src/ZF/Constructible/Wellorderings.thy
 changeset 13223 45be08fbdcff child 13245 714f7a423a15
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/src/ZF/Constructible/Wellorderings.thy	Wed Jun 19 11:48:01 2002 +0200
@@ -0,0 +1,626 @@
+
+theory Wellorderings = Relative:
+
+text{*We define functions analogous to @{term ordermap} @{term ordertype}
+      but without using recursion.  Instead, there is a direct appeal
+      to Replacement.  This will be the basis for a version relativized
+      to some class @{text M}.  The main result is Theorem I 7.6 in Kunen,
+      page 17.*}
+
+
+subsection{*Wellorderings*}
+
+constdefs
+  irreflexive :: "[i=>o,i,i]=>o"
+    "irreflexive(M,A,r) == \<forall>x\<in>A. M(x) --> <x,x> \<notin> r"
+
+  transitive_rel :: "[i=>o,i,i]=>o"
+    "transitive_rel(M,A,r) ==
+	\<forall>x\<in>A. M(x) --> (\<forall>y\<in>A. M(y) --> (\<forall>z\<in>A. M(z) -->
+                          <x,y>\<in>r --> <y,z>\<in>r --> <x,z>\<in>r))"
+
+  linear_rel :: "[i=>o,i,i]=>o"
+    "linear_rel(M,A,r) ==
+	\<forall>x\<in>A. M(x) --> (\<forall>y\<in>A. M(y) --> <x,y>\<in>r | x=y | <y,x>\<in>r)"
+
+  wellfounded :: "[i=>o,i]=>o"
+    --{*EVERY non-empty set has an @{text r}-minimal element*}
+    "wellfounded(M,r) ==
+	\<forall>x. M(x) --> ~ empty(M,x)
+                 --> (\<exists>y\<in>x. M(y) & ~(\<exists>z\<in>x. M(z) & <z,y> \<in> r))"
+  wellfounded_on :: "[i=>o,i,i]=>o"
+    --{*every non-empty SUBSET OF @{text A} has an @{text r}-minimal element*}
+    "wellfounded_on(M,A,r) ==
+	\<forall>x. M(x) --> ~ empty(M,x) --> subset(M,x,A)
+                 --> (\<exists>y\<in>x. M(y) & ~(\<exists>z\<in>x. M(z) & <z,y> \<in> r))"
+
+  wellordered :: "[i=>o,i,i]=>o"
+    --{*every non-empty subset of @{text A} has an @{text r}-minimal element*}
+    "wellordered(M,A,r) ==
+	transitive_rel(M,A,r) & linear_rel(M,A,r) & wellfounded_on(M,A,r)"
+
+
+subsubsection {*Trivial absoluteness proofs*}
+
+lemma (in M_axioms) irreflexive_abs [simp]:
+     "M(A) ==> irreflexive(M,A,r) <-> irrefl(A,r)"
+
+lemma (in M_axioms) transitive_rel_abs [simp]:
+     "M(A) ==> transitive_rel(M,A,r) <-> trans[A](r)"
+
+lemma (in M_axioms) linear_rel_abs [simp]:
+     "M(A) ==> linear_rel(M,A,r) <-> linear(A,r)"
+
+lemma (in M_axioms) wellordered_is_trans_on:
+    "[| wellordered(M,A,r); M(A) |] ==> trans[A](r)"
+by (auto simp add: wellordered_def )
+
+lemma (in M_axioms) wellordered_is_linear:
+    "[| wellordered(M,A,r); M(A) |] ==> linear(A,r)"
+by (auto simp add: wellordered_def )
+
+lemma (in M_axioms) wellordered_is_wellfounded_on:
+    "[| wellordered(M,A,r); M(A) |] ==> wellfounded_on(M,A,r)"
+by (auto simp add: wellordered_def )
+
+lemma (in M_axioms) wellfounded_imp_wellfounded_on:
+    "[| wellfounded(M,r); M(A) |] ==> wellfounded_on(M,A,r)"
+by (auto simp add: wellfounded_def wellfounded_on_def)
+
+
+subsubsection {*Well-founded relations*}
