NEWS
author haftmann
Wed Feb 14 10:06:12 2007 +0100 (2007-02-14)
changeset 22316 f662831459de
parent 22218 30a8890d2967
child 22376 b711c2ad7507
permissions -rw-r--r--
added class "preorder"
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Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
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==============================================
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New in this Isabelle version
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----------------------------
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*** General ***
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* Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
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discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
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fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
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discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
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with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
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function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. "class", "fun", "help",
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"if") are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double quotes.
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* Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
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to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
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functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
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by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
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Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
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these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
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used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
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* Command 'find_theorems': support "*" wildcard in "name:" criterion.
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* The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
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by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
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suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
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settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
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older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
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limit is imposed.
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* Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
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``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
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contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
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that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
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generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
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and scalability.
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* Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
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discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
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*** Document preparation ***
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* Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
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after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
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current context.
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* Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
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check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
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* Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
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"c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
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arguments may be given on the LHS.)
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*** Pure ***
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* class_package.ML offers a combination of axclasses and locales to
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achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle. See
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HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples.
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* Yet another code generator framework allows to generate executable
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code for ML and Haskell (including "class"es). A short usage sketch:
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    internal compilation:
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        code_gen <list of constants (term syntax)> (SML #)
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    writing SML code to a file:
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        code_gen <list of constants (term syntax)> (SML <filename>)
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    writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
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        code_gen <list of constants (term syntax)> (Haskell <filename>)
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Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL/Main.
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Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
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    [code fun]:       select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
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    [code nofun]:     deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
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    [code inline]:    select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
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    [code noinline]:  deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
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User-defined serializations (target in {SML, Haskell}):
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    code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
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      {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
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    code_type <and-list of type constructors>
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      {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
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    code_instance <and-list of instances>
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      {(target)}+
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        where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
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    code_class <and_list of classes>
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      {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
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        where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
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For code_instance and code_class, target SML is silently ignored.
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See HOL theories and HOL/ex/Code*.thy for usage examples.  Doc/Isar/Advanced/Codegen/
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provides a tutorial.
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* Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
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syntax.
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* Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
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dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
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that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
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correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
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INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
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exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
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Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
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instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
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declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
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c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
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as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
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recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
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impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
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LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
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Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
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equations, see section "definitions".
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* Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
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the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
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  assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
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  then guess x and y by clarify
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This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
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proof tools being involved here.
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* Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
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propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
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named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
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methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
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according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
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provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
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theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
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`A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
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There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
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for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
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certain special cases of literal facts:
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  have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
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  have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
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  have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
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  have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
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* Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
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outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
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additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
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* Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
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both named and unnamed ones.
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* Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
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  def x == "t" and y == "u"
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* Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
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'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
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rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
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'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
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* Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
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and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
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(potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
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analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
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Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
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* Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
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method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
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sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
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simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
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simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
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originally first one.
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* Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
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patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
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expected.
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* Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
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'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
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(essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
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assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
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adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
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  lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
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    assumes "EX x. P x"
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    obtains x where "P x"
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  lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
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    assumes "A & B"
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    obtains A and B
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  lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
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    assumes "A | B"
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    obtains
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      A
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    | B
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The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
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explicitly:
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  lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
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    obtains "~ thesis"
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  lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
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    obtains "thesis ==> something"
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The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
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Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
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Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
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available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
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resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
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case_names).
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* Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
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"assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
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(historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
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context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
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* Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
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proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
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top-level lemma.
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* Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
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introduction rule (default "that").
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* Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
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explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
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to occur.
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* Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
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according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
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syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
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representations independently of name spaces.
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* Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
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instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
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in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
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* Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
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primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
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fixed variables).  Type declaration and internal syntactic
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representation of given constants retrieved from the context.
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* Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
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'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
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object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
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isar-ref manual.  Examples:
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  axiomatization
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    eq  (infix "===" 50) where
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    eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
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  definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
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  definition g where "g x = f x x"
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  abbreviation
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    neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
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    "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
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These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
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constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
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constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
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abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
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parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
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HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
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entities from a monomorphic theory.
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Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
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not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
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'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
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'translations' in common applications.
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Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
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independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
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slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
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'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
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* Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
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the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
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abbreviations on output.
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* Isar/locales: improved parameter handling:
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- use of locales "var" and "struct" no longer necessary;
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- parameter renamings are no longer required to be injective.
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  This enables, for example, to define a locale for endomorphisms thus:
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  locale endom = homom mult mult h.
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* Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
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Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
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now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
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locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
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predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
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removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
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`unfold_locales'; see below.
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* Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
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provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
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aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
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`intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
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unfold predicates to assumptions.
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* Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
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has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
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to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
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* Provers/induct: improved internal context management to support
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local fixes and defines on-the-fly.  Thus explicit meta-level
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connectives !! and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
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(using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
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obsolete anyway).  The subsequent proof patterns illustrate advanced
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techniques of natural induction; general datatypes and inductive sets
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work analogously (see also src/HOL/Lambda for realistic examples).
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(1) This is how to ``strengthen'' an inductive goal wrt. certain
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parameters:
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  lemma
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    fixes n :: nat and x :: 'a
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    assumes a: "A n x"
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    shows "P n x"
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    using a                     -- {* make induct insert fact a *}
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  proof (induct n arbitrary: x) -- {* generalize goal to "!!x. A n x ==> P n x" *}
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    case 0
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    show ?case sorry
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  next
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   339
    case (Suc n)
wenzelm@18239
   340
    note `!!x. A n x ==> P n x` -- {* induction hypothesis, according to induction rule *}
wenzelm@18239
   341
    note `A (Suc n) x`          -- {* induction premise, stemming from fact a *}
wenzelm@18233
   342
    show ?case sorry
wenzelm@18233
   343
  qed
wenzelm@18233
   344
wenzelm@18267
   345
(2) This is how to perform induction over ``expressions of a certain
wenzelm@18233
   346
form'', using a locally defined inductive parameter n == "a x"
wenzelm@18239
   347
together with strengthening (the latter is usually required to get
wenzelm@18267
   348
sufficiently flexible induction hypotheses):
wenzelm@18233
   349
wenzelm@18233
   350
  lemma
wenzelm@18233
   351
    fixes a :: "'a => nat"
wenzelm@18233
   352
    assumes a: "A (a x)"
wenzelm@18233
   353
    shows "P (a x)"
wenzelm@18233
   354
    using a
wenzelm@20503
   355
  proof (induct n == "a x" arbitrary: x)
wenzelm@18233
   356
    ...
wenzelm@18233
   357
wenzelm@18267
   358
See also HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy for an application of the this
wenzelm@18267
   359
particular technique.
wenzelm@18267
   360
wenzelm@18901
   361
(3) This is how to perform existential reasoning ('obtains' or
wenzelm@18901
   362
'obtain') by induction, while avoiding explicit object-logic
wenzelm@18901
   363
encodings:
wenzelm@18901
   364
wenzelm@18901
   365
  lemma
wenzelm@18901
   366
    fixes n :: nat
wenzelm@18901
   367
    obtains x :: 'a where "P n x" and "Q n x"
wenzelm@20503
   368
  proof (induct n arbitrary: thesis)
wenzelm@18267
   369
    case 0
wenzelm@18267
   370
    obtain x where "P 0 x" and "Q 0 x" sorry
wenzelm@18399
   371
    then show thesis by (rule 0)
wenzelm@18267
   372
  next
wenzelm@18267
   373
    case (Suc n)
wenzelm@18267
   374
    obtain x where "P n x" and "Q n x" by (rule Suc.hyps)
wenzelm@18267
   375
    obtain x where "P (Suc n) x" and "Q (Suc n) x" sorry
wenzelm@18267
   376
    then show thesis by (rule Suc.prems)
wenzelm@18267
   377
  qed
wenzelm@18267
   378
wenzelm@20503
   379
Here the 'arbitrary: thesis' specification essentially modifies the
wenzelm@20503
   380
scope of the formal thesis parameter, in order to the get the whole
wenzelm@18267
   381
existence statement through the induction as expected.
wenzelm@18233
   382
wenzelm@18506
   383
* Provers/induct: mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
wenzelm@18506
   384
of rule sharing the same induction cases.  HOL packages usually
wenzelm@18506
   385
provide foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar
wenzelm@18506
   386
(e.g. inductive sets or datatypes).  INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to
wenzelm@18506
   387
specify mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
wenzelm@18506
   388
wenzelm@18506
   389
  (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
wenzelm@18506
   390
  (induct set: foo bar)
wenzelm@18506
   391
  (induct type: foo bar)
wenzelm@18506
   392
wenzelm@18506
   393
The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
wenzelm@18506
   394
new format.
wenzelm@18506
   395
wenzelm@18506
   396
* Provers/induct: improved handling of simultaneous goals.  Instead of
wenzelm@18506
   397
introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
wenzelm@18506
   398
several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are
wenzelm@18601
   399
nested accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured
wenzelm@18601
   400
explicitly.  For example:
wenzelm@18480
   401
wenzelm@18480
   402
  lemma
wenzelm@18480
   403
    fixes n :: nat
wenzelm@18480
   404
    shows "P n" and "Q n"
wenzelm@18480
   405
  proof (induct n)
wenzelm@18601
   406
    case 0 case 1
wenzelm@18480
   407
    show "P 0" sorry
wenzelm@18480
   408
  next
wenzelm@18601
   409
    case 0 case 2
wenzelm@18480
   410
    show "Q 0" sorry
wenzelm@18480
   411
  next
wenzelm@18601
   412
    case (Suc n) case 1
wenzelm@18480
   413
    note `P n` and `Q n`
wenzelm@18480
   414
    show "P (Suc n)" sorry
wenzelm@18480
   415
  next
wenzelm@18601
   416
    case (Suc n) case 2
wenzelm@18480
   417
    note `P n` and `Q n`
wenzelm@18480
   418
    show "Q (Suc n)" sorry
wenzelm@18480
   419
  qed
wenzelm@18480
   420
wenzelm@18601
   421
The split into subcases may be deferred as follows -- this is
wenzelm@18601
   422
particularly relevant for goal statements with local premises.
wenzelm@18601
   423
wenzelm@18601
   424
  lemma
wenzelm@18601
   425
    fixes n :: nat
wenzelm@18601
   426
    shows "A n ==> P n" and "B n ==> Q n"
wenzelm@18601
   427
  proof (induct n)
wenzelm@18601
   428
    case 0
wenzelm@18601
   429
    {
wenzelm@18601
   430
      case 1
wenzelm@18601
   431
      note `A 0`
wenzelm@18601
   432
      show "P 0" sorry
wenzelm@18601
   433
    next
wenzelm@18601
   434
      case 2
wenzelm@18601
   435
      note `B 0`
wenzelm@18601
   436
      show "Q 0" sorry
wenzelm@18601
   437
    }
wenzelm@18601
   438
  next
wenzelm@18601
   439
    case (Suc n)
wenzelm@18601
   440
    note `A n ==> P n` and `B n ==> Q n`
wenzelm@18601
   441
    {
wenzelm@18601
   442
      case 1
wenzelm@18601
   443
      note `A (Suc n)`
wenzelm@18601
   444
      show "P (Suc n)" sorry
wenzelm@18601
   445
    next
wenzelm@18601
   446
      case 2
wenzelm@18601
   447
      note `B (Suc n)`
wenzelm@18601
   448
      show "Q (Suc n)" sorry
wenzelm@18601
   449
    }
wenzelm@18601
   450
  qed
wenzelm@18601
   451
wenzelm@18506
   452
If simultaneous goals are to be used with mutual rules, the statement
wenzelm@18506
   453
needs to be structured carefully as a two-level conjunction, using
wenzelm@18506
   454
lists of propositions separated by 'and':
wenzelm@18506
   455
wenzelm@18507
   456
  lemma
wenzelm@18507
   457
    shows "a : A ==> P1 a"
wenzelm@18507
   458
          "a : A ==> P2 a"
wenzelm@18507
   459
      and "b : B ==> Q1 b"
wenzelm@18507
   460
          "b : B ==> Q2 b"
wenzelm@18507
   461
          "b : B ==> Q3 b"
wenzelm@18507
   462
  proof (induct set: A B)
wenzelm@18480
   463
wenzelm@18399
   464
* Provers/induct: support coinduction as well.  See
wenzelm@18399
   465
src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
wenzelm@18399
   466
wenzelm@20919
   467
* Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
wenzelm@20919
   468
variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@20919
   469
wenzelm@22126
   470
* Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
wenzelm@22126
   471
rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
wenzelm@22126
   472
default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
wenzelm@22126
   473
trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
nipkow@18674
   474
  
wenzelm@18536
   475
* Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
wenzelm@18536
   476
attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
wenzelm@18536
   477
manipulating the claset.
wenzelm@18536
   478
wenzelm@18694
   479
* Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
wenzelm@18694
   480
dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
wenzelm@18694
   481
least one premise.
wenzelm@18694
   482
wenzelm@18694
   483
* Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
wenzelm@18695
   484
weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
wenzelm@18696
   485
ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
wenzelm@18694
   486
rule steps.
paulson@18557
   487
wenzelm@18536
   488
* Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
wenzelm@18536
   489
where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
wenzelm@18536
   490
patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
wenzelm@18536
   491
"{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
wenzelm@18536
   492
INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
wenzelm@18536
   493
constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
wenzelm@18536
   494
wenzelm@18536
   495
* Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
wenzelm@18536
   496
parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
wenzelm@18536
   497
for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
wenzelm@17779
   498
wenzelm@20582
   499
* Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
wenzelm@20582
   500
the graph browser tool.
wenzelm@20582
   501
wenzelm@20620
   502
* Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses entities with internal name
wenzelm@20620
   503
(trailing "_") by default; use '!' option for full details.
wenzelm@20620
   504
wenzelm@17865
   505
nipkow@17806
   506
*** HOL ***
nipkow@17806
   507
haftmann@22316
   508
* Addes class (axclass + locale) "preorder" as superclass of "order";
haftmann@22316
   509
potential INCOMPATIBILITY: order of proof goals in order/linorder instance
haftmann@22316
   510
proofs changed.
