Admin/PLATFORMS
author wenzelm
Mon Oct 09 21:43:27 2017 +0200 (21 months ago)
changeset 66823 f529719cc47d
parent 66732 e566fb4d43d4
child 66908 9b074f01a305
permissions -rw-r--r--
operations for graph display;
wenzelm@64339
     1
Multi-platform support of Isabelle
wenzelm@64339
     2
==================================
wenzelm@35610
     3
wenzelm@35610
     4
Preamble
wenzelm@35610
     5
--------
wenzelm@35610
     6
wenzelm@35610
     7
The general programming model is that of a stylized ML + Scala + POSIX
wenzelm@48833
     8
environment, with as little system-specific code in user-space tools
wenzelm@48833
     9
as possible.
wenzelm@35610
    10
wenzelm@35610
    11
The basic Isabelle system infrastructure provides some facilities to
wenzelm@48833
    12
make this work, e.g. see the ML and Scala modules File and Path, or
wenzelm@48833
    13
functions like Isabelle_System.bash.  The settings environment also
wenzelm@61294
    14
provides some means for portability, e.g. the bash function
wenzelm@61294
    15
"platform_path" to keep the impression that Windows/Cygwin adheres to
wenzelm@64339
    16
Isabelle/POSIX standards, although Poly/ML and the JVM are native on
wenzelm@64339
    17
Windows.
wenzelm@35610
    18
wenzelm@35610
    19
When producing add-on tools, it is important to stay within this clean
wenzelm@35610
    20
room of Isabelle, and refrain from overly ambitious system hacking.
wenzelm@64339
    21
The existing Isabelle bash scripts follow a peculiar style that
wenzelm@64339
    22
reflects long years of experience in getting system plumbing right.
wenzelm@35610
    23
wenzelm@35610
    24
wenzelm@35610
    25
Supported platforms
wenzelm@35610
    26
-------------------
wenzelm@35610
    27
wenzelm@35610
    28
The following hardware and operating system platforms are officially
wenzelm@36204
    29
supported by the Isabelle distribution (and bundled tools), with the
wenzelm@64339
    30
following base-line versions (which have been selected to be neither
wenzelm@36204
    31
too old nor too new):
wenzelm@35610
    32
wenzelm@63520
    33
  x86-linux         Ubuntu 12.04 LTS
wenzelm@63520
    34
  x86_64-linux      Ubuntu 12.04 LTS
wenzelm@35610
    35
wenzelm@65369
    36
  x86_64-darwin     Mac OS X 10.9 Mavericks (macbroy2 MacPro4,1)
wenzelm@64406
    37
                    Mac OS X 10.10 Yosemite (macbroy31 MacBookPro6,2)
wenzelm@64402
    38
                    Mac OS X 10.11 El Capitan (?)
wenzelm@65369
    39
                    macOS 10.12 Sierra (macbroy30 MacBookPro6,2)
wenzelm@48833
    40
wenzelm@64339
    41
  x86-windows       Windows 7
wenzelm@64339
    42
  x86_64-windows    Windows 7
wenzelm@66691
    43
  x86_64-cygwin     Cygwin 2.8 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/cygwin_2017 (x86_64/release)
wenzelm@36204
    44
wenzelm@36204
    45
All of the above platforms are 100% supported by Isabelle -- end-users
wenzelm@44876
    46
should not have to care about the differences (at least in theory).
wenzelm@35610
    47
wenzelm@64339
    48
Fringe platforms like BSD or Solaris are not supported.
wenzelm@36204
    49
wenzelm@36204
    50
wenzelm@36204
    51
32 bit vs. 64 bit platforms
wenzelm@36204
    52
---------------------------
wenzelm@36204
    53
wenzelm@48833
    54
Most users have 64 bit hardware and are running a 64 bit operating
wenzelm@55391
    55
system by default.  For Linux this usually means missing 32 bit shared
wenzelm@48833
    56
libraries, so native x86_64-linux needs to be used by default, despite
wenzelm@48833
    57
its doubled space requirements for Poly/ML heaps.  For Mac OS X, the
wenzelm@48833
    58
x86-darwin personality usually works seamlessly for C/C++ programs,
wenzelm@65073
    59
but the Java platform is always for x86_64-darwin.
wenzelm@48833
    60
wenzelm@49144
    61
Add-on executables are expected to work without manual user
wenzelm@49144
    62
configuration.  Each component settings script needs to determine the
wenzelm@49144
    63
platform details appropriately.
