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NEWS

author | wenzelm |

Wed Mar 11 23:59:34 2009 +0100 (2009-03-11) | |

changeset 30461 | 00323c45ea83 |

parent 30439 | 57c68b3af2ea |

child 30530 | 03c120763ea8 |

child 30538 | a77b7995062a |

permissions | -rw-r--r-- |

added 'local_setup' command;

tuned;

tuned;

1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes

2 ==============================================

4 New in this Isabelle version

5 ----------------------------

7 *** General ***

9 * The main reference manuals (isar-ref, implementation, system) have

10 been updated and extended. Formally checked references as hyperlinks

11 are now available in uniform manner.

13 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on

14 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).

16 - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of

17 "isatool."

19 - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been

20 removed (should rarely occur to regular users).

22 - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been

23 removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).

25 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables

26 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,

27 respectively. (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)

29 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if

30 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise. Individual

31 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the

32 Isabelle system manual. In particular, Proof General is now available

33 via "isabelle emacs".

35 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts. Users may need to

36 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle

37 install -p ...", or use symlinks.

39 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the

40 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt cause

41 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems.

43 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,

44 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place. Special

45 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle. Note that

46 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any

47 Isabelle distribution.

49 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on

50 multi-core systems. A speedup factor of 2-3 can be expected on a

51 regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably

52 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H). [Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later]

54 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state

55 addressing etc.

57 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in

58 Isabelle2007. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really

59 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.

61 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command. INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML

62 interface instead.

64 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal

65 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).

67 * New prover for coherent logic (see src/Tools/coherent.ML).

70 *** Pure ***

72 * Class declaration: sc. "base sort" must not be given in import list

73 any longer but is inferred from the specification. Particularly in HOL,

74 write

76 class foo = ... instead of class foo = type + ...

78 * Module moves in repository:

79 src/Pure/Tools/value.ML ~> src/Tools/

80 src/Pure/Tools/quickcheck.ML ~> src/Tools/

82 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in

83 isar-ref manual. Removed locales meta_term_syntax and

84 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,

85 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.

87 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort

88 hypotheses. Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be

89 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the

90 type instance information of the background theory. Non-trivial sort

91 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via

92 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c). For example:

94 lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...

96 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --

97 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule

98 normalization.

100 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:

102 unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)

103 unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)

105 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):

107 a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular

108 constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other

109 parts of the code generator framework).

111 b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code

112 attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming

113 from definition, primrec, fun etc.

115 * Global versions of theorems stemming from classes do not carry a

116 parameter prefix any longer. INCOMPATIBILITY.

118 * Dropped locale element "includes". This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.

119 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the

120 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those

121 that are already present in the theorem specification. Multiple

122 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one

123 involving the locale predicate. In the proof body, declarations (most

124 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective

125 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").

127 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the

128 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,

129 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on

130 the parameters (context element "constrains").

132 * Dropped "locale (open)". INCOMPATIBILITY.

134 * Interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.

135 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs. Use

136 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.

138 * Interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation attributes.

139 INCOMPATBILITY.

141 * Complete re-implementation of locales. INCOMPATIBILITY. The most

142 important changes are listed below. See documentation (forthcoming)

143 and tutorial (also forthcoming) for details.

145 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming. Parameters

146 must be declared in a for clause. To aid compatibility with previous

147 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not

148 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added

149 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.

151 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in

152 locale expressions and context elements. The latter is particularly

153 useful in locale declarations.

155 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale

156 expressions. Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale

157 expressions. Available are normal qualifiers (syntax "name:") and

158 strict qualifiers (syntax "name!:"). The latter must occur in name

159 references and are useful to avoid accidental hiding of names, the

160 former are optional. Qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a

161 locale are no longer generated.

163 - "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e". The

164 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square

165 brackets) is no longer available. Use locale expressions.

167 - When converting proof scripts, be sure to replace qualifiers in

168 "interpretation" and "interpret" by strict qualifiers. Qualifiers in

169 locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.

171 * Command 'instance': attached definitions no longer accepted.

172 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target.

174 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

176 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory

177 context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

179 * New find_theorems criterion "solves" matching theorems that directly

180 solve the current goal. Try "find_theorems solves".

182 * Added an auto solve option, which can be enabled through the

183 ProofGeneral Isabelle settings menu (disabled by default).

185 When enabled, find_theorems solves is called whenever a new lemma is

186 stated. Any theorems that could solve the lemma directly are listed

187 underneath the goal.

189 * New command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and

190 name patterns, e.g.

192 find_consts "_ => bool"

194 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to

195 the whole type. Searching by name is possible. Multiple queries are

196 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a

197 hyphen:

199 find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"

201 * New command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a

202 local theory context.

205 *** Document preparation ***

207 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,

208 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression

209 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.

212 *** HOL ***

214 * Theory Library/Diagonalize.thy provides constructive version of

215 Cantor's first diagonalization argument.

217 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial orders.

218 With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about (in)equalities is

219 facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq", "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".

221 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with authentic syntax.

222 INCOMPATIBILITY:

224 op Int ~> Set.Int

225 op Un ~> Set.Un

226 INTER ~> Set.INTER

227 UNION ~> Set.UNION

228 Inter ~> Set.Inter

229 Union ~> Set.Union

230 {} ~> Set.empty

231 UNIV ~> Set.UNIV

233 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in theory

234 Set.

236 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any parameter

237 are treated as expected by the 'class' command.

239 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.

241 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation, Dense_Linear_Order)

242 now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.

244 * Theory HOL/Decisioin_Procs/Approximation.thy provides the new proof method

245 "approximation". It proves formulas on real values by using interval arithmetic.

246 In the formulas are also the transcendental functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln,

247 exp and the constant pi are allowed. For examples see

248 HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.

250 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.

252 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word". INCOMPATIBILITY.

254 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution

255 structure:

257 src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy

258 src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/

259 src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/

260 src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/

261 src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/

262 src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/

263 src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

264 src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/

265 src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/

266 src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/

267 src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/

268 src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/

269 src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/

270 src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/

271 src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/

272 src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/

273 src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

274 src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

275 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/

276 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/

277 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/

278 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/

279 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/

280 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/

281 src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/

282 src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/

283 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/

284 src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/

285 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/

286 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/

287 src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/

288 src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach

289 src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/

291 src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

292 src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

293 src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

294 src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML

295 src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

296 src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

297 src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

298 src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

299 src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

300 src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

302 src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

303 src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

304 src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

305 src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

306 src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

307 src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

309 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof state

310 with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if possible),

311 avoiding strange error messages.

313 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound variable

314 occurs at most once in let expression body. INCOMPATIBILITY.

316 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and "bot"

317 in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice" requires

318 instantiation of classes "top" and "bot". INCOMPATIBILITY.

320 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an instance

321 for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

323 * Unified theorem tables for both code code generators. Thus

324 [code func] has disappeared and only [code] remains. INCOMPATIBILITY.

326 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary". Usually

327 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though logically

328 there is no difference. INCOMPATIBILITY.

330 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of

331 Posix processes. Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML

332 process. New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix

333 platforms (Cygwin). Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined

334 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions. Basic Sledgehammer

335 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.

337 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use

338 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). See also

339 ISABELLE_HOME/contrib/SystemOnTPTP and the VAMPIRE_HOME setting

340 variable. Other provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see

341 also src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.

343 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.

344 Declare with attribute [code nbe].

346 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation

347 mechanisms. The result of the first successful evaluation mechanism

348 is printed. In square brackets a particular named evaluation

349 mechanisms may be specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]). See

350 further src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.

352 * New method "sizechange" to automate termination proofs using (a

353 modification of) the size-change principle. Requires SAT solver. See

354 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.

356 * HOL/Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit induction

357 rule "less_induct" as assumption. For instantiation of "wellorder" by

358 means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI. INCOMPATIBILITY.

360 * HOL/Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".

361 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder

362 etc. slightly changed. Some theorems named order_class.* now named

363 preorder_class.*.

365 * HOL/Relation:

366 Renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl, "diag" to "Id_on".

368 * HOL/Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type

369 ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b

370 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator which is

371 now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to fold_image.

373 * HOL/Ring_and_Field and HOL/OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps" and

374 "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be extended with

375 further lemmas!). At the moment both still exist but the former will disappear

376 at some point.

378 * HOL/Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in class

379 recpower. Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types have

380 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY. Rename old lemmas as follows:

382 rat_power_0 -> power_0

383 rat_power_Suc -> power_Suc

384 realpow_0 -> power_0

385 realpow_Suc -> power_Suc

386 complexpow_0 -> power_0

387 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc

388 power_poly_0 -> power_0

389 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc

391 * HOL/Ring_and_Field and HOL/Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been

392 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on

393 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1. Likewise a bunch

394 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class

395 semiring_div. INCOMPATIBILITY. This involves the following theorem

396 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:

398 dvd_def_mod ~> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0

399 zero_dvd_iff ~> dvd_0_left_iff

400 dvd_0 ~> dvd_0_right

401 DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0

402 DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0

403 mult_div ~> div_mult_self2_is_id

404 mult_mod ~> mod_mult_self2_is_0

406 * HOL/IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based

407 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).

408 INCOMPATIBILITY. Rename old lemmas as follows:

410 dvd_diff -> nat_dvd_diff

411 dvd_zminus_iff -> dvd_minus_iff

412 mod_add1_eq -> mod_add_eq

413 mod_mult1_eq -> mod_mult_right_eq

414 mod_mult1_eq' -> mod_mult_left_eq

415 mod_mult_distrib_mod -> mod_mult_eq

416 nat_mod_add_left_eq -> mod_add_left_eq

417 nat_mod_add_right_eq -> mod_add_right_eq

418 nat_mod_div_trivial -> mod_div_trivial

419 nat_mod_mod_trivial -> mod_mod_trivial

420 zdiv_zadd_self1 -> div_add_self1

421 zdiv_zadd_self2 -> div_add_self2

422 zdiv_zmult_self1 -> div_mult_self2_is_id

423 zdiv_zmult_self2 -> div_mult_self1_is_id

424 zdvd_triv_left -> dvd_triv_left

425 zdvd_triv_right -> dvd_triv_right

426 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left

427 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]

428 zmod_zadd_left_eq -> mod_add_left_eq

429 zmod_zadd_right_eq -> mod_add_right_eq

430 zmod_zadd_self1 -> mod_add_self1

431 zmod_zadd_self2 -> mod_add_self2

432 zmod_zadd1_eq -> mod_add_eq

433 zmod_zdiff1_eq -> mod_diff_eq

434 zmod_zdvd_zmod -> mod_mod_cancel

435 zmod_zmod_cancel -> mod_mod_cancel

436 zmod_zmult_self1 -> mod_mult_self2_is_0

437 zmod_zmult_self2 -> mod_mult_self1_is_0

438 zmod_1 -> mod_by_1

439 zdiv_1 -> div_by_1

440 zdvd_abs1 -> abs_dvd_iff

441 zdvd_abs2 -> dvd_abs_iff

442 zdvd_refl -> dvd_refl

443 zdvd_trans -> dvd_trans

444 zdvd_zadd -> dvd_add

445 zdvd_zdiff -> dvd_diff

446 zdvd_zminus_iff -> dvd_minus_iff

447 zdvd_zminus2_iff -> minus_dvd_iff

448 zdvd_zmultD -> dvd_mult_right

449 zdvd_zmultD2 -> dvd_mult_left

450 zdvd_zmult_mono -> mult_dvd_mono

451 zdvd_0_right -> dvd_0_right

452 zdvd_0_left -> dvd_0_left_iff

453 zdvd_1_left -> one_dvd

454 zminus_dvd_iff -> minus_dvd_iff

456 * HOL/Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,

457 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in

458 the HOL Distribution. zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and ilcm;

459 corresponding theorems renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY. To

460 recover tupled syntax, use syntax declarations like:

462 hide (open) const gcd

463 abbreviation gcd where

464 "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"

465 notation (output)

466 GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")

468 (analogously for lcm, zgcd, zlcm).