haftmann@22316
   511
haftmann@22218
   512
* Dropped lemma duplicate def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
haftmann@22218
   513
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@22218
   514
haftmann@22218
   515
* Dropped lemma duplicate if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
haftmann@22218
   516
INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@22218
   517
wenzelm@22126
   518
* Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
wenzelm@22126
   519
type "'a::size ==> bool"
wenzelm@22126
   520
wenzelm@22126
   521
* Renamed constants "Divides.op div", "Divides.op mod" and "Divides.op
haftmann@22316
   522
dvd" to "Divides.div", "Divides.mod" and "Divides.dvd". INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@22126
   523
wenzelm@22126
   524
* Added method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes
wenzelm@22126
   525
termination relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures
wenzelm@22126
   526
-- 'function' package.
wenzelm@22126
   527
wenzelm@22126
   528
* HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
wenzelm@22126
   529
field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
wenzelm@22126
   530
(K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
schirmer@21226
   531
INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
schirmer@21226
   532
adapted.
schirmer@21226
   533
 
wenzelm@22126
   534
* axclass "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and
wenzelm@22126
   535
0 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do
wenzelm@22126
   536
not inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a
wenzelm@22126
   537
theorem there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of
wenzelm@22126
   538
semiring_0, there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
wenzelm@22126
   539
wenzelm@22126
   540
* axclass "recpower" was generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
wenzelm@22126
   541
commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: If you use recpower and need
wenzelm@22126
   542
commutativity or a semiring property, add the corresponding classes.
wenzelm@22126
   543
wenzelm@22126
   544
* Unified locale partial_order with class definition (cf. theory
wenzelm@22126
   545
Orderings), added parameter ``less''.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
haftmann@21215
   546
haftmann@21099
   547
* Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
wenzelm@22126
   548
INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong.  On
wenzelm@22126
   549
Isar level, use abbreviations instead.
wenzelm@22126
   550
wenzelm@22126
   551
* Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.memberl" INCOMPATIBILITY:
wenzelm@22126
   552
rarely occuring name references (e.g. ``List.op mem.simps'') require
wenzelm@22126
   553
renaming (e.g. ``List.memberl.simps'').
wenzelm@22126
   554
wenzelm@22126
   555
* Renamed constants "0" to "HOL.zero" and "1" to "HOL.one".
wenzelm@22126
   556
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@22126
   557
wenzelm@22126
   558
* Added theory Code_Generator providing class 'eq', allowing for code
wenzelm@22126
   559
generation with polymorphic equality.
wenzelm@22126
   560
wenzelm@22126
   561
* Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
wenzelm@22126
   562
been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'. INCOMPATIBILITY --
wenzelm@22126
   563
significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
haftmann@20485
   564
haftmann@20485
   565
  - new constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
haftmann@20485
   566
      of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
haftmann@20485
   567
  - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
haftmann@20485
   568
  - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
haftmann@20485
   569
  - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
haftmann@20485
   570
haftmann@20485
   571
See HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
haftmann@20485
   572
wenzelm@22126
   573
* New top level command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a
wenzelm@22126
   574
term that may contain free variables. For example ``normal_form
wenzelm@22126
   575
"rev[a,b,c]"'' produces ``[b,c,a]'' (without proof).  This command is
wenzelm@22126
   576
suitable for heavy-duty computations because the functions are
wenzelm@22126
   577
compiled to ML first.
nipkow@19895
   578
wenzelm@17996
   579
* Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
wenzelm@17996
   580
25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
wenzelm@17996
   581
"A = B" (with priority 50).
wenzelm@17996
   582
ballarin@19279
   583
* Renamed constants in HOL.thy and Orderings.thy:
haftmann@19233
   584
    op +   ~> HOL.plus
haftmann@19233
   585
    op -   ~> HOL.minus
haftmann@19233
   586
    uminus ~> HOL.uminus
haftmann@19233
   587
    op *   ~> HOL.times
haftmann@19277
   588
    op <   ~> Orderings.less
haftmann@19277
   589
    op <=  ~> Orderings.less_eq
haftmann@19233
   590
haftmann@19233
   591
Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
haftmann@19233
   592
nipkow@19377
   593
a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus", "times",
nipkow@19377
   594
"less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for "+", "-" and "*"
nipkow@19377
   595
may go wrong.
haftmann@19233
   596
INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
haftmann@19233
   597
haftmann@19277
   598
b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
haftmann@19233
   599
INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
haftmann@19233
   600
nipkow@19377
   601
c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
nipkow@19377
   602
Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
nipkow@19377
   603
rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows that
nipkow@19377
   604
this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
nipkow@19377
   605
distribution).
nipkow@19377
   606
INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
haftmann@19233
   607
haftmann@19233
   608
d) ML code directly refering to constant names
haftmann@19233
   609
This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and so on.
haftmann@19233
   610
INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
haftmann@19233
   611
wenzelm@21265
   612
* Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
wenzelm@21265
   613
Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
wenzelm@21265
   614
e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".
wenzelm@21265
   615
nipkow@18674
   616
* "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
nipkow@18674
   617
krauss@20716
   618
* Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
krauss@20716
   619
stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
krauss@20716
   620
wenzelm@22126
   621
* The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
wenzelm@22126
   622
removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
nipkow@19377
   623
wenzelm@17865
   624
* In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
wenzelm@17865
   625
"t = s" to False (by simproc "neq_simproc").  For backward
wenzelm@17865
   626
compatibility this can be disabled by ML "reset use_neq_simproc".
wenzelm@17779
   627
wenzelm@22126
   628
* "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to True/False by
wenzelm@22126
   629
simp.
wenzelm@22126
   630
wenzelm@22126
   631
* Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as ``simp''.
nipkow@19211
   632
ballarin@19279
   633
* Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
ballarin@19279
   634
nipkow@19211
   635
* Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
wenzelm@22126
   636
``rule'' method.
wenzelm@22126
   637
wenzelm@22126
   638
* Reimplemented methods ``sat'' and ``satx'', with several
wenzelm@22126
   639
improvements: goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==>
wenzelm@22126
   640
False", equivalences (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable
wenzelm@22126
   641
names of the form "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant
wenzelm@22126
   642
speedup.
wenzelm@22126
   643
wenzelm@22126
   644
* Methods ``sat'' and ``satx'' can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
wenzelm@22126
   645
zChaff is still supported as well.
wenzelm@22126
   646
wenzelm@22126
   647
* 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
wenzelm@22126
   648
bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
wenzelm@22126
   649
wenzelm@22126
   650
* Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
wenzelm@22126
   651
Library.
wenzelm@21256
   652
wenzelm@21256
   653
* Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
wenzelm@19572
   654
wenzelm@18446
   655
* Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
wenzelm@18446
   656
as greatest fixed-point.
wenzelm@18399
   657
wenzelm@19254
   658
* Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
schirmer@19252
   659
association lists.
webertj@17809
   660
wenzelm@22126
   661
* Added proof method ``evaluation'' for efficiently solving a goal
wenzelm@22126
   662
(i.e. a boolean expression) by compiling it to ML. The goal is
wenzelm@22126
   663
"proved" (via an oracle) if it evaluates to True.
wenzelm@20807
   664
wenzelm@20807
   665
* Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
wenzelm@20807
   666
also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the simplifier
haftmann@21056
   667
being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Set
wenzelm@20807
   668
fast_arith_split_limit to 0 to obtain the old behavior.
webertj@20217
   669
wenzelm@22126
   670
* Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
wenzelm@19254
   671
wenzelm@20807
   672
* New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
wenzelm@20807
   673
interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
wenzelm@20807
   674
parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
wenzelm@20807
   675
theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
wenzelm@20807
   676
resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
wenzelm@20807
   677
s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
wenzelm@20807
   678
wenzelm@20807
   679
* New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
wenzelm@20807
   680
are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
wenzelm@20807
   681
where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
wenzelm@20807
   682
generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
wenzelm@20807
   683
applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
wenzelm@20807
   684
r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
wenzelm@20807
   685
subgoal. An Example is available in HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
wenzelm@20807
   686
wenzelm@20807
   687
* Reflection: Automatic refification now handels binding, an example
wenzelm@20807
   688
is available in HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
wenzelm@20807
   689
wenzelm@20807
   690
ballarin@20169
   691
*** HOL-Algebra ***
ballarin@20169
   692
wenzelm@21170
   693
* Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
wenzelm@21170
   694
wenzelm@21170
   695
* Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
wenzelm@21170
   696
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@21170
   697
wenzelm@22126
   698
* Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
wenzelm@22126
   699
greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
ballarin@21896
   700
wenzelm@21170
   701
* Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
ballarin@21896
   702
Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
wenzelm@21170
   703
of algebraic structures.
ballarin@20318
   704
wenzelm@22126
   705
* Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
ballarin@20169
   706
wenzelm@20807
   707
wenzelm@19653
   708
*** HOL-Complex ***
wenzelm@19653
   709
wenzelm@19653
   710
* Theory Real: new method ferrack implements quantifier elimination
wenzelm@19653
   711
for linear arithmetic over the reals. The quantifier elimination
wenzelm@19653
   712
feature is used only for decision, for compatibility with arith. This
wenzelm@19653
   713
means a goal is either solved or left unchanged, no simplification.
wenzelm@19653
   714
huffman@21791
   715
* Real: New axiomatic classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
huffman@21791
   716
algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
huffman@21791
   717
and norm :: 'a => real.
huffman@21791
   718
wenzelm@22126
   719
* Real: New constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects
wenzelm@22126
   720
from reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set
wenzelm@22126
   721
is now defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@22126
   722
wenzelm@22126
   723
* Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
wenzelm@22126
   724
reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
wenzelm@22126
   725
spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
wenzelm@22126
   726
INCOMPATIBILITY.
huffman@21791
   727
huffman@21791
   728
  Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set"
huffman@21791
   729
  HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set"
huffman@21791
   730
  HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set"
huffman@21791
   731
  approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
huffman@21791
   732
  monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
huffman@21791
   733
  galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
huffman@21791
   734
  (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat, 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
huffman@21791
   735
  (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
huffman@21791
   736
  (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
huffman@21791
   737
  (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
huffman@21791
   738
  (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
huffman@21791
   739
  is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
huffman@21791
   740
  deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
huffman@21791
   741
huffman@21791
   742
* Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
wenzelm@22126
   743
overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
wenzelm@22126
   744
hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
wenzelm@22126
   745
polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
huffman@21791
   746
huffman@21791
   747
  approx        <-- capprox
huffman@21791
   748
  HFinite       <-- CFinite
huffman@21791
   749
  HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
huffman@21791
   750
  Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
huffman@21791
   751
  monad         <-- cmonad
huffman@21791
   752
  galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
huffman@21791
   753
  (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
huffman@21791
   754
  is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
huffman@21791
   755
  (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
huffman@21791
   756
wenzelm@19653
   757
wenzelm@17878
   758
*** ML ***
wenzelm@17878
   759
wenzelm@22138
   760
* ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
wenzelm@22138
   761
formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
wenzelm@22138
   762
compile-time.  For example:
wenzelm@22138
   763
wenzelm@22138
   764
ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
wenzelm@22138
   765
ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
wenzelm@22138
   766
ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
wenzelm@22138
   767
ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
wenzelm@22138
   768
ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
wenzelm@22138
   769
ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
wenzelm@22138
   770
ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
wenzelm@22138
   771
ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
wenzelm@22138
   772
ML {* @{context} *}
wenzelm@22138
   773
ML {* @{theory} *}
wenzelm@22138
   774
ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
wenzelm@22138
   775
ML {* @{simpset} *}
wenzelm@22138
   776
ML {* @{claset} *}
wenzelm@22138
   777
ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
wenzelm@22138
   778
wenzelm@22151
   779
The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
wenzelm@22151
   780
wenzelm@22152
   781
* ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
wenzelm@22152
   782
Toplevel.debug enabled.
wenzelm@22152
   783
haftmann@20348
   784
* Pure/library:
haftmann@20348
   785
haftmann@18450
   786
  val burrow: ('a list -> 'b list) -> 'a list list -> 'b list list
haftmann@18549
   787
  val fold_burrow: ('a list -> 'c -> 'b list * 'd) -> 'a list list -> 'c -> 'b list list * 'd
haftmann@18450
   788
wenzelm@18540
   789
The semantics of "burrow" is: "take a function with *simulatanously*
wenzelm@18540
   790
transforms a list of value, and apply it *simulatanously* to a list of
wenzelm@22126
   791
list of values of the appropriate type". Compare this with "map" which
wenzelm@18540
   792
would *not* apply its argument function simulatanously but in
wenzelm@22126
   793
sequence; "fold_burrow" has an additional context.
haftmann@18450
   794
wenzelm@18446
   795
* Pure/library: functions map2 and fold2 with curried syntax for
wenzelm@18446
   796
simultanous mapping and folding:
wenzelm@18446
   797
haftmann@18422
   798
    val map2: ('a -> 'b -> 'c) -> 'a list -> 'b list -> 'c list
haftmann@18422
   799
    val fold2: ('a -> 'b -> 'c -> 'c) -> 'a list -> 'b list -> 'c -> 'c
haftmann@18422
   800
wenzelm@18446
   801
* Pure/library: indexed lists - some functions in the Isabelle library
wenzelm@18446
   802
treating lists over 'a as finite mappings from [0...n] to 'a have been
wenzelm@18446
   803
given more convenient names and signatures reminiscent of similar
wenzelm@18446
   804
functions for alists, tables, etc:
haftmann@18051
   805
haftmann@18051
   806
  val nth: 'a list -> int -> 'a 
haftmann@18051
   807
  val nth_map: int -> ('a -> 'a) -> 'a list -> 'a list
haftmann@18051
   808
  val fold_index: (int * 'a -> 'b -> 'b) -> 'a list -> 'b -> 'b
haftmann@18051
   809
wenzelm@18446
   810
Note that fold_index starts counting at index 0, not 1 like foldln
wenzelm@18446
   811
used to.
wenzelm@18446
   812
wenzelm@22126
   813
* Pure/library: added general ``divide_and_conquer'' combinator on
wenzelm@22126
   814
lists.
wenzelm@19032
   815
wenzelm@19032
   816
* Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
wenzelm@19081
   817
DUP/SAME instead of type option.  This is simpler in simple cases, and
wenzelm@19081
   818
admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
wenzelm@18446
   819
wenzelm@18642
   820
* Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
wenzelm@18644
   821
provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
wenzelm@18642
   822
context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
wenzelm@18642
   823
wenzelm@18862
   824
* Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
wenzelm@18862
   825
use Context.generic instead of just theory.