+
+lemma  (in M_axioms) wellfounded_on_iff_wellfounded:
+     "wellfounded_on(M,A,r) <-> wellfounded(M, r \<inter> A*A)"
+apply (simp add: wellfounded_on_def wellfounded_def, safe)
+ apply blast
+apply (drule_tac x=x in spec, blast)
+done
+
+lemma (in M_axioms) wellfounded_on_induct:
+     "[| a\<in>A;  wellfounded_on(M,A,r);  M(A);
+       separation(M, \<lambda>x. x\<in>A --> ~P(x));
+       \<forall>x\<in>A. M(x) & (\<forall>y\<in>A. <y,x> \<in> r --> P(y)) --> P(x) |]
+      ==> P(a)";
+apply (drule_tac x="{z\<in>A. z\<in>A --> ~P(z)}" in spec)
+apply (blast intro: transM)
+done
+
+text{*The assumption @{term "r \<subseteq> A*A"} justifies strengthening the induction
+      hypothesis by removing the restriction to @{term A}.*}
+lemma (in M_axioms) wellfounded_on_induct2:
+     "[| a\<in>A;  wellfounded_on(M,A,r);  M(A);  r \<subseteq> A*A;
+       separation(M, \<lambda>x. x\<in>A --> ~P(x));
+       \<forall>x\<in>A. M(x) & (\<forall>y. <y,x> \<in> r --> P(y)) --> P(x) |]
+      ==> P(a)";
+by (rule wellfounded_on_induct, assumption+, blast)
+
+
+subsubsection {*Kunen's lemma IV 3.14, page 123*}
+
+lemma (in M_axioms) linear_imp_relativized:
+     "linear(A,r) ==> linear_rel(M,A,r)"
+
+lemma (in M_axioms) trans_on_imp_relativized:
+     "trans[A](r) ==> transitive_rel(M,A,r)"
+by (unfold transitive_rel_def trans_on_def, blast)
+
+lemma (in M_axioms) wf_on_imp_relativized:
+     "wf[A](r) ==> wellfounded_on(M,A,r)"
+apply (simp add: wellfounded_on_def wf_def wf_on_def, clarify)
+apply (drule_tac x="x" in spec, blast)
+done
+
+lemma (in M_axioms) wf_imp_relativized:
+     "wf(r) ==> wellfounded(M,r)"
+apply (simp add: wellfounded_def wf_def, clarify)
+apply (drule_tac x="x" in spec, blast)
+done
+
+lemma (in M_axioms) well_ord_imp_relativized:
+     "well_ord(A,r) ==> wellordered(M,A,r)"
+by (simp add: wellordered_def well_ord_def tot_ord_def part_ord_def
+       linear_imp_relativized trans_on_imp_relativized wf_on_imp_relativized)
+
+
+subsection{* Relativized versions of order-isomorphisms and order types *}
+
+lemma (in M_axioms) order_isomorphism_abs [simp]:
+     "[| M(A); M(B); M(f) |]
+      ==> order_isomorphism(M,A,r,B,s,f) <-> f \<in> ord_iso(A,r,B,s)"
+by (simp add: typed_apply_abs [OF bij_is_fun] apply_closed
+              order_isomorphism_def ord_iso_def)
+
+
+lemma (in M_axioms) pred_set_abs [simp]:
+     "[| M(r); M(B) |] ==> pred_set(M,A,x,r,B) <-> B = Order.pred(A,x,r)"
+apply (blast dest: transM)
+done
+
+lemma (in M_axioms) pred_closed [intro]:
+     "[| M(A); M(r); M(x) |] ==> M(Order.pred(A,x,r))"
+apply (insert pred_separation [of r x], simp, blast)
+done
+
+lemma (in M_axioms) membership_abs [simp]:
+     "[| M(r); M(A) |] ==> membership(M,A,r) <-> r = Memrel(A)"
+apply (simp add: membership_def Memrel_def, safe)
+  apply (rule equalityI)
+   apply clarify
+   apply (frule transM, assumption)