wenzelm@48833
    64
wenzelm@65073
    65
wenzelm@48833
    66
The Isabelle settings environment provides the following variables to
wenzelm@48833
    67
help configuring platform-dependent tools:
wenzelm@48833
    68
wenzelm@48833
    69
  ISABELLE_PLATFORM64  (potentially empty)
wenzelm@66691
    70
  ISABELLE_PLATFORM32  (potentially empty)
wenzelm@48833
    71
  ISABELLE_PLATFORM
wenzelm@36204
    72
wenzelm@66732
    73
The ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable prefers the 32 bit version of the
wenzelm@66732
    74
platform, if possible. Using regular bash notation, tools may express their
wenzelm@66732
    75
preference for 64 bit with a fall-back for 32 bit as follows:
wenzelm@48833
    76
wenzelm@48833
    77
  "${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}"
wenzelm@36204
    78
wenzelm@65073
    79
wenzelm@65073
    80
There is a second set of settings for native Windows (instead of the
wenzelm@65073
    81
POSIX emulation of Cygwin used before):
wenzelm@65073
    82
wenzelm@66732
    83
  ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64
wenzelm@65073
    84
  ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32
wenzelm@65073
    85
  ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM
wenzelm@65073
    86
wenzelm@65073
    87
It can be used like this:
wenzelm@65073
    88
wenzelm@65073
    89
  "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
wenzelm@65073
    90
wenzelm@65073
    91
  "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64:-${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32:-${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}}}"
wenzelm@65073
    92
wenzelm@65073
    93
wenzelm@48833
    94
Moreover note that ML and JVM usually have a different idea of the
wenzelm@48833
    95
platform, depending on the respective binaries that are actually run.
wenzelm@64339
    96
Poly/ML 5.6.x performs best in 32 bit mode, even for large
wenzelm@49144
    97
applications, thanks to its sophisticated heap management.  The JVM
wenzelm@49144
    98
usually works better in 64 bit mode, which allows its heap to grow
wenzelm@49144
    99
beyond 2 GB.
wenzelm@36204
   100
wenzelm@64339
   101
The traditional "uname" Unix tool only tells about its own executable
wenzelm@64339
   102
format, not the underlying platform!
wenzelm@35610
   103
wenzelm@35610
   104
wenzelm@35610
   105
Dependable system tools
wenzelm@35610
   106
-----------------------
wenzelm@35610
   107
wenzelm@35610
   108
The following portable system tools can be taken for granted:
wenzelm@35610
   109
wenzelm@64339
   110
* Scala on top of Java 8.  Isabelle/Scala irons out many oddities and
wenzelm@64339
   111
  portability issues of the Java platform.
wenzelm@64339
   112
wenzelm@36204
   113
* GNU bash as uniform shell on all platforms.  The POSIX "standard"
wenzelm@64339
   114
  shell /bin/sh does *not* work -- there are too many non-standard
wenzelm@64339
   115
  implementations of it.
wenzelm@35610
   116
wenzelm@58780
   117
* Perl as largely portable system programming language, with its
wenzelm@58780
   118
  fairly robust support for processes, signals, sockets etc.
wenzelm@35610
   119
wenzelm@35610
   120
wenzelm@35610
   121
Known problems
wenzelm@35610
   122
--------------
wenzelm@35610
   123
wenzelm@55391
   124
* Mac OS X: If MacPorts is installed there is some danger that
wenzelm@41668
   125
  accidental references to its shared libraries are created
wenzelm@41668
   126
  (e.g. libgmp).  Use otool -L to check if compiled binaries also work
wenzelm@41668
   127
  without MacPorts.
wenzelm@41668
   128
wenzelm@55391
   129
* Mac OS X: If MacPorts is installed and its version of Perl takes
wenzelm@35610
   130
  precedence over /usr/bin/perl in the PATH, then the end-user needs
wenzelm@36204
   131
  to take care of installing extra modules, e.g. for HTTP support.
wenzelm@36204
   132
  Such add-ons are usually included in Apple's /usr/bin/perl by
wenzelm@36204
   133
  default.
wenzelm@35610
   134
wenzelm@35610
   135
* The Java runtime has its own idea about the underlying platform,
wenzelm@48833
   136
  which affects Java native libraries in particular.  In
wenzelm@49144
   137
  Isabelle/Scala the function isabelle.Platform.jvm_platform
wenzelm@49144
   138
  identifies the JVM platform.  Since a particular Java version is
wenzelm@49144
   139
  always bundled with Isabelle, the resulting settings also provide
wenzelm@49144
   140
  some clues about its platform, without running it.
wenzelm@55438
   141
wenzelm@55438
   142
* Common Unix tools like /bin/sh, /bin/kill, sed, ulimit are
wenzelm@64339
   143
  notoriously non-portable an should be avoided.