wenzelm@18862
   826
wenzelm@18737
   827
* Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
wenzelm@18737
   828
Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm.  Global (theory)
wenzelm@18737
   829
vs. local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
wenzelm@18738
   830
minimizing code duplication.  Thm.rule_attribute and
wenzelm@18738
   831
Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also
wenzelm@19006
   832
structure Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
wenzelm@19006
   833
GenericDataFun.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
wenzelm@19006
   834
declarations and definitions.
wenzelm@19006
   835
wenzelm@19508
   836
* Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
wenzelm@19508
   837
signature declarations.  (This information is not relevant to the
wenzelm@22126
   838
logic, but only for type inference.)  IMPORTANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
wenzelm@22126
   839
potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@19508
   840
wenzelm@19508
   841
* Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
wenzelm@19508
   842
explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
wenzelm@19508
   843
internally.  See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
wenzelm@19508
   844
notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
wenzelm@19508
   845
AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supercede
wenzelm@19508
   846
Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
wenzelm@19508
   847
wenzelm@19006
   848
* Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
wenzelm@19006
   849
global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
wenzelm@19006
   850
discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
wenzelm@19006
   851
accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
wenzelm@19006
   852
attributes, methods, etc.
wenzelm@18642
   853
wenzelm@18446
   854
* Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
wenzelm@18446
   855
have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
wenzelm@18446
   856
allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
wenzelm@18446
   857
fold_map combinators.
haftmann@18051
   858
wenzelm@21647
   859
* Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
wenzelm@21647
   860
comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
wenzelm@21647
   861
maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
wenzelm@21647
   862
derivation.
wenzelm@21647
   863
wenzelm@18020
   864
* Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
wenzelm@18145
   865
actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
wenzelm@18020
   866
achieve the old behaviour.
wenzelm@18020
   867
wenzelm@18020
   868
* Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
wenzelm@18020
   869
slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
wenzelm@18020
   870
statements.
wenzelm@18020
   871
wenzelm@20040
   872
* Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
wenzelm@20040
   873
enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
wenzelm@20040
   874
Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
wenzelm@20040
   875
wenzelm@20090
   876
* Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
wenzelm@20090
   877
internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
wenzelm@20090
   878
some popular functions from term.ML:
wenzelm@20090
   879
wenzelm@20090
   880
  Term.variant		->  Name.variant
wenzelm@20090
   881
  Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list  (*canonical argument order*)
wenzelm@20090
   882
  Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
wenzelm@20090
   883
wenzelm@20090
   884
Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
wenzelm@20090
   885
from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
wenzelm@20090
   886
wenzelm@20040
   887
* Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
wenzelm@20040
   888
treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
wenzelm@20040
   889
Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
wenzelm@20040
   890
Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
wenzelm@20040
   891
various freeze_thaw operations.
wenzelm@20040
   892
wenzelm@18567
   893
* Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
wenzelm@17981
   894
init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
wenzelm@20040
   895
Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
wenzelm@20040
   896
within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
wenzelm@20040
   897
theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
wenzelm@20040
   898
OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
wenzelm@20040
   899
ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
wenzelm@20040
   900
in a locale context).
wenzelm@17981
   901
wenzelm@18815
   902
* Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
wenzelm@18687
   903
ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
wenzelm@18686
   904
without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
wenzelm@18686
   905
care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
wenzelm@18686
   906
handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
wenzelm@18686
   907
wenzelm@18686
   908
  ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
wenzelm@18686
   909
wenzelm@18686
   910
Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
wenzelm@18687
   911
embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
wenzelm@18687
   912
this:
wenzelm@18686
   913
wenzelm@18686
   914
  Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
wenzelm@18686
   915
wenzelm@18686
   916
INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
wenzelm@18686
   917
obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
wenzelm@18686
   918
Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
wenzelm@18686
   919
-- use plain ERROR instead.
wenzelm@18686
   920
wenzelm@18815
   921
* Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
wenzelm@18722
   922
list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
wenzelm@18722
   923
wenzelm@18815
   924
* Isar: installed ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context,
wenzelm@18815
   925
subject to ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
wenzelm@18815
   926
wenzelm@18815
   927
* Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
wenzelm@18815
   928
theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
wenzelm@18815
   929
quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
wenzelm@18590
   930
batch mode.
wenzelm@18567
   931
wenzelm@17878
   932
* Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
wenzelm@17878
   933
contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
wenzelm@17878
   934
very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
wenzelm@17890
   935
simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
wenzelm@17878
   936
(solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
wenzelm@17878
   937
wenzelm@17878
   938
* Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
wenzelm@17878
   939
local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
wenzelm@17878
   940
etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
wenzelm@17878
   941
former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
wenzelm@17890
   942
INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
wenzelm@17890
   943
specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
wenzelm@17878
   944
wenzelm@17878
   945
* Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
wenzelm@17878
   946
change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
wenzelm@17878
   947
theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
wenzelm@17878
   948
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@17878
   949
wenzelm@18540
   950
* Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
wenzelm@18540
   951
"Trueprop" etc.
wenzelm@18540
   952
wenzelm@17878
   953
wenzelm@20988
   954
*** System ***
wenzelm@20988
   955
wenzelm@21471
   956
* settings: ML_IDENTIFIER -- which is appended to user specific heap
wenzelm@21471
   957
locations -- now includes the Isabelle version identifier as well.
wenzelm@21471
   958
This simplifies use of multiple Isabelle installations.
wenzelm@21471
   959
wenzelm@20988
   960
* isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
wenzelm@20988
   961
operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
wenzelm@20988
   962
code.
wenzelm@20988
   963
wenzelm@17754
   964
wenzelm@17720
   965
New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
wenzelm@17720
   966
----------------------------------
wenzelm@14655
   967
wenzelm@14655
   968
*** General ***
wenzelm@14655
   969
nipkow@15130
   970
* Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
nipkow@15130
   971
nipkow@15130
   972
  theory <name>
wenzelm@16234
   973
  imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
wenzelm@16234
   974
  uses <file1> ... <fileM>
nipkow@15130
   975
  begin
nipkow@15130
   976
wenzelm@16234
   977
where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
wenzelm@16234
   978
wenzelm@16234
   979
  theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
wenzelm@16234
   980
wenzelm@16717
   981
will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
wenzelm@16717
   982
existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
wenzelm@17371
   983
non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
nipkow@15130
   984
berghofe@15475
   985
* Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
wenzelm@16234
   986
relative and absolute paths.
wenzelm@16234
   987
wenzelm@17408
   988
* Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
wenzelm@17408
   989
list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
wenzelm@17408
   990
simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
wenzelm@17408
   991
theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
wenzelm@17408
   992
match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
wenzelm@17408
   993
name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
wenzelm@17408
   994
lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
wenzelm@17408
   995
all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
wenzelm@17408
   996
'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
wenzelm@16234
   997
wenzelm@17275
   998
  C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
wenzelm@16234
   999
wenzelm@16234
  1000
prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
wenzelm@16234
  1001
matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
wenzelm@16234
  1002
in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
wenzelm@16013
  1003
wenzelm@17408
  1004
* Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
wenzelm@17408
  1005
'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@17408
  1006
wenzelm@17385
  1007
* Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
wenzelm@17385
  1008
Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
wenzelm@17408
  1009
formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
wenzelm@17538
  1010
General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
wenzelm@17538
  1011
wenzelm@17538
  1012
  http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
wenzelm@17538
  1013
  http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
wenzelm@17385
  1014
wenzelm@17425
  1015
* Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
wenzelm@17425
  1016
Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
wenzelm@17425
  1017
faster.
wenzelm@17425
  1018
wenzelm@15703
  1019
wenzelm@15703
  1020
*** Document preparation ***
wenzelm@15703
  1021
wenzelm@16234
  1022
* Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
wenzelm@16234
  1023
of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
wenzelm@16234
  1024
LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
wenzelm@16234
  1025
displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
wenzelm@16234
  1026
and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
wenzelm@16234
  1027
DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
wenzelm@16234
  1028
wenzelm@17047
  1029
* Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
wenzelm@17047
  1030
notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
wenzelm@17047
  1031
theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
wenzelm@17047
  1032
commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
wenzelm@17047
  1033
"invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
wenzelm@17047
  1034
specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
wenzelm@17047
  1035
interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
wenzelm@17047
  1036
preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
wenzelm@17047
  1037
isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
wenzelm@17047
  1038
\isadroptag.
wenzelm@17047
  1039
wenzelm@17047
  1040
Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
wenzelm@17047
  1041
usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
wenzelm@17047
  1042
specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
wenzelm@17047
  1043
theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
wenzelm@17047
  1044
proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
wenzelm@17047
  1045
these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
wenzelm@17047
  1046
default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
wenzelm@17047
  1047
specified above.
wenzelm@16234
  1048
haftmann@17402
  1049
* Several new antiquotations:
wenzelm@15979
  1050
wenzelm@15979
  1051
  @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
wenzelm@15979
  1052
wenzelm@15979
  1053
  @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
wenzelm@15979
  1054
wenzelm@16234
  1055
  @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
wenzelm@16234
  1056
  argument is a known logical constant;
wenzelm@15979
  1057
wenzelm@15979
  1058
  @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
wenzelm@16234
  1059
  theorem applying a "style" to it
wenzelm@16234
  1060
wenzelm@17117
  1061
  @{ML text}
wenzelm@17117
  1062
wenzelm@16234
  1063
Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
wenzelm@16234
  1064
definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
schirmer@17393
  1065
conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
wenzelm@16234
  1066
to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
wenzelm@16234
  1067
interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
wenzelm@17117
  1068
document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
wenzelm@17117
  1069
type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
wenzelm@16234
  1070
wenzelm@17259
  1071
* Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
wenzelm@17259
  1072
and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
wenzelm@17269
  1073
specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
wenzelm@17269
  1074
example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
wenzelm@17259
  1075
wenzelm@17259
  1076
* Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
wenzelm@17259
  1077
context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
wenzelm@17269
  1078
[locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.
wenzelm@17259
  1079
wenzelm@17097
  1080
* Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within
wenzelm@17097
  1081
a proof context.
wenzelm@17097
  1082
wenzelm@17097
  1083
* Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a
wenzelm@17097
  1084
proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').
wenzelm@17097
  1085
wenzelm@17193
  1086
* Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX
wenzelm@17193
  1087
macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).
wenzelm@17193
  1088
wenzelm@17193
  1089
* isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option
wenzelm@17193
  1090
-D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false
wenzelm@17193
  1091
prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.
wenzelm@17193
  1092
wenzelm@16234
  1093
wenzelm@16234
  1094
*** Pure ***
wenzelm@16234
  1095
wenzelm@16234
  1096
* Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command.  Now performs
wenzelm@16234
  1097
automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for
wenzelm@16234
  1098
local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also
wenzelm@16234
  1099
isar-ref manual.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly
wenzelm@16234
  1100
sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'
wenzelm@16234
  1101
section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier.  If
wenzelm@16234
  1102
all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.
wenzelm@16234
  1103
wenzelm@16234
  1104
* Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures.  First of all,
wenzelm@16234
  1105
indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted
wenzelm@16234
  1106
application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary
wenzelm@16234
  1107
expressions.  Secondly, in a local context with structure
wenzelm@16234
  1108
declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default
wenzelm@16234
  1109
number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option
wenzelm@16234
  1110
show_structs controls printing of implicit structures.  Typical
wenzelm@16234
  1111
applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.
wenzelm@16234
  1112
wenzelm@16234
  1113
* New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and
wenzelm@16234
  1114
translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is
wenzelm@16234
  1115
interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.
wenzelm@16234
  1116
wenzelm@16234
  1117
* 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend
wenzelm@16234
  1118
on the signature of the theory context being presently used for
wenzelm@16234
  1119
parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.
wenzelm@16234
  1120
wenzelm@16856
  1121
* Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an
wenzelm@16856
  1122
ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of
wenzelm@16856
  1123
type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle
wenzelm@16856
  1124
is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;
wenzelm@16856
  1125
INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@16856
  1126
wenzelm@17275
  1127
* axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"
wenzelm@17275
  1128
before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.
wenzelm@17275
  1129
INCOMPATIBILITY.  This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for
wenzelm@17275
  1130
axclasses vs. locales.
wenzelm@17275
  1131
wenzelm@16234
  1132
* Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes
wenzelm@16234
  1133
instead of base 26 numbers.
wenzelm@16234
  1134
wenzelm@16234
  1135
* New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question
wenzelm@16234
  1136
marks in schematic variable names.
wenzelm@16234
  1137
wenzelm@16234
  1138
* In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or
wenzelm@16234
  1139
\<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name.  For example, the
wenzelm@16234
  1140
following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:
wenzelm@16234
  1141
wenzelm@16234
  1142
  lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"
wenzelm@16234
  1143
    by simp
wenzelm@16234
  1144
wenzelm@16234
  1145
* Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).
wenzelm@16234
  1146
wenzelm@17548
  1147
* Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix
wenzelm@16234
  1148
annotations as "(00...)".
wenzelm@16234
  1149
wenzelm@16234
  1150
* Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter
wenzelm@16234
  1151
may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.
wenzelm@16234
  1152
Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class
wenzelm@16234
  1153
"logic" vs. "{}".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper
wenzelm@16234
  1154
use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'.  Some very
wenzelm@16234
  1155
exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption
wenzelm@17691
  1156
(e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).
wenzelm@16234
  1157
wenzelm@16234
  1158
* Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.
wenzelm@16234
  1159
Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'
wenzelm@16234
  1160
rather than 'types'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic
wenzelm@16234
  1161
specifications.
wenzelm@16234
  1162
ballarin@17095
  1163
* Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be
ballarin@17095
  1164
locally fixed variables as well.
ballarin@17095
  1165
wenzelm@16234
  1166
* Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting
wenzelm@16234
  1167
is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth
wenzelm@16234
  1168
Limit.
wenzelm@16234
  1169
wenzelm@16234
  1170
* Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current
wenzelm@16234
  1171
simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc
wenzelm@16234
  1172
interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier
wenzelm@16234
  1173
recursively.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs
wenzelm@16234
  1174
is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead.  Moreover, the
wenzelm@16234
  1175
low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to
wenzelm@16234
  1176
allow for use in a context of fixed variables.
wenzelm@16234
  1177
wenzelm@16234
  1178
* thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!
wenzelm@16234
  1179
or ==>.  More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of
wenzelm@16234
  1180
the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.
wenzelm@16234
  1181
wenzelm@17597
  1182
* Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
nipkow@17590
  1183
wenzelm@16234
  1184
* Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived
wenzelm@16234
  1185
from Pure, which contains all common declarations already.  Both
wenzelm@16234
  1186
theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.
wenzelm@16234
  1187
INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /
wenzelm@16234
  1188
CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;
wenzelm@16234
  1189
use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.
wenzelm@16234
  1190
wenzelm@16234
  1191
* New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific
wenzelm@16234
  1192
selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.
wenzelm@16234
  1193
wenzelm@17097
  1194
* 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference
wenzelm@17097
  1195
wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),
wenzelm@17097
  1196
in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');
wenzelm@17097
  1197
wenzelm@17397
  1198
* 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.
wenzelm@17397
  1199
wenzelm@17275
  1200
* More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive
wenzelm@17275
  1201
theory development.
wenzelm@17275
  1202
berghofe@17663
  1203
* Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code
wenzelm@17664
  1204
generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures
wenzelm@17664
  1205
for each theory).  INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'
wenzelm@17664
  1206
must be quoted when used as identifiers.
wenzelm@17664
  1207
wenzelm@17664
  1208
* New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using
wenzelm@17664
  1209
the code generator.  INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be
wenzelm@17664
  1210
quoted when used as identifier.
berghofe@17663
  1211
wenzelm@16234
  1212
wenzelm@16234
  1213
*** Locales ***
ballarin@17095
  1214
wenzelm@17385
  1215
* New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in
wenzelm@17385
  1216
theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3).  These generate
wenzelm@17385
  1217
proof obligations from the expression specification.  After the
wenzelm@17385
  1218
obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added
wenzelm@17385
  1219
to the theory, target locale or proof context.  The synopsis of the
wenzelm@17385
  1220
commands is a follows:
wenzelm@17385
  1221
ballarin@17095
  1222
  (1) interpretation expr inst
ballarin@17095
  1223
  (2) interpretation target < expr
ballarin@17095
  1224
  (3) interpret expr inst
wenzelm@17385
  1225
ballarin@17095
  1226
Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter
ballarin@17095
  1227
instantiation of terms from the current context.  This is applied to
wenzelm@17385
  1228
specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.
wenzelm@17385
  1229
Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the
wenzelm@17385
  1230
locale expression.  Interpretation is smart in that interpretations
wenzelm@17385
  1231
that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are
wenzelm@17385
  1232
instantiated theorems stored in duplicate.  Use 'print_interps' to
wenzelm@17385
  1233
inspect active interpretations of a particular locale.  For details,
ballarin@17436
  1234
see the Isar Reference manual.  Examples can be found in
ballarin@17436
  1235
HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.
wenzelm@16234
  1236
wenzelm@16234
  1237
INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use
wenzelm@16234
  1238
'interpret' instead.
wenzelm@16234
  1239
wenzelm@17385
  1240
* New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to
wenzelm@17385
  1241
parameters.
wenzelm@17385
  1242
wenzelm@17385
  1243
* Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax
wenzelm@17385
  1244
redeclaration.
ballarin@17095
  1245
ballarin@17095
  1246
* Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.
ballarin@17095
  1247
wenzelm@16234
  1248
* Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /
wenzelm@16234
  1249
facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition
wenzelm@16234
  1250
context, independently of the context of later invocations.  Moreover,
wenzelm@16234
  1251
locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied
wenzelm@16234
  1252
to attribute arguments as expected.
wenzelm@16234
  1253
wenzelm@16234
  1254
INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of
wenzelm@16234
  1255
actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to
wenzelm@16234
  1256
embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.
wenzelm@16234
  1257
Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static
wenzelm@16234
  1258
binding mechanism.  Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and
wenzelm@16234
  1259
Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further
wenzelm@16234
  1260
intervention.  Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"
wenzelm@16234
  1261
(cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both
wenzelm@16234
  1262
on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed
wenzelm@16234
  1263
values to argument tokens explicitly.
wenzelm@16234
  1264
wenzelm@16234
  1265
* Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal
wenzelm@16234
  1266
statements with 'includes'.  INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different
wenzelm@16234
  1267
theorem statement in rare situations.
wenzelm@16234
  1268
ballarin@17228
  1269
* Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements.  Use
ballarin@17228
  1270
'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.
ballarin@17228
  1271
wenzelm@16234
  1272
wenzelm@16234
  1273
*** Provers ***
wenzelm@16234
  1274
wenzelm@16234
  1275
* Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for
wenzelm@16234
  1276
single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is
wenzelm@16234
  1277
'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may
wenzelm@16234
  1278
rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is
wenzelm@16234
  1279
still available as 'simplesubst'.
wenzelm@16234
  1280
wenzelm@16234
  1281
* Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only
wenzelm@16234
  1282
and quasi orders.
wenzelm@16234
  1283
wenzelm@16234
  1284
* Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and
wenzelm@16234
  1285
reflexive-transitive closure of relations.
wenzelm@16234
  1286
wenzelm@16234
  1287
* Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth
wenzelm@16234
  1288
limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.
wenzelm@16234
  1289
wenzelm@16234
  1290
* Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup
wenzelm@16234
  1291
is peformed already.  Object-logics merely need to finish their
wenzelm@16234
  1292
initial simpset configuration as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@15703
  1293
berghofe@15475
  1294
schirmer@14700
  1295
*** HOL ***
schirmer@14700
  1296
wenzelm@16234
  1297
* Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:
wenzelm@14878
  1298
wenzelm@14878
  1299
  syntax (epsilon)
wenzelm@14878
  1300
    "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a"    ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)
wenzelm@14878
  1301
wenzelm@16234
  1302
The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX
wenzelm@16234
  1303
and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.
wenzelm@16234
  1304
Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>
wenzelm@16234
  1305
becomes available as variable, constant etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
wenzelm@16234
  1306
wenzelm@16234
  1307
* "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".
wenzelm@16234
  1308
Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc.  The x-symbol for >=
wenzelm@17371
  1309
is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to
avigad@17016
  1310
support corresponding Isar calculations.
wenzelm@16234
  1311
wenzelm@16234
  1312
* "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"
wenzelm@16234
  1313
instead of ":".
wenzelm@16234
  1314
wenzelm@16234
  1315
* theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:
wenzelm@16234
  1316
wenzelm@16234
  1317
  Old       New
wenzelm@16234
  1318
  {..n(}    {..<n}
wenzelm@16234
  1319
  {)n..}    {n<..}
wenzelm@16234
  1320
  {m..n(}   {m..<n}
wenzelm@16234
  1321
  {)m..n}   {m<..n}
wenzelm@16234
  1322
  {)m..n(}  {m<..<n}
wenzelm@16234
  1323
wenzelm@16234
  1324
The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next
wenzelm@16234
  1325
release.  For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace
wenzelm@16234
  1326
patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):
nipkow@15046
  1327
nipkow@15046
  1328
  {)\([^\.]*\)\.\.  ->  {\1<\.\.}
nipkow@15046
  1329
  \.\.\([^(}]*\)(}  ->  \.\.<\1}
nipkow@15046
  1330
wenzelm@17533
  1331
* Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving
wenzelm@17533
  1332
equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic
wenzelm@17533
  1333
interface.
wenzelm@17389
  1334
wenzelm@17389
  1335
* Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over
wenzelm@16234
  1336
finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is
wenzelm@17371
  1337
now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can
paulson@17189
  1338
be a tuple pattern.
wenzelm@16234
  1339
wenzelm@16234
  1340
Some new syntax forms are available:
wenzelm@16234
  1341
wenzelm@16234
  1342
  "\<Sum>x | P. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"
wenzelm@16234
  1343
  "\<Sum>x = a..b. e"   for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"
wenzelm@16234
  1344
  "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e"  for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"
wenzelm@16234
  1345
  "\<Sum>x < k. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"
wenzelm@16234
  1346
wenzelm@16234
  1347
The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate
wenzelm@16234
  1348
function "Summation", which has been discontinued.
wenzelm@16234
  1349
wenzelm@16234
  1350
* theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case
wenzelm@16234
  1351
is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case
wenzelm@16234
  1352
(insert F x)'.
wenzelm@16234
  1353
wenzelm@16234
  1354
* The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger
wenzelm@16234
  1355
fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and
wenzelm@16234
  1356
typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.
wenzelm@16234
  1357
webertj@17700
  1358
* New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.
webertj@17700
  1359
Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed.  See
webertj@17700
  1360
HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.
webertj@17619
  1361
wenzelm@16234
  1362
* Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the
wenzelm@16234
  1363
induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by
wenzelm@16234
  1364
induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather
wenzelm@16234
  1365
than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
wenzelm@16234
  1366
in unstructured proof scripts.
wenzelm@16234
  1367
wenzelm@16234
  1368
* Reworked implementation of records.  Improved scalability for
wenzelm@16234
  1369
records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type
wenzelm@16234
  1370
inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but
wenzelm@16234
  1371
of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear
wenzelm@16234
  1372
in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields.  The
wenzelm@16234
  1373
top-level (users) view on records is preserved.  Potential
wenzelm@16234
  1374
INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the
wenzelm@16234
  1375
old record representation. The type generated for a record is called
wenzelm@16234
  1376
<record_name>_ext_type.
wenzelm@16234
  1377
wenzelm@16234
  1378
Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the
wenzelm@16234
  1379
proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if
wenzelm@16234
  1380
quick_and_dirty is enabled).  Definitions of large records can take
wenzelm@16234
  1381
quite long.
wenzelm@16234
  1382
wenzelm@16234
  1383
New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record
wenzelm@16234
  1384
updates enabled by default.  Moreover, trivial updates are also
wenzelm@16234
  1385
removed: r(|x := x r|) = r.  INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break
wenzelm@16234
  1386
occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.
wenzelm@16234
  1387
wenzelm@17275
  1388
* typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra
wenzelm@17275
  1389
type-variables in the term.
wenzelm@17275
  1390
wenzelm@16234
  1391
* Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains
wenzelm@16234
  1392
involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics
wenzelm@16234
  1393
provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
wenzelm@16234
  1394
old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more
wenzelm@16234
  1395
goals than previously.
wenzelm@16234
  1396
wenzelm@16234
  1397
* Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is
wenzelm@16234
  1398
present.  Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular
wenzelm@16234
  1399
numbers and sets.  For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y
wenzelm@16234
  1400
just like y <= x.
wenzelm@16234
  1401
wenzelm@16234
  1402
* Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x".  If a is a free or
wenzelm@16234
  1403
bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded.  Otherwise
wenzelm@16234
  1404
first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If
wenzelm@16234
  1405
possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",
wenzelm@16234
  1406
otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g.  The simproc can be
wenzelm@16234
  1407
enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc.  Potential
wenzelm@16234
  1408
INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.
webertj@15776
  1409
paulson@16563
  1410
* Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.
paulson@16563
  1411
paulson@17595
  1412
* Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background
paulson@17595
  1413
jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.
paulson@17595
  1414
wenzelm@16891
  1415
* Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and
wenzelm@16891
  1416
improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and
wenzelm@16891
  1417
inequalities.
wenzelm@16891
  1418
wenzelm@16891
  1419
The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
wenzelm@16891
  1420
(INCOMPATIBILITY):
avigad@16888
  1421
avigad@16888
  1422
  abs_eq             now named abs_of_nonneg
wenzelm@17371
  1423
  abs_of_ge_0        now named abs_of_nonneg
wenzelm@17371
  1424
  abs_minus_eq       now named abs_of_nonpos
avigad@16888
  1425
  imp_abs_id         now named abs_of_nonneg
avigad@16888
  1426
  imp_abs_neg_id     now named abs_of_nonpos
avigad@16888
  1427
  mult_pos           now named mult_pos_pos
avigad@16888
  1428
  mult_pos_le        now named mult_nonneg_nonneg
avigad@16888
  1429
  mult_pos_neg_le    now named mult_nonneg_nonpos
avigad@16888
  1430
  mult_pos_neg2_le   now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2
avigad@16888
  1431
  mult_neg           now named mult_neg_neg
avigad@16888
  1432
  mult_neg_le        now named mult_nonpos_nonpos
avigad@16888
  1433
wenzelm@16891
  1434
* Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.
wenzelm@16891
  1435
nipkow@17092
  1436
* Theory List:
nipkow@17092
  1437
nipkow@17092
  1438
The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
nipkow@17092
  1439
(INCOMPATIBILITY):
nipkow@17092
  1440
nipkow@17092
  1441
  list_all_Nil       now named list_all.simps(1)
nipkow@17092
  1442
  list_all_Cons      now named list_all.simps(2)
nipkow@17092
  1443
  list_all_conv      now named list_all_iff
nipkow@17092
  1444
  set_mem_eq         now named mem_iff
nipkow@17092
  1445
wenzelm@16929
  1446
* Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support
wenzelm@16929
  1447
asymptotic "big O" calculations.  See the notes in BigO.thy.
wenzelm@16929
  1448
avigad@16888
  1449
avigad@16888
  1450
*** HOL-Complex ***
avigad@16888
  1451
wenzelm@16891
  1452
* Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and
wenzelm@16891
  1453
integers in the reals.
wenzelm@16891
  1454
wenzelm@16891
  1455
The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
wenzelm@16891
  1456
(INCOMPATIBILITY):
wenzelm@16891
  1457
avigad@17016
  1458
  exp_ge_add_one_self  now requires no hypotheses
avigad@17016
  1459
  real_of_int_add      reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
avigad@17016
  1460
  real_of_int_minus    reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
avigad@17016
  1461
  real_of_int_diff     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
avigad@17016
  1462
  real_of_int_mult     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
wenzelm@16891
  1463
wenzelm@16891
  1464
* Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.
avigad@16888
  1465
avigad@16962
  1466
* Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm
avigad@16962
  1467
wenzelm@17423
  1468
* Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making
wenzelm@17423
  1469
nonstandard types.  The old type names are now type synonyms:
wenzelm@17423
  1470
wenzelm@17423
  1471
  hypreal = real star
wenzelm@17423
  1472
  hypnat = nat star
wenzelm@17423
  1473
  hcomplex = complex star
wenzelm@17423
  1474
wenzelm@17423
  1475
* Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been
huffman@17442
  1476
replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
wenzelm@17423
  1477
wenzelm@17423
  1478
  star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex
wenzelm@17423
  1479
wenzelm@17423
  1480
  starset      <-- starsetNat, starsetC
wenzelm@17423
  1481
  *s*          <-- *sNat*, *sc*
wenzelm@17423
  1482
  starset_n    <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n
wenzelm@17423
  1483
  *sn*         <-- *sNatn*, *scn*
wenzelm@17423
  1484
  InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets
wenzelm@17423
  1485
huffman@17442
  1486
  starfun      <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
wenzelm@17423
  1487
  *f*          <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*
huffman@17442
  1488
  starfun_n    <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n
wenzelm@17423
  1489
  *fn*         <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*
huffman@17442
  1490
  InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs
wenzelm@17423
  1491
wenzelm@17423
  1492
* Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of
huffman@17442
  1493
theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):
huffman@17442
  1494
huffman@17442
  1495
  add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute
huffman@17442
  1496
  add_assoc   <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs
huffman@17442
  1497
  OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left
huffman@17442
  1498
  OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right
wenzelm@17423
  1499
  right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus
huffman@17442
  1500
  left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left
huffman@17442
  1501
  mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute
huffman@17442
  1502
  mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc
huffman@17442
  1503
  mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left
wenzelm@17423
  1504
  mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right
wenzelm@17423
  1505
  mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left
huffman@17442
  1506
  left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib
wenzelm@17423
  1507
  right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2
huffman@17442
  1508
  zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one
wenzelm@17423
  1509
  right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse
wenzelm@17423
  1510
  left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left
huffman@17442
  1511
  order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl
huffman@17442
  1512
  order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans
huffman@17442
  1513
  order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym
huffman@17442
  1514
  order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le
huffman@17442
  1515
  linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear
huffman@17442
  1516
  add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono
huffman@17442
  1517
  mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2
wenzelm@17423
  1518
  add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order
wenzelm@17423
  1519
wenzelm@17423
  1520
* Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific
wenzelm@17423
  1521
versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the
huffman@17442
  1522
new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):
huffman@17442
  1523
huffman@17442
  1524
  STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set
huffman@17442
  1525
  STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set
huffman@17442
  1526
  STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un
huffman@17442
  1527
  STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int
huffman@17442
  1528
  STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl
huffman@17442
  1529
  STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset
huffman@17442
  1530
  STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem
huffman@17442
  1531
  STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl
huffman@17442
  1532
  STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff
huffman@17442
  1533
  STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,
huffman@17442
  1534
    STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset
huffman@17442
  1535
  starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un
huffman@17442
  1536
  starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int
huffman@17442
  1537
  starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl
huffman@17442
  1538
  starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff
huffman@17442
  1539
  InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un
huffman@17442
  1540
  InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int
huffman@17442
  1541
  InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl
huffman@17442
  1542
  InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff
huffman@17442
  1543
  InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff
huffman@17442
  1544
  InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n
huffman@17442
  1545
  starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq
huffman@17442
  1546
  starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}
huffman@17442
  1547
  starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
huffman@17442
  1548
  starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
huffman@17442
  1549
  starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult
huffman@17442
  1550
  starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add
huffman@17442
  1551
  starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus
huffman@17442
  1552
  starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff
huffman@17442
  1553
  starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o
huffman@17442
  1554
  starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2
huffman@17442
  1555
  starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun
huffman@17442
  1556
  starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse
huffman@17442
  1557
  starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq
huffman@17442
  1558
  starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff
wenzelm@17423
  1559
  starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id
huffman@17442
  1560
  starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx
huffman@17442
  1561
  starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox
wenzelm@17423
  1562
  starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs
huffman@17442
  1563
  starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel
huffman@17442
  1564
  starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2
wenzelm@17423
  1565
  starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox
huffman@17442
  1566
  starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox
huffman@17442
  1567
  starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox
wenzelm@17423
  1568
  starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx
wenzelm@17423
  1569
  starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse
huffman@17442
  1570
  starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide
huffman@17442
  1571
  starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n
huffman@17442
  1572
  starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult
huffman@17442
  1573
  starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add
wenzelm@17423
  1574
  starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus
huffman@17442
  1575
  starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun
huffman@17442
  1576
  starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus
huffman@17442
  1577
  starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq
huffman@17442
  1578
huffman@17442
  1579
  star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add
huffman@17442
  1580
  star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus
huffman@17442
  1581
  star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff
huffman@17442
  1582
  star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult
huffman@17442
  1583
  star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse
huffman@17442
  1584
  star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le
huffman@17442
  1585
  star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less
huffman@17442
  1586
  star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num
huffman@17442
  1587
  star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num
wenzelm@17423
  1588
  star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs
wenzelm@17423
  1589
  star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide
wenzelm@17423
  1590
huffman@17442
  1591
  star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add
huffman@17442
  1592
  star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus
wenzelm@17423
  1593
  star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff
huffman@17442
  1594
  star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult
huffman@17442
  1595
  star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one
huffman@17442
  1596
  star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero
huffman@17442
  1597
  star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff
huffman@17442
  1598
  star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff
huffman@17442
  1599
  star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff
huffman@17442
  1600
  star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse
huffman@17442
  1601
  star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide
huffman@17442
  1602
  star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat
huffman@17442
  1603
  star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int
huffman@17442
  1604
  star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of
wenzelm@17423
  1605
  star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff
wenzelm@17423
  1606
  star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff
wenzelm@17423
  1607
  star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff
wenzelm@17423
  1608
  star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff
wenzelm@17423
  1609
  star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff
wenzelm@17423
  1610
  star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power
wenzelm@17423
  1611
  star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff
wenzelm@17423
  1612
huffman@17442
  1613
* Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer
huffman@17442
  1614
principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions
huffman@17442
  1615
nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"
huffman@17442
  1616
replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.
huffman@17442
  1617
To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-
huffman@17442
  1618
standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.
huffman@17442
  1619
wenzelm@17641
  1620
* Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.
wenzelm@17641
  1621
wenzelm@14655
  1622
wenzelm@14682
  1623
*** HOLCF ***
wenzelm@14682
  1624
wenzelm@17533
  1625
* Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support
wenzelm@17533
  1626
continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full
wenzelm@17533
  1627
type-inference.
wenzelm@17533
  1628
wenzelm@17533
  1629
* New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it
wenzelm@17533
  1630
is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic
huffman@17442
  1631
instead of exponential time).
huffman@17442
  1632
wenzelm@17533
  1633
* New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.
huffman@17442
  1634
Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:
huffman@17442
  1635
huffman@17442
  1636
  domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")
huffman@17442
  1637
wenzelm@17533
  1638
* New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern
wenzelm@17533
  1639
matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also
wenzelm@17533
  1640
supported.  Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,
wenzelm@17533
  1641
sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given
wenzelm@17533
  1642
equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
wenzelm@17533
  1643
syntax and examples.
wenzelm@17533
  1644
wenzelm@17533
  1645
* New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes
wenzelm@17533
  1646
of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,
wenzelm@17533
  1647
but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility
wenzelm@17533
  1648
requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,
wenzelm@17533
  1649
with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.
huffman@17442
  1650
huffman@17584
  1651
* HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming
huffman@17584
  1652
scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):
huffman@17584
  1653
huffman@17584
  1654
  foo_inject:  "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"
huffman@17584
  1655
  foo_eq:      "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"
huffman@17584
  1656
  foo_less:    "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"
huffman@17584
  1657
  foo_strict:  "foo$UU = UU"
huffman@17584
  1658
  foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"
huffman@17584
  1659
  foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"
huffman@17584
  1660
wenzelm@14682
  1661
paulson@14885
  1662
*** ZF ***
paulson@14885
  1663
wenzelm@16234
  1664
* ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,
wenzelm@16234
  1665
including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel
wenzelm@16234
  1666
of a homomorphism).
wenzelm@15089
  1667
wenzelm@15089
  1668
* ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually
wenzelm@16234
  1669
makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);
wenzelm@16234
  1670
the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.
wenzelm@15703
  1671
wenzelm@15703
  1672
wenzelm@17445
  1673
*** Cube ***
wenzelm@17445
  1674
wenzelm@17445
  1675
* Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic
wenzelm@17445
  1676
theories.
wenzelm@17445
  1677
wenzelm@17445
  1678
wenzelm@15703
  1679
*** ML ***
wenzelm@15703
  1680
haftmann@21339
  1681
* Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts
haftmann@21339
  1682
for ||>, ||>>, |>>,
haftmann@21339
  1683
wenzelm@15973
  1684
* Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses
wenzelm@16234
  1685
that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of
wenzelm@16234
  1686
None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.
wenzelm@16234
  1687
The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted
wenzelm@16234
  1688
accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.
wenzelm@15973
  1689
wenzelm@16860
  1690
* Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of
wenzelm@16860
  1691
the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as
wenzelm@16860
  1692
Library.UnequalLengths.  Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are
wenzelm@16860
  1693
superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.
wenzelm@16860
  1694
wenzelm@16860
  1695
A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML
wenzelm@16860
  1696
toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions.  The following
wenzelm@16234
  1697
suggests how one can translate existing code:
wenzelm@15973
  1698
wenzelm@15973
  1699
    rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)
wenzelm@15973
  1700
    nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)
wenzelm@15973
  1701
    last_elem xs = List.last xs
wenzelm@15973
  1702
    flat xss = List.concat xss
wenzelm@16234
  1703
    seq fs = List.app fs
wenzelm@15973
  1704
    partition P xs = List.partition P xs
wenzelm@15973
  1705
    mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs
wenzelm@15973
  1706
wenzelm@16860
  1707
* Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional
wenzelm@16860
  1708
transformations, notably reverse application and composition:
wenzelm@16860
  1709
wenzelm@17371
  1710
  x |> f                f #> g
wenzelm@17371
  1711
  (x, y) |-> f          f #-> g
wenzelm@16860
  1712
haftmann@17495
  1713
* Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:
haftmann@17495
  1714
haftmann@17495
  1715
  infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;
haftmann@17495
  1716
  infix 2 ?;
haftmann@17495
  1717
  infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;
haftmann@17495
  1718
  infix 4 ~~ upto downto;
haftmann@17495
  1719
haftmann@17495
  1720
Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other
haftmann@17495
  1721
infix operators.
haftmann@17495
  1722
wenzelm@17408
  1723
* Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and
haftmann@16869
  1724
fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting.  For
wenzelm@16860
  1725
example:
wenzelm@16860
  1726
wenzelm@16860
  1727
  fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =
wenzelm@16860
  1728
    y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN
wenzelm@16860
  1729
wenzelm@16860
  1730
  (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =
wenzelm@16860
  1731
    y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN
wenzelm@16860
  1732
wenzelm@16860
  1733
  fold f [x1, ..., xN] =
wenzelm@16860
  1734
    f x1 #> ... #> f xN
wenzelm@16860
  1735
wenzelm@16860
  1736
  (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =
wenzelm@16860
  1737
    fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN
wenzelm@16860
  1738
wenzelm@17408
  1739
* Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are
wenzelm@17408
  1740
available:
wenzelm@17408
  1741
wenzelm@17408
  1742
  the:               'a option -> 'a  (*partial*)
wenzelm@17408
  1743
  these:             'a option -> 'a  where 'a = 'b list
haftmann@17402
  1744
  the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a
haftmann@17402
  1745
  the_list:          'a option -> 'a list
haftmann@17402
  1746
wenzelm@17408
  1747
* Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
wenzelm@17408
  1748
basic operations for association lists, following natural argument
haftmann@17564
  1749
order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids
haftmann@17495
  1750
potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.
haftmann@17495
  1751
The old functions may be expressed as follows:
wenzelm@17408
  1752
wenzelm@17408
  1753
  assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))
wenzelm@17408
  1754
  assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)
wenzelm@17408
  1755
  overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap
wenzelm@17408
  1756
haftmann@17564
  1757
* Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
haftmann@17564
  1758
haftmann@17564
  1759
  val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list
haftmann@17564
  1760
  val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list
haftmann@17564
  1761
haftmann@17564
  1762
replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)
haftmann@17564
  1763
Naive rewrites:
haftmann@17564
  1764
haftmann@17564
  1765
  make_keylist = AList.make
haftmann@17564
  1766
  keyfilter = AList.find (op =)
haftmann@17564
  1767
haftmann@17564
  1768
* eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus
haftmann@17564
  1769
  avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:
haftmann@17564
  1770
haftmann@17564
  1771
    eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)
haftmann@17564
  1772
    eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)
haftmann@17564
  1773
haftmann@17564
  1774
* Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).
haftmann@17564
  1775
  Naive rewrites:
haftmann@17564
  1776
haftmann@17564
  1777
    apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n
haftmann@17564
  1778
    apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)
haftmann@17564
  1779
wenzelm@17408
  1780
* Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)
wenzelm@17408
  1781
provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as
wenzelm@17408
  1782
lists.
wenzelm@17408
  1783
wenzelm@17408
  1784
* Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a
wenzelm@17408
  1785
few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to
wenzelm@17408
  1786
follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);
wenzelm@17408
  1787
INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.
wenzelm@17408
  1788
wenzelm@17408
  1789
* Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of
wenzelm@17408
  1790
writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a
wenzelm@17408
  1791
hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode
wenzelm@17408
  1792
(cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output
wenzelm@17408
  1793
function wins).  Already formatted output may be embedded into further
wenzelm@17408
  1794
text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived
wenzelm@17408
  1795
functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to
wenzelm@17408
  1796
accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc.  Programmers
wenzelm@17408
  1797
rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with
wenzelm@17408
  1798
some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the
wenzelm@17408
  1799
standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce
wenzelm@17408
  1800
properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing
wenzelm@17408
  1801
already output material that will eventually be presented to the user
wenzelm@17408
  1802
a second time.  For the default print mode, both Output.output and
wenzelm@17408
  1803
Output.raw have no effect.
wenzelm@17408
  1804
wenzelm@17408
  1805
* Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a
wenzelm@17408
  1806
-> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the
wenzelm@17408
  1807
cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.
wenzelm@17408
  1808
wenzelm@17408
  1809
* Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been
wenzelm@17408
  1810
replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate
wenzelm@17408
  1811
hooks).  This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the
wenzelm@17408
  1812
internal and external process view of file names are different.
wenzelm@17408
  1813
wenzelm@16689
  1814
* Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added
wenzelm@16689
  1815
fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord
wenzelm@16689
  1816
and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is
wenzelm@16689
  1817
NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast
wenzelm@16689
  1818
orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a
wenzelm@16689
  1819
particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using
wenzelm@16689
  1820
Library.sort_strings on result).