+   apply blast
+  apply clarify
+  apply (subgoal_tac "M(<xb,ya>)", blast)
+  apply (blast dest: transM)
+ apply auto
+done
+
+lemma (in M_axioms) M_Memrel_iff:
+     "M(A) ==>
+      Memrel(A) = {z \<in> A*A. \<exists>x. M(x) \<and> (\<exists>y. M(y) \<and> z = \<langle>x,y\<rangle> \<and> x \<in> y)}"
+apply (blast dest: transM)
+done
+
+lemma (in M_axioms) Memrel_closed [intro]:
+     "M(A) ==> M(Memrel(A))"
+apply (insert Memrel_separation, simp, blast)
+done
+
+
+subsection {* Main results of Kunen, Chapter 1 section 6 *}
+
+text{*Subset properties-- proved outside the locale*}
+
+lemma linear_rel_subset:
+    "[| linear_rel(M,A,r);  B<=A |] ==> linear_rel(M,B,r)"
+by (unfold linear_rel_def, blast)
+
+lemma transitive_rel_subset:
+    "[| transitive_rel(M,A,r);  B<=A |] ==> transitive_rel(M,B,r)"
+by (unfold transitive_rel_def, blast)
+
+lemma wellfounded_on_subset:
+    "[| wellfounded_on(M,A,r);  B<=A |] ==> wellfounded_on(M,B,r)"
+by (unfold wellfounded_on_def subset_def, blast)
+
+lemma wellordered_subset:
+    "[| wellordered(M,A,r);  B<=A |] ==> wellordered(M,B,r)"
+apply (unfold wellordered_def)
+apply (blast intro: linear_rel_subset transitive_rel_subset
+		    wellfounded_on_subset)
+done
+
+text{*Inductive argument for Kunen's Lemma 6.1, etc.
+      Simple proof from Halmos, page 72*}
+lemma  (in M_axioms) wellordered_iso_subset_lemma:
+     "[| wellordered(M,A,r);  f \<in> ord_iso(A,r, A',r);  A'<= A;  y \<in> A;
+       M(A);  M(f);  M(r) |] ==> ~ <f`y, y> \<in> r"
+apply (unfold wellordered_def ord_iso_def)
+apply (elim conjE CollectE)
+apply (erule wellfounded_on_induct, assumption+)
+ apply (insert well_ord_iso_separation [of A f r])
+ apply (simp add: typed_apply_abs [OF bij_is_fun] apply_closed, clarify)
+apply (drule_tac a = x in bij_is_fun [THEN apply_type], assumption, blast)
+done
+
+
+text{*Kunen's Lemma 6.1: there's no order-isomorphism to an initial segment
+      of a well-ordering*}
+lemma (in M_axioms) wellordered_iso_predD:
+     "[| wellordered(M,A,r);  f \<in> ord_iso(A, r, Order.pred(A,x,r), r);
+       M(A);  M(f);  M(r) |] ==> x \<notin> A"
+apply (rule notI)
+apply (frule wellordered_iso_subset_lemma, assumption)
+apply (auto elim: predE)
+(*Now we know  ~ (f`x < x) *)
+apply (drule ord_iso_is_bij [THEN bij_is_fun, THEN apply_type], assumption)
+(*Now we also know f`x  \<in> pred(A,x,r);  contradiction! *)
+done
+
+
+lemma (in M_axioms) wellordered_iso_pred_eq_lemma:
+     "[| f \<in> \<langle>Order.pred(A,y,r), r\<rangle> \<cong> \<langle>Order.pred(A,x,r), r\<rangle>;
+       wellordered(M,A,r); x\<in>A; y\<in>A; M(A); M(f); M(r) |] ==> <x,y> \<notin> r"
+apply (frule wellordered_is_trans_on, assumption)
+apply (rule notI)
+apply (drule_tac x2=y and x=x and r2=r in
+         wellordered_subset [OF _ pred_subset, THEN wellordered_iso_predD])
+apply (blast intro: predI dest: transM)+
+done
+
+
+text{*Simple consequence of Lemma 6.1*}
+lemma (in M_axioms) wellordered_iso_pred_eq:
+     "[| wellordered(M,A,r);
+       f \<in> ord_iso(Order.pred(A,a,r), r, Order.pred(A,c,r), r);
+       M(A);  M(f);  M(r);  a\<in>A;  c\<in>A |] ==> a=c"
+apply (frule wellordered_is_trans_on, assumption)
+apply (frule wellordered_is_linear, assumption)
+apply (erule_tac x=a and y=c in linearE, auto)
+apply (drule ord_iso_sym)
+(*two symmetric cases*)
+apply (blast dest: wellordered_iso_pred_eq_lemma)+
+done
+
+lemma (in M_axioms) wellfounded_on_asym:
+     "[| wellfounded_on(M,A,r);  <a,x>\<in>r;  a\<in>A; x\<in>A;  M(A) |] ==> <x,a>\<notin>r"
+apply (drule_tac x="{x,a}" in spec)
+apply (blast dest: transM)
+done
+
+lemma (in M_axioms) wellordered_asym:
+     "[| wellordered(M,A,r);  <a,x>\<in>r;  a\<in>A; x\<in>A;  M(A) |] ==> <x,a>\<notin>r"
+by (simp add: wellordered_def, blast dest: wellfounded_on_asym)
+
+
+text{*Surely a shorter proof using lemmas in @{text Order}?
+     Like well_ord_iso_preserving?*}
+lemma (in M_axioms) ord_iso_pred_imp_lt:
+     "[| f \<in> ord_iso(Order.pred(A,x,r), r, i, Memrel(i));
+       g \<in> ord_iso(Order.pred(A,y,r), r, j, Memrel(j));
+       wellordered(M,A,r);  x \<in> A;  y \<in> A; M(A); M(r); M(f); M(g); M(j);
+       Ord(i); Ord(j); \<langle>x,y\<rangle> \<in> r |]
+      ==> i < j"
+apply (frule wellordered_is_trans_on, assumption)
+apply (frule_tac y=y in transM, assumption)
+apply (rule_tac i=i and j=j in Ord_linear_lt, auto)
+txt{*case @{term "i=j"} yields a contradiction*}
+ apply (rule_tac x1=x and A1="Order.pred(A,y,r)" in
+          wellordered_iso_predD [THEN notE])
+   apply (blast intro: wellordered_subset [OF _ pred_subset])
+  apply (blast intro: Ord_iso_implies_eq ord_iso_sym ord_iso_trans)
+ apply (simp_all add: pred_iff pred_closed converse_closed comp_closed)
+txt{*case @{term "j<i"} also yields a contradiction*}
+apply (frule restrict_ord_iso2, assumption+)
+apply (frule ord_iso_sym [THEN ord_iso_is_bij, THEN bij_is_fun])
+apply (frule apply_type, blast intro: ltD)
+  --{*thus @{term "converse(f)`j \<in> Order.pred(A,x,r)"}*}
+apply (subgoal_tac
+       "\<exists>h. M(h) & h \<in> ord_iso(Order.pred(A,y,r), r,
+                               Order.pred(A, converse(f)`j, r), r)")
+ apply (clarify, frule wellordered_iso_pred_eq, assumption+)
+ apply (blast dest: wellordered_asym)
+apply (intro exI conjI)
+ prefer 2 apply (blast intro: Ord_iso_implies_eq ord_iso_sym ord_iso_trans)+
+done
+
+
+lemma ord_iso_converse1:
+     "[| f: ord_iso(A,r,B,s);  <b, f`a>: s;  a:A;  b:B |]
+      ==> <converse(f) ` b, a> : r"
+apply (frule ord_iso_converse, assumption+)
+apply (blast intro: ord_iso_is_bij [THEN bij_is_fun, THEN apply_funtype])
+apply (simp add: left_inverse_bij [OF ord_iso_is_bij])
+done
+
+
+subsection {* Order Types: A Direct Construction by Replacement*}
+