470 * HOL/Real/Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

472 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated into

473 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.

475 * New ML antiquotation @{code}: takes constant as argument, generates

476 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding

477 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.

478 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated

479 simultaneously. Provides a generic and safe interface for

480 instrumentalizing code generation. See HOL/ex/Code_Antiq for a toy

481 example, or HOL/Complex/ex/ReflectedFerrack for a more ambitious

482 application. In future you ought refrain from ad-hoc compiling

483 generated SML code on the ML toplevel. Note that (for technical

484 reasons) @{code} cannot refer to constants for which user-defined

485 serializations are set. Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart

486 directly in that cases.

488 * Integrated image HOL-Complex with HOL. Entry points Main.thy and

489 Complex_Main.thy remain as they are.

491 * New image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important

492 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...). By convention

493 the corresponding theory Plain should be ancestor of every further

494 (library) theory. Some library theories now have ancestor Plain

495 (instead of Main), thus theory Main occasionally has to be imported

496 explicitly.

498 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising

499 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.

501 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial

502 (contains the empty clause).

504 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules

505 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the

506 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes. Mutual induction rules

507 are now presented as a list of individual projections

508 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with

509 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, in

510 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple

511 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t

512 rule: prod.exhaust) here.

514 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.

516 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".

518 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now

519 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be

520 represented as datatype. The characteristic theorems have to be

521 proven. INCOMPATIBILITY. Also observe that the following theorems

522 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:

524 unit_induct ~> unit.induct

525 prod_induct ~> prod.induct

526 sum_induct ~> sum.induct

527 Suc_Suc_eq ~> nat.inject

528 Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc ~> nat.distinct

530 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory HOL/Option.thy.

531 Renamed option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set.

533 * Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more

534 instantiations for algebraic structures. Removed some duplicate

535 theorems. Changes in simp rules. INCOMPATIBILITY.

537 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings

538 menu.

540 * Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when

541 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.

544 *** HOL-Algebra ***

546 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation

547 is not restricted to equality. INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice

548 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.

550 * New theory of factorial domains.

552 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simprules by default.

553 INCOMPATIBILITY. Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv

554 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.

556 * Renamed the following theorems. INCOMPATIBILITY.

557 UpperD ~> Upper_memD

558 LowerD ~> Lower_memD

559 least_carrier ~> least_closed

560 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed

561 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below

562 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero

563 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero (collision with assumption)

566 *** HOL-NSA ***

568 * Created new image HOL-NSA, containing theories of nonstandard

569 analysis which were previously part of HOL-Complex. Entry point

570 Hyperreal.thy remains valid, but theories formerly using

571 Complex_Main.thy should now use new entry point Hypercomplex.thy.

574 *** ZF ***

576 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.

579 *** HOLCF ***

581 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity

582 subgoals. The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional

583 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].

585 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for

586 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions. In

587 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the

588 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.

589 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

591 * The syntax of the fixrec package has changed. The specification

592 syntax now conforms in style to definition, primrec, function, etc.

593 See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.

596 *** ML ***

598 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see

599 src/Pure/Cuncurrent. The data-oriented model of "future values" is

600 particularly convenient to organize independent functional

601 computations. The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a

602 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the

603 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables. [Poly/ML 5.2.1

604 or later]

606 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm

607 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle

608 name. The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type

609 is specified. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code

610 accordingly. Note that extra performance may be gained by producing

611 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.

613 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar

614 context (theory or proof). Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'

615 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning

616 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).

617 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the

618 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a

619 theory. [Poly/ML 5.2 or later]

621 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof

622 context. Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in

623 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.

624 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the

625 proof. [Poly/ML 5.2 or later]

627 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of

628 transactions. E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML

629 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new

630 theory state.

632 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and

633 name space operations. Basic operations on qualified names have been

634 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,

635 Long_Name.append. Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by

636 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise

637 qualification (by packages and local theory targets), as well as

638 proper tracking of source positions. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap

639 old bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract

640 bindings everywhere. See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,

641 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML

643 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via

644 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally

645 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user

646 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common

647 examples.

649 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,

650 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the

651 bstring as before. INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!

653 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,

654 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof

655 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking. Moreover,

656 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings

657 thereof. INCOMPATIBILITY.

659 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,

660 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,

661 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.). INCOMPATIBILITY, should

662 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,

663 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last

664 resort for legacy applications.

666 * Antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by

667 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:

669 @{let ?pat = term} - term abbreviation (HO matching)

670 @{note name = fact} - fact abbreviation

671 @{thm fact} - singleton fact (with attributes)

672 @{thms fact} - general fact (with attributes)

673 @{lemma prop by method} - singleton goal

674 @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2} - singleton goal

675 @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method} - general goal

676 @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal

677 @{lemma (open) ...} - open derivation

680 *** System ***

682 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for

683 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.

685 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke

686 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not

687 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on

688 isabelle-process). The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the

689 installation location of the Proof General distribution.

691 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate

692 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application. See

693 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example. (The obsolete Java

694 process wrapper has been discontinued.)

696 * Status messages (with exact source position information) are

697 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled. This allows

698 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal

699 prover operations.

701 * Homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see Isabelle/lib/fonts.

705 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)

706 -------------------------------

708 *** General ***

710 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized

711 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.

713 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the

714 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in

715 conflict with concurrency. INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which

716 provides a proper context already.

718 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

719 file are no longer supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and

720 'use' within a theory file will do the job.

722 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space

723 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first

724 space take precedence. INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to

725 swap theory imports.

727 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter. Potential

728 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.

730 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,

731 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

732 white space without escapes.

734 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes

735 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML). E.g. "foo\095bar" for

736 "foo_bar".

739 *** Pure ***

741 * Context-dependent token translations. Default setup reverts locally

742 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.

744 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.

745 There are three ways of invoking it:

747 (1) unused_thms

748 Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.

750 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -

751 Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,

752 excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.

754 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m

755 Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of

756 their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of

757 their ancestors.

759 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by

760 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance

761 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered

762 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in

763 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer

764 reported as unused. Moreover, if all theorems in the group are

765 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.

767 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for

768 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is

769 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).

771 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous

772 theorems within the same name space. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove

773 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications. Note

774 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using

775 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.

777 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.

779 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and

780 clasimpset. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear

781 update of theories within ML code.

783 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.

784 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require

785 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics

786 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.

788 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on

789 theory/local_theory. Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'

790 instead. Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.

791 INCOMPATIBILITY.

793 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.

795 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class

796 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.

797 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.

798 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and

799 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.

801 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only

802 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the

803 background context (locale etc.). Affects `prop` notation and method

804 "fact". INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare

805 situations.

807 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented

808 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the

809 proof text.

811 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".

812 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.

814 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';

815 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale

816 predicates.

819 *** Document preparation ***

821 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for

822 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed

823 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the

824 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default

825 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets

826 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).

828 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given

829 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method

830 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.

833 *** HOL ***

835 * New primrec package. Specification syntax conforms in style to

836 definition/function/.... No separate induction rule is provided. The

837 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications

838 by syntax. The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.

839 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style

840 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.

842 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works

843 with multithreading.

845 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a

846 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses. Theorems that

847 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.

849 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To

850 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]]. Attributes

851 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed

852 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts. INCOMPATIBILITY.

854 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules

855 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors

856 out some operations that are done internally by the function package

857 and makes them available separately. See

858 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.

860 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination

861 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the

862 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.

863 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and

864 just guides the heuristic. To find suitable measure functions, the

865 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate

866 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using

867 the declared rules.

869 This setup also deals with rules like

871 "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"

873 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.

874 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.

876 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"

878 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

880 - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by

881 definitions on => and bool.

883 - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved

884 using the definitions of the operators on => and bool. Therefore,

885 the following theorems have been renamed:

887 subset_def -> subset_eq

888 psubset_def -> psubset_eq

889 set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq

890 Compl_def -> Compl_eq

891 Sup_set_def -> Sup_set_eq

892 Inf_set_def -> Inf_set_eq

893 sup_set_def -> sup_set_eq

894 inf_set_def -> inf_set_eq

896 - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some

897 rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of

898 the unknowns in the rule is a set.

900 - Higher order unification and forward proofs:

901 The proof pattern

903 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

904 then have "EX S. P S" ..

906 no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification

907 algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern

909 have "EX S. P S"

910 proof

911 show "P S" <...>

912 qed

914 - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):

915 The proof pattern

917 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

918 also have "S = T" <...>

919 finally have "P T" .

921 no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and

922 must be replaced by something like

924 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

925 moreover have "S = T" <...>

926 ultimately have "P T" by simp

928 - Tactics or packages written in ML code:

929 Code performing pattern matching on types via

931 Type ("set", [T]) => ...

933 must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or

934 binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a

935 type of the form

937 T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool

939 rather than

941 T1 => ... => Tn => U set

943 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and

944 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.

946 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

948 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter. Use class

949 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.

950 INCOMPATIBILITY.

952 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"

953 and "Cons". INCOMPATIBILITY.

955 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.

956 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

958 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and

959 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.

960 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd. INCOMPATIBILITY.

962 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of

963 the same name in theory Orderings:

965 less_trans

966 less_linear

967 le_imp_less_or_eq

968 le_less_trans

969 less_le_trans

970 less_not_sym

971 less_asym

973 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to

974 less_irrefl_nat. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types

975 and different variable names.

977 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.

979 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of

980 finite maps.

982 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.

984 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed. The infix

985 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have

986 disappeared. INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in

987 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively. Theorems

988 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"

989 accordingly.

991 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer

992 depend on well-founded relations. INCOMPATIBILITY. Definitions

993 le_def and less_def have disappeared. Consider lemmas not_less

994 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.

996 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin

997 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been

998 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes

999 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,

1000 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.

1001 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1003 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper

1004 case_names ("base" and "step"). INCOMPATIBILITY.

1006 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete

1007 lattices. The form set-specific version is available as

1008 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.

1010 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".

1011 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1013 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings

1014 with division and modulo operations. Subsumes former class dvd_mod.

1016 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory

1017 Int. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1019 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural

1020 numbers rather than integers. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1022 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class

1023 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).

1024 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1026 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic

1027 syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1029 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,

1030 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,

1031 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,

1032 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,

1033 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object

1034 equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1036 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term

1037 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.

1038 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.

1040 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.

1042 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.

1044 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of

1045 pairs. Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and

1046 well-orders on sets and on types.

1049 *** ZF ***

1051 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the

1052 same session:

1054 Datatype -> Datatype_ZF

1055 Inductive -> Inductive_ZF

1056 Int -> Int_ZF

1057 IntDiv -> IntDiv_ZF

1058 Nat -> Nat_ZF

1059 List -> List_ZF

1060 Main -> Main_ZF

1062 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below

1063 Main might need to be adapted. Regular theory Main is still

1064 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.

1067 *** ML ***

1069 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const

1070 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.

1072 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact

1073 (of the same name). Removed obsolete print command.

1075 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.

1077 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global

1078 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes

1079 non-critical. The global print_mode reference is for session

1080 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,

1081 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1083 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external

1084 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML

1085 5.2.1). Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!

1088 *** System ***

1090 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---

1091 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.

1093 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;

1094 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR

1095 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".

1097 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general

1098 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.

1100 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to

1101 standard XML transfer syntax. See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and

1102 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.

1104 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)

1105 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust

1106 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.

1108 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),

1109 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).

1111 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature. NB: the documented

1112 way of changing the user's settings is via

1113 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash

1114 script.

1116 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU

1117 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for

1118 optimal performance tuning. The corresponding usedir option -M allows

1119 "max" as an alias for "0". WARNING: does not work on certain versions

1120 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).

1122 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the

1123 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably

1124 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).

1128 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)

1129 -----------------------------------

1131 *** General ***

1133 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a

1134 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the

1135 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:

1136 legacy features will disappear eventually.

