src/Pure/Concurrent/task_queue.ML
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(*  Title:      Pure/Concurrent/task_queue.ML
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    Author:     Makarius
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Ordered queue of grouped tasks.
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*)
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signature TASK_QUEUE =
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sig
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  type group
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  val new_group: group option -> group
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  val group_id: group -> int
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  val eq_group: group * group -> bool
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  val cancel_group: group -> exn -> unit
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  val is_canceled: group -> bool
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  val group_status: group -> exn list
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  val str_of_group: group -> string
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  val str_of_groups: group -> string
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  val urgent_pri: int
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  type task
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  val dummy_task: task
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  val group_of_task: task -> group
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  val name_of_task: task -> string
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  val pri_of_task: task -> int
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  val str_of_task: task -> string
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  val str_of_task_groups: task -> string
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  val task_statistics: task -> Properties.T
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  val running: task -> (unit -> 'a) -> 'a
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  val joining: task -> (unit -> 'a) -> 'a
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  val waiting: task -> task list -> (unit -> 'a) -> 'a
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  type queue
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  val empty: queue
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  val group_tasks: queue -> group -> task list
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  val known_task: queue -> task -> bool
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  val all_passive: queue -> bool
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  val status: queue -> {ready: int, pending: int, running: int, passive: int, urgent: int}
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  val cancel: queue -> group -> Thread.thread list
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  val cancel_all: queue -> group list * Thread.thread list
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  val finish: task -> queue -> bool * queue
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  val enroll: Thread.thread -> string -> group -> queue -> task * queue
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  val enqueue_passive: group -> (unit -> bool) -> queue -> task * queue
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  val enqueue: string -> group -> task list -> int -> (bool -> bool) -> queue -> task * queue
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  val extend: task -> (bool -> bool) -> queue -> queue option
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  val dequeue_passive: Thread.thread -> task -> queue -> bool option * queue
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  val dequeue: Thread.thread -> bool -> queue -> (task * (bool -> bool) list) option * queue
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  val dequeue_deps: Thread.thread -> task list -> queue ->
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    (((task * (bool -> bool) list) option * task list) * queue)
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end;
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structure Task_Queue: TASK_QUEUE =
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struct
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val new_id = Counter.make ();
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(** nested groups of tasks **)
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(* groups *)
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abstype group = Group of
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 {parent: group option,
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  id: int,
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  status: exn option Synchronized.var}
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with
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fun make_group (parent, id, status) = Group {parent = parent, id = id, status = status};
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fun new_group parent = make_group (parent, new_id (), Synchronized.var "group_status" NONE);
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fun group_id (Group {id, ...}) = id;
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fun eq_group (group1, group2) = group_id group1 = group_id group2;
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fun fold_groups f (g as Group {parent = NONE, ...}) a = f g a
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  | fold_groups f (g as Group {parent = SOME group, ...}) a = fold_groups f group (f g a);
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(* group status *)
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fun cancel_group (Group {status, ...}) exn =
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  Synchronized.change status
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    (fn exns => SOME (Par_Exn.make (exn :: the_list exns)));
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fun is_canceled (Group {parent, status, ...}) =
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  is_some (Synchronized.value status) orelse
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    (case parent of NONE => false | SOME group => is_canceled group);
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fun group_status (Group {parent, status, ...}) =
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  the_list (Synchronized.value status) @
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    (case parent of NONE => [] | SOME group => group_status group);
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fun str_of_group group =
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  (is_canceled group ? enclose "(" ")") (string_of_int (group_id group));
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fun str_of_groups group =
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  space_implode "/" (map str_of_group (rev (fold_groups cons group [])));
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end;
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(* tasks *)
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val urgent_pri = 1000;
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type timing = Time.time * Time.time * string list;  (*run, wait, wait dependencies*)
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val timing_start = (Time.zeroTime, Time.zeroTime, []): timing;
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fun new_timing () =
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  if ! Multithreading.trace < 2 then NONE
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  else SOME (Synchronized.var "timing" timing_start);
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abstype task = Task of
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 {group: group,
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  name: string,
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  id: int,
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  pri: int option,
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  timing: timing Synchronized.var option,
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  pos: Position.T}
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with
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val dummy_task =
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  Task {group = new_group NONE, name = "", id = 0, pri = NONE, timing = NONE,
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    pos = Position.none};
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fun new_task group name pri =
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  Task {group = group, name = name, id = new_id (), pri = pri, timing = new_timing (),
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    pos = Position.thread_data ()};
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fun group_of_task (Task {group, ...}) = group;
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fun name_of_task (Task {name, ...}) = name;
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fun pri_of_task (Task {pri, ...}) = the_default 0 pri;
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fun str_of_task (Task {name, id, ...}) =
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  if name = "" then string_of_int id else string_of_int id ^ " (" ^ name ^ ")";
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fun str_of_task_groups task = str_of_task task ^ " in " ^ str_of_groups (group_of_task task);
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fun update_timing update (Task {timing, ...}) e =
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  uninterruptible (fn restore_attributes => fn () =>
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    let
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      val start = Time.now ();
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      val result = Exn.capture (restore_attributes e) ();
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      val t = Time.- (Time.now (), start);
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      val _ = (case timing of NONE => () | SOME var => Synchronized.change var (update t));
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    in Exn.release result end) ();
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fun task_ord (Task {id = id1, pri = pri1, ...}, Task {id = id2, pri = pri2, ...}) =
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  prod_ord (rev_order o option_ord int_ord) int_ord ((pri1, id1), (pri2, id2));
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fun task_statistics (Task {name, id, timing, pos, ...}) =
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  let
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    val (run, wait, wait_deps) =
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      (case timing of NONE => timing_start | SOME var => Synchronized.value var);
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    fun micros time = string_of_int (Time.toNanoseconds time div 1000);
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  in
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    [("now", Markup.print_real (Time.toReal (Time.now ()))),
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     ("task_name", name), ("task_id", Markup.print_int id),
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     ("run", micros run), ("wait", micros wait), ("wait_deps", commas wait_deps)] @
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    Position.properties_of pos
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  end;
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end;
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structure Tasks = Table(type key = task val ord = task_ord);
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structure Task_Graph = Graph(type key = task val ord = task_ord);
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(* timing *)
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fun running task =
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  update_timing (fn t => fn (a, b, ds) => (Time.+ (a, t), b, ds)) task;
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fun joining task =
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  update_timing (fn t => fn (a, b, ds) => (Time.- (a, t), b, ds)) task;
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fun waiting task deps =
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  update_timing (fn t => fn (a, b, ds) =>
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    (Time.- (a, t), Time.+ (b, t),
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      if ! Multithreading.trace > 0
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      then fold (insert (op =) o name_of_task) deps ds else ds)) task;
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(** queue of jobs and groups **)
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(* known group members *)
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type groups = unit Tasks.table Inttab.table;
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fun get_tasks (groups: groups) gid =
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  the_default Tasks.empty (Inttab.lookup groups gid);
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fun add_task (gid, task) groups =
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  Inttab.update (gid, Tasks.update (task, ()) (get_tasks groups gid)) groups;
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fun del_task (gid, task) groups =
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  let val tasks = Tasks.delete_safe task (get_tasks groups gid) in
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    if Tasks.is_empty tasks then Inttab.delete_safe gid groups
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    else Inttab.update (gid, tasks) groups
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  end;
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(* job dependency graph *)
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datatype job =
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  Job of (bool -> bool) list |
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  Running of Thread.thread |
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  Passive of unit -> bool;
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type jobs = job Task_Graph.T;
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fun get_job (jobs: jobs) task = Task_Graph.get_node jobs task;
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fun set_job task job (jobs: jobs) = Task_Graph.map_node task (K job) jobs;
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fun add_job task dep (jobs: jobs) =
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  Task_Graph.add_edge (dep, task) jobs handle Task_Graph.UNDEF _ => jobs;
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(* queue *)
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datatype queue = Queue of {groups: groups, jobs: jobs, urgent: int};
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fun make_queue groups jobs urgent = Queue {groups = groups, jobs = jobs, urgent = urgent};
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val empty = make_queue Inttab.empty Task_Graph.empty 0;
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fun group_tasks (Queue {groups, ...}) group = Tasks.keys (get_tasks groups (group_id group));
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fun known_task (Queue {jobs, ...}) task = can (Task_Graph.get_entry jobs) task;
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(* job status *)
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fun ready_job (task, (Job list, (deps, _))) =
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      if Task_Graph.Keys.is_empty deps then SOME (task, rev list) else NONE
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  | ready_job (task, (Passive abort, (deps, _))) =
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      if Task_Graph.Keys.is_empty deps andalso is_canceled (group_of_task task)
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      then SOME (task, [fn _ => abort ()])
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      else NONE
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  | ready_job _ = NONE;
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fun ready_job_urgent false = ready_job
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  | ready_job_urgent true = (fn entry as (task, _) =>
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      if pri_of_task task >= urgent_pri then ready_job entry else NONE);
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fun active_job (task, (Running _, _)) = SOME (task, [])
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  | active_job arg = ready_job arg;
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fun all_passive (Queue {jobs, ...}) = is_none (Task_Graph.get_first active_job jobs);
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(* queue status *)
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fun status (Queue {jobs, urgent, ...}) =
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  let
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    val (x, y, z, w) =
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      Task_Graph.fold (fn (_, (job, (deps, _))) => fn (x, y, z, w) =>
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          (case job of
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            Job _ => if Task_Graph.Keys.is_empty deps then (x + 1, y, z, w) else (x, y + 1, z, w)
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          | Running _ => (x, y, z + 1, w)
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          | Passive _ => (x, y, z, w + 1)))
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        jobs (0, 0, 0, 0);
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  in {ready = x, pending = y, running = z, passive = w, urgent = urgent} end;
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(** task queue operations **)
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(* cancel -- peers and sub-groups *)
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fun cancel (Queue {groups, jobs, ...}) group =
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  let
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    val _ = cancel_group group Exn.Interrupt;
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    val running =
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      Tasks.fold (fn (task, _) =>
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          (case get_job jobs task of Running thread => insert Thread.equal thread | _ => I))
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        (get_tasks groups (group_id group)) [];