+text{*This follows Kunen's Theorem I 7.6, page 17.*}
+
+constdefs
+
+  obase :: "[i=>o,i,i,i] => o"
+       --{*the domain of @{text om}, eventually shown to equal @{text A}*}
+   "obase(M,A,r,z) ==
+	\<forall>a. M(a) -->
+         (a \<in> z <->
+          (a\<in>A & (\<exists>x g mx par. M(x) & M(g) & M(mx) & M(par) & ordinal(M,x) &
+                               membership(M,x,mx) & pred_set(M,A,a,r,par) &
+                               order_isomorphism(M,par,r,x,mx,g))))"
+
+
+  omap :: "[i=>o,i,i,i] => o"
+    --{*the function that maps wosets to order types*}
+   "omap(M,A,r,f) ==
+	\<forall>z. M(z) -->
+         (z \<in> f <->
+          (\<exists>a\<in>A. M(a) &
+           (\<exists>x g mx par. M(x) & M(g) & M(mx) & M(par) & ordinal(M,x) &
+                         pair(M,a,x,z) & membership(M,x,mx) &
+                         pred_set(M,A,a,r,par) &
+                         order_isomorphism(M,par,r,x,mx,g))))"
+
+
+  otype :: "[i=>o,i,i,i] => o"  --{*the order types themselves*}
+   "otype(M,A,r,i) == \<exists>f. M(f) & omap(M,A,r,f) & is_range(M,f,i)"
+
+
+
+lemma (in M_axioms) obase_iff:
+     "[| M(A); M(r); M(z) |]
+      ==> obase(M,A,r,z) <->
+          z = {a\<in>A. \<exists>x g. M(x) & M(g) & Ord(x) &
+                          g \<in> ord_iso(Order.pred(A,a,r),r,x,Memrel(x))}"
+apply (simp add: obase_def Memrel_closed pred_closed)
+apply (rule iffI)
+ prefer 2 apply blast
+apply (rule equalityI)
+ apply (clarify, frule transM, assumption, rotate_tac -1, simp)
+apply (clarify, frule transM, assumption, force)
+done
+
+text{*Can also be proved with the premise @{term "M(z)"} instead of
+      @{term "M(f)"}, but that version is less useful.*}
+lemma (in M_axioms) omap_iff:
+     "[| omap(M,A,r,f); M(A); M(r); M(f) |]
+      ==> z \<in> f <->
+      (\<exists>a\<in>A. \<exists>x g. M(x) & M(g) & z = <a,x> & Ord(x) &
+                   g \<in> ord_iso(Order.pred(A,a,r),r,x,Memrel(x)))"
+apply (rotate_tac 1)
+apply (simp add: omap_def Memrel_closed pred_closed)
+apply (rule iffI)
+apply (drule_tac x=z in spec, blast dest: transM)+
+done
+
+lemma (in M_axioms) omap_unique:
+     "[| omap(M,A,r,f); omap(M,A,r,f'); M(A); M(r); M(f); M(f') |] ==> f' = f"
+apply (rule equality_iffI)
+done
+
+lemma (in M_axioms) omap_yields_Ord:
+     "[| omap(M,A,r,f); \<langle>a,x\<rangle> \<in> f; M(a); M(x) |]  ==> Ord(x)"
+done
+
+lemma (in M_axioms) otype_iff:
+     "[| otype(M,A,r,i); M(A); M(r); M(i) |]
+      ==> x \<in> i <->
+          (\<exists>a\<in>A. \<exists>g. M(x) & M(g) & Ord(x) &
+                     g \<in> ord_iso(Order.pred(A,a,r),r,x,Memrel(x)))"
+  apply (blast dest: transM)
+ apply (blast dest!: omap_iff intro: transM)
+apply (rename_tac a g)
+apply (rule_tac a=a in rangeI)
+apply (frule transM, assumption)
+done
+
+lemma (in M_axioms) otype_eq_range:
+     "[| omap(M,A,r,f); otype(M,A,r,i); M(A); M(r); M(f); M(i) |] ==> i = range(f)"