1138 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been

1139 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''. Use isatool

1140 fixheaders to convert existing theory files. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1142 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been

1143 discontinued altogether. Note that ML proof scripts may still be used

1144 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML

1145 function use_legacy_bindings. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1147 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',

1148 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords. INCOMPATIBILITY, use double

1149 quotes.

1151 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory

1152 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the

1153 accidental file locations of previously successful loads. The strict

1154 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by

1155 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several

1156 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header

1157 specification, but without merging the results. Potential

1158 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands

1159 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.

1161 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file

1162 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical

1163 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting

1164 (cf. the system manual). The new scheme allows to work with

1165 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source

1166 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.

1168 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

1169 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy

1170 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader

1171 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.

1173 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is

1174 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous

1175 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the

1176 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and

1177 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit

1178 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.

1180 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',

1181 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in

1182 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations

1183 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space

1184 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse

1185 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax

1186 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and

1187 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.

1189 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required

1190 to keep existing proof scripts running. Most other user-level

1191 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open

1192 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).

1193 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because

1194 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being

1195 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().

1197 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"

1198 criterion; "with_dups" option. Certain ProofGeneral versions might

1199 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).

1201 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1

1202 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are

1203 suppressed from proof state output. Note that the ProofGeneral

1204 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but

1205 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems

1206 limit is imposed.

1208 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of

1209 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''. The body may

1210 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism

1211 that has been implemented on top of these primitives. This concept

1212 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility

1213 and scalability.

1215 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;

1216 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).

1219 *** Document preparation ***

1221 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,

1222 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the

1223 current context.

1225 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which

1226 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.

1228 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation

1229 "c args == rhs" given in the current context. (Any number of

1230 arguments may be given on the LHS.)

1233 *** Pure ***

1235 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to

1236 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle. Definitions and

1237 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with

1238 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic

1239 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class

1240 context). Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate

1241 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting

1242 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.

1243 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).

1244 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.

1246 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable

1247 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes). A short usage

1248 sketch:

1250 internal compilation:

1251 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML

1252 writing SML code to a file:

1253 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>

1254 writing OCaml code to a file:

1255 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>

1256 writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:

1257 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>

1259 evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:

1260 method ``eval''

1262 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.

1264 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:

1266 [code fun]: select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

1267 [code fun del]: deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

1268 [code inline]: select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

1269 [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

1271 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):

1273 code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>

1274 {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+

1276 code_type <and-list of type constructors>

1277 {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+

1279 code_instance <and-list of instances>

1280 {(target)}+

1281 where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>

1283 code_class <and_list of classes>

1284 {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+

1285 where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?

1287 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.

1289 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and

1290 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy. A separate tutorial on code

1291 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc

1292 codegen".

1294 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now

1295 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type

1296 annotations).

1298 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory

1299 syntax.

1301 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic

1302 dependencies. The overloading scheme is slightly more general than

1303 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact

1304 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.

1305 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more

1306 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!

1308 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the

1309 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general

1310 declaration given in the signature. For example, with the declaration

1311 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented

1312 as c(nat). Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural

1313 recursion over such type arguments. Incomplete specification patterns

1314 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the

1315 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.

1316 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive

1317 equations, see section "definitions".

1319 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof

1320 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple

1321 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data. Tools may

1322 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to

1323 these values using Config.get etc. Users may change options via an

1324 associated attribute of the same name. This form of context

1325 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or

1326 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''. Thus it has become

1327 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar

1328 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.

1330 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into

1331 configuration options:

1333 Unify.search_bound unify_search_bound

1334 Unify.trace_bound unify_trace_bound

1335 Unify.trace_simp unify_trace_simp

1336 Unify.trace_types unify_trace_types

1337 Simplifier.simp_depth_limit simp_depth_limit

1338 Blast.depth_limit blast_depth_limit

1339 DatatypeProp.dtK datatype_distinctness_limit

1340 fast_arith_neq_limit fast_arith_neq_limit

1341 fast_arith_split_limit fast_arith_split_limit

1343 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context

1344 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also

1345 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML). The user may add or delete facts via

1346 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command. This facility is

1347 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way

1348 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical

1349 order.

1351 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic

1352 declaration functions written in ML. This enables arbitrary content

1353 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the

1354 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application

1355 context encountered later on.

1357 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures. Command

1358 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body

1359 text in ML). Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current

1360 context. ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.

1362 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations

1363 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,

1364 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on

1365 the background context will persist. This form of in-place

1366 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and

1367 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.

1369 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now

1370 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying

1371 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic

1372 assumption steps. This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'

1373 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",

1374 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the

1375 Isar proof context. POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is

1376 more permissive.

1378 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is

1379 considered a legacy feature. Common applications like ``have A .''

1380 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''. In general,

1381 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and

1382 maintainability of proof texts.

1384 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives

1385 the obtained context from the course of reasoning! For example:

1387 assume "EX x y. A x & B y" -- "any previous fact"

1388 then guess x and y by clarify

1390 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and

1391 proof tools being involved here.

1393 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal

1394 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax. This works wherever

1395 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof

1396 methods, attributes etc. Literal facts are retrieved from the context

1397 according to unification of type and term parameters. For example,

1398 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known

1399 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:

1400 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.

1402 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition

1403 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with

1404 certain special cases of literal facts:

1406 have "A" by fact == note `A`

1407 have "A ==> B" by fact == note `A ==> B`

1408 have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact == note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`

1409 have "P a ==> Q a" by fact == note `P a ==> Q a`

1411 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in

1412 outer syntax. Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without

1413 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.

1415 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,

1416 both named and unnamed ones.

1418 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:

1420 def x == "t" and y == "u"

1422 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to

1423 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given

1424 rewrite rules. Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or

1425 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.

1427 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',

1428 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities

1429 (potentially conditional). The underlying notion of rewrite rule is

1430 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the

1431 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).

1433 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the

1434 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.

1436 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a

1437 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N

1438 sub-goals, which need to exist. For example, ``simp_all [3]''

1439 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]

1440 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the

1441 originally first one.

1443 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order

1444 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as

1445 expected.

1447 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either

1448 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'

1449 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and

1450 assumptions). The latter allows to express general elimination rules

1451 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:

1453 lemma exE: -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

1454 assumes "EX x. P x"

1455 obtains x where "P x"

1457 lemma conjE: -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

1458 assumes "A & B"

1459 obtains A and B

1461 lemma disjE: -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

1462 assumes "A | B"

1463 obtains

1464 A

1465 | B

1467 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"

1468 explicitly:

1470 lemma classical: -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

1471 obtains "~ thesis"

1473 lemma Peirce's_Law: -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

1474 obtains "thesis ==> something"

1476 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the

1477 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.

1478 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be

1479 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the

1480 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute

1481 case_names).

1483 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as

1484 "assms" fact in the proof context. This is more appropriate than the

1485 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current

1486 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.

1488 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or

1489 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a

1490 top-level lemma.

1492 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context

1493 introduction rule (default "that").

1495 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

1496 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens

1497 to occur.

1499 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant

1500 according to the current context. This is particularly useful for

1501 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant

1502 representations independently of name spaces.

1504 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"

1505 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist

1506 in the same context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1508 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'

1509 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and

1510 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation

1511 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the

1512 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the

1513 current context.

1515 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',

1516 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit

1517 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence). See also the

1518 isar-ref manual. Examples:

1520 axiomatization

1521 eq (infix "===" 50) where

1522 eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"

1524 definition "f x y = x + y + 1"

1525 definition g where "g x = f x x"

1527 abbreviation

1528 neq (infix "=!=" 50) where

1529 "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"

1531 These specifications may be also used in a locale context. Then the

1532 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the

1533 constant name is qualified by the locale base name. An internal

1534 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the

1535 parameters implicit and using the original short name. See also

1536 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic

1537 entities from a monomorphic theory.

1539 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but

1540 not inherited by general import expressions. Also note that

1541 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +

1542 'translations' in common applications. The "no_abbrevs" print mode

1543 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.

1545 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,

1546 independently of name spaces. The parse tree representation is

1547 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and

1548 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.

1550 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms

1551 (e.g. 'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits

1552 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_"). For example:

1554 definition "K x _ = x"

1556 inductive conj for A B

1557 where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"

1559 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of

1560 the current context. Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of

1561 abbreviations on output.

1563 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and

1564 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer

1565 required to be injective. For example, this allows to define

1566 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.

1568 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.

1569 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is

1570 now an interpretation. INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of

1571 locale expressions. In particular, in interpretations of locales with

1572 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not

1573 removed automatically. Use methods `intro_locales' and

1574 `unfold_locales'; see below.

1576 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'

1577 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates. The methods are

1578 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.

1579 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not

1580 unfold predicates to assumptions.

1582 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated

1583 has changed. This enables to override declarations from fragments due

1584 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.

1586 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been

1587 extended. One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are

1588 unfolded in interpreted theorems. This is useful for replacing

1589 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by

1590 concepts already existing in the target context. Example:

1592 interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]

1593 where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"

1595 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a

1596 definition specification element in the context of locale

1597 partial_order.

1599 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support

1600 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level

1601 connectives !! and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals

1602 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long

1603 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in

1604 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also

1605 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic

1606 examples.

1608 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of

1609 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into

1610 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested

1611 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,

1612 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.

1614 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list

1615 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide

1616 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive

1617 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify

1618 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:

1620 (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)

1621 (induct set: foo bar)

1622 (induct pred: foo bar)

1623 (induct type: foo bar)

1625 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the

1626 new format.

1628 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see

1629 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.

1631 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is

1632 considered a legacy feature.

1634 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic

1635 variables (index 0). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

1637 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level

1638 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by

1639 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The

1640 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.

1642 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format

1643 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when

1644 manipulating the claset.

1646 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,

1647 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at

1648 least one premise.

1650 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional

1651 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions). Weights are

1652 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single

1653 rule steps.

1655 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",

1656 where the body does not mention the bound variable. Note that dummy

1657 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes

1658 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected. Potential

1659 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic

1660 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.

1662 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated

1663 parse translation. INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,

1664 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".

1666 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using

1667 the graph browser tool.

1669 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by

1670 default; use '!' option for full details.

1673 *** HOL ***

1675 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose

1676 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).

1677 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples. WARNING: the

1678 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with

1679 multi-threading.

1681 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as

1682 background processes. It generates calls to the "metis" method if

1683 successful. These can be pasted into the proof. Users do not have to

1684 wait for the automatic provers to return. WARNING: does not really

1685 work with multi-threading.

1687 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for

1688 potential counter-examples. Controlled by ML references

1689 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default

1690 5000 milliseconds). Fails silently if statements is outside of

1691 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.

1693 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".

1695 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic

1696 equality.

1698 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in

1699 the new 'class' package:

1701 HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs

1702 HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide

1703 0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero

1704 1 ~> HOL.one_class.one

1705 op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus

1706 op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus

1707 uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus

1708 op * ~> HOL.times_class.times

1709 op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less

1710 op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq

1711 Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power

1712 Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size

1713 Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of

1714 FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf

1715 FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup

1716 Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min

1717 Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max

1718 Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div

1719 Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod

1720 Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd

1722 INCOMPATIBILITY. Adaptions may be required in the following cases:

1724 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",

1725 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for

1726 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong. INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific

1727 names.

1729 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"

1730 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.

1732 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")

1733 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative

1734 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows

1735 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle

1736 distribution). INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs

1738 d) ML code directly refering to constant names

1739 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and

1740 so on. INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.

1741 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.

1743 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".

1745 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex

1746 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn". Two possible defs of

1747 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and

1748 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.

1749 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1751 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory

1752 Orderings), added parameter "less". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1754 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and

1755 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid

1756 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1758 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to

1759 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.

1761 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up

1762 for classes "order" and "linorder". Instances of the reasoner are available

1763 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.

1764 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner

1765 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver. Diagnostic

1766 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner

1767 in the current context.