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  in running end;
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fun cancel_all (Queue {jobs, ...}) =
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  let
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    fun cancel_job (task, (job, _)) (groups, running) =
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      let
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        val group = group_of_task task;
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        val _ = cancel_group group Exn.Interrupt;
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      in
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        (case job of
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          Running t => (insert eq_group group groups, insert Thread.equal t running)
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        | _ => (groups, running))
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      end;
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    val running = Task_Graph.fold cancel_job jobs ([], []);
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  in running end;
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(* finish *)
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fun finish task (Queue {groups, jobs, urgent}) =
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  let
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    val group = group_of_task task;
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    val groups' = fold_groups (fn g => del_task (group_id g, task)) group groups;
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    val jobs' = Task_Graph.del_node task jobs;
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    val maximal = Task_Graph.is_maximal jobs task;
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  in (maximal, make_queue groups' jobs' urgent) end;
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(* enroll *)
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fun enroll thread name group (Queue {groups, jobs, urgent}) =
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  let
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    val task = new_task group name NONE;
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    val groups' = fold_groups (fn g => add_task (group_id g, task)) group groups;
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    val jobs' = jobs |> Task_Graph.new_node (task, Running thread);
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  in (task, make_queue groups' jobs' urgent) end;
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(* enqueue *)
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fun enqueue_passive group abort (Queue {groups, jobs, urgent}) =
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  let
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    val task = new_task group "passive" NONE;
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    val groups' = fold_groups (fn g => add_task (group_id g, task)) group groups;
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    val jobs' = jobs |> Task_Graph.new_node (task, Passive abort);
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  in (task, make_queue groups' jobs' urgent) end;
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fun enqueue name group deps pri job (Queue {groups, jobs, urgent}) =
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  let
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    val task = new_task group name (SOME pri);
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    val groups' = fold_groups (fn g => add_task (group_id g, task)) group groups;
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    val jobs' = jobs
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      |> Task_Graph.new_node (task, Job [job])
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      |> fold (add_job task) deps;
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    val urgent' = if pri >= urgent_pri then urgent + 1 else urgent;
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  in (task, make_queue groups' jobs' urgent') end;
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fun extend task job (Queue {groups, jobs, urgent}) =
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  (case try (get_job jobs) task of
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    SOME (Job list) => SOME (make_queue groups (set_job task (Job (job :: list)) jobs) urgent)
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  | _ => NONE);
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(* dequeue *)
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fun dequeue_passive thread task (queue as Queue {groups, jobs, urgent}) =
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  (case try (get_job jobs) task of
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    SOME (Passive _) =>
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      let val jobs' = set_job task (Running thread) jobs
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      in (SOME true, make_queue groups jobs' urgent) end
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  | SOME _ => (SOME false, queue)
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  | NONE => (NONE, queue));
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fun dequeue thread urgent_only (queue as Queue {groups, jobs, urgent}) =
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  if not urgent_only orelse urgent > 0 then
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    (case Task_Graph.get_first (ready_job_urgent urgent_only) jobs of
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      SOME (result as (task, _)) =>
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        let
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          val jobs' = set_job task (Running thread) jobs;
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          val urgent' = if pri_of_task task >= urgent_pri then urgent - 1 else urgent;
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        in (SOME result, make_queue groups jobs' urgent') end
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    | NONE => (NONE, queue))
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  else (NONE, queue);
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(* dequeue wrt. dynamic dependencies *)
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fun dequeue_deps thread deps (queue as Queue {groups, jobs, urgent}) =
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  let
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    fun ready [] rest = (NONE, rev rest)
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      | ready (task :: tasks) rest =
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          (case try (Task_Graph.get_entry jobs) task of
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            NONE => ready tasks rest
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          | SOME (_, entry) =>
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              (case ready_job (task, entry) of
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                NONE => ready tasks (task :: rest)
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              | some => (some, fold cons rest tasks)));
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    fun ready_dep _ [] = NONE
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      | ready_dep seen (task :: tasks) =
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          if Tasks.defined seen task then ready_dep seen tasks
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          else
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            let val entry as (_, (ds, _)) = #2 (Task_Graph.get_entry jobs task) in
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              (case ready_job (task, entry) of
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                NONE => ready_dep (Tasks.update (task, ()) seen) (Task_Graph.Keys.dest ds @ tasks)
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              | some => some)
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            end;
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    fun result (res as (task, _)) deps' =
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      let
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        val jobs' = set_job task (Running thread) jobs;
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        val urgent' = if pri_of_task task >= urgent_pri then urgent - 1 else urgent;
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      in ((SOME res, deps'), make_queue groups jobs' urgent') end;
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  in
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    (case ready deps [] of
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      (SOME res, deps') => result res deps'
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    | (NONE, deps') =>
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        (case ready_dep Tasks.empty deps' of
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   393
          SOME res => result res deps'
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   394
        | NONE => ((NONE, deps'), queue)))
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  end;
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end;