+apply (auto simp add: otype_def omap_iff)
+apply (blast dest: omap_unique)
+done
+
+
+lemma (in M_axioms) Ord_otype:
+     "[| otype(M,A,r,i); trans[A](r); M(A); M(r); M(i) |] ==> Ord(i)"
+apply (rotate_tac 1)
+apply (rule OrdI)
+prefer 2
+    apply (simp add: Ord_def otype_def omap_def)
+    apply clarify
+    apply (frule pair_components_in_M, assumption)
+    apply blast
+apply (auto simp add: Transset_def otype_iff)
+ apply (blast intro: transM)
+apply (rename_tac y a g)
+apply (frule ord_iso_sym [THEN ord_iso_is_bij, THEN bij_is_fun,
+			  THEN apply_funtype],  assumption)
+apply (rule_tac x="converse(g)`y" in bexI)
+ apply (frule_tac a="converse(g) ` y" in ord_iso_restrict_pred, assumption)
+apply (safe elim!: predE)
+apply (intro conjI exI)
+prefer 3
+  apply (blast intro: restrict_ord_iso ord_iso_sym ltI)
+ apply (blast intro: transM)
+ apply (blast intro: Ord_in_Ord)
+done
+
+lemma (in M_axioms) domain_omap:
+     "[| omap(M,A,r,f);  obase(M,A,r,B); M(A); M(r); M(B); M(f) |]
+      ==> domain(f) = B"
+apply (rotate_tac 2)
+apply (rule equality_iffI)
+apply (simp add: domain_iff omap_iff, blast)
+done
+
+lemma (in M_axioms) omap_subset:
+     "[| omap(M,A,r,f); obase(M,A,r,B); otype(M,A,r,i);
+       M(A); M(r); M(f); M(B); M(i) |] ==> f \<subseteq> B * i"
+apply (rotate_tac 3, clarify)
+done
+
+lemma (in M_axioms) omap_funtype:
+     "[| omap(M,A,r,f); obase(M,A,r,B); otype(M,A,r,i);
+       M(A); M(r); M(f); M(B); M(i) |] ==> f \<in> B -> i"
+apply (rotate_tac 3)
+apply (simp add: domain_omap omap_subset Pi_iff function_def omap_iff)
+apply (blast intro: Ord_iso_implies_eq ord_iso_sym ord_iso_trans)
+done
+
+
+lemma (in M_axioms) wellordered_omap_bij:
+     "[| wellordered(M,A,r); omap(M,A,r,f); obase(M,A,r,B); otype(M,A,r,i);
+       M(A); M(r); M(f); M(B); M(i) |] ==> f \<in> bij(B,i)"
+apply (insert omap_funtype [of A r f B i])
+apply (auto simp add: bij_def inj_def)
+prefer 2  apply (blast intro: fun_is_surj dest: otype_eq_range)
+apply (frule_tac a="w" in apply_Pair, assumption)
+apply (frule_tac a="x" in apply_Pair, assumption)
+apply (blast intro: wellordered_iso_pred_eq ord_iso_sym ord_iso_trans)
+done
+
+
+text{*This is not the final result: we must show @{term "oB(A,r) = A"}*}
+lemma (in M_axioms) omap_ord_iso:
+     "[| wellordered(M,A,r); omap(M,A,r,f); obase(M,A,r,B); otype(M,A,r,i);
+       M(A); M(r); M(f); M(B); M(i) |] ==> f \<in> ord_iso(B,r,i,Memrel(i))"
+apply (rule ord_isoI)
+ apply (erule wellordered_omap_bij, assumption+)
+apply (insert omap_funtype [of A r f B i], simp)
+apply (frule_tac a="x" in apply_Pair, assumption)
+apply (frule_tac a="y" in apply_Pair, assumption)
+ txt{*direction 1: assuming @{term "\<langle>x,y\<rangle> \<in> r"}*}
+ apply (blast intro: ltD ord_iso_pred_imp_lt)
+ txt{*direction 2: proving @{term "\<langle>x,y\<rangle> \<in> r"} using linearity of @{term r}*}
+apply (rename_tac x y g ga)
+apply (frule wellordered_is_linear, assumption,
+       erule_tac x=x and y=y in linearE, assumption+)
+apply (blast elim: mem_irrefl)
+txt{*the case @{term "\<langle>y,x\<rangle> \<in> r"}: handle like the opposite direction*}
+apply (blast dest: ord_iso_pred_imp_lt ltD elim: mem_asym)
+done
+
+lemma (in M_axioms) Ord_omap_image_pred:
+     "[| wellordered(M,A,r); omap(M,A,r,f); obase(M,A,r,B); otype(M,A,r,i);
+       M(A); M(r); M(f); M(B); M(i); b \<in> A |] ==> Ord(f `` Order.pred(A,b,r))"
+apply (frule wellordered_is_trans_on, assumption)
+apply (rule OrdI)
+	prefer 2 apply (simp add: image_iff omap_iff Ord_def, blast)
+txt{*Hard part is to show that the image is a transitive set.*}
+apply (rotate_tac 3)
+apply (simp add: image_iff pred_iff apply_iff [OF omap_funtype [of A r f B i]])
+apply (rename_tac c j, clarify)
+apply (frule omap_funtype [of A r f B, THEN apply_funtype], assumption+)
+apply (subgoal_tac "j : i")
+	prefer 2 apply (blast intro: Ord_trans Ord_otype)
+apply (subgoal_tac "converse(f) ` j : B")
+	prefer 2
+	apply (blast dest: wellordered_omap_bij [THEN bij_converse_bij,
+                                      THEN bij_is_fun, THEN apply_funtype])
+apply (rule_tac x="converse(f) ` j" in bexI)
+ apply (simp add: right_inverse_bij [OF wellordered_omap_bij])
+apply (intro predI conjI)
+ apply (erule_tac b=c in trans_onD)
+ apply (rule ord_iso_converse1 [OF omap_ord_iso [of A r f B i]])
+done
+
+lemma (in M_axioms) restrict_omap_ord_iso:
+     "[| wellordered(M,A,r); omap(M,A,r,f); obase(M,A,r,B); otype(M,A,r,i);
+       D \<subseteq> B; M(A); M(r); M(f); M(B); M(i) |]
+      ==> restrict(f,D) \<in> (\<langle>D,r\<rangle> \<cong> \<langle>f``D, Memrel(f``D)\<rangle>)"
+apply (frule ord_iso_restrict_image [OF omap_ord_iso [of A r f B i]],
+       assumption+)
+apply (drule ord_iso_sym [THEN subset_ord_iso_Memrel])
+apply (blast dest: subsetD [OF omap_subset])
+apply (drule ord_iso_sym, simp)
+done
+
+lemma (in M_axioms) obase_equals:
+     "[| wellordered(M,A,r); omap(M,A,r,f); obase(M,A,r,B); otype(M,A,r,i);
+       M(A); M(r); M(f); M(B); M(i) |] ==> B = A"
+apply (rotate_tac 4)
+apply (rule equalityI, force simp add: obase_iff, clarify)
+apply (subst obase_iff [of A r B, THEN iffD1], assumption+, simp)
+apply (frule wellordered_is_wellfounded_on, assumption)
+apply (erule wellfounded_on_induct, assumption+)
+ apply (insert obase_equals_separation, simp add: Memrel_closed pred_closed, clarify)
+apply (rename_tac b)
+apply (subgoal_tac "Order.pred(A,b,r) <= B")
+ prefer 2 apply (force simp add: pred_iff obase_iff)
+apply (intro conjI exI)
+    prefer 4 apply (blast intro: restrict_omap_ord_iso)
+apply (blast intro: Ord_omap_image_pred)+
+done
+
+
+
+text{*Main result: @{term om} gives the order-isomorphism
+      @{term "\<langle>A,r\<rangle> \<cong> \<langle>i, Memrel(i)\<rangle>"} *}
+theorem (in M_axioms) omap_ord_iso_otype:
+     "[| wellordered(M,A,r); omap(M,A,r,f); obase(M,A,r,B); otype(M,A,r,i);
+       M(A); M(r); M(f); M(B); M(i) |] ==> f \<in> ord_iso(A, r, i, Memrel(i))"
+apply (frule omap_ord_iso, assumption+)
+apply (frule obase_equals, assumption+, blast)
+done
+
+lemma (in M_axioms) obase_exists:
+     "[| M(A); M(r) |] ==> \<exists>z. M(z) & obase(M,A,r,z)"
+apply (insert obase_separation [of A r])
+done
+
+lemma (in M_axioms) omap_exists:
+     "[| M(A); M(r) |] ==> \<exists>z. M(z) & omap(M,A,r,z)"
+apply (insert obase_exists [of A r])
+apply (insert omap_replacement [of A r])
+apply (drule_tac x=z in spec, clarify)
+apply (simp add: Memrel_closed pred_closed obase_iff)
+apply (erule impE)
+ apply (clarsimp simp add: univalent_def)
+ apply (blast intro: Ord_iso_implies_eq ord_iso_sym ord_iso_trans, clarify)
+apply (rule_tac x=Y in exI)
+apply (simp add: Memrel_closed pred_closed obase_iff, blast)
+done
+
+lemma (in M_axioms) otype_exists:
+     "[| wellordered(M,A,r); M(A); M(r) |] ==> \<exists>i. M(i) & otype(M,A,r,i)"
+apply (insert omap_exists [of A r])
+apply (rule_tac x="range(z)" in exI)
+apply blast
+done
+
+theorem (in M_axioms) omap_ord_iso_otype:
+     "[| wellordered(M,A,r); M(A); M(r) |]
+      ==> \<exists>f. M(f) & (\<exists>i. M(i) & Ord(i) & f \<in> ord_iso(A, r, i, Memrel(i)))"
+apply (insert obase_exists [of A r] omap_exists [of A r] otype_exists [of A r], simp, clarify)
+apply (subgoal_tac "Ord(i)", blast intro: omap_ord_iso_otype)
+apply (rule Ord_otype)
+    apply (force simp add: otype_def range_closed)
+done
+
+lemma (in M_axioms) ordertype_exists:
+     "[| wellordered(M,A,r); M(A); M(r) |]
+      ==> \<exists>f. M(f) & (\<exists>i. M(i) & Ord(i) & f \<in> ord_iso(A, r, i, Memrel(i)))"
+apply (insert obase_exists [of A r] omap_exists [of A r] otype_exists [of A r], simp, clarify)
+apply (subgoal_tac "Ord(i)", blast intro: omap_ord_iso_otype)
+apply (rule Ord_otype)
+    apply (force simp add: otype_def range_closed)
+done
+
+
+lemma (in M_axioms) relativized_imp_well_ord:
+     "[| wellordered(M,A,r); M(A); M(r) |] ==> well_ord(A,r)"
+apply (insert ordertype_exists [of A r], simp)
+apply (blast intro: well_ord_ord_iso well_ord_Memrel )
+done
+
+subsection {*Kunen's theorem 5.4, poage 127*}
+
+text{*(a) The notion of Wellordering is absolute*}
+theorem (in M_axioms) well_ord_abs [simp]:
+     "[| M(A); M(r) |] ==> wellordered(M,A,r) <-> well_ord(A,r)"
+by (blast intro: well_ord_imp_relativized relativized_imp_well_ord)
+
+
+text{*(b) Order types are absolute*}
+lemma (in M_axioms)
+     "[| wellordered(M,A,r); f \<in> ord_iso(A, r, i, Memrel(i));
+       M(A); M(r); M(f); M(i); Ord(i) |] ==> i = ordertype(A,r)"
+by (blast intro: Ord_ordertype relativized_imp_well_ord ordertype_ord_iso
+                 Ord_iso_implies_eq ord_iso_sym ord_iso_trans)
+
+end