wenzelm@16689
  1821
wenzelm@17408
  1822
* Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,
wenzelm@17408
  1823
fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural
wenzelm@17408
  1824
argument order.  Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,
wenzelm@17408
  1825
add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@17408
  1826
wenzelm@16151
  1827
* Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the
wenzelm@16234
  1828
internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY.  Renamed cond_extern(_table)
wenzelm@16234
  1829
to extern(_table).  The plain name entry path is superceded by a
wenzelm@16234
  1830
general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce
wenzelm@16234
  1831
a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified
wenzelm@16234
  1832
name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent
wenzelm@16234
  1833
Sign.declare_name.  Several theory and proof context operations modify
wenzelm@16234
  1834
the naming context.  Especially note Theory.restore_naming and
wenzelm@16234
  1835
ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that
wenzelm@16234
  1836
Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from
wenzelm@16234
  1837
Theory.absolute_path in particular.
wenzelm@16234
  1838
wenzelm@16234
  1839
* Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names
wenzelm@16234
  1840
(default true) for controlling output of qualified names.  If
wenzelm@16234
  1841
short_names is set, names are printed unqualified.  If unique_names is
wenzelm@16234
  1842
reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve
wenzelm@16234
  1843
the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap
wenzelm@16234
  1844
with earlier declarations.
wenzelm@16151
  1845
wenzelm@16456
  1846
* Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is
wenzelm@16456
  1847
now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument
wenzelm@16456
  1848
(useful for printing error messages).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@16456
  1849
wenzelm@16456
  1850
* Pure: major reorganization of the theory context.  Type Sign.sg and
wenzelm@16456
  1851
Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal
wenzelm@16456
  1852
Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML).  Actual signature and theory
wenzelm@16456
  1853
content is managed as theory data.  The old code and interfaces were
wenzelm@16456
  1854
spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces
wenzelm@16456
  1855
considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:
wenzelm@16456
  1856
wenzelm@16456
  1857
  Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,
wenzelm@16456
  1858
    parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;
wenzelm@16456
  1859
wenzelm@16456
  1860
  Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,
wenzelm@16456
  1861
    types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;
wenzelm@16456
  1862
wenzelm@16456
  1863
  Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,
wenzelm@16456
  1864
    oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,
wenzelm@16456
  1865
    types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,
wenzelm@16456
  1866
    Theory.merge, etc.)
wenzelm@16456
  1867
wenzelm@16456
  1868
The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm
wenzelm@16456
  1869
etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained
wenzelm@16456
  1870
for convenience -- they merely return the theory.
wenzelm@16456
  1871
wenzelm@17193
  1872
* Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.
wenzelm@17193
  1873
wenzelm@16547
  1874
* Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure
wenzelm@16547
  1875
as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are
wenzelm@16547
  1876
aliases, where the latter is the preferred name).  This enables other
wenzelm@16547
  1877
Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.
wenzelm@16547
  1878
wenzelm@16373
  1879
* Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,
wenzelm@16373
  1880
typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for
wenzelm@16373
  1881
any of these kinds.  For example, Sign.intern typeK is now
wenzelm@16373
  1882
Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now
wenzelm@16373
  1883
Theory.hide_types.  Also note that former
wenzelm@16373
  1884
Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now
wenzelm@16373
  1885
Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions
wenzelm@16373
  1886
internalize their arguments!  INCOMPATIBILITY.
wenzelm@16373
  1887
wenzelm@16506
  1888
* Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects
wenzelm@16506
  1889
datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of
wenzelm@16506
  1890
plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;
wenzelm@16506
  1891
wenzelm@16151
  1892
* Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE
wenzelm@16234
  1893
means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in
wenzelm@16234
  1894
(RAW_)METHOD_CASES.
wenzelm@16151
  1895
wenzelm@16373
  1896
* Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a
wenzelm@16373
  1897
theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:
wenzelm@16373
  1898
wenzelm@16373
  1899
  Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
wenzelm@16373
  1900
  Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
wenzelm@16373
  1901
  PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
wenzelm@16373
  1902
  PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
wenzelm@16373
  1903
wenzelm@16718
  1904
* Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.
wenzelm@16718
  1905
wenzelm@17408
  1906
* Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.
wenzelm@17408
  1907
Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing
wenzelm@17408
  1908
and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)
wenzelm@17408
  1909
controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space
wenzelm@17408
  1910
(both increase the runtime).
wenzelm@17408
  1911
wenzelm@17408
  1912
* Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,
wenzelm@17408
  1913
i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the
wenzelm@17408
  1914
elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.
wenzelm@17408
  1915
wenzelm@17408
  1916
* Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless
wenzelm@16997
  1917
representation, avoid allocating new strings).  Simprocs that invoke
wenzelm@16997
  1918
the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to
wenzelm@17720
  1919
avoid local name clashes.  Failure to do so produces warnings
wenzelm@17720
  1920
"Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds
wenzelm@17720
  1921
for further details.
wenzelm@16234
  1922
wenzelm@17166
  1923
* ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact
wenzelm@17166
  1924
bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help
wenzelm@17166
  1925
in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof
wenzelm@17166
  1926
scripts for the time being.
wenzelm@17166
  1927
wenzelm@17457
  1928
* ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for
wenzelm@17457
  1929
generated HTML files.  For example:
wenzelm@17457
  1930
wenzelm@17457
  1931
  HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";
wenzelm@17538
  1932
  HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";
wenzelm@17457
  1933
wenzelm@16234
  1934
wenzelm@16234
  1935
*** System ***
wenzelm@16234
  1936
wenzelm@16234
  1937
* Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,
wenzelm@16234
  1938
isabelle, isatool etc.).
wenzelm@16234
  1939
wenzelm@16234
  1940
* ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for
wenzelm@16234
  1941
isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).
wenzelm@16234
  1942
wenzelm@16234
  1943
* isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be
wenzelm@16234
  1944
used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.
wenzelm@16234
  1945
wenzelm@16251
  1946
* New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle
wenzelm@16251
  1947
distribution being used.
wenzelm@16251
  1948
wenzelm@16251
  1949
* HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format
wenzelm@16234
  1950
(containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL
wenzelm@16234
  1951
theories.
wenzelm@15703
  1952
wenzelm@15703
  1953
wenzelm@14655
  1954
wenzelm@14606
  1955
New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)
wenzelm@14606
  1956
--------------------------------
wenzelm@13280
  1957
skalberg@14171
  1958
*** General ***
skalberg@14171
  1959
ballarin@14398
  1960
* Provers/order.ML:  new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.
ballarin@14398
  1961
  Replaces linorder.ML.
ballarin@14398
  1962
wenzelm@14606
  1963
* Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic
wenzelm@14606
  1964
  (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler
skalberg@14173
  1965
  (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore
skalberg@14173
  1966
  be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until
skalberg@14173
  1967
  now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some
skalberg@14173
  1968
  terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say
skalberg@14173
  1969
  '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed
skalberg@14173
  1970
  as an identifier.  Fix it by inserting a space around former
skalberg@14173
  1971
  symbols.  Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in
skalberg@14173
  1972
  existing theory and ML files.
skalberg@14171
  1973
paulson@14237
  1974
* Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.
paulson@14237
  1975
wenzelm@14731
  1976
* Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now
wenzelm@14731
  1977
  allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered
wenzelm@14731
  1978
  a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat
wenzelm@14731
  1979
  \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.
kleing@14233
  1980
kleing@14333
  1981
* Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one
kleing@14333
  1982
  character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in
wenzelm@14606
  1983
  ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in
wenzelm@14606
  1984
  superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.
kleing@14333
  1985
schirmer@14561
  1986
* Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the
wenzelm@14606
  1987
  content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."
wenzelm@14606
  1988
  may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.
schirmer@14361
  1989
paulson@14237
  1990
* Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions
paulson@14237
  1991
  Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to
paulson@14237
  1992
  declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition
paulson@14237
  1993
  later.  It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically
skalberg@14224
  1994
  rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.
skalberg@14224
  1995
wenzelm@14606
  1996
* Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts
wenzelm@14606
  1997
  (i.e. intersections of classes),
skalberg@14503
  1998
kleing@14547
  1999
* Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout
wenzelm@14731
  2000
  (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.
kleing@14547
  2001
  It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.
kleing@14547
  2002
wenzelm@14556
  2003
ballarin@14175
  2004
*** Isar ***
ballarin@14175
  2005
ballarin@14508
  2006
* Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,
ballarin@14508
  2007
  cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:
ballarin@14175
  2008
  - Now understand static (Isar) contexts.  As a consequence, users of Isar
ballarin@14175
  2009
    locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.
ballarin@14175
  2010
    For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic
ballarin@14175
  2011
    emulations.
ballarin@14175
  2012
  - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no
ballarin@14211
  2013
    longer be enclosed in quotes.  Instead, precede variable name with `?'.
ballarin@14211
  2014
    This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".
ballarin@14211
  2015
ballarin@14257
  2016
* Attributes "where" and "of":
ballarin@14285
  2017
  - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading
ballarin@14285
  2018
    the instantiation string.  This fixes a bug that caused instantiated
ballarin@14285
  2019
    theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.
ballarin@14285
  2020
  - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.
ballarin@14257
  2021
wenzelm@14556
  2022
* Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with
wenzelm@14556
  2023
  current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"
wenzelm@14556
  2024
  and derived forms.
kleing@14283
  2025
ballarin@14211
  2026
* Locales:
ballarin@14211
  2027
  - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer
ballarin@14211
  2028
    generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on
ballarin@14211
  2029
    "_axioms") in the premise.
ballarin@14211
  2030
    Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.
ballarin@14211
  2031
  - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target
ballarin@14211
  2032
    specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.
ballarin@14254
  2033
  - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as
ballarin@14254
  2034
    [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.
ballarin@14508
  2035
  - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:
ballarin@14551
  2036
        instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>
ballarin@14508
  2037
    Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context
ballarin@14551
  2038
    taking into account their attributes.  Label and attrs are optional
ballarin@14551
  2039
    modifiers, like in theorem declarations.  If present, names of
ballarin@14551
  2040
    instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes
ballarin@14551
  2041
    <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.
ballarin@14551
  2042
      If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form
ballarin@14508
  2043
    "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters
ballarin@14551
  2044
    are derived.  The command does not support old-style locales declared
ballarin@14551
  2045
    with "locale (open)".
ballarin@14551
  2046
      A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.
ballarin@14175
  2047
ballarin@14175
  2048
* HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static
ballarin@14175
  2049
  (Isar) contexts.
ballarin@14175
  2050
wenzelm@14556
  2051
kleing@14136
  2052
*** HOL ***
kleing@14136
  2053
kleing@14624
  2054
* Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from
kleing@14624
  2055
  the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by
kleing@14624
  2056
  replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image
kleing@14624
  2057
  can be used like any other Isabelle image.  See
kleing@14624
  2058
  HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.
kleing@14624
  2059
ballarin@14398
  2060
* Simplifier:
ballarin@14398
  2061
  - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.
ballarin@14398
  2062
    Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes
ballarin@14398
  2063
    "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset
ballarin@14398
  2064
    as solvers.  This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains
ballarin@14398
  2065
    to solve goals from the assumptions.
ballarin@14398
  2066
  - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally.  Typically, applications
ballarin@14398
  2067
    of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal
ballarin@14398
  2068
    is solved by simplification already.
ballarin@14398
  2069
wenzelm@14731
  2070
* Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,
paulson@14389
  2071
    all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.
paulson@14389
  2072
paulson@14389
  2073
* Numerics:
paulson@14389
  2074
  - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are
wenzelm@14731
  2075
    now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.
paulson@14389
  2076
  - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently
paulson@14389
  2077
    than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.
wenzelm@14731
  2078
  - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.
paulson@14480
  2079
    Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern
paulson@14480
  2080
    exponentiation).
paulson@14389
  2081
paulson@14401
  2082
* Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.
paulson@14389
  2083
schirmer@14255
  2084
* Records:
schirmer@14255
  2085
  - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation
schirmer@14255
  2086
    instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via
schirmer@14255
  2087
    the reference "print_record_type_abbr".
wenzelm@14731
  2088
  - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added
schirmer@14255
  2089
    (not enabled by default).
schirmer@14427
  2090
  - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.
schirmer@14427
  2091
    EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).
schirmer@14255
  2092
  - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.
wenzelm@14731
  2093
kleing@14136
  2094
* 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by
skalberg@14224
  2095
  specification.  There is also an 'ax_specification' command that
skalberg@14224
  2096
  introduces the new constants axiomatically.
kleing@14136
  2097
nipkow@14375
  2098
* arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.
nipkow@14375
  2099
ballarin@14399
  2100
* HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.
ballarin@14399
  2101
paulson@14243
  2102
* HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function
kleing@14610
  2103
  definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.
kleing@14610
  2104
wenzelm@14731
  2105
* HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of
kleing@14610
  2106
  matrix theory to linear programming.
kleing@14136
  2107
nipkow@14380
  2108
* Unions and Intersections:
nipkow@15119
  2109
  The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed
nipkow@15119
  2110
  from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"
nipkow@15119
  2111
  i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.
nipkow@15119
  2112
  Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.
nipkow@14380
  2113
kleing@14418
  2114
* Unions and Intersections over Intervals:
wenzelm@14731
  2115
  There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is
wenzelm@14731
  2116
  also an x-symbol version with subscripts "\<Union>\<^bsub>i <= n\<^esub>. A"
kleing@14418
  2117
  like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.
kleing@14418
  2118
nipkow@15677
  2119
* HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard
nipkow@15677
  2120
  lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".
nipkow@15677
  2121
paulson@14401
  2122
* ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had
paulson@14401
  2123
  conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.
nipkow@14380
  2124
webertj@14464
  2125
* 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels.  Only works
webertj@14464
  2126
  for a fragment of HOL.  The installation of an external SAT solver is
webertj@14464
  2127
  highly recommended.  See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.
webertj@14464
  2128
berghofe@14602
  2129
* 'quickcheck' command: Allows to find counterexamples by evaluating
berghofe@14602
  2130
  formulae under an assignment of free variables to random values.
berghofe@14602
  2131
  In contrast to 'refute', it can deal with inductive datatypes,
berghofe@14602
  2132
  but cannot handle quantifiers. See "HOL/ex/Quickcheck_Examples.thy"
berghofe@14602
  2133
  for examples.
webertj@14464
  2134
wenzelm@14606
  2135
oheimb@14536
  2136
*** HOLCF ***
oheimb@14536
  2137
oheimb@14536
  2138
* Streams now come with concatenation and are part of the HOLCF image
oheimb@14536
  2139
wenzelm@14572
  2140
wenzelm@14572
  2141
kleing@14136
  2142
New in Isabelle2003 (May 2003)
wenzelm@14606
  2143
------------------------------
kleing@14136
  2144
wenzelm@13280
  2145
*** General ***
wenzelm@13280
  2146
berghofe@13618
  2147
* Provers/simplifier:
berghofe@13618
  2148
nipkow@13781
  2149
  - Completely reimplemented method simp (ML: Asm_full_simp_tac):
berghofe@13618
  2150
    Assumptions are now subject to complete mutual simplification,
berghofe@13618
  2151
    not just from left to right. The simplifier now preserves
berghofe@13618
  2152
    the order of assumptions.
berghofe@13618
  2153
berghofe@13618
  2154
    Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
berghofe@13618
  2155
nipkow@13781
  2156
    -- simp sometimes diverges where the old version did
nipkow@13781
  2157
       not, e.g. invoking simp on the goal
berghofe@13618
  2158
berghofe@13618
  2159
        [| P (f x); y = x; f x = f y |] ==> Q
berghofe@13618
  2160
nipkow@13781
  2161
       now gives rise to the infinite reduction sequence
nipkow@13781
  2162
nipkow@13781
  2163
        P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> P(f y) --(y = x)--> P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> ...
nipkow@13781
  2164
nipkow@13781
  2165
       Using "simp (asm_lr)" (ML: Asm_lr_simp_tac) instead often solves this
nipkow@13781
  2166
       kind of problem.
nipkow@13781
  2167
nipkow@13781
  2168
    -- Tactics combining classical reasoner and simplification (such as auto)
nipkow@13781
  2169
       are also affected by this change, because many of them rely on
nipkow@13781
  2170
       simp. They may sometimes diverge as well or yield a different numbers
nipkow@13781
  2171
       of subgoals. Try to use e.g. force, fastsimp, or safe instead of auto
nipkow@13781
  2172
       in case of problems. Sometimes subsequent calls to the classical
nipkow@13781
  2173
       reasoner will fail because a preceeding call to the simplifier too
nipkow@13781
  2174
       eagerly simplified the goal, e.g. deleted redundant premises.
berghofe@13618
  2175
berghofe@13618
  2176
  - The simplifier trace now shows the names of the applied rewrite rules
berghofe@13618
  2177
nipkow@13829
  2178
  - You can limit the number of recursive invocations of the simplifier
nipkow@13829
  2179
    during conditional rewriting (where the simplifie tries to solve the
nipkow@13829
  2180
    conditions before applying the rewrite rule):
nipkow@13829
  2181
    ML "simp_depth_limit := n"
nipkow@13829
  2182
    where n is an integer. Thus you can force termination where previously
nipkow@13829
  2183
    the simplifier would diverge.
nipkow@13829
  2184
ballarin@13835
  2185
  - Accepts free variables as head terms in congruence rules.  Useful in Isar.
nipkow@13829
  2186
ballarin@13938
  2187
  - No longer aborts on failed congruence proof.  Instead, the
ballarin@13938
  2188
    congruence is ignored.
ballarin@13938
  2189
berghofe@14008
  2190
* Pure: New generic framework for extracting programs from constructive
berghofe@14008
  2191
  proofs. See HOL/Extraction.thy for an example instantiation, as well
berghofe@14008
  2192
  as HOL/Extraction for some case studies.
berghofe@14008
  2193
nipkow@13868
  2194
* Pure: The main goal of the proof state is no longer shown by default, only
nipkow@13868
  2195
the subgoals. This behaviour is controlled by a new flag.
ballarin@13835
  2196
   PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Settings -> Show Main Goal
nipkow@13815
  2197
(ML: Proof.show_main_goal).
nipkow@13815
  2198
nipkow@13815
  2199
* Pure: You can find all matching introduction rules for subgoal 1, i.e. all
nipkow@13815
  2200
rules whose conclusion matches subgoal 1:
nipkow@13815
  2201
      PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Show me -> matching rules
nipkow@13815
  2202
The rules are ordered by how closely they match the subgoal.
nipkow@13815
  2203
In particular, rules that solve a subgoal outright are displayed first
nipkow@13815
  2204
(or rather last, the way they are printed).
nipkow@13815
  2205
(ML: ProofGeneral.print_intros())
nipkow@13815
  2206
nipkow@13815
  2207
* Pure: New flag trace_unify_fail causes unification to print
nipkow@13781
  2208
diagnostic information (PG: in trace buffer) when it fails. This is
nipkow@13781
  2209
useful for figuring out why single step proofs like rule, erule or
nipkow@13781
  2210
assumption failed.
nipkow@13781
  2211
nipkow@13815
  2212
* Pure: Locale specifications now produce predicate definitions
wenzelm@13410
  2213
according to the body of text (covering assumptions modulo local
wenzelm@13410
  2214
definitions); predicate "loc_axioms" covers newly introduced text,
wenzelm@13410
  2215
while "loc" is cumulative wrt. all included locale expressions; the
wenzelm@13410
  2216
latter view is presented only on export into the global theory
wenzelm@13410
  2217
context; potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use "(open)" option to fall back
wenzelm@13410
  2218
on the old view without predicates;
wenzelm@13410
  2219
wenzelm@13459
  2220
* Pure: predefined locales "var" and "struct" are useful for sharing
wenzelm@13459
  2221
parameters (as in CASL, for example); just specify something like
wenzelm@13459
  2222
``var x + var y + struct M'' as import;
wenzelm@13459
  2223
wenzelm@13463
  2224
* Pure: improved thms_containing: proper indexing of facts instead of
wenzelm@13463
  2225
raw theorems; check validity of results wrt. current name space;
wenzelm@13463
  2226
include local facts of proof configuration (also covers active
wenzelm@13541
  2227
locales), cover fixed variables in index; may use "_" in term
wenzelm@13541
  2228
specification; an optional limit for the number of printed facts may
wenzelm@13541
  2229
be given (the default is 40);
wenzelm@13541
  2230
wenzelm@13541
  2231
* Pure: disallow duplicate fact bindings within new-style theory files
wenzelm@13541
  2232
(batch-mode only);
wenzelm@13540
  2233
wenzelm@13463
  2234
* Provers: improved induct method: assumptions introduced by case
wenzelm@13463
  2235
"foo" are split into "foo.hyps" (from the rule) and "foo.prems" (from
wenzelm@13463
  2236
the goal statement); "foo" still refers to all facts collectively;
wenzelm@13463
  2237
paulson@13550
  2238
* Provers: the function blast.overloaded has been removed: all constants
paulson@13550
  2239
are regarded as potentially overloaded, which improves robustness in exchange
paulson@13550
  2240
for slight decrease in efficiency;
paulson@13550
  2241
nipkow@13781
  2242
* Provers/linorder: New generic prover for transitivity reasoning over
nipkow@13781
  2243
linear orders.  Note: this prover is not efficient!
nipkow@13781
  2244
wenzelm@13522
  2245
* Isar: preview of problems to finish 'show' now produce an error
wenzelm@13522
  2246
rather than just a warning (in interactive mode);
wenzelm@13522
  2247
wenzelm@13280
  2248
nipkow@13158
  2249
*** HOL ***
nipkow@13158
  2250
nipkow@13899
  2251
* arith(_tac)
nipkow@13899
  2252
nipkow@13899
  2253
 - Produces a counter example if it cannot prove a goal.
nipkow@13899
  2254
   Note that the counter example may be spurious if the goal is not a formula
nipkow@13899
  2255
   of quantifier-free linear arithmetic.
nipkow@13899
  2256
   In ProofGeneral the counter example appears in the trace buffer.
nipkow@13899
  2257
nipkow@13899
  2258
 - Knows about div k and mod k where k is a numeral of type nat or int.
nipkow@13899
  2259
nipkow@13899
  2260
 - Calls full Presburger arithmetic (by Amine Chaieb) if quantifier-free
nipkow@13899
  2261
   linear arithmetic fails. This takes account of quantifiers and divisibility.
wenzelm@14731
  2262
   Presburger arithmetic can also be called explicitly via presburger(_tac).
nipkow@13899
  2263
nipkow@13899
  2264
* simp's arithmetic capabilities have been enhanced a bit: it now
nipkow@13899
  2265
takes ~= in premises into account (by performing a case split);
nipkow@13899
  2266
nipkow@13899
  2267
* simp reduces "m*(n div m) + n mod m" to n, even if the two summands
nipkow@13899
  2268
are distributed over a sum of terms;
nipkow@13899
  2269
ballarin@13735
  2270
* New tactic "trans_tac" and method "trans" instantiate
ballarin@13735
  2271
Provers/linorder.ML for axclasses "order" and "linorder" (predicates
wenzelm@14731
  2272
"<=", "<" and "=").
wenzelm@14731
  2273
wenzelm@14731
  2274
* function INCOMPATIBILITIES: Pi-sets have been redefined and moved from main
paulson@13587
  2275
HOL to Library/FuncSet; constant "Fun.op o" is now called "Fun.comp";
paulson@13587
  2276
wenzelm@13443
  2277
* 'typedef' command has new option "open" to suppress the set
wenzelm@13443
  2278
definition;
wenzelm@13443
  2279
wenzelm@13522
  2280
* functions Min and Max on finite sets have been introduced (theory
wenzelm@13522
  2281
Finite_Set);
nipkow@13492
  2282
wenzelm@13443
  2283
* attribute [symmetric] now works for relations as well; it turns
wenzelm@13443
  2284
(x,y) : R^-1 into (y,x) : R, and vice versa;
wenzelm@13443
  2285
nipkow@13613
  2286
* induct over a !!-quantified statement (say !!x1..xn):
nipkow@13613
  2287
  each "case" automatically performs "fix x1 .. xn" with exactly those names.
nipkow@13613
  2288
nipkow@13899
  2289
* Map: `empty' is no longer a constant but a syntactic abbreviation for
nipkow@13899
  2290
%x. None. Warning: empty_def now refers to the previously hidden definition
nipkow@13899
  2291
of the empty set.
nipkow@13899
  2292
ballarin@14018
  2293
* Algebra: formalization of classical algebra.  Intended as base for
ballarin@14018
  2294
any algebraic development in Isabelle.  Currently covers group theory
ballarin@14018
  2295
(up to Sylow's theorem) and ring theory (Universal Property of
ballarin@14018
  2296
Univariate Polynomials).  Contributions welcome;
paulson@13960
  2297
paulson@13960
  2298
* GroupTheory: deleted, since its material has been moved to Algebra;
paulson@13960
  2299
wenzelm@14731
  2300
* Complex: new directory of the complex numbers with numeric constants,
wenzelm@14731
  2301
nonstandard complex numbers, and some complex analysis, standard and
paulson@13966
  2302
nonstandard (Jacques Fleuriot);
paulson@13966
  2303
paulson@13966
  2304
* HOL-Complex: new image for analysis, replacing HOL-Real and HOL-Hyperreal;
paulson@13966
  2305
wenzelm@14731
  2306
* Hyperreal: introduced Gauge integration and hyperreal logarithms (Jacques
paulson@13966
  2307
Fleuriot);
paulson@13960
  2308
wenzelm@13549
  2309
* Real/HahnBanach: updated and adapted to locales;
wenzelm@13549
  2310
ballarin@13995
  2311
* NumberTheory: added Gauss's law of quadratic reciprocity (by Avigad,
ballarin@13995
  2312
Gray and Kramer);
paulson@13872
  2313
paulson@13872
  2314
* UNITY: added the Meier-Sanders theory of progress sets;
paulson@13872
  2315
kleing@14011
  2316
* MicroJava: bytecode verifier and lightweight bytecode verifier
kleing@14011
  2317
as abstract algorithms, instantiated to the JVM;
kleing@14011
  2318
schirmer@14010
  2319
* Bali: Java source language formalization. Type system, operational
schirmer@14010
  2320
semantics, axiomatic semantics. Supported language features:
schirmer@14010
  2321
classes, interfaces, objects,virtual methods, static methods,
schirmer@14010
  2322
static/instance fields, arrays, access modifiers, definite
schirmer@14010
  2323
assignment, exceptions.
wenzelm@13549
  2324
kleing@14011
  2325
wenzelm@13549
  2326
*** ZF ***
wenzelm@13549
  2327
webertj@15154
  2328
* ZF/Constructible: consistency proof for AC (Gdel's constructible
wenzelm@13549
  2329
universe, etc.);
wenzelm@13549
  2330
paulson@13872
  2331
* Main ZF: virtually all theories converted to new-style format;
nipkow@13518
  2332
wenzelm@13280
  2333
wenzelm@13478
  2334
*** ML ***
wenzelm@13478
  2335
wenzelm@13478
  2336
* Pure: Tactic.prove provides sane interface for internal proofs;
wenzelm@13478
  2337
omits the infamous "standard" operation, so this is more appropriate
wenzelm@13478
  2338
than prove_goalw_cterm in many situations (e.g. in simprocs);
wenzelm@13478
  2339
wenzelm@13478
  2340
* Pure: improved error reporting of simprocs;
wenzelm@13478
  2341
wenzelm@13478
  2342
* Provers: Simplifier.simproc(_i) provides sane interface for setting
wenzelm@13478
  2343
up simprocs;
wenzelm@13478
  2344
wenzelm@13478
  2345
kleing@13953
  2346
*** Document preparation ***
kleing@13953
  2347
kleing@13953
  2348
* uses \par instead of \\ for line breaks in theory text. This may
kleing@13953
  2349
shift some page breaks in large documents. To get the old behaviour
kleing@13953
  2350
use \renewcommand{\isanewline}{\mbox{}\\\mbox{}} in root.tex.
kleing@13953
  2351
wenzelm@14731
  2352
* minimized dependencies of isabelle.sty and isabellesym.sty on
kleing@13953
  2353
other packages
kleing@13953
  2354
kleing@13953
  2355
* \<euro> now needs package babel/greek instead of marvosym (which
kleing@13953
  2356
broke \Rightarrow)
kleing@13953
  2357
wenzelm@14731
  2358
* normal size for \<zero>...\<nine> (uses \mathbf instead of
kleing@13954
  2359
textcomp package)
kleing@13953
  2360
wenzelm@13280
  2361
wenzelm@14572
  2362
wenzelm@12984
  2363
New in Isabelle2002 (March 2002)
wenzelm@12984
  2364
--------------------------------
wenzelm@11474
  2365
wenzelm@11572
  2366
*** Document preparation ***
wenzelm@11572
  2367
wenzelm@11842
  2368
* greatly simplified document preparation setup, including more
wenzelm@11842
  2369
graceful interpretation of isatool usedir -i/-d/-D options, and more
wenzelm@11842
  2370
instructive isatool mkdir; users should basically be able to get
wenzelm@12899
  2371
started with "isatool mkdir HOL Test && isatool make"; alternatively,
wenzelm@12899
  2372
users may run a separate document processing stage manually like this:
wenzelm@12899
  2373
"isatool usedir -D output HOL Test && isatool document Test/output";
wenzelm@11842
  2374
wenzelm@11842
  2375
* theory dependency graph may now be incorporated into documents;
wenzelm@11842
  2376
isatool usedir -g true will produce session_graph.eps/.pdf for use
wenzelm@11842
  2377
with \includegraphics of LaTeX;
wenzelm@11842
  2378
wenzelm@11864
  2379
* proper spacing of consecutive markup elements, especially text
wenzelm@11864
  2380
blocks after section headings;
wenzelm@11864
  2381
wenzelm@11572
  2382
* support bold style (for single symbols only), input syntax is like
wenzelm@11572
  2383
this: "\<^bold>\<alpha>" or "\<^bold>A";
wenzelm@11572
  2384
wenzelm@11814
  2385
* \<bullet> is now output as bold \cdot by default, which looks much
wenzelm@11572
  2386
better in printed text;
wenzelm@11572
  2387
wenzelm@11712
  2388
* added default LaTeX bindings for \<tturnstile> and \<TTurnstile>;
wenzelm@11712
  2389
note that these symbols are currently unavailable in Proof General /
wenzelm@12769
  2390
X-Symbol; new symbols \<zero>, \<one>, ..., \<nine>, and \<euro>;
wenzelm@12690
  2391
wenzelm@12690
  2392
* isatool latex no longer depends on changed TEXINPUTS, instead
wenzelm@12690
  2393
isatool document copies the Isabelle style files to the target
wenzelm@12690
  2394
location;
wenzelm@11712
  2395
wenzelm@11572
  2396
wenzelm@11633
  2397
*** Isar ***
wenzelm@11633
  2398
wenzelm@12312
  2399
* Pure/Provers: improved proof by cases and induction;
wenzelm@12280
  2400
  - 'case' command admits impromptu naming of parameters (such as
wenzelm@12280
  2401
    "case (Suc n)");
wenzelm@12280
  2402
  - 'induct' method divinates rule instantiation from the inductive
wenzelm@12280
  2403
    claim; no longer requires excessive ?P bindings for proper
wenzelm@12280
  2404
    instantiation of cases;
wenzelm@12280
  2405
  - 'induct' method properly enumerates all possibilities of set/type
wenzelm@12280
  2406
    rules; as a consequence facts may be also passed through *type*
wenzelm@12280
  2407
    rules without further ado;
wenzelm@12280
  2408
  - 'induct' method now derives symbolic cases from the *rulified*
wenzelm@12280
  2409
    rule (before it used to rulify cases stemming from the internal
wenzelm@12280
  2410
    atomized version); this means that the context of a non-atomic
wenzelm@12280
  2411
    statement becomes is included in the hypothesis, avoiding the
wenzelm@12280
  2412
    slightly cumbersome show "PROP ?case" form;
wenzelm@12280
  2413
  - 'induct' may now use elim-style induction rules without chaining
wenzelm@12280
  2414
    facts, using ``missing'' premises from the goal state; this allows
wenzelm@12280
  2415
    rules stemming from inductive sets to be applied in unstructured
wenzelm@12280
  2416
    scripts, while still benefitting from proper handling of non-atomic
wenzelm@12280
  2417
    statements; NB: major inductive premises need to be put first, all
wenzelm@12280
  2418
    the rest of the goal is passed through the induction;
wenzelm@12280
  2419
  - 'induct' proper support for mutual induction involving non-atomic
wenzelm@12280
  2420
    rule statements (uses the new concept of simultaneous goals, see
wenzelm@12280
  2421
    below);
wenzelm@12853
  2422
  - append all possible rule selections, but only use the first
wenzelm@12853
  2423
    success (no backtracking);
wenzelm@11995
  2424
  - removed obsolete "(simplified)" and "(stripped)" options of methods;
wenzelm@12754
  2425
  - undeclared rule case names default to numbers 1, 2, 3, ...;
wenzelm@12754
  2426
  - added 'print_induct_rules' (covered by help item in recent Proof
wenzelm@12754
  2427
    General versions);
wenzelm@11995
  2428
  - moved induct/cases attributes to Pure, methods to Provers;
wenzelm@11995
  2429
  - generic method setup instantiated for FOL and HOL;
wenzelm@11986
  2430
wenzelm@12163
  2431
* Pure: support multiple simultaneous goal statements, for example
wenzelm@12163
  2432
"have a: A and b: B" (same for 'theorem' etc.); being a pure
wenzelm@12163
  2433
meta-level mechanism, this acts as if several individual goals had
wenzelm@12163
  2434
been stated separately; in particular common proof methods need to be
wenzelm@12163
  2435
repeated in order to cover all claims; note that a single elimination
wenzelm@12163
  2436
step is *not* sufficient to establish the two conjunctions, so this
wenzelm@12163
  2437
fails:
wenzelm@12163
  2438
wenzelm@12163
  2439
  assume "A & B" then have A and B ..   (*".." fails*)
wenzelm@12163
  2440
wenzelm@12163
  2441
better use "obtain" in situations as above; alternative refer to
wenzelm@12163
  2442
multi-step methods like 'auto', 'simp_all', 'blast+' etc.;
wenzelm@12163
  2443
wenzelm@12078
  2444
* Pure: proper integration with ``locales''; unlike the original
webertj@15154
  2445
version by Florian Kammller, Isar locales package high-level proof
wenzelm@12078
  2446
contexts rather than raw logical ones (e.g. we admit to include
wenzelm@12280
  2447
attributes everywhere); operations on locales include merge and
wenzelm@12964
  2448
rename; support for implicit arguments (``structures''); simultaneous
wenzelm@12964
  2449
type-inference over imports and text; see also HOL/ex/Locales.thy for
wenzelm@12964
  2450
some examples;
wenzelm@12078
  2451
wenzelm@12707
  2452
* Pure: the following commands have been ``localized'', supporting a
wenzelm@12707
  2453
target locale specification "(in name)": 'lemma', 'theorem',
wenzelm@12707
  2454
'corollary', 'lemmas', 'theorems', 'declare'; the results will be
wenzelm@12707
  2455
stored both within the locale and at the theory level (exported and
wenzelm@12707
  2456
qualified by the locale name);
wenzelm@12707
  2457
wenzelm@12964
  2458
* Pure: theory goals may now be specified in ``long'' form, with
wenzelm@12964
  2459
ad-hoc contexts consisting of arbitrary locale elements. for example
wenzelm@12964
  2460
``lemma foo: fixes x assumes "A x" shows "B x"'' (local syntax and
wenzelm@12964
  2461
definitions may be given, too); the result is a meta-level rule with
wenzelm@12964
  2462
the context elements being discharged in the obvious way;
wenzelm@12964
  2463
wenzelm@12964
  2464
* Pure: new proof command 'using' allows to augment currently used
wenzelm@12964
  2465
facts after a goal statement ('using' is syntactically analogous to
wenzelm@12964
  2466
'apply', but acts on the goal's facts only); this allows chained facts
wenzelm@12964
  2467
to be separated into parts given before and after a claim, as in
wenzelm@12964
  2468
``from a and b have C using d and e <proof>'';
wenzelm@12078
  2469
wenzelm@11722
  2470
* Pure: renamed "antecedent" case to "rule_context";
wenzelm@11722
  2471
wenzelm@12964
  2472
* Pure: new 'judgment' command records explicit information about the
wenzelm@12964
  2473
object-logic embedding (used by several tools internally); no longer
wenzelm@12964
  2474
use hard-wired "Trueprop";
wenzelm@12964
  2475
wenzelm@11738
  2476
* Pure: added 'corollary' command;
wenzelm@11738
  2477
wenzelm@11722
  2478
* Pure: fixed 'token_translation' command;
wenzelm@11722
  2479
wenzelm@11899
  2480
* Pure: removed obsolete 'exported' attribute;
wenzelm@11899
  2481
wenzelm@11933
  2482
* Pure: dummy pattern "_" in is/let is now automatically lifted over
wenzelm@11933
  2483
bound variables: "ALL x. P x --> Q x" (is "ALL x. _ --> ?C x")
wenzelm@11899
  2484
supersedes more cumbersome ... (is "ALL x. _ x --> ?C x");
wenzelm@11899
  2485
wenzelm@11952
  2486
* Pure: method 'atomize' presents local goal premises as object-level
wenzelm@11952
  2487
statements (atomic meta-level propositions); setup controlled via
wenzelm@11952
  2488
rewrite rules declarations of 'atomize' attribute; example
wenzelm@11952
  2489
application: 'induct' method with proper rule statements in improper
wenzelm@11952
  2490
proof *scripts*;
wenzelm@11952
  2491
wenzelm@12106
  2492
* Pure: emulation of instantiation tactics (rule_tac, cut_tac, etc.)
wenzelm@12106
  2493
now consider the syntactic context of assumptions, giving a better
wenzelm@12106
  2494
chance to get type-inference of the arguments right (this is
wenzelm@12106
  2495
especially important for locales);
wenzelm@12106
  2496
wenzelm@12312
  2497
* Pure: "sorry" no longer requires quick_and_dirty in interactive
wenzelm@12312
  2498
mode;
wenzelm@12312
  2499
wenzelm@12405
  2500
* Pure/obtain: the formal conclusion "thesis", being marked as
wenzelm@12405
  2501
``internal'', may no longer be reference directly in the text;
wenzelm@12405
  2502
potential INCOMPATIBILITY, may need to use "?thesis" in rare
wenzelm@12405
  2503
situations;
wenzelm@12405
  2504
wenzelm@12405
  2505
* Pure: generic 'sym' attribute which declares a rule both as pure
wenzelm@12405
  2506
'elim?' and for the 'symmetric' operation;
wenzelm@12405
  2507
wenzelm@12877
  2508
* Pure: marginal comments ``--'' may now occur just anywhere in the
wenzelm@12877
  2509
text; the fixed correlation with particular command syntax has been
wenzelm@12877
  2510
discontinued;
wenzelm@12877
  2511
berghofe@13023
  2512
* Pure: new method 'rules' is particularly well-suited for proof
berghofe@13023
  2513
search in intuitionistic logic; a bit slower than 'blast' or 'fast',
berghofe@13023
  2514
but often produces more compact proof terms with less detours;
berghofe@13023
  2515
wenzelm@12364
  2516
* Pure/Provers/classical: simplified integration with pure rule
wenzelm@12364
  2517
attributes and methods; the classical "intro?/elim?/dest?"
wenzelm@12364
  2518
declarations coincide with the pure ones; the "rule" method no longer
wenzelm@12364
  2519
includes classically swapped intros; "intro" and "elim" methods no
wenzelm@12364
  2520
longer pick rules from the context; also got rid of ML declarations
wenzelm@12364
  2521
AddXIs/AddXEs/AddXDs; all of this has some potential for
wenzelm@12364
  2522
INCOMPATIBILITY;
wenzelm@12364
  2523
wenzelm@12405
  2524
* Provers/classical: attribute 'swapped' produces classical inversions
wenzelm@12405
  2525
of introduction rules;
wenzelm@12405
  2526
wenzelm@12364
  2527
* Provers/simplifier: 'simplified' attribute may refer to explicit
wenzelm@12364
  2528
rules instead of full simplifier context; 'iff' attribute handles
wenzelm@12364
  2529
conditional rules;
wenzelm@11936
  2530
wenzelm@11745
  2531
* HOL: 'typedef' now allows alternative names for Rep/Abs morphisms;
wenzelm@11745
  2532
wenzelm@11690
  2533
* HOL: 'recdef' now fails on unfinished automated proofs, use
wenzelm@11633
  2534
"(permissive)" option to recover old behavior;
wenzelm@11633
  2535
wenzelm@11933
  2536
* HOL: 'inductive' no longer features separate (collective) attributes
wenzelm@11933
  2537
for 'intros' (was found too confusing);
wenzelm@11933
  2538
wenzelm@12405
  2539
* HOL: properly declared induction rules less_induct and
wenzelm@12405
  2540
wf_induct_rule;
wenzelm@12405
  2541
kleing@11788
  2542
wenzelm@11474
  2543
*** HOL ***
wenzelm@11474
  2544
wenzelm@11702
  2545
* HOL: moved over to sane numeral syntax; the new policy is as
wenzelm@11702
  2546
follows:
wenzelm@11702
  2547
wenzelm@11702
  2548
  - 0 and 1 are polymorphic constants, which are defined on any
wenzelm@11702
  2549
  numeric type (nat, int, real etc.);
wenzelm@11702
  2550
wenzelm@11702
  2551
  - 2, 3, 4, ... and -1, -2, -3, ... are polymorphic numerals, based
wenzelm@11702
  2552
  binary representation internally;
wenzelm@11702
  2553
wenzelm@11702
  2554
  - type nat has special constructor Suc, and generally prefers Suc 0
wenzelm@11702
  2555
  over 1::nat and Suc (Suc 0) over 2::nat;
wenzelm@11702
  2556
wenzelm@12364
  2557
This change may cause significant problems of INCOMPATIBILITY; here
wenzelm@12364
  2558
are some hints on converting existing sources:
wenzelm@11702
  2559
wenzelm@11702
  2560
  - due to the new "num" token, "-0" and "-1" etc. are now atomic
wenzelm@11702
  2561
  entities, so expressions involving "-" (unary or binary minus) need
wenzelm@11702
  2562
  to be spaced properly;
wenzelm@11702
  2563
wenzelm@11702
  2564
  - existing occurrences of "1" may need to be constraint "1::nat" or
wenzelm@11702
  2565
  even replaced by Suc 0; similar for old "2";