1769 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated

1770 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.

1771 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1773 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration

1774 with new class dense_linear_order.

1776 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.

1778 constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"

1779 constant "Meet" now named "Inf"

1781 classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named

1782 "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"

1783 class "lorder" now named "lattice"

1784 class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"

1786 Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions

1787 for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).

1789 INCOMPATIBILITY. Theorem renames:

1791 meet_left_le ~> inf_le1

1792 meet_right_le ~> inf_le2

1793 join_left_le ~> sup_ge1

1794 join_right_le ~> sup_ge2

1795 meet_join_le ~> inf_sup_ord

1796 le_meetI ~> le_infI

1797 join_leI ~> le_supI

1798 le_meet ~> le_inf_iff

1799 le_join ~> ge_sup_conv

1800 meet_idempotent ~> inf_idem

1801 join_idempotent ~> sup_idem

1802 meet_comm ~> inf_commute

1803 join_comm ~> sup_commute

1804 meet_leI1 ~> le_infI1

1805 meet_leI2 ~> le_infI2

1806 le_joinI1 ~> le_supI1

1807 le_joinI2 ~> le_supI2

1808 meet_assoc ~> inf_assoc

1809 join_assoc ~> sup_assoc

1810 meet_left_comm ~> inf_left_commute

1811 meet_left_idempotent ~> inf_left_idem

1812 join_left_comm ~> sup_left_commute

1813 join_left_idempotent ~> sup_left_idem

1814 meet_aci ~> inf_aci

1815 join_aci ~> sup_aci

1816 le_def_meet ~> le_iff_inf

1817 le_def_join ~> le_iff_sup

1818 join_absorp2 ~> sup_absorb2

1819 join_absorp1 ~> sup_absorb1

1820 meet_absorp1 ~> inf_absorb1

1821 meet_absorp2 ~> inf_absorb2

1822 meet_join_absorp ~> inf_sup_absorb

1823 join_meet_absorp ~> sup_inf_absorb

1824 distrib_join_le ~> distrib_sup_le

1825 distrib_meet_le ~> distrib_inf_le

1827 add_meet_distrib_left ~> add_inf_distrib_left

1828 add_join_distrib_left ~> add_sup_distrib_left

1829 is_join_neg_meet ~> is_join_neg_inf

1830 is_meet_neg_join ~> is_meet_neg_sup

1831 add_meet_distrib_right ~> add_inf_distrib_right

1832 add_join_distrib_right ~> add_sup_distrib_right

1833 add_meet_join_distribs ~> add_sup_inf_distribs

1834 join_eq_neg_meet ~> sup_eq_neg_inf

1835 meet_eq_neg_join ~> inf_eq_neg_sup

1836 add_eq_meet_join ~> add_eq_inf_sup

1837 meet_0_imp_0 ~> inf_0_imp_0

1838 join_0_imp_0 ~> sup_0_imp_0

1839 meet_0_eq_0 ~> inf_0_eq_0

1840 join_0_eq_0 ~> sup_0_eq_0

1841 neg_meet_eq_join ~> neg_inf_eq_sup

1842 neg_join_eq_meet ~> neg_sup_eq_inf

1843 join_eq_if ~> sup_eq_if

1845 mono_meet ~> mono_inf

1846 mono_join ~> mono_sup

1847 meet_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_eq

1848 join_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_eq

1849 meet_fun_eq ~> inf_fun_eq

1850 join_fun_eq ~> sup_fun_eq

1851 meet_set_eq ~> inf_set_eq

1852 join_set_eq ~> sup_set_eq

1853 meet1_iff ~> inf1_iff

1854 meet2_iff ~> inf2_iff

1855 meet1I ~> inf1I

1856 meet2I ~> inf2I

1857 meet1D1 ~> inf1D1

1858 meet2D1 ~> inf2D1

1859 meet1D2 ~> inf1D2

1860 meet2D2 ~> inf2D2

1861 meet1E ~> inf1E

1862 meet2E ~> inf2E

1863 join1_iff ~> sup1_iff

1864 join2_iff ~> sup2_iff

1865 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

1866 join2I1 ~> sup2I1

1867 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

1868 join2I2 ~> sup1I2

1869 join1CI ~> sup1CI

1870 join2CI ~> sup2CI

1871 join1E ~> sup1E

1872 join2E ~> sup2E

1874 is_meet_Meet ~> is_meet_Inf

1875 Meet_bool_def ~> Inf_bool_def

1876 Meet_fun_def ~> Inf_fun_def

1877 Meet_greatest ~> Inf_greatest

1878 Meet_lower ~> Inf_lower

1879 Meet_set_def ~> Inf_set_def

1881 Sup_def ~> Sup_Inf

1882 Sup_bool_eq ~> Sup_bool_def

1883 Sup_fun_eq ~> Sup_fun_def

1884 Sup_set_eq ~> Sup_set_def

1886 listsp_meetI ~> listsp_infI

1887 listsp_meet_eq ~> listsp_inf_eq

1889 meet_min ~> inf_min

1890 join_max ~> sup_max

1892 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has

1893 type "'a::size ==> bool"

1895 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems

1896 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still

1897 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named

1898 "*.size".

1900 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".

1901 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1903 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,

1904 Linorder etc. have disappeared; operations defined in terms of

1905 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1907 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1909 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size

1910 machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating

1911 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for

1912 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including

1913 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity. Instantiated to all appropriate

1914 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of

1915 numerals on all operations.

1917 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.

1919 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).

1921 * Code generator library theories:

1922 - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target

1923 languages.

1924 - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target

1925 languages.

1926 - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character

1927 codes; includes Code_Integer.

1928 - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.

1929 - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,

1930 denominator).

1931 - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those

1932 representable by rational numbers.

1933 - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will

1934 result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;

1935 includes Code_Integer.

1936 - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to

1937 target-language built-in integers.

1938 - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to

1939 strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.

1941 * New package for inductive predicates

1943 An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via

1945 inductive

1946 p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

1947 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

1948 where

1949 rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

1950 | ...

1952 with full support for type-inference, rather than

1954 consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

1956 abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

1957 where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

1959 inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"

1960 intros

1961 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

1962 ...

1964 For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive

1965 sets to be defined with the new package via

1967 inductive_set

1968 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

1969 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

1970 where

1971 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

1972 | ...

1974 or

1976 inductive_set

1977 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

1978 and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

1979 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

1980 where

1981 "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

1982 | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

1983 | ...

1985 if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.

1987 Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,

1988 src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.

1990 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

1992 - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates

1993 is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly

1994 introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the

1995 introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather

1996 than before the actual inductive definition.

1998 - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now

1999 quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction

2000 rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break

2001 some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by

2002 reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'

2003 statements of the form

2005 case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})

2007 or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding

2008 meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.

2010 | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"

2012 - The format of the elimination rules is now

2014 p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>

2015 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

2016 ==> ... ==> P

2018 for predicates and

2020 (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

2021 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

2022 ==> ... ==> P

2024 for sets rather than

2026 x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

2027 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)

2028 ==> ... ==> P

2030 This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples

2031 (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all

2032 rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.

2034 - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive

2035 sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The

2036 list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.

2038 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,

2039 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,

2040 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy

2041 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function

2042 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but

2043 users are encouraged to use the new package.

2045 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination

2046 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.

2048 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including

2049 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional

2050 programming. Internally, this is translated into nested

2051 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined

2052 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show

2053 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow

2054 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an

2055 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new

2056 variable.

2058 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"

2059 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification

2060 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did

2061 previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

2062 - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"

2063 - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules

2065 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using

2066 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the

2067 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for

2068 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding

2069 declarations for computation on the coefficients. The method is

2070 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class

2071 of idoms with numerals. See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at

2072 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this

2073 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.

2075 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over

2076 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to

2077 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class

2078 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,

2079 rat, etc.

2081 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append". Use ML

2082 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to

2083 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.

2085 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".

2087 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.

2088 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)

2090 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.

2091 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.

2093 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :

2094 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list

2095 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2097 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders. It used to be

2098 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]

2099 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2101 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD" to "set_takeWhileD".

2103 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.

2105 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for

2106 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all

2107 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or

2108 positive/negative (in inequations).

2110 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib

2111 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and

2112 ring_distribs. Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field

2113 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2115 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function

2116 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried. Infix syntax for

2117 algebraic operations.

2119 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.

2120 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2122 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.

2123 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2125 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the

2126 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update

2127 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.

2128 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be

2129 adapted.

2131 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0

2132 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring. Richer structures do not

2133 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem

2134 there, not an axiom. INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,

2135 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.

2137 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just

2138 commutative semirings. INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate

2139 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.

2141 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.

2142 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,

2143 better use 'abbreviation'.

2145 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member". INCOMPATIBILITY.

2147 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has

2148 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'. INCOMPATIBILITY --

2149 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:

2150 - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead

2151 of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.

2152 - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.

2153 - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.

2154 - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.

2156 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.

2158 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may

2159 contain free variables. For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''

2160 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof). This command is suitable for

2161 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML

2162 first. Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided. See

2163 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.

2165 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority

2166 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is

2167 "A = B" (with priority 50).

2169 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.

2170 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,

2171 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z". Potential

2172 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2174 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).

2176 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds

2177 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2179 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been

2180 removed. Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.

2182 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites

2183 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq"). INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using

2184 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.

2186 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to

2187 True/False.

2189 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".

2191 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.

2193 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the

2194 ``rule'' method.

2196 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:

2197 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences

2198 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form

2199 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.

2201 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.

2202 zChaff is still supported as well.

2204 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,

2205 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;

2207 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to

2208 Library.

2210 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.

2212 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists

2213 as greatest fixed-point.

2215 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as

2216 association lists.

2218 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)

2219 efficiently by compiling it to ML. The goal is "proved" (via an

2220 oracle) if it evaluates to True.

2222 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)

2223 also when invoked by the simplifier. This results in the Simplifier

2224 being more powerful on arithmetic goals. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2225 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old

2226 behavior.

2228 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.

2230 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an

2231 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional

2232 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the

2233 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The

2234 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs

2235 s. If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.

2237 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)

2238 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,

2239 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code

2240 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then

2241 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =

2242 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the

2243 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.

2245 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is

2246 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy

2248 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a

2249 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an

2250 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of

2251 HOL types. This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,

2252 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.

2255 *** HOL-Complex ***

2257 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real

2258 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.

2259 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so

2260 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential

2261 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2263 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and

2264 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a

2265 and norm :: 'a => real.

2267 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from

2268 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now

2269 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

2271 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.

2272 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.

2274 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the

2275 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector

2276 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential

2277 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2279 Infinitesimal :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

2280 HFinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

2281 HInfinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

2282 approx :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool

2283 monad :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

2284 galaxy :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

2285 (NS)LIMSEQ :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

2286 (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

2287 (NS)Bseq :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

2288 (NS)Cauchy :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

2289 (NS)LIM :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool

2290 is(NS)Cont :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

2291 deriv :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool

2292 sgn :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a

2293 exp :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a

2295 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for

2296 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =

2297 hnorm. Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the

2298 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2300 approx <-- capprox

2301 HFinite <-- CFinite

2302 HInfinite <-- CInfinite

2303 Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal

2304 monad <-- cmonad

2305 galaxy <-- cgalaxy

2306 (NS)LIM <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM

2307 is(NS)Cont <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR

2308 (ns)deriv <-- (ns)cderiv

2311 *** HOL-Algebra ***

2313 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.

2315 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.

2316 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2318 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->

2319 greatest_closed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2321 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute. For examples see

2322 Ring.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations

2323 of algebraic structures.

2325 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.

2328 *** HOL-Nominal ***

2330 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding

2331 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic. See src/HOL/Nominal and

2332 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples. Prospective users should consult

2333 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/

2336 *** ML ***

2338 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int

2339 (even on SML/NJ).

2341 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked

2342 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at

2343 compile-time. For example:

2345 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}

2346 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}

2347 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}

2348 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}

2349 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}

2350 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}

2351 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}

2352 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}

2353 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}

2354 ML {* @{type_name c} *}

2355 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}

2356 ML {* @{const_name c} *}

2357 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}

2358 ML {* @{context} *}

2359 ML {* @{theory} *}

2360 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}

2361 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}

2362 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}

2363 ML {* @{simpset} *}

2364 ML {* @{claset} *}

2365 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}

2367 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.

2369 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with

2370 ML_Context.trace enabled.

2372 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions

2373 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and

2374 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.

2376 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now

2377 use Context.generic instead of just theory.

2379 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and

2380 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of

2381 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.

2383 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always

2384 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.

2385 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while

2386 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and

2387 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure

2388 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably

2389 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type

2390 declarations and definitions.

2392 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed

2393 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,

2394 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need

2395 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)

2397 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in

2398 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the

2399 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,

2400 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

2402 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with

2403 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed

2404 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --

2405 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and

2406 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede

2407 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.

2409 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --

2410 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been

2411 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted

2412 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for

2413 attributes, methods, etc.

2415 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."

2416 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to

2417 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and

2418 fold_map combinators.

2420 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional

2421 comments (tags) are now strictly separate. Name hints -- which are

2422 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the

2423 derivation.

2425 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an

2426 actual goal state (thm). Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to

2427 achieve the old behaviour.

2429 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a

2430 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule

2431 statements.

2433 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now

2434 enforced instead of silently assumed. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use

2435 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.

2437 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating

2438 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc. This replaces

2439 some popular functions from term.ML:

2441 Term.variant -> Name.variant

2442 Term.variantlist -> Name.variant_list

2443 Term.invent_names -> Name.invent_list

2445 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations

2446 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).

2448 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper

2449 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context. For example,

2450 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and

2451 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces

2452 various freeze_thaw operations.

2454 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for

2455 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former

2456 Tactic.prove). Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results

2457 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for

2458 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard. Note that

2459 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is

2460 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or

2461 in a locale context).

2463 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)

2464 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations

2465 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.

2466 which are considered legacy and await removal.

2468 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking

2469 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),

2470 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term

2471 etc.). Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still

2472 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using

2473 a mere theory instead of a full context.

2475 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception

2476 ERROR of string uniformly. Function error now merely raises ERROR,

2477 without any side effect on output channels. The Isar toplevel takes

2478 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions. ML code may use plain

2479 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:

2481 ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."

2483 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be

2484 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like

2485 this:

2487 Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)

2489 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed

2490 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,

2491 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)

2492 -- use plain ERROR instead.

2494 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a

2495 list. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.

2497 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to

2498 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.

2500 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the

2501 theory before entering a proof state. Transactions now always see a

2502 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and

2503 batch mode.

2505 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax. Renamed

2506 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords. Removed

2507 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in

2508 OuterSyntax.command etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2510 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now

2511 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the

2512 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by

2513 simpset_of/local_simpset_of). Consequently, all plug-in components

2514 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.

2516 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the

2517 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc

2518 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this! Removed

2519 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --

2520 INCOMPATIBILITY. Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to

2521 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.

2523 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces

2524 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a

2525 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --

2526 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2528 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired

2529 "Trueprop" etc.

2532 *** System ***

2534 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now

2535 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER. This simplifies use of multiple

2536 Isabelle installations.

2538 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical

2539 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source

2540 code.

2542 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.

2544 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of

2545 Poly/ML 5.1. The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing

2546 independent theories, according to the given theory header

2547 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via

2548 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A

2549 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up

2550 to 6 on a 8-core machine. User-code needs to observe certain

2551 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar

2552 Implementation manual.

2556 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)

2557 ----------------------------------

2559 *** General ***

2561 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is

2563 theory <name>

2564 imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>

2565 uses <file1> ... <fileM>

2566 begin

2568 where the 'uses' part is optional. The previous syntax

2570 theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:

2572 will disappear in the next release. Use isatool fixheaders to convert

2573 existing theory files. Note that there is no change in ancient

2574 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.

2576 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via

2577 relative and absolute paths.

2579 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a

2580 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,

2581 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select

2582 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that

2583 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified

2584 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose

2585 lhs match term. Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects

2586 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under

2587 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f. Example:

2589 C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."

2591 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",

2592 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."

2593 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).

2595 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of

2596 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.

2598 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that

2599 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both

2600 formal and informal parts). Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof

2601 General interface. Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):

2603 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html

2604 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html

2606 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the

2607 Classical Reasoner. Typical big applications run around 2 times

2608 faster.

2611 *** Document preparation ***

2613 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output

2614 of raw sources. Only those symbols that do not require additional

2615 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are

2616 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim. isatool display

2617 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the

2618 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).

2620 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,

2621 notably folding and hiding. Predefined tags include "theory" (for

2622 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for

2623 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and

2624 "invisible" are unused by default. Users may give explicit tag

2625 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''. The

2626 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document

2627 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of

2628 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,

2629 \isadroptag.

2631 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool

2632 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them). Typical

2633 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present

2634 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold

2635 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit

2636 these parts without any formal replacement text. The Isabelle site

2637 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as

2638 specified above.

2640 * Several new antiquotations:

2642 @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;

2644 @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;

2646 @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the

2647 argument is a known logical constant;

2649 @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or

2650 theorem applying a "style" to it

2652 @{ML text}

2654 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of

2655 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the

2656 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'

2657 to print the specified premise. TermStyle.add_style provides an ML

2658 interface for introducing further styles. See also the "LaTeX Sugar"

2659 document practical applications. The ML antiquotation prints

2660 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.

2662 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',

2663 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which

2664 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations. For

2665 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.

2667 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative

2668 context interpreting the subsequent argument. For example: @{thm

2669 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.

2671 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within

2672 a proof context.

2674 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a

2675 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').

2677 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX

2678 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).

2680 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option

2681 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false

2682 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.

2685 *** Pure ***

2687 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command. Now performs

2688 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for

2689 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also

2690 isar-ref manual. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly

2691 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'

2692 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier. If

2693 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.

2695 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures. First of all,

2696 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted

2697 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary

2698 expressions. Secondly, in a local context with structure

2699 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default

2700 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option

2701 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures. Typical

2702 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.

2704 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and

2705 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is

2706 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.

2708 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend

2709 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for

2710 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.

2712 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an

2713 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of

2714 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle

2715 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;

2716 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2718 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"

2719 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.

2720 INCOMPATIBILITY. This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for

2721 axclasses vs. locales.

2723 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes

2724 instead of base 26 numbers.

2726 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question

2727 marks in schematic variable names.

2729 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or

2730 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name. For example, the

2731 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:

2733 lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"

2734 by simp

2736 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).

2738 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix

2739 annotations as "(00...)".

2741 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter

2742 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.

2743 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class

2744 "logic" vs. "{}". Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper

2745 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'. Some very

2746 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption

2747 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).

2749 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.

2750 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'

2751 rather than 'types'. INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic

2752 specifications.

2754 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be

2755 locally fixed variables as well.

2757 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting

2758 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth

2759 Limit.

2761 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current

2762 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc

2763 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier

2764 recursively. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs

2765 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead. Moreover, the

2766 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to

2767 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.

2769 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!

2770 or ==>. More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of

2771 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.

2773 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2775 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived

2776 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already. Both

2777 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.

2778 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /

2779 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;

2780 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.

2782 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific

2783 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.

2785 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference

2786 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),

2787 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');

2789 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.

2791 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive

2792 theory development.

2794 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code

2795 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures

2796 for each theory). INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'

2797 must be quoted when used as identifiers.

2799 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using

2800 the code generator. INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be

2801 quoted when used as identifier.

2804 *** Locales ***

2806 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in

2807 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3). These generate

2808 proof obligations from the expression specification. After the

2809 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added

2810 to the theory, target locale or proof context. The synopsis of the

2811 commands is a follows:

2813 (1) interpretation expr inst

2814 (2) interpretation target < expr

2815 (3) interpret expr inst

2817 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter

2818 instantiation of terms from the current context. This is applied to

2819 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.

2820 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the

2821 locale expression. Interpretation is smart in that interpretations

2822 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are

2823 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate. Use 'print_interps' to

2824 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale. For details,

2825 see the Isar Reference manual. Examples can be found in

2826 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.

2828 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use

2829 'interpret' instead.

2831 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to

2832 parameters.

2834 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax

2835 redeclaration.

2837 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.

2839 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /

2840 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition

2841 context, independently of the context of later invocations. Moreover,

2842 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied

2843 to attribute arguments as expected.

2845 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of

2846 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to

2847 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.

2848 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static

2849 binding mechanism. Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and

2850 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further

2851 intervention. Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"

2852 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both

2853 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed

2854 values to argument tokens explicitly.

2856 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal

2857 statements with 'includes'. INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different

2858 theorem statement in rare situations.

2860 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements. Use

2861 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.

2864 *** Provers ***

2866 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for

2867 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is

2868 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption. INCOMPATIBILITY: may

2869 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is

2870 still available as 'simplesubst'.

2872 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only

2873 and quasi orders.

2875 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and

2876 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.

2878 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth

2879 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.

2881 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup

2882 is peformed already. Object-logics merely need to finish their

2883 initial simpset configuration as before. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2886 *** HOL ***

2888 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:

2890 syntax (epsilon)

2891 "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a" ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)

2893 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX

2894 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.

2895 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>

2896 becomes available as variable, constant etc. INCOMPATIBILITY,

2898 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".

2899 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc. The x-symbol for >=

2900 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to

2901 support corresponding Isar calculations.

2903 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"

2904 instead of ":".

2906 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:

2908 Old New

2909 {..n(} {..<n}

2910 {)n..} {n<..}

2911 {m..n(} {m..<n}

2912 {)m..n} {m<..n}

2913 {)m..n(} {m<..<n}

2915 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next

2916 release. For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace

2917 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):

2919 {)\([^\.]*\)\.\. -> {\1<\.\.}

2920 \.\.\([^(}]*\)(} -> \.\.<\1}

2922 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving

2923 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic

2924 interface.

2926 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over

2927 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is

2928 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can

2929 be a tuple pattern.

2931 Some new syntax forms are available:

2933 "\<Sum>x | P. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"

2934 "\<Sum>x = a..b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"

2935 "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"

2936 "\<Sum>x < k. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"

2938 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate

2939 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.

2941 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case

2942 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case

2943 (insert F x)'.

2945 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger

2946 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and

2947 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.

2949 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.

2950 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed. See

2951 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.

2953 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the

2954 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by

2955 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather

2956 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY

2957 in unstructured proof scripts.

2959 * Reworked implementation of records. Improved scalability for

2960 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type

2961 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but

2962 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear

2963 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields. The

2964 top-level (users) view on records is preserved. Potential

2965 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the

2966 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called

2967 <record_name>_ext_type.

2969 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the

2970 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if

2971 quick_and_dirty is enabled). Definitions of large records can take

2972 quite long.

2974 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record

2975 updates enabled by default. Moreover, trivial updates are also

2976 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r. INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break

2977 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.

2979 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra

2980 type-variables in the term.

2982 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains

2983 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics

2984 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers. INCOMPATIBILITY:

2985 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more

2986 goals than previously.

2988 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is

2989 present. Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular

2990 numbers and sets. For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y

2991 just like y <= x.

2993 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x". If a is a free or

2994 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded. Otherwise

2995 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If

2996 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",

2997 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g. The simproc can be

2998 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc. Potential

2999 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.

3001 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.

3003 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background

3004 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.

3006 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and

3007 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and

3008 inequalities.

3010 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

3011 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

3013 abs_eq now named abs_of_nonneg

3014 abs_of_ge_0 now named abs_of_nonneg

3015 abs_minus_eq now named abs_of_nonpos

3016 imp_abs_id now named abs_of_nonneg

3017 imp_abs_neg_id now named abs_of_nonpos

3018 mult_pos now named mult_pos_pos

3019 mult_pos_le now named mult_nonneg_nonneg

3020 mult_pos_neg_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos

3021 mult_pos_neg2_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2

3022 mult_neg now named mult_neg_neg

3023 mult_neg_le now named mult_nonpos_nonpos

3025 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:

3027 zero_le_square

3028 not_square_less_zero

3030 The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:

3032 realpow_zero_zero

3033 realpow_two

3034 realpow_less

3035 zero_le_power

3036 realpow_two_le

3037 abs_realpow_two

3038 realpow_two_abs

3040 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.

3042 * Theory List:

3044 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

3045 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

3047 list_all_Nil now named list_all.simps(1)

3048 list_all_Cons now named list_all.simps(2)

3049 list_all_conv now named list_all_iff

3050 set_mem_eq now named mem_iff

3052 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support

3053 asymptotic "big O" calculations. See the notes in BigO.thy.

3056 *** HOL-Complex ***

3058 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and

3059 integers in the reals.

3061 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

3062 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

3064 exp_ge_add_one_self now requires no hypotheses

3065 real_of_int_add reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

3066 real_of_int_minus reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

3067 real_of_int_diff reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

3068 real_of_int_mult reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

3070 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.

3072 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm

3074 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making

3075 nonstandard types. The old type names are now type synonyms:

3077 hypreal = real star

3078 hypnat = nat star

3079 hcomplex = complex star

3081 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been

3082 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

3084 star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex

3086 starset <-- starsetNat, starsetC

3087 *s* <-- *sNat*, *sc*

3088 starset_n <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n

3089 *sn* <-- *sNatn*, *scn*

3090 InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets

3092 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

3093 *f* <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*

3094 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n

3095 *fn* <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*

3096 InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs

3098 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of

3099 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):

3101 add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute

3102 add_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs

3103 OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left

3104 OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right

3105 right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus

3106 left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left

3107 mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute

3108 mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc

3109 mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left

3110 mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right

3111 mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left

3112 left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib

3113 right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2

3114 zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one

3115 right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse

3116 left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left

3117 order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl

3118 order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans

3119 order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym

3120 order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le

3121 linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear

3122 add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono

3123 mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2

3124 add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order

3126 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific

3127 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the

3128 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):

3130 STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set

3131 STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set

3132 STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un

3133 STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int

3134 STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl

3135 STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset

3136 STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem

3137 STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl

3138 STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff

3139 STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,

3140 STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset

3141 starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un

3142 starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int

3143 starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl

3144 starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff

3145 InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un

3146 InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int

3147 InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl

3148 InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff

3149 InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff

3150 InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n

3151 starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq

3152 starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}

3153 starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

3154 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

3155 starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult

3156 starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add

3157 starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus

3158 starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff

3159 starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o

3160 starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2

3161 starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun

3162 starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse

3163 starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq

3164 starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff

3165 starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id

3166 starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx

3167 starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox

3168 starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs

3169 starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel

3170 starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2

3171 starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox

3172 starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox

3173 starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox

3174 starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx

3175 starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse

3176 starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide

3177 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n

3178 starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult

3179 starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add

3180 starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus

3181 starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun

3182 starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus

3183 starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq

3185 star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add

3186 star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus

3187 star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff

3188 star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult

3189 star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse

3190 star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le

3191 star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less

3192 star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num

3193 star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num

3194 star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs

3195 star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide

3197 star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add

3198 star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus

3199 star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff

3200 star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult

3201 star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one

3202 star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero

3203 star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff

3204 star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff

3205 star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff

3206 star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse

3207 star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide

3208 star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat

3209 star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int

3210 star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of

3211 star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff

3212 star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff

3213 star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff

3214 star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff

3215 star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff

3216 star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power

3217 star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff

3219 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer

3220 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions

3221 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"

3222 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.

3223 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-

3224 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.

3226 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.

3229 *** HOLCF ***

3231 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support

3232 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full

3233 type-inference.

3235 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it

3236 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic

3237 instead of exponential time).

3239 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.

3240 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:

3242 domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")

3244 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern

3245 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also

3246 supported. Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,

3247 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given

3248 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

3249 syntax and examples.

3251 * New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes

3252 of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,

3253 but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility

3254 requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,

3255 with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.

3257 * HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming

3258 scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):

3260 foo_inject: "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"

3261 foo_eq: "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"

3262 foo_less: "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"

3263 foo_strict: "foo$UU = UU"

3264 foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"

3265 foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"

3268 *** ZF ***

3270 * ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,

3271 including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel

3272 of a homomorphism).

3274 * ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually

3275 makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);

3276 the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.

3279 *** Cube ***

3281 * Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic

3282 theories.

3285 *** ML ***

3287 * Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts

3288 for ||>, ||>>, |>>,

3290 * Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses

3291 that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of

3292 None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.

3293 The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted

3294 accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.

3296 * Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of

3297 the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as

3298 Library.UnequalLengths. Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are

3299 superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.

3301 A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML

3302 toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions. The following

3303 suggests how one can translate existing code:

3305 rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)

3306 nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)

3307 last_elem xs = List.last xs

3308 flat xss = List.concat xss

3309 seq fs = List.app fs

3310 partition P xs = List.partition P xs

3311 mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs

3313 * Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional

3314 transformations, notably reverse application and composition:

3316 x |> f f #> g

3317 (x, y) |-> f f #-> g

3319 * Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:

3321 infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;

3322 infix 2 ?;

3323 infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;

3324 infix 4 ~~ upto downto;

3326 Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other

3327 infix operators.

3329 * Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and

3330 fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting. For

3331 example:

3333 fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =

3334 y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN

3336 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =

3337 y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN

3339 fold f [x1, ..., xN] =

3340 f x1 #> ... #> f xN

3342 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =

3343 fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN

3345 * Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are

3346 available:

3348 the: 'a option -> 'a (*partial*)

3349 these: 'a option -> 'a where 'a = 'b list

3350 the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a

3351 the_list: 'a option -> 'a list

3353 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

3354 basic operations for association lists, following natural argument

3355 order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids

3356 potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.

3357 The old functions may be expressed as follows:

3359 assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))

3360 assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)

3361 overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap

3363 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

3365 val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list

3366 val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list

3368 replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)

3369 Naive rewrites:

3371 make_keylist = AList.make

3372 keyfilter = AList.find (op =)

3374 * eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus

3375 avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:

3377 eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)

3378 eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)

3380 * Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).

3381 Naive rewrites:

3383 apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n

3384 apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)

3386 * Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)

3387 provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as

3388 lists.

3390 * Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a

3391 few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to

3392 follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);

3393 INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.

3395 * Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of

3396 writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a

3397 hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode

3398 (cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output

3399 function wins). Already formatted output may be embedded into further

3400 text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived

3401 functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to

3402 accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc. Programmers

3403 rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with

3404 some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the

3405 standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce

3406 properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing

3407 already output material that will eventually be presented to the user

3408 a second time. For the default print mode, both Output.output and

3409 Output.raw have no effect.

3411 * Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a

3412 -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the

3413 cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.

3415 * Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been

3416 replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate

3417 hooks). This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the

3418 internal and external process view of file names are different.

3420 * Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added

3421 fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord

3422 and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is

3423 NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast

3424 orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a

3425 particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using

3426 Library.sort_strings on result).

3428 * Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,

3429 fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural

3430 argument order. Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,

3431 add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.

3433 * Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the

3434 internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY. Renamed cond_extern(_table)

3435 to extern(_table). The plain name entry path is superceded by a

3436 general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce

3437 a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified

3438 name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent

3439 Sign.declare_name. Several theory and proof context operations modify

3440 the naming context. Especially note Theory.restore_naming and

3441 ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that

3442 Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from

3443 Theory.absolute_path in particular.

3445 * Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names

3446 (default true) for controlling output of qualified names. If

3447 short_names is set, names are printed unqualified. If unique_names is

3448 reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve

3449 the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap

3450 with earlier declarations.

3452 * Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is

3453 now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument

3454 (useful for printing error messages). INCOMPATIBILITY.

3456 * Pure: major reorganization of the theory context. Type Sign.sg and

3457 Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal

3458 Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML). Actual signature and theory

3459 content is managed as theory data. The old code and interfaces were

3460 spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces

3461 considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:

3463 Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,

3464 parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;

3466 Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,

3467 types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;

3469 Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,

3470 oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,

3471 types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,

3472 Theory.merge, etc.)

3474 The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm

3475 etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained

3476 for convenience -- they merely return the theory.

3478 * Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.

3480 * Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure

3481 as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are

3482 aliases, where the latter is the preferred name). This enables other

3483 Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.

3485 * Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,

3486 typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for

3487 any of these kinds. For example, Sign.intern typeK is now

3488 Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now

3489 Theory.hide_types. Also note that former

3490 Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now

3491 Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions

3492 internalize their arguments! INCOMPATIBILITY.

3494 * Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects

3495 datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of

3496 plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

3498 * Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE

3499 means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in

3500 (RAW_)METHOD_CASES.

3502 * Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a

3503 theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:

3505 Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

3506 Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

3507 PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

3508 PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

3510 * Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.

3512 * Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.

3513 Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing

3514 and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)

3515 controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space

3516 (both increase the runtime).

3518 * Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,

3519 i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the

3520 elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.

3522 * Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless

3523 representation, avoid allocating new strings). Simprocs that invoke

3524 the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to

3525 avoid local name clashes. Failure to do so produces warnings

3526 "Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds

3527 for further details.

3529 * ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact

3530 bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help

3531 in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof

3532 scripts for the time being.

3534 * ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for

3535 generated HTML files. For example:

3537 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";

3538 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";

3541 *** System ***

3543 * Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,

3544 isabelle, isatool etc.).

3546 * ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for

3547 isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).

3549 * isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be

3550 used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.

3552 * New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle

3553 distribution being used.

3555 * HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format

3556 (containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL

3557 theories.

3561 New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)

3562 --------------------------------

3564 *** General ***

3566 * Provers/order.ML: new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.

3567 Replaces linorder.ML.

3569 * Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic

3570 (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler

3571 (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore

3572 be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until

3573 now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some

3574 terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say

3575 '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed

3576 as an identifier. Fix it by inserting a space around former

3577 symbols. Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in

3578 existing theory and ML files.

3580 * Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.

3582 * Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now

3583 allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered

3584 a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat

3585 \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.

3587 * Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one

3588 character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in

3589 ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in

3590 superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.

3592 * Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the

3593 content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."

3594 may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.

3596 * Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions

3597 Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to

3598 declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition

3599 later. It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically

3600 rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.

3602 * Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts

3603 (i.e. intersections of classes),

3605 * Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout

3606 (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.

3607 It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.

3610 *** Isar ***

3612 * Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,

3613 cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:

3614 - Now understand static (Isar) contexts. As a consequence, users of Isar

3615 locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.

3616 For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic

3617 emulations.

3618 - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no

3619 longer be enclosed in quotes. Instead, precede variable name with `?'.

3620 This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".

3622 * Attributes "where" and "of":

3623 - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading

3624 the instantiation string. This fixes a bug that caused instantiated

3625 theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.

3626 - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.

3628 * Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with

3629 current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"

3630 and derived forms.

3632 * Locales:

3633 - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer

3634 generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on

3635 "_axioms") in the premise.

3636 Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.

3637 - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target

3638 specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.

3639 - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as

3640 [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.

3641 - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:

3642 instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>

3643 Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context

3644 taking into account their attributes. Label and attrs are optional

3645 modifiers, like in theorem declarations. If present, names of

3646 instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes

3647 <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.

3648 If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form

3649 "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters

3650 are derived. The command does not support old-style locales declared

3651 with "locale (open)".

3652 A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.

3654 * HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static

3655 (Isar) contexts.

3658 *** HOL ***

3660 * Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from

3661 the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by

3662 replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image

3663 can be used like any other Isabelle image. See

3664 HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.

3666 * Simplifier:

3667 - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.

3668 Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes

3669 "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset

3670 as solvers. This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains

3671 to solve goals from the assumptions.

3672 - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally. Typically, applications

3673 of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal

3674 is solved by simplification already.

3676 * Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,

3677 all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.

3679 * Numerics:

3680 - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are

3681 now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.

3682 - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently

3683 than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.

3684 - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.

3685 Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern

3686 exponentiation).

3688 * Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.

3690 * Records:

3691 - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation

3692 instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via

3693 the reference "print_record_type_abbr".

3694 - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added

3695 (not enabled by default).

3696 - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.

3697 EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).

3698 - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.

3700 * 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by

3701 specification. There is also an 'ax_specification' command that

3702 introduces the new constants axiomatically.

3704 * arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.

3706 * HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.

3708 * HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function

3709 definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.

3711 * HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of

3712 matrix theory to linear programming.

3714 * Unions and Intersections:

3715 The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed

3716 from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"

3717 i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.

3718 Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.

3720 * Unions and Intersections over Intervals:

3721 There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is

3722 also an x-symbol version with subscripts "\<Union>\<^bsub>i <= n\<^esub>. A"

3723 like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.

3725 * HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard

3726 lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".

3728 * ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had

3729 conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.

3731 * 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels. Only works

3732 for a fragment of HOL. The installation of an external SAT solver is

3733 highly recommended. See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.

3735 * 'quickcheck' command: Allows to find counterexamples by evaluating

3736 formulae under an assignment of free variables to random values.

3737 In contrast to 'refute', it can deal with inductive datatypes,

3738 but cannot handle quantifiers. See "HOL/ex/Quickcheck_Examples.thy"

3739 for examples.

3742 *** HOLCF ***

3744 * Streams now come with concatenation and are part of the HOLCF image

3748 New in Isabelle2003 (May 2003)

3749 ------------------------------

3751 *** General ***

3753 * Provers/simplifier:

3755 - Completely reimplemented method simp (ML: Asm_full_simp_tac):

3756 Assumptions are now subject to complete mutual simplification,

3757 not just from left to right. The simplifier now preserves

3758 the order of assumptions.

3760 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

3762 -- simp sometimes diverges where the old version did

3763 not, e.g. invoking simp on the goal

3765 [| P (f x); y = x; f x = f y |] ==> Q

3767 now gives rise to the infinite reduction sequence

3769 P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> P(f y) --(y = x)--> P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> ...

3771 Using "simp (asm_lr)" (ML: Asm_lr_simp_tac) instead often solves this

3772 kind of problem.

3774 -- Tactics combining classical reasoner and simplification (such as auto)

3775 are also affected by this change, because many of them rely on

3776 simp. They may sometimes diverge as well or yield a different numbers

3777 of subgoals. Try to use e.g. force, fastsimp, or safe instead of auto

3778 in case of problems. Sometimes subsequent calls to the classical

3779 reasoner will fail because a preceeding call to the simplifier too

3780 eagerly simplified the goal, e.g. deleted redundant premises.

3782 - The simplifier trace now shows the names of the applied rewrite rules

3784 - You can limit the number of recursive invocations of the simplifier

3785 during conditional rewriting (where the simplifie tries to solve the

3786 conditions before applying the rewrite rule):

3787 ML "simp_depth_limit := n"

3788 where n is an integer. Thus you can force termination where previously

3789 the simplifier would diverge.

3791 - Accepts free variables as head terms in congruence rules. Useful in Isar.

3793 - No longer aborts on failed congruence proof. Instead, the

3794 congruence is ignored.

3796 * Pure: New generic framework for extracting programs from constructive

3797 proofs. See HOL/Extraction.thy for an example instantiation, as well

3798 as HOL/Extraction for some case studies.

3800 * Pure: The main goal of the proof state is no longer shown by default, only

3801 the subgoals. This behaviour is controlled by a new flag.

3802 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Settings -> Show Main Goal

3803 (ML: Proof.show_main_goal).

3805 * Pure: You can find all matching introduction rules for subgoal 1, i.e. all

3806 rules whose conclusion matches subgoal 1:

3807 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Show me -> matching rules

3808 The rules are ordered by how closely they match the subgoal.

3809 In particular, rules that solve a subgoal outright are displayed first

3810 (or rather last, the way they are printed).

3811 (ML: ProofGeneral.print_intros())

3813 * Pure: New flag trace_unify_fail causes unification to print

3814 diagnostic information (PG: in trace buffer) when it fails. This is

3815 useful for figuring out why single step proofs like rule, erule or

3816 assumption failed.

3818 * Pure: Locale specifications now produce predicate definitions

3819 according to the body of text (covering assumptions modulo local

3820 definitions); predicate "loc_axioms" covers newly introduced text,

3821 while "loc" is cumulative wrt. all included locale expressions; the

3822 latter view is presented only on export into the global theory

3823 context; potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use "(open)" option to fall back

3824 on the old view without predicates;

3826 * Pure: predefined locales "var" and "struct" are useful for sharing

3827 parameters (as in CASL, for example); just specify something like

3828 ``var x + var y + struct M'' as import;

3830 * Pure: improved thms_containing: proper indexing of facts instead of

3831 raw theorems; check validity of results wrt. current name space;

3832 include local facts of proof configuration (also covers active

3833 locales), cover fixed variables in index; may use "_" in term

3834 specification; an optional limit for the number of printed facts may

3835 be given (the default is 40);

3837 * Pure: disallow duplicate fact bindings within new-style theory files

3838 (batch-mode only);

3840 * Provers: improved induct method: assumptions introduced by case

3841 "foo" are split into "foo.hyps" (from the rule) and "foo.prems" (from

3842 the goal statement); "foo" still refers to all facts collectively;

3844 * Provers: the function blast.overloaded has been removed: all constants

3845 are regarded as potentially overloaded, which improves robustness in exchange

3846 for slight decrease in efficiency;

3848 * Provers/linorder: New generic prover for transitivity reasoning over

3849 linear orders. Note: this prover is not efficient!

3851 * Isar: preview of problems to finish 'show' now produce an error

3852 rather than just a warning (in interactive mode);

3855 *** HOL ***

3857 * arith(_tac)

3859 - Produces a counter example if it cannot prove a goal.

3860 Note that the counter example may be spurious if the goal is not a formula

3861 of quantifier-free linear arithmetic.

3862 In ProofGeneral the counter example appears in the trace buffer.

3864 - Knows about div k and mod k where k is a numeral of type nat or int.

3866 - Calls full Presburger arithmetic (by Amine Chaieb) if quantifier-free

3867 linear arithmetic fails. This takes account of quantifiers and divisibility.

3868 Presburger arithmetic can also be called explicitly via presburger(_tac).

3870 * simp's arithmetic capabilities have been enhanced a bit: it now

3871 takes ~= in premises into account (by performing a case split);

3873 * simp reduces "m*(n div m) + n mod m" to n, even if the two summands

3874 are distributed over a sum of terms;

3876 * New tactic "trans_tac" and method "trans" instantiate

3877 Provers/linorder.ML for axclasses "order" and "linorder" (predicates

3878 "<=", "<" and "=").

3880 * function INCOMPATIBILITIES: Pi-sets have been redefined and moved from main

3881 HOL to Library/FuncSet; constant "Fun.op o" is now called "Fun.comp";

3883 * 'typedef' command has new option "open" to suppress the set

3884 definition;

3886 * functions Min and Max on finite sets have been introduced (theory

3887 Finite_Set);

3889 * attribute [symmetric] now works for relations as well; it turns

3890 (x,y) : R^-1 into (y,x) : R, and vice versa;

3892 * induct over a !!-quantified statement (say !!x1..xn):

3893 each "case" automatically performs "fix x1 .. xn" with exactly those names.

3895 * Map: `empty' is no longer a constant but a syntactic abbreviation for

3896 %x. None. Warning: empty_def now refers to the previously hidden definition

3897 of the empty set.

3899 * Algebra: formalization of classical algebra. Intended as base for

3900 any algebraic development in Isabelle. Currently covers group theory

3901 (up to Sylow's theorem) and ring theory (Universal Property of

3902 Univariate Polynomials). Contributions welcome;

3904 * GroupTheory: deleted, since its material has been moved to Algebra;

3906 * Complex: new directory of the complex numbers with numeric constants,

3907 nonstandard complex numbers, and some complex analysis, standard and

3908 nonstandard (Jacques Fleuriot);

3910 * HOL-Complex: new image for analysis, replacing HOL-Real and HOL-Hyperreal;

3912 * Hyperreal: introduced Gauge integration and hyperreal logarithms (Jacques

3913 Fleuriot);

3915 * Real/HahnBanach: updated and adapted to locales;

3917 * NumberTheory: added Gauss's law of quadratic reciprocity (by Avigad,

3918 Gray and Kramer);

3920 * UNITY: added the Meier-Sanders theory of progress sets;

3922 * MicroJava: bytecode verifier and lightweight bytecode verifier

3923 as abstract algorithms, instantiated to the JVM;

3925 * Bali: Java source language formalization. Type system, operational

3926 semantics, axiomatic semantics. Supported language features:

3927 classes, interfaces, objects,virtual methods, static methods,

3928 static/instance fields, arrays, access modifiers, definite

3929 assignment, exceptions.

3932 *** ZF ***

3934 * ZF/Constructible: consistency proof for AC (Gdel's constructible

3935 universe, etc.);

3937 * Main ZF: virtually all theories converted to new-style format;

3940 *** ML ***

3942 * Pure: Tactic.prove provides sane interface for internal proofs;

3943 omits the infamous "standard" operation, so this is more appropriate

3944 than prove_goalw_cterm in many situations (e.g. in simprocs);

3946 * Pure: improved error reporting of simprocs;

3948 * Provers: Simplifier.simproc(_i) provides sane interface for setting

3949 up simprocs;

3952 *** Document preparation ***

3954 * uses \par instead of \\ for line breaks in theory text. This may

3955 shift some page breaks in large documents. To get the old behaviour

3956 use \renewcommand{\isanewline}{\mbox{}\\\mbox{}} in root.tex.

3958 * minimized dependencies of isabelle.sty and isabellesym.sty on

3959 other packages

3961 * \<euro> now needs package babel/greek instead of marvosym (which

3962 broke \Rightarrow)

3964 * normal size for \<zero>...\<nine> (uses \mathbf instead of

3965 textcomp package)

3969 New in Isabelle2002 (March 2002)

3970 --------------------------------

3972 *** Document preparation ***

3974 * greatly simplified document preparation setup, including more

3975 graceful interpretation of isatool usedir -i/-d/-D options, and more

3976 instructive isatool mkdir; users should basically be able to get

3977 started with "isatool mkdir HOL Test && isatool make"; alternatively,

3978 users may run a separate document processing stage manually like this:

3979 "isatool usedir -D output HOL Test && isatool document Test/output";

3981 * theory dependency graph may now be incorporated into documents;

3982 isatool usedir -g true will produce session_graph.eps/.pdf for use

3983 with \includegraphics of LaTeX;

3985 * proper spacing of consecutive markup elements, especially text

3986 blocks after section headings;

3988 * support bold style (for single symbols only), input syntax is like

3989 this: "\<^bold>\<alpha>" or "\<^bold>A";

3991 * \<bullet> is now output as bold \cdot by default, which looks much

3992 better in printed text;

3994 * added default LaTeX bindings for \<tturnstile> and \<TTurnstile>;

3995 note that these symbols are currently unavailable in Proof General /

3996 X-Symbol; new symbols \<zero>, \<one>, ..., \<nine>, and \<euro>;

3998 * isatool latex no longer depends on changed TEXINPUTS, instead

3999 isatool document copies the Isabelle style files to the target

4000 location;

4003 *** Isar ***

4005 * Pure/Provers: improved proof by cases and induction;

4006 - 'case' command admits impromptu naming of parameters (such as

4007 "case (Suc n)");

4008 - 'induct' method divinates rule instantiation from the inductive

4009 claim; no longer requires excessive ?P bindings for proper

4010 instantiation of cases;

4011 - 'induct' method properly enumerates all possibilities of set/type

4012 rules; as a consequence facts may be also passed through *type*

4013 rules without further ado;

4014 - 'induct' method now derives symbolic cases from the *rulified*

4015 rule (before it used to rulify cases stemming from the internal

4016 atomized version); this means that the context of a non-atomic

4017 statement becomes is included in the hypothesis, avoiding the

4018 slightly cumbersome show "PROP ?case" form;

4019 - 'induct' may now use elim-style induction rules without chaining

4020 facts, using ``missing'' premises from the goal state; this allows

4021 rules stemming from inductive sets to be applied in unstructured

4022 scripts, while still benefitting from proper handling of non-atomic

4023 statements; NB: major inductive premises need to be put first, all

4024 the rest of the goal is passed through the induction;

4025 - 'induct' proper support for mutual induction involving non-atomic

4026 rule statements (uses the new concept of simultaneous goals, see

4027 below);

4028 - append all possible rule selections, but only use the first

4029 success (no backtracking);

4030 - removed obsolete "(simplified)" and "(stripped)" options of methods;

4031 - undeclared rule case names default to numbers 1, 2, 3, ...;

4032 - added 'print_induct_rules' (covered by help item in recent Proof

4033 General versions);

4034 - moved induct/cases attributes to Pure, methods to Provers;

4035 - generic method setup instantiated for FOL and HOL;

4037 * Pure: support multiple simultaneous goal statements, for example

4038 "have a: A and b: B" (same for 'theorem' etc.); being a pure

4039 meta-level mechanism, this acts as if several individual goals had

4040 been stated separately; in particular common proof methods need to be

4041 repeated in order to cover all claims; note that a single elimination

4042 step is *not* sufficient to establish the two conjunctions, so this

4043 fails:

4045 assume "A & B" then have A and B .. (*".." fails*)

4047 better use "obtain" in situations as above; alternative refer to

4048 multi-step methods like 'auto', 'simp_all', 'blast+' etc.;

4050 * Pure: proper integration with ``locales''; unlike the original

4051 version by Florian Kammller, Isar locales package high-level proof

4052 contexts rather than raw logical ones (e.g. we admit to include

4053 attributes everywhere); operations on locales include merge and

4054 rename; support for implicit arguments (``structures''); simultaneous

4055 type-inference over imports and text; see also HOL/ex/Locales.thy for

4056 some examples;

4058 * Pure: the following commands have been ``localized'', supporting a

4059 target locale specification "(in name)": 'lemma', 'theorem',

4060 'corollary', 'lemmas', 'theorems', 'declare'; the results will be

4061 stored both within the locale and at the theory level (exported and

4062 qualified by the locale name);

4064 * Pure: theory goals may now be specified in ``long'' form, with

4065 ad-hoc contexts consisting of arbitrary locale elements. for example

4066 ``lemma foo: fixes x assumes "A x" shows "B x"'' (local syntax and

4067 definitions may be given, too); the result is a meta-level rule with

4068 the context elements being discharged in the obvious way;

4070 * Pure: new proof command 'using' allows to augment currently used

4071 facts after a goal statement ('using' is syntactically analogous to

4072 'apply', but acts on the goal's facts only); this allows chained facts

4073 to be separated into parts given before and after a claim, as in

4074 ``from a and b have C using d and e <proof>'';

4076 * Pure: renamed "antecedent" case to "rule_context";

4078 * Pure: new 'judgment' command records explicit information about the

4079 object-logic embedding (used by several tools internally); no longer

4080 use hard-wired "Trueprop";

4082 * Pure: added 'corollary' command;

4084 * Pure: fixed 'token_translation' command;

4086 * Pure: removed obsolete 'exported' attribute;

4088 * Pure: dummy pattern "_" in is/let is now automatically lifted over

4089 bound variables: "ALL x. P x --> Q x" (is "ALL x. _ --> ?C x")

4090 supersedes more cumbersome ... (is "ALL x. _ x --> ?C x");

4092 * Pure: method 'atomize' presents local goal premises as object-level

4093 statements (atomic meta-level propositions); setup controlled via

4094 rewrite rules declarations of 'atomize' attribute; example

4095 application: 'induct' method with proper rule statements in improper

4096 proof *scripts*;

4098 * Pure: emulation of instantiation tactics (rule_tac, cut_tac, etc.)

4099 now consider the syntactic context of assumptions, giving a better

4100 chance to get type-inference of the arguments right (this is

4101 especially important for locales);

4103 * Pure: "sorry" no longer requires quick_and_dirty in interactive

4104 mode;

4106 * Pure/obtain: the formal conclusion "thesis", being marked as

4107 ``internal'', may no longer be reference directly in the text;

4108 potential INCOMPATIBILITY, may need to use "?thesis" in rare

4109 situations;

4111 * Pure: generic 'sym' attribute which declares a rule both as pure

4112 'elim?' and for the 'symmetric' operation;

4114 * Pure: marginal comments ``--'' may now occur just anywhere in the

4115 text; the fixed correlation with particular command syntax has been

4116 discontinued;

4118 * Pure: new method 'rules' is particularly well-suited for proof

4119 search in intuitionistic logic; a bit slower than 'blast' or 'fast',

4120 but often produces more compact proof terms with less detours;

4122 * Pure/Provers/classical: simplified integration with pure rule

4123 attributes and methods; the classical "intro?/elim?/dest?"

4124 declarations coincide with the pure ones; the "rule" method no longer

4125 includes classically swapped intros; "intro" and "elim" methods no

4126 longer pick rules from the context; also got rid of ML declarations

4127 AddXIs/AddXEs/AddXDs; all of this has some potential for

4128 INCOMPATIBILITY;

4130 * Provers/classical: attribute 'swapped' produces classical inversions

4131 of introduction rules;

4133 * Provers/simplifier: 'simplified' attribute may refer to explicit

4134 rules instead of full simplifier context; 'iff' attribute handles

4135 conditional rules;

4137 * HOL: 'typedef' now allows alternative names for Rep/Abs morphisms;

4139 * HOL: 'recdef' now fails on unfinished automated proofs, use

4140 "(permissive)" option to recover old behavior;

4142 * HOL: 'inductive' no longer features separate (collective) attributes

4143 for 'intros' (was found too confusing);

4145 * HOL: properly declared induction rules less_induct and

4146 wf_induct_rule;

4149 *** HOL ***

4151 * HOL: moved over to sane numeral syntax; the new policy is as

4152 follows:

4154 - 0 and 1 are polymorphic constants, which are defined on any

4155 numeric type (nat, int, real etc.);

4157 - 2, 3, 4, ... and -1, -2, -3, ... are polymorphic numerals, based

4158 binary representation internally;

4160 - type nat has special constructor Suc, and generally prefers Suc 0

4161 over 1::nat and Suc (Suc 0) over 2::nat;

4163 This change may cause significant problems of INCOMPATIBILITY; here

4164 are some hints on converting existing sources:

4166 - due to the new "num" token, "-0" and "-1" etc. are now atomic

4167 entities, so expressions involving "-" (unary or binary minus) need

4168 to be spaced properly;

4170 - existing occurrences of "1" may need to be constraint "1::nat" or

4171 even replaced by Suc 0; similar for old "2";

4173 - replace "#nnn" by "nnn", and "#-nnn" by "-nnn";

4175 - remove all special provisions on numerals in proofs;

4177 * HOL: simp rules nat_number expand numerals on nat to Suc/0

4178 representation (depends on bin_arith_simps in the default context);

4180 * HOL: symbolic syntax for x^2 (numeral 2);

4182 * HOL: the class of all HOL types is now called "type" rather than

4183 "term"; INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt references to this type class

4184 in axclass/classes, instance/arities, and (usually rare) occurrences

4185 in typings (of consts etc.); internally the class is called

4186 "HOL.type", ML programs should refer to HOLogic.typeS;

4188 * HOL/record package improvements:

4189 - new derived operations "fields" to build a partial record section,

4190 "extend" to promote a fixed record to a record scheme, and

4191 "truncate" for the reverse; cf. theorems "xxx.defs", which are *not*

4192 declared as simp by default;

4193 - shared operations ("more", "fields", etc.) now need to be always

4194 qualified) --- potential INCOMPATIBILITY;

4195 - removed "make_scheme" operations (use "make" with "extend") --

4196 INCOMPATIBILITY;

4197 - removed "more" class (simply use "term") -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

4198 - provides cases/induct rules for use with corresponding Isar

4199 methods (for concrete records, record schemes, concrete more

4200 parts, and schematic more parts -- in that order);

4201 - internal definitions directly based on a light-weight abstract

4202 theory of product types over typedef rather than datatype;

4204 * HOL: generic code generator for generating executable ML code from

4205 specifications; specific support for HOL constructs such as inductive

4206 datatypes and sets, as well as recursive functions; can be invoked

4207 via 'generate_code' theory section;

4209 * HOL: canonical cases/induct rules for n-tuples (n = 3..7);

4211 * HOL: consolidated and renamed several theories. In particular:

4212 Ord.thy has been absorbed into HOL.thy

4213 String.thy has been absorbed into List.thy

4215 * HOL: concrete setsum syntax "\<Sum>i:A. b" == "setsum (%i. b) A"

4216 (beware of argument permutation!);

4218 * HOL: linorder_less_split superseded by linorder_cases;

4220 * HOL/List: "nodups" renamed to "distinct";

4222 * HOL: added "The" definite description operator; move Hilbert's "Eps"

4223 to peripheral theory "Hilbert_Choice"; some INCOMPATIBILITIES:

4224 - Ex_def has changed, now need to use some_eq_ex

4226 * HOL: made split_all_tac safe; EXISTING PROOFS MAY FAIL OR LOOP, so

4227 in this (rare) case use:

4229 delSWrapper "split_all_tac"

4230 addSbefore ("unsafe_split_all_tac", unsafe_split_all_tac)

4232 * HOL: added safe wrapper "split_conv_tac" to claset; EXISTING PROOFS

4233 MAY FAIL;

4235 * HOL: introduced f^n = f o ... o f; warning: due to the limits of

4236 Isabelle's type classes, ^ on functions and relations has too general

4237 a domain, namely ('a * 'b) set and 'a => 'b; this means that it may be

4238 necessary to attach explicit type constraints;

4240 * HOL/Relation: the prefix name of the infix "O" has been changed from

4241 "comp" to "rel_comp"; INCOMPATIBILITY: a few theorems have been

4242 renamed accordingly (eg "compI" -> "rel_compI").

4244 * HOL: syntax translations now work properly with numerals and records

4245 expressions;

4247 * HOL: bounded abstraction now uses syntax "%" / "\<lambda>" instead

4248 of "lam" -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

4250 * HOL: got rid of some global declarations (potential INCOMPATIBILITY

4251 for ML tools): const "()" renamed "Product_Type.Unity", type "unit"

4252 renamed "Product_Type.unit";

4254 * HOL: renamed rtrancl_into_rtrancl2 to converse_rtrancl_into_rtrancl

4256 * HOL: removed obsolete theorem "optionE" (use "option.exhaust", or

4257 the "cases" method);

4259 * HOL/GroupTheory: group theory examples including Sylow's theorem (by

4260 Florian Kammller);

4262 * HOL/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory format; several

4263 parts turned into readable document, with proper Isar proof texts and

4264 some explanations (by Gerwin Klein);

4266 * HOL-Real: added Complex_Numbers (by Gertrud Bauer);

4268 * HOL-Hyperreal is now a logic image;

4271 *** HOLCF ***

4273 * Isar: consts/constdefs supports mixfix syntax for continuous

4274 operations;

4276 * Isar: domain package adapted to new-style theory format, e.g. see

4277 HOLCF/ex/Dnat.thy;

4279 * theory Lift: proper use of rep_datatype lift instead of ