046
  1466
wenzelm@17533
  1467
* Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving
wenzelm@17533
  1468
equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic
wenzelm@17533
  1469
interface.
wenzelm@17389
  1470
wenzelm@17389
  1471
* Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over
wenzelm@16234
  1472
finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is
wenzelm@17371
  1473
now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can
paulson@17189
  1474
be a tuple pattern.
wenzelm@16234
  1475
wenzelm@16234
  1476
Some new syntax forms are available:
wenzelm@16234
  1477
wenzelm@16234
  1478
  "\<Sum>x | P. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"
wenzelm@16234
  1479
  "\<Sum>x = a..b. e"   for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"
wenzelm@16234
  1480
  "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e"  for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"
wenzelm@16234
  1481
  "\<Sum>x < k. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"
wenzelm@16234
  1482
wenzelm@16234
  1483
The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate
wenzelm@16234
  1484
function "Summation", which has been discontinued.
wenzelm@16234
  1485
wenzelm@16234
  1486
* theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case
wenzelm@16234
  1487
is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case
wenzelm@16234
  1488
(insert F x)'.
wenzelm@16234
  1489
wenzelm@16234
  1490
* The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger
wenzelm@16234
  1491
fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and
wenzelm@16234
  1492
typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.
wenzelm@16234
  1493
webertj@17700
  1494
* New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.
webertj@17700
  1495
Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed.  See
webertj@17700
  1496
HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.
webertj@17619
  1497
wenzelm@16234
  1498
* Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the
wenzelm@16234
  1499
induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by
wenzelm@16234
  1500
induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather
wenzelm@16234
  1501
than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
wenzelm@16234
  1502
in unstructured proof scripts.
wenzelm@16234
  1503
wenzelm@16234
  1504
* Reworked implementation of records.  Improved scalability for
wenzelm@16234
  1505
records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type
wenzelm@16234
  1506
inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but
wenzelm@16234
  1507
of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear
wenzelm@16234
  1508
in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields.  The
wenzelm@16234
  1509
top-level (users) view on records is preserved.  Potential
wenzelm@16234
  1510
INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the
wenzelm@16234
  1511
old record representation. The type generated for a record is called
wenzelm@16234
  1512
<record_name>_ext_type.
wenzelm@16234
  1513
wenzelm@16234
  1514
Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the
wenzelm@16234
  1515
proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if
wenzelm@16234
  1516
quick_and_dirty is enabled).  Definitions of large records can take
wenzelm@16234
  1517
quite long.
wenzelm@16234
  1518
wenzelm@16234
  1519
New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record
wenzelm@16234
  1520
updates enabled by default.  Moreover, trivial updates are also
wenzelm@16234
  1521
removed: r(|x := x r|) = r.  INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break
wenzelm@16234
  1522
occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.
wenzelm@16234
  1523
wenzelm@17275
  1524
* typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra
wenzelm@17275
  1525
type-variables in the term.
wenzelm@17275
  1526
wenzelm@16234
  1527
* Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains
wenzelm@16234
  1528
involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics
wenzelm@16234
  1529
provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
wenzelm@16234
  1530
old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more
wenzelm@16234
  1531
goals than previously.
wenzelm@16234
  1532
wenzelm@16234
  1533
* Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is
wenzelm@16234
  1534
present.  Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular
wenzelm@16234
  1535
numbers and sets.  For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y
wenzelm@16234
  1536
just like y <= x.
wenzelm@16234
  1537
wenzelm@16234
  1538
* Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x".  If a is a free or
wenzelm@16234
  1539
bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded.  Otherwise
wenzelm@16234
  1540
first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If
wenzelm@16234
  1541
possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",
wenzelm@16234
  1542
otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g.  The simproc can be
wenzelm@16234
  1543
enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc.  Potential
wenzelm@16234
  1544
INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.
webertj@15776
  1545
paulson@16563
  1546
* Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.
paulson@16563
  1547
paulson@17595
  1548
* Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background
paulson@17595
  1549
jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.
paulson@17595
  1550
wenzelm@16891
  1551
* Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and
wenzelm@16891
  1552
improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and
wenzelm@16891
  1553
inequalities.
wenzelm@16891
  1554
wenzelm@16891
  1555
The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
wenzelm@16891
  1556
(INCOMPATIBILITY):
avigad@16888
  1557
avigad@16888
  1558
  abs_eq             now named abs_of_nonneg
wenzelm@17371
  1559
  abs_of_ge_0        now named abs_of_nonneg
wenzelm@17371
  1560
  abs_minus_eq       now named abs_of_nonpos
avigad@16888
  1561
  imp_abs_id         now named abs_of_nonneg
avigad@16888
  1562
  imp_abs_neg_id     now named abs_of_nonpos
avigad@16888
  1563
  mult_pos           now named mult_pos_pos
avigad@16888
  1564
  mult_pos_le        now named mult_nonneg_nonneg
avigad@16888
  1565
  mult_pos_neg_le    now named mult_nonneg_nonpos
avigad@16888
  1566
  mult_pos_neg2_le   now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2
avigad@16888
  1567
  mult_neg           now named mult_neg_neg
avigad@16888
  1568
  mult_neg_le        now named mult_nonpos_nonpos
avigad@16888
  1569
wenzelm@16891
  1570
* Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.
wenzelm@16891
  1571
nipkow@17092
  1572
* Theory List:
nipkow@17092
  1573
nipkow@17092
  1574
The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
nipkow@17092
  1575
(INCOMPATIBILITY):
nipkow@17092
  1576
nipkow@17092
  1577
  list_all_Nil       now named list_all.simps(1)
nipkow@17092
  1578
  list_all_Cons      now named list_all.simps(2)
nipkow@17092
  1579
  list_all_conv      now named list_all_iff
nipkow@17092
  1580
  set_mem_eq         now named mem_iff
nipkow@17092
  1581
wenzelm@16929
  1582
* Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support
wenzelm@16929
  1583
asymptotic "big O" calculations.  See the notes in BigO.thy.
wenzelm@16929
  1584
avigad@16888
  1585
avigad@16888
  1586
*** HOL-Complex ***
avigad@16888
  1587
wenzelm@16891
  1588
* Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and
wenzelm@16891
  1589
integers in the reals.
wenzelm@16891
  1590
wenzelm@16891
  1591
The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
wenzelm@16891
  1592
(INCOMPATIBILITY):
wenzelm@16891
  1593
avigad@17016
  1594
  exp_ge_add_one_self  now requires no hypotheses
avigad@17016
  1595
  real_of_int_add      reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
avigad@17016
  1596
  real_of_int_minus    reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
avigad@17016
  1597
  real_of_int_diff     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
avigad@17016
  1598
  real_of_int_mult     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
wenzelm@16891
  1599
wenzelm@16891
  1600
* Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.
avigad@16888
  1601
avigad@16962
  1602
* Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm
avigad@16962
  1603
wenzelm@17423
  1604
* Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making
wenzelm@17423
  1605
nonstandard types.  The old type names are now type synonyms:
wenzelm@17423
  1606
wenzelm@17423
  1607
  hypreal = real star
wenzelm@17423
  1608
  hypnat = nat star
wenzelm@17423
  1609
  hcomplex = complex star
wenzelm@17423
  1610
wenzelm@17423
  1611
* Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been
huffman@17442
  1612
replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
wenzelm@17423
  1613
wenzelm@17423
  1614
  star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex
wenzelm@17423
  1615
wenzelm@17423
  1616
  starset      <-- starsetNat, starsetC
wenzelm@17423
  1617
  *s*          <-- *sNat*, *sc*
wenzelm@17423
  1618
  starset_n    <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n
wenzelm@17423
  1619
  *sn*         <-- *sNatn*, *scn*
wenzelm@17423
  1620
  InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets
wenzelm@17423
  1621
huffman@17442
  1622
  starfun      <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
wenzelm@17423
  1623
  *f*          <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*
huffman@17442
  1624
  starfun_n    <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n
wenzelm@17423
  1625
  *fn*         <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*
huffman@17442
  1626
  InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs
wenzelm@17423
  1627
wenzelm@17423
  1628
* Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of
huffman@17442
  1629
theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):
huffman@17442
  1630
huffman@17442
  1631
  add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute
huffman@17442
  1632
  add_assoc   <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs
huffman@17442
  1633
  OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left
huffman@17442
  1634
  OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right
wenzelm@17423
  1635
  right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus
huffman@17442
  1636
  left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left
huffman@17442
  1637
  mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute
huffman@17442
  1638
  mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc
huffman@17442
  1639
  mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left
wenzelm@17423
  1640
  mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right
wenzelm@17423
  1641
  mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left
huffman@17442
  1642
  left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib
wenzelm@17423
  1643
  right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2
huffman@17442
  1644
  zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one
wenzelm@17423
  1645
  right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse
wenzelm@17423
  1646
  left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left
huffman@17442
  1647
  order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl
huffman@17442
  1648
  order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans
huffman@17442
  1649
  order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym
huffman@17442
  1650
  order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le
huffman@17442
  1651
  linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear
huffman@17442
  1652
  add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono
huffman@17442
  1653
  mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2
wenzelm@17423
  1654
  add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order
wenzelm@17423
  1655
wenzelm@17423
  1656
* Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific
wenzelm@17423
  1657
versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the
huffman@17442
  1658
new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):
huffman@17442
  1659
huffman@17442
  1660
  STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set
huffman@17442
  1661
  STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set
huffman@17442
  1662
  STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un
huffman@17442
  1663
  STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int
huffman@17442
  1664
  STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl
huffman@17442
  1665
  STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset
huffman@17442
  1666
  STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem
huffman@17442
  1667
  STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl
huffman@17442
  1668
  STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff
huffman@17442
  1669
  STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,
huffman@17442
  1670
    STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset
huffman@17442
  1671
  starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un
huffman@17442
  1672
  starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int
huffman@17442
  1673
  starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl
huffman@17442
  1674
  starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff
huffman@17442
  1675
  InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un
huffman@17442
  1676
  InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int
huffman@17442
  1677
  InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl
huffman@17442
  1678
  InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff
huffman@17442
  1679
  InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff
huffman@17442
  1680
  InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n
huffman@17442
  1681
  starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq
huffman@17442
  1682
  starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}
huffman@17442
  1683
  starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
huffman@17442
  1684
  starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
huffman@17442
  1685
  starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult
huffman@17442
  1686
  starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add
huffman@17442
  1687
  starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus
huffman@17442
  1688
  starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff
huffman@17442
  1689
  starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o
huffman@17442
  1690
  starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2
huffman@17442
  1691
  starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun
huffman@17442
  1692
  starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse
huffman@17442
  1693
  starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq
huffman@17442
  1694
  starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff
wenzelm@17423
  1695
  starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id
huffman@17442
  1696
  starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx
huffman@17442
  1697
  starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox
wenzelm@17423
  1698
  starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs
huffman@17442
  1699
  starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel
huffman@17442
  1700
  starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2
wenzelm@17423
  1701
  starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox
huffman@17442
  1702
  starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox
huffman@17442
  1703
  starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox
wenzelm@17423
  1704
  starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx
wenzelm@17423
  1705
  starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse
huffman@17442
  1706
  starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide
huffman@17442
  1707
  starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n
huffman@17442
  1708
  starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult
huffman@17442
  1709
  starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add
wenzelm@17423
  1710
  starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus
huffman@17442
  1711
  starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun
huffman@17442
  1712
  starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus
huffman@17442
  1713
  starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq
huffman@17442
  1714
huffman@17442
  1715
  star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add
huffman@17442
  1716
  star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus
huffman@17442
  1717
  star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff
huffman@17442
  1718
  star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult
huffman@17442
  1719
  star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse
huffman@17442
  1720
  star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le
huffman@17442
  1721
  star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less
huffman@17442
  1722
  star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num
huffman@17442
  1723
  star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num
wenzelm@17423
  1724
  star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs
wenzelm@17423
  1725
  star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide
wenzelm@17423
  1726
huffman@17442
  1727
  star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add
huffman@17442
  1728
  star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus
wenzelm@17423
  1729
  star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff
huffman@17442
  1730
  star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult
huffman@17442
  1731
  star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one
huffman@17442
  1732
  star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero
huffman@17442
  1733
  star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff
huffman@17442
  1734
  star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff
huffman@17442
  1735
  star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff
huffman@17442
  1736
  star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse
huffman@17442
  1737
  star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide
huffman@17442
  1738
  star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat
huffman@17442
  1739
  star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int
huffman@17442
  1740
  star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of
wenzelm@17423
  1741
  star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff
wenzelm@17423
  1742
  star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff
wenzelm@17423
  1743
  star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff
wenzelm@17423
  1744
  star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff
wenzelm@17423
  1745
  star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff
wenzelm@17423
  1746
  star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power
wenzelm@17423
  1747
  star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff
wenzelm@17423
  1748
huffman@17442
  1749
* Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer
huffman@17442
  1750
principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions
huffman@17442
  1751
nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"
huffman@17442
  1752
replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.
huffman@17442
  1753
To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-
huffman@17442
  1754
standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.
huffman@17442
  1755
wenzelm@17641
  1756
* Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.
wenzelm@17641
  1757
wenzelm@14655
  1758
wenzelm@14682
  1759
*** HOLCF ***
wenzelm@14682
  1760
wenzelm@17533
  1761
* Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support
wenzelm@17533
  1762
continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full
wenzelm@17533
  1763
type-inference.
wenzelm@17533
  1764
wenzelm@17533
  1765
* New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it
wenzelm@17533
  1766
is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic
huffman@17442
  1767
instead of exponential time).
huffman@17442
  1768
wenzelm@17533
  1769
* New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.
huffman@17442
  1770
Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:
huffman@17442
  1771
huffman@17442
  1772
  domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")
huffman@17442
  1773
wenzelm@17533
  1774
* New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern
wenzelm@17533
  1775
matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also
wenzelm@17533
  1776
supported.  Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,
wenzelm@17533
  1777
sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given
wenzelm@17533
  1778
equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
wenzelm@17533
  1779
syntax and examples.
wenzelm@17533
  1780
wenzelm@17533
  1781
* New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes
wenzelm@17533
  1782
of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,
wenzelm@17533
  1783
but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility
wenzelm@17533
  1784
requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,
wenzelm@17533
  1785
with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.
huffman@17442
  1786
huffman@17584
  1787
* HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming
huffman@17584
  1788
scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):
huffman@17584
  1789
huffman@17584
  1790
  foo_inject:  "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"
huffman@17584
  1791
  foo_eq:      "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"
huffman@17584
  1792
  foo_less:    "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"
huffman@17584
  1793
  foo_strict:  "foo$UU = UU"
huffman@17584
  1794
  foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"
huffman@17584
  1795
  foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"
huffman@17584
  1796
wenzelm@14682
  1797
paulson@14885
  1798
*** ZF ***
paulson@14885
  1799
wenzelm@16234
  1800
* ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,
wenzelm@16234
  1801
including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel
wenzelm@16234
  1802
of a homomorphism).
wenzelm@15089
  1803
wenzelm@15089
  1804
* ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually
wenzelm@16234
  1805
makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);
wenzelm@16234
  1806
the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.
wenzelm@15703
  1807
wenzelm@15703
  1808
wenzelm@17445
  1809
*** Cube ***
wenzelm@17445
  1810
wenzelm@17445
  1811
* Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic
wenzelm@17445
  1812
theories.
wenzelm@17445
  1813
wenzelm@17445
  1814
wenzelm@15703
  1815
*** ML ***
wenzelm@15703
  1816
haftmann@21339
  1817
* Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts
haftmann@21339
  1818
for ||>, ||>>, |>>,
haftmann@21339
  1819
wenzelm@15973
  1820
* Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses
wenzelm@16234
  1821
that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of
wenzelm@16234
  1822
None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.
wenzelm@16234
  1823
The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted
wenzelm@16234
  1824
accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.
wenzelm@15973
  1825
wenzelm@16860
  1826
* Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of
wenzelm@16860
  1827
the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as
wenzelm@16860
  1828
Library.UnequalLengths.  Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are
wenzelm@16860
  1829
superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.
wenzelm@16860
  1830
wenzelm@16860
  1831
A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML
wenzelm@16860
  1832
toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions.  The following
wenzelm@16234
  1833
suggests how one can translate existing code:
wenzelm@15973
  1834
wenzelm@15973
  1835
    rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)
wenzelm@15973
  1836
    nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)
wenzelm@15973
  1837
    last_elem xs = List.last xs
wenzelm@15973
  1838
    flat xss = List.concat xss
wenzelm@16234
  1839
    seq fs = List.app fs
wenzelm@15973
  1840
    partition P xs = List.partition P xs
wenzelm@15973
  1841
    mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs
wenzelm@15973
  1842
wenzelm@16860
  1843
* Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional
wenzelm@16860
  1844
transformations, notably reverse application and composition:
wenzelm@16860
  1845
wenzelm@17371
  1846
  x |> f                f #> g
wenzelm@17371
  1847
  (x, y) |-> f          f #-> g
wenzelm@16860
  1848
haftmann@17495
  1849
* Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:
haftmann@17495
  1850
haftmann@17495
  1851
  infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;
haftmann@17495
  1852
  infix 2 ?;
haftmann@17495
  1853
  infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;
haftmann@17495
  1854
  infix 4 ~~ upto downto;
haftmann@17495
  1855
haftmann@17495
  1856
Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other
haftmann@17495
  1857
infix operators.
haftmann@17495
  1858
wenzelm@17408
  1859
* Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and
haftmann@16869
  1860
fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting.  For
wenzelm@16860
  1861
example:
wenzelm@16860
  1862
wenzelm@16860
  1863
  fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =
wenzelm@16860
  1864
    y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN
wenzelm@16860
  1865
wenzelm@16860
  1866
  (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =
wenzelm@16860
  1867
    y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN
wenzelm@16860
  1868
wenzelm@16860
  1869
  fold f [x1, ..., xN] =
wenzelm@16860
  1870
    f x1 #> ... #> f xN
wenzelm@16860
  1871
wenzelm@16860
  1872
  (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =
wenzelm@16860
  1873
    fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN
wenzelm@16860
  1874
wenzelm@17408
  1875
* Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are
wenzelm@17408
  1876
available:
wenzelm@17408
  1877
wenzelm@17408
  1878
  the:               'a option -> 'a  (*partial*)
wenzelm@17408
  1879
  these:             'a option -> 'a  where 'a = 'b list
haftmann@17402
  1880
  the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a
haftmann@17402
  1881
  the_list:          'a option -> 'a list
haftmann@17402
  1882
wenzelm@17408
  1883
* Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
wenzelm@17408
  1884
basic operations for association lists, following natural argument
haftmann@17564
  1885
order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids
haftmann@17495
  1886
potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.
haftmann@17495
  1887
The old functions may be expressed as follows:
wenzelm@17408
  1888
wenzelm@17408
  1889
  assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))
wenzelm@17408
  1890
  assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)
wenzelm@17408
  1891
  overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap
wenzelm@17408
  1892
haftmann@17564
  1893
* Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
haftmann@17564
  1894
haftmann@17564
  1895
  val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list
haftmann@17564
  1896
  val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list
haftmann@17564
  1897
haftmann@17564
  1898
replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)
haftmann@17564
  1899
Naive rewrites:
haftmann@17564
  1900
haftmann@17564
  1901
  make_keylist = AList.make
haftmann@17564
  1902
  keyfilter = AList.find (op =)
haftmann@17564
  1903
haftmann@17564
  1904
* eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus
haftmann@17564
  1905
  avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:
haftmann@17564
  1906
haftmann@17564
  1907
    eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)
haftmann@17564
  1908
    eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)
haftmann@17564
  1909
haftmann@17564
  1910
* Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).
haftmann@17564
  1911
  Naive rewrites:
haftmann@17564
  1912
haftmann@17564
  1913
    apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n
haftmann@17564
  1914
    apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)
haftmann@17564
  1915
wenzelm@17408
  1916
* Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)
wenzelm@17408
  1917
provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as
wenzelm@17408
  1918
lists.
wenzelm@17408
  1919
wenzelm@17408
  1920
* Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a
wenzelm@17408
  1921
few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to
wenzelm@17408
  1922
follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);
wenzelm@17408
  1923
INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.
wenzelm@17408
  1924
wenzelm@17408
  1925
* Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of
wenzelm@17408
  1926
writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a
wenzelm@17408
  1927
hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode
wenzelm@17408
  1928
(cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output
wenzelm@17408
  1929
function wins).  Already formatted output may be embedded into further
wenzelm@17408
  1930
text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived
wenzelm@17408
  1931
functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to
wenzelm@17408
  1932
accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc.  Programmers
wenzelm@17408
  1933
rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with
wenzelm@17408
  1934
some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the
wenzelm@17408
  1935
standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce
wenzelm@17408
  1936
properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing
wenzelm@17408
  1937
already output material that will eventually be presented to the user
wenzelm@17408
  1938
a second time.  For the default print mode, both Output.output and
wenzelm@17408
  1939
Output.raw have no effect.
wenzelm@17408
  1940
wenzelm@17408
  1941
* Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a
wenzelm@17408
  1942
-> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the
wenzelm@17408
  1943
cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.
wenzelm@17408
  1944
wenzelm@17408
  1945
* Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been
wenzelm@17408
  1946
replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate
wenzelm@17408
  1947
hooks).  This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the
wenzelm@17408
  1948
internal and external process view of file names are different.
wenzelm@17408
  1949
wenzelm@16689
  1950
* Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added
wenzelm@16689
  1951
fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord
wenzelm@16689
  1952
and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is
wenzelm@16689
  1953
NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast
wenzelm@16689
  1954
orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a
wenzelm@16689
  1955
particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using
wenzelm@16689
  1956
Library.sort_strings on result).
wenzelm@16689
  1957
wenzelm@17408
  1958
* Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,
wenzelm@17408
  1959
fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural
wenzelm@17408
  1960
argument order.  Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,
wenzelm@17408
  1961
add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@17408
  1962
wenzelm@16151
  1963
* Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the
wenzelm@16234
  1964
internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY.  Renamed cond_extern(_table)
wenzelm@16234
  1965
to extern(_table).  The plain name entry path is superceded by a
wenzelm@16234
  1966
general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce
wenzelm@16234
  1967
a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified
wenzelm@16234
  1968
name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent
wenzelm@16234
  1969
Sign.declare_name.  Several theory and proof context operations modify
wenzelm@16234
  1970
the naming context.  Especially note Theory.restore_naming and
wenzelm@16234
  1971
ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that
wenzelm@16234
  1972
Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from
wenzelm@16234
  1973
Theory.absolute_path in particular.
wenzelm@16234
  1974
wenzelm@16234
  1975
* Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names
wenzelm@16234
  1976
(default true) for controlling output of qualified names.  If
wenzelm@16234
  1977
short_names is set, names are printed unqualified.  If unique_names is
wenzelm@16234
  1978
reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve
wenzelm@16234
  1979
the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap
wenzelm@16234
  1980
with earlier declarations.
wenzelm@16151
  1981
wenzelm@16456
  1982
* Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is
wenzelm@16456
  1983
now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument
wenzelm@16456
  1984
(useful for printing error messages).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@16456
  1985
wenzelm@16456
  1986
* Pure: major reorganization of the theory context.  Type Sign.sg and
wenzelm@16456
  1987
Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal
wenzelm@16456
  1988
Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML).  Actual signature and theory
wenzelm@16456
  1989
content is managed as theory data.  The old code and interfaces were
wenzelm@16456
  1990
spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces
wenzelm@16456
  1991
considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:
wenzelm@16456
  1992
wenzelm@16456
  1993
  Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,
wenzelm@16456
  1994
    parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;
wenzelm@16456
  1995
wenzelm@16456
  1996
  Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,
wenzelm@16456
  1997
    types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;
wenzelm@16456
  1998
wenzelm@16456
  1999
  Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,
wenzelm@16456
  2000
    oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,
wenzelm@16456
  2001
    types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,
wenzelm@16456
  2002
    Theory.merge, etc.)
wenzelm@16456
  2003
wenzelm@16456
  2004
The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm
wenzelm@16456
  2005
etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained
wenzelm@16456
  2006
for convenience -- they merely return the theory.
wenzelm@16456
  2007
wenzelm@17193
  2008
* Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.
wenzelm@17193
  2009
wenzelm@16547
  2010
* Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure
wenzelm@16547
  2011
as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are
wenzelm@16547
  2012
aliases, where the latter is the preferred name).  This enables other
wenzelm@16547
  2013
Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.
wenzelm@16547
  2014
wenzelm@16373
  2015
* Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,
wenzelm@16373
  2016
typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for
wenzelm@16373
  2017
any of these kinds.  For example, Sign.intern typeK is now
wenzelm@16373
  2018
Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now
wenzelm@16373
  2019
Theory.hide_types.  Also note that former
wenzelm@16373
  2020
Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now
wenzelm@16373
  2021
Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions
wenzelm@16373
  2022
internalize their arguments!  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@16373
  2023
wenzelm@16506
  2024
* Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects
wenzelm@16506
  2025
datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of
wenzelm@16506
  2026
plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;
wenzelm@16506
  2027
wenzelm@16151
  2028
* Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE
wenzelm@16234
  2029
means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in
wenzelm@16234
  2030
(RAW_)METHOD_CASES.
wenzelm@16151
  2031
wenzelm@16373
  2032
* Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a
wenzelm@16373
  2033
theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:
wenzelm@16373
  2034
wenzelm@16373
  2035
  Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
wenzelm@16373
  2036
  Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
wenzelm@16373
  2037
  PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
wenzelm@16373
  2038
  PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
wenzelm@16373
  2039
wenzelm@16718
  2040
* Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.
wenzelm@16718
  2041
wenzelm@17408
  2042
* Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.
wenzelm@17408
  2043
Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing
wenzelm@17408
  2044
and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)
wenzelm@17408
  2045
controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space
wenzelm@17408
  2046
(both increase the runtime).
wenzelm@17408
  2047
wenzelm@17408
  2048
* Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,
wenzelm@17408
  2049
i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the
wenzelm@17408
  2050
elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.
wenzelm@17408
  2051
wenzelm@17408
  2052
* Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless
wenzelm@16997
  2053
representation, avoid allocating new strings).  Simprocs that invoke
wenzelm@16997
  2054
the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to
wenzelm@17720
  2055
avoid local name clashes.  Failure to do so produces warnings
wenzelm@17720
  2056
"Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds
wenzelm@17720
  2057
for further details.
wenzelm@16234
  2058
wenzelm@17166
  2059
* ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact
wenzelm@17166
  2060
bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help
wenzelm@17166
  2061
in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof
wenzelm@17166
  2062
scripts for the time being.
wenzelm@17166
  2063
wenzelm@17457
  2064
* ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for
wenzelm@17457
  2065
generated HTML files.  For example:
wenzelm@17457
  2066
wenzelm@17457
  2067
  HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";
wenzelm@17538
  2068
  HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";
wenzelm@17457
  2069
wenzelm@16234
  2070
wenzelm@16234
  2071
*** System ***
wenzelm@16234
  2072
wenzelm@16234
  2073
* Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,
wenzelm@16234
  2074
isabelle, isatool etc.).
wenzelm@16234
  2075
wenzelm@16234
  2076
* ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for
wenzelm@16234
  2077
isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).
wenzelm@16234
  2078
wenzelm@16234
  2079
* isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be
wenzelm@16234
  2080
used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.
wenzelm@16234
  2081
wenzelm@16251
  2082
* New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle
wenzelm@16251
  2083
distribution being used.
wenzelm@16251
  2084
wenzelm@16251
  2085
* HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format
wenzelm@16234
  2086
(containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL
wenzelm@16234
  2087
theories.
wenzelm@15703
  2088
wenzelm@15703
  2089
wenzelm@14655
  2090
wenzelm@14606
  2091
New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)
wenzelm@14606
  2092
--------------------------------
wenzelm@13280
  2093
skalberg@14171
  2094
*** General ***
skalberg@14171
  2095
ballarin@14398
  2096
* Provers/order.ML:  new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.
ballarin@14398
  2097
  Replaces linorder.ML.
ballarin@14398
  2098
wenzelm@14606
  2099
* Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic
wenzelm@14606
  2100
  (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler
skalberg@14173
  2101
  (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore
skalberg@14173
  2102
  be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until
skalberg@14173
  2103
  now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some
skalberg@14173
  2104
  terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say
skalberg@14173
  2105
  '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed
skalberg@14173
  2106
  as an identifier.  Fix it by inserting a space around former
skalberg@14173
  2107
  symbols.  Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in
skalberg@14173
  2108
  existing theory and ML files.
skalberg@14171
  2109
paulson@14237
  2110
* Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.
paulson@14237
  2111
wenzelm@14731
  2112
* Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now
wenzelm@14731
  2113
  allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered
wenzelm@14731
  2114
  a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat
wenzelm@14731
  2115
  \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.
kleing@14233
  2116
kleing@14333
  2117
* Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one
kleing@14333
  2118
  character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in
wenzelm@14606
  2119
  ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in
wenzelm@14606
  2120
  superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.
kleing@14333
  2121
schirmer@14561
  2122
* Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the
wenzelm@14606
  2123
  content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."
wenzelm@14606
  2124
  may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.
schirmer@14361
  2125
paulson@14237
  2126
* Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions
paulson@14237
  2127
  Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to
paulson@14237
  2128
  declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition
paulson@14237
  2129
  later.  It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically
skalberg@14224
  2130
  rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.
skalberg@14224
  2131
wenzelm@14606
  2132
* Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts
wenzelm@14606
  2133
  (i.e. intersections of classes),
skalberg@14503
  2134
kleing@14547
  2135
* Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout
wenzelm@14731
  2136
  (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.
kleing@14547
  2137
  It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.
kleing@14547
  2138
wenzelm@14556
  2139
ballarin@14175
  2140
*** Isar ***
ballarin@14175
  2141
ballarin@14508
  2142
* Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,
ballarin@14508
  2143
  cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:
ballarin@14175
  2144
  - Now understand static (Isar) contexts.  As a consequence, users of Isar
ballarin@14175
  2145
    locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.
ballarin@14175
  2146
    For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic
ballarin@14175
  2147
    emulations.
ballarin@14175
  2148
  - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no
ballarin@14211
  2149
    longer be enclosed in quotes.  Instead, precede variable name with `?'.
ballarin@14211
  2150
    This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".
ballarin@14211
  2151
ballarin@14257
  2152
* Attributes "where" and "of":
ballarin@14285
  2153
  - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading
ballarin@14285
  2154
    the instantiation string.  This fixes a bug that caused instantiated
ballarin@14285
  2155
    theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.
ballarin@14285
  2156
  - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.
ballarin@14257
  2157
wenzelm@14556
  2158
* Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with
wenzelm@14556
  2159
  current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"
wenzelm@14556
  2160
  and derived forms.
kleing@14283
  2161
ballarin@14211
  2162
* Locales:
ballarin@14211
  2163
  - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer
ballarin@14211
  2164
    generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on
ballarin@14211
  2165
    "_axioms") in the premise.
ballarin@14211
  2166
    Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.
ballarin@14211
  2167
  - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target
ballarin@14211
  2168
    specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.
ballarin@14254
  2169
  - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as
ballarin@14254
  2170
    [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.
ballarin@14508
  2171
  - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:
ballarin@14551
  2172
        instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>
ballarin@14508
  2173
    Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context
ballarin@14551
  2174
    taking into account their attributes.  Label and attrs are optional
ballarin@14551
  2175
    modifiers, like in theorem declarations.  If present, names of
ballarin@14551
  2176
    instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes
ballarin@14551
  2177
    <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.
ballarin@14551
  2178
      If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form
ballarin@14508
  2179
    "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters
ballarin@14551
  2180
    are derived.  The command does not support old-style locales declared
ballarin@14551
  2181
    with "locale (open)".
ballarin@14551
  2182
      A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.
ballarin@14175
  2183
ballarin@14175
  2184
* HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static
ballarin@14175
  2185
  (Isar) contexts.
ballarin@14175
  2186
wenzelm@14556
  2187
kleing@14136
  2188
*** HOL ***
kleing@14136
  2189
kleing@14624
  2190
* Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from
kleing@14624
  2191
  the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by
kleing@14624
  2192
  replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image
kleing@14624
  2193
  can be used like any other Isabelle image.  See
kleing@14624
  2194
  HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.
kleing@14624
  2195
ballarin@14398
  2196
* Simplifier:
ballarin@14398
  2197
  - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.
ballarin@14398
  2198
    Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes
ballarin@14398
  2199
    "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset
ballarin@14398
  2200
    as solvers.  This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains
ballarin@14398
  2201
    to solve goals from the assumptions.
ballarin@14398
  2202
  - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally.  Typically, applications
ballarin@14398
  2203
    of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal
ballarin@14398
  2204
    is solved by simplification already.
ballarin@14398
  2205
wenzelm@14731
  2206
* Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,
paulson@14389
  2207
    all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.
paulson@14389
  2208
paulson@14389
  2209
* Numerics:
paulson@14389
  2210
  - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are
wenzelm@14731
  2211
    now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.
paulson@14389
  2212
  - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently
paulson@14389
  2213
    than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.
wenzelm@14731
  2214
  - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.
paulson@14480
  2215
    Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern
paulson@14480
  2216
    exponentiation).
paulson@14389
  2217
paulson@14401
  2218
* Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.
paulson@14389
  2219
schirmer@14255
  2220
* Records:
schirmer@14255
  2221
  - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation
schirmer@14255
  2222
    instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via
schirmer@14255
  2223
    the reference "print_record_type_abbr".
wenzelm@14731
  2224
  - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added
schirmer@14255
  2225
    (not enabled by default).
schirmer@14427
  2226
  - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.
schirmer@14427
  2227
    EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).
schirmer@14255
  2228
  - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.
wenzelm@14731
  2229
kleing@14136
  2230
* 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by
skalberg@14224
  2231
  specification.  There is also an 'ax_specification' command that
skalberg@14224
  2232
  introduces the new constants axiomatically.
kleing@14136
  2233
nipkow@14375
  2234
* arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.
nipkow@14375
  2235
ballarin@14399
  2236
* HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.
ballarin@14399
  2237
paulson@14243
  2238
* HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function
kleing@14610
  2239
  definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.
kleing@14610
  2240
wenzelm@14731
  2241
* HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of
kleing@14610
  2242
  matrix theory to linear programming.
kleing@14136
  2243
nipkow@14380
  2244
* Unions and Intersections:
nipkow@15119
  2245
  The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed
nipkow@15119
  2246
  from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"
nipkow@15119
  2247
  i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.
nipkow@15119
  2248
  Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.
nipkow@14380
  2249
kleing@14418
  2250
* Unions and Intersections over Intervals:
wenzelm@14731
  2251
  There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is
wenzelm@14731
  2252
  also an x-symbol version with subscripts "\<Union>\<^bsub>i <= n\<^esub>. A"
kleing@14418
  2253
  like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.
kleing@14418
  2254
nipkow@15677
  2255
* HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard
nipkow@15677
  2256
  lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".
nipkow@15677
  2257
paulson@14401
  2258
* ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had
paulson@14401
  2259
  conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.
nipkow@14380
  2260
webertj@14464
  2261
* 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels.  Only works
webertj@14464
  2262
  for a fragment of HOL.  The installation of an external SAT solver is
webertj@14464
  2263
  highly recommended.  See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.
webertj@14464
  2264
berghofe@14602
  2265
* 'quickcheck' command: Allows to find counterexamples by evaluating
berghofe@14602
  2266
  formulae under an assignment of free variables to random values.
berghofe@14602
  2267
  In contrast to 'refute', it can deal with inductive datatypes,
berghofe@14602
  2268
  but cannot handle quantifiers. See "HOL/ex/Quickcheck_Examples.thy"
berghofe@14602
  2269
  for examples.
webertj@14464
  2270
wenzelm@14606
  2271
oheimb@14536
  2272
*** HOLCF ***
oheimb@14536
  2273
oheimb@14536
  2274
* Streams now come with concatenation and are part of the HOLCF image
oheimb@14536
  2275
wenzelm@14572
  2276
wenzelm@14572
  2277
kleing@14136
  2278
New in Isabelle2003 (May 2003)
wenzelm@14606
  2279
------------------------------
kleing@14136
  2280
wenzelm@13280
  2281
*** General ***
wenzelm@13280
  2282
berghofe@13618
  2283
* Provers/simplifier:
berghofe@13618
  2284
nipkow@13781
  2285
  - Completely reimplemented method simp (ML: Asm_full_simp_tac):
berghofe@13618
  2286
    Assumptions are now subject to complete mutual simplification,
berghofe@13618
  2287
    not just from left to right. The simplifier now preserves
berghofe@13618
  2288
    the order of assumptions.
berghofe@13618
  2289
berghofe@13618
  2290
    Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
berghofe@13618
  2291
nipkow@13781
  2292
    -- simp sometimes diverges where the old version did
nipkow@13781
  2293
       not, e.g. invoking simp on the goal
berghofe@13618
  2294
berghofe@13618
  2295
        [| P (f x); y = x; f x = f y |] ==> Q
berghofe@13618
  2296
nipkow@13781
  2297
       now gives rise to the infinite reduction sequence
nipkow@13781
  2298
nipkow@13781
  2299
        P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> P(f y) --(y = x)--> P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> ...
nipkow@13781
  2300
nipkow@13781
  2301
       Using "simp (asm_lr)" (ML: Asm_lr_simp_tac) instead often solves this
nipkow@13781
  2302
       kind of problem.
nipkow@13781
  2303
nipkow@13781
  2304
    -- Tactics combining classical reasoner and simplification (such as auto)
nipkow@13781
  2305
       are also affected by this change, because many of them rely on
nipkow@13781
  2306
       simp. They may sometimes diverge as well or yield a different numbers
nipkow@13781
  2307
       of subgoals. Try to use e.g. force, fastsimp, or safe instead of auto
nipkow@13781
  2308
       in case of problems. Sometimes subsequent calls to the classical
nipkow@13781
  2309
       reasoner will fail because a preceeding call to the simplifier too
nipkow@13781
  2310
       eagerly simplified the goal, e.g. deleted redundant premises.
berghofe@13618
  2311
berghofe@13618
  2312
  - The simplifier trace now shows the names of the applied rewrite rules
berghofe@13618
  2313
nipkow@13829
  2314
  - You can limit the number of recursive invocations of the simplifier
nipkow@13829
  2315
    during conditional rewriting (where the simplifie tries to solve the
nipkow@13829
  2316
    conditions before applying the rewrite rule):
nipkow@13829
  2317
    ML "simp_depth_limit := n"
nipkow@13829
  2318
    where n is an integer. Thus you can force termination where previously
nipkow@13829
  2319
    the simplifier would diverge.
nipkow@13829
  2320
ballarin@13835
  2321
  - Accepts free variables as head terms in congruence rules.  Useful in Isar.
nipkow@13829
  2322
ballarin@13938
  2323
  - No longer aborts on failed congruence proof.  Instead, the
ballarin@13938
  2324
    congruence is ignored.
ballarin@13938
  2325
berghofe@14008
  2326
* Pure: New generic framework for extracting programs from constructive
berghofe@14008
  2327
  proofs. See HOL/Extraction.thy for an example instantiation, as well
berghofe@14008
  2328
  as HOL/Extraction for some case studies.
berghofe@14008
  2329
nipkow@13868
  2330
* Pure: The main goal of the proof state is no longer shown by default, only
nipkow@13868
  2331
the subgoals. This behaviour is controlled by a new flag.
ballarin@13835
  2332
   PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Settings -> Show Main Goal
nipkow@13815
  2333
(ML: Proof.show_main_goal).
nipkow@13815
  2334
nipkow@13815
  2335
* Pure: You can find all matching introduction rules for subgoal 1, i.e. all
nipkow@13815
  2336
rules whose conclusion matches subgoal 1:
nipkow@13815
  2337
      PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Show me -> matching rules
nipkow@13815
  2338
The rules are ordered by how closely they match the subgoal.
nipkow@13815
  2339
In particular, rules that solve a subgoal outright are displayed first
nipkow@13815
  2340
(or rather last, the way they are printed).
nipkow@13815
  2341
(ML: ProofGeneral.print_intros())
nipkow@13815
  2342
nipkow@13815
  2343
* Pure: New flag trace_unify_fail causes unification to print
nipkow@13781
  2344
diagnostic information (PG: in trace buffer) when it fails. This is
nipkow@13781
  2345
useful for figuring out why single step proofs like rule, erule or
nipkow@13781
  2346
assumption failed.
nipkow@13781
  2347
nipkow@13815
  2348
* Pure: Locale specifications now produce predicate definitions
wenzelm@13410
  2349
according to the body of text (covering assumptions modulo local
wenzelm@13410
  2350
definitions); predicate "loc_axioms" covers newly introduced text,
wenzelm@13410
  2351
while "loc" is cumulative wrt. all included locale expressions; the
wenzelm@13410
  2352
latter view is presented only on export into the global theory
wenzelm@13410
  2353
context; potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use "(open)" option to fall back
wenzelm@13410
  2354
on the old view without predicates;
wenzelm@13410
  2355
wenzelm@13459
  2356
* Pure: predefined locales "var" and "struct" are useful for sharing
wenzelm@13459
  2357
parameters (as in CASL, for example); just specify something like
wenzelm@13459
  2358
``var x + var y + struct M'' as import;
wenzelm@13459
  2359
wenzelm@13463
  2360
* Pure: improved thms_containing: proper indexing of facts instead of
wenzelm@13463
  2361
raw theorems; check validity of results wrt. current name space;
wenzelm@13463
  2362
include local facts of proof configuration (also covers active
wenzelm@13541
  2363
locales), cover fixed variables in index; may use "_" in term
wenzelm@13541
  2364
specification; an optional limit for the number of printed facts may
wenzelm@13541
  2365
be given (the default is 40);
wenzelm@13541
  2366
wenzelm@13541
  2367
* Pure: disallow duplicate fact bindings within new-style theory files
wenzelm@13541
  2368
(batch-mode only);
wenzelm@13540
  2369
wenzelm@13463
  2370
* Provers: improved induct method: assumptions introduced by case
wenzelm@13463
  2371
"foo" are split into "foo.hyps" (from the rule) and "foo.prems" (from
wenzelm@13463
  2372
the goal statement); "foo" still refers to all facts collectively;
wenzelm@13463
  2373
paulson@13550
  2374
* Provers: the function blast.overloaded has been removed: all constants
paulson@13550
  2375
are regarded as potentially overloaded, which improves robustness in exchange
paulson@13550
  2376
for slight decrease in efficiency;
paulson@13550
  2377
nipkow@13781
  2378
* Provers/linorder: New generic prover for transitivity reasoning over
nipkow@13781
  2379
linear orders.  Note: this prover is not efficient!
nipkow@13781
  2380
wenzelm@13522
  2381
* Isar: preview of problems to finish 'show' now produce an error
wenzelm@13522
  2382
rather than just a warning (in interactive mode);
wenzelm@13522
  2383
wenzelm@13280
  2384
nipkow@13158
  2385
*** HOL ***
nipkow@13158
  2386
nipkow@13899
  2387
* arith(_tac)
nipkow@13899
  2388
nipkow@13899
  2389
 - Produces a counter example if it cannot prove a goal.
nipkow@13899
  2390
   Note that the counter example may be spurious if the goal is not a formula
nipkow@13899
  2391
   of quantifier-free linear arithmetic.
nipkow@13899
  2392
   In ProofGeneral the counter example appears in the trace buffer.
nipkow@13899
  2393
nipkow@13899
  2394
 - Knows about div k and mod k where k is a numeral of type nat or int.
nipkow@13899
  2395
nipkow@13899
  2396
 - Calls full Presburger arithmetic (by Amine Chaieb) if quantifier-free
nipkow@13899
  2397
   linear arithmetic fails. This takes account of quantifiers and divisibility.
wenzelm@14731
  2398
   Presburger arithmetic can also be called explicitly via presburger(_tac).
nipkow@13899
  2399
nipkow@13899
  2400
* simp's arithmetic capabilities have been enhanced a bit: it now
nipkow@13899
  2401
takes ~= in premises into account (by performing a case split);
nipkow@13899
  2402
nipkow@13899
  2403
* simp reduces "m*(n div m) + n mod m" to n, even if the two summands
nipkow@13899
  2404
are distributed over a sum of terms;
nipkow@13899
  2405
ballarin@13735
  2406
* New tactic "trans_tac" and method "trans" instantiate
ballarin@13735
  2407
Provers/linorder.ML for axclasses "order" and "linorder" (predicates
wenzelm@14731
  2408
"<=", "<" and "=").
wenzelm@14731
  2409
wenzelm@14731
  2410
* function INCOMPATIBILITIES: Pi-sets have been redefined and moved from main
paulson@13587
  2411
HOL to Library/FuncSet; constant "Fun.op o" is now called "Fun.comp";
paulson@13587
  2412
wenzelm@13443
  2413
* 'typedef' command has new option "open" to suppress the set
wenzelm@13443
  2414
definition;
wenzelm@13443
  2415
wenzelm@13522
  2416
* functions Min and Max on finite sets have been introduced (theory
wenzelm@13522
  2417
Finite_Set);
nipkow@13492
  2418
wenzelm@13443
  2419
* attribute [symmetric] now works for relations as well; it turns
wenzelm@13443
  2420
(x,y) : R^-1 into (y,x) : R, and vice versa;
wenzelm@13443
  2421
nipkow@13613
  2422
* induct over a !!-quantified statement (say !!x1..xn):
nipkow@13613
  2423
  each "case" automatically performs "fix x1 .. xn" with exactly those names.
nipkow@13613
  2424
nipkow@13899
  2425
* Map: `empty' is no longer a constant but a syntactic abbreviation for
nipkow@13899
  2426
%x. None. Warning: empty_def now refers to the previously hidden definition
nipkow@13899
  2427
of the empty set.
nipkow@13899
  2428
ballarin@14018
  2429
* Algebra: formalization of classical algebra.  Intended as base for
ballarin@14018
  2430
any algebraic development in Isabelle.  Currently covers group theory
ballarin@14018
  2431
(up to Sylow's theorem) and ring theory (Universal Property of
ballarin@14018
  2432
Univariate Polynomials).  Contributions welcome;
paulson@13960
  2433
paulson@13960
  2434
* GroupTheory: deleted, since its material has been moved to Algebra;
paulson@13960
  2435
wenzelm@14731
  2436
* Complex: new directory of the complex numbers with numeric constants,
wenzelm@14731
  2437
nonstandard complex numbers, and some complex analysis, standard and
paulson@13966
  2438
nonstandard (Jacques Fleuriot);
paulson@13966
  2439
paulson@13966
  2440
* HOL-Complex: new image for analysis, replacing HOL-Real and HOL-Hyperreal;
paulson@13966
  2441
wenzelm@14731
  2442
* Hyperreal: introduced Gauge integration and hyperreal logarithms (Jacques
paulson@13966
  2443
Fleuriot);
paulson@13960
  2444
wenzelm@13549
  2445
* Real/HahnBanach: updated and adapted to locales;
wenzelm@13549
  2446
ballarin@13995
  2447
* NumberTheory: added Gauss's law of quadratic reciprocity (by Avigad,
ballarin@13995
  2448
Gray and Kramer);
paulson@13872
  2449
paulson@13872
  2450
* UNITY: added the Meier-Sanders theory of progress sets;
paulson@13872
  2451
kleing@14011
  2452
* MicroJava: bytecode verifier and lightweight bytecode verifier
kleing@14011
  2453
as abstract algorithms, instantiated to the JVM;
kleing@14011
  2454
schirmer@14010
  2455
* Bali: Java source language formalization. Type system, operational
schirmer@14010
  2456
semantics, axiomatic semantics. Supported language features:
schirmer@14010
  2457
classes, interfaces, objects,virtual methods, static methods,
schirmer@14010
  2458
static/instance fields, arrays, access modifiers, definite
schirmer@14010
  2459
assignment, exceptions.
wenzelm@13549
  2460
kleing@14011
  2461
wenzelm@13549
  2462
*** ZF ***
wenzelm@13549
  2463
webertj@15154
  2464
* ZF/Constructible: consistency proof for AC (Gdel's constructible
wenzelm@13549
  2465
universe, etc.);
wenzelm@13549
  2466
paulson@13872
  2467
* Main ZF: virtually all theories converted to new-style format;
nipkow@13518
  2468
wenzelm@13280
  2469
wenzelm@13478
  2470
*** ML ***
wenzelm@13478
  2471
wenzelm@13478
  2472
* Pure: Tactic.prove provides sane interface for internal proofs;
wenzelm@13478
  2473
omits the infamous "standard" operation, so this is more appropriate
wenzelm@13478
  2474
than prove_goalw_cterm in many situations (e.g. in simprocs);
wenzelm@13478
  2475
wenzelm@13478
  2476
* Pure: improved error reporting of simprocs;
wenzelm@13478
  2477
wenzelm@13478
  2478
* Provers: Simplifier.simproc(_i) provides sane interface for setting
wenzelm@13478
  2479
up simprocs;
wenzelm@13478
  2480
wenzelm@13478
  2481
kleing@13953
  2482
*** Document preparation ***
kleing@13953
  2483
kleing@13953
  2484
* uses \par instead of \\ for line breaks in theory text. This may
kleing@13953
  2485
shift some page breaks in large documents. To get the old behaviour
kleing@13953
  2486
use \renewcommand{\isanewline}{\mbox{}\\\mbox{}} in root.tex.
kleing@13953
  2487
wenzelm@14731
  2488
* minimized dependencies of isabelle.sty and isabellesym.sty on
kleing@13953
  2489
other packages
kleing@13953
  2490
kleing@13953
  2491
* \<euro> now needs package babel/greek instead of marvosym (which
kleing@13953
  2492
broke \Rightarrow)
kleing@13953
  2493
wenzelm@14731
  2494
* normal size for \<zero>...\<nine> (uses \mathbf instead of
kleing@13954
  2495
textcomp package)
kleing@13953
  2496
wenzelm@13280
  2497
wenzelm@14572
  2498
wenzelm@12984
  2499
New in Isabelle2002 (March 2002)
wenzelm@12984
  2500
--------------------------------
wenzelm@11474
  2501
wenzelm@11572
  2502
*** Document preparation ***
wenzelm@11572
  2503
wenzelm@11842
  2504
* greatly simplified document preparation setup, including more
wenzelm@11842
  2505
graceful interpretation of isatool usedir -i/-d/-D options, and more
wenzelm@11842
  2506
instructive isatool mkdir; users should basically be able to get
wenzelm@12899
  2507
started with "isatool mkdir HOL Test && isatool make"; alternatively,
wenzelm@12899
  2508
users may run a separate document processing stage manually like this:
wenzelm@12899
  2509
"isatool usedir -D output HOL Test && isatool document Test/output";
wenzelm@11842
  2510
wenzelm@11842
  2511
* theory dependency graph may now be incorporated into documents;
wenzelm@11842
  2512
isatool usedir -g true will produce session_graph.eps/.pdf for use
wenzelm@11842
  2513
with \includegraphics of LaTeX;
wenzelm@11842
  2514
wenzelm@11864
  2515
* proper spacing of consecutive markup elements, especially text
wenzelm@11864
  2516
blocks after section headings;
wenzelm@11864
  2517
wenzelm@11572
  2518
* support bold style (for single symbols only), input syntax is like
wenzelm@11572
  2519
this: "\<^bold>\<alpha>" or "\<^bold>A";
wenzelm@11572
  2520
wenzelm@11814
  2521
* \<bullet> is now output as bold \cdot by default, which looks much
wenzelm@11572
  2522
better in printed text;
wenzelm@11572
  2523
wenzelm@11712
  2524
* added default LaTeX bindings for \<tturnstile> and \<TTurnstile>;
wenzelm@11712
  2525
note that these symbols are currently unavailable in Proof General /
wenzelm@12769
  2526
X-Symbol; new symbols \<zero>, \<one>, ..., \<nine>, and \<euro>;
wenzelm@12690
  2527
wenzelm@12690
  2528
* isatool latex no longer depends on changed TEXINPUTS, instead
wenzelm@12690
  2529
isatool document copies the Isabelle style files to the target
wenzelm@12690
  2530
location;
wenzelm@11712
  2531
wenzelm@11572
  2532
wenzelm@11633
  2533
*** Isar ***
wenzelm@11633
  2534
wenzelm@12312
  2535
* Pure/Provers: improved proof by cases and induction;
wenzelm@12280
  2536
  - 'case' command admits impromptu naming of parameters (such as
wenzelm@12280
  2537
    "case (Suc n)");
wenzelm@12280
  2538
  - 'induct' method divinates rule instantiation from the inductive
wenzelm@12280
  2539
    claim; no longer requires excessive ?P bindings for proper
wenzelm@12280
  2540
    instantiation of cases;
wenzelm@12280
  2541
  - 'induct' method properly enumerates all possibilities of set/type
wenzelm@12280
  2542
    rules; as a consequence facts may be also passed through *type*
wenzelm@12280
  2543
    rules without further ado;
wenzelm@12280
  2544
  - 'induct' method now derives symbolic cases from the *rulified*
wenzelm@12280
  2545
    rule (before it used to rulify cases stemming from the internal
wenzelm@12280
  2546
    atomized version); this means that the context of a non-atomic
wenzelm@12280
  2547
    statement becomes is included in the hypothesis, avoiding the
wenzelm@12280
  2548
    slightly cumbersome show "PROP ?case" form;
wenzelm@12280
  2549
  - 'induct' may now use elim-style induction rules without chaining
wenzelm@12280
  2550
    facts, using ``missing'' premises from the goal state; this allows
wenzelm@12280
  2551
    rules stemming from inductive sets to be applied in unstructured
wenzelm@12280
  2552
    scripts, while still benefitting from proper handling of non-atomic
wenzelm@12280
  2553
    statements; NB: major inductive premises need to be put first, all
wenzelm@12280
  2554
    the rest of the goal is passed through the induction;
wenzelm@12280
  2555
  - 'induct' proper support for mutual induction involving non-atomic
wenzelm@12280
  2556
    rule statements (uses the new concept of simultaneous goals, see
wenzelm@12280
  2557
    below);
wenzelm@12853
  2558
  - append all possible rule selections, but only use the first
wenzelm@12853
  2559
    success (no backtracking);
wenzelm@11995
  2560
  - removed obsolete "(simplified)" and "(stripped)" options of methods;
wenzelm@12754
  2561
  - undeclared rule case names default to numbers 1, 2, 3, ...;
wenzelm@12754
  2562
  - added 'print_induct_rules' (covered by help item in recent Proof
wenzelm@12754
  2563
    General versions);
wenzelm@11995
  2564
  - moved induct/cases attributes to Pure, methods to Provers;
wenzelm@11995
  2565
  - generic method setup instantiated for FOL and HOL;
wenzelm@11986
  2566
wenzelm@12163
  2567
* Pure: support multiple simultaneous goal statements, for example
wenzelm@12163
  2568
"have a: A and b: B" (same for 'theorem' etc.); being a pure
wenzelm@12163
  2569
meta-level mechanism, this acts as if several individual goals had
wenzelm@12163
  2570
been stated separately; in particular common proof methods need to be
wenzelm@12163
  2571
repeated in order to cover all claims; note that a single elimination
wenzelm@12163
  2572
step is *not* sufficient to establish the two conjunctions, so this
wenzelm@12163
  2573
fails:
wenzelm@12163
  2574
wenzelm@12163
  2575
  assume "A & B" then have A and B ..   (*".." fails*)
wenzelm@12163
  2576
wenzelm@12163
  2577
better use "obtain" in situations as above; alternative refer to
wenzelm@12163
  2578
multi-step methods like 'auto', 'simp_all', 'blast+' etc.;
wenzelm@12163
  2579
wenzelm@12078
  2580
* Pure: proper integration with ``locales''; unlike the original
webertj@15154
  2581
version by Florian Kammller, Isar locales package high-level proof
wenzelm@12078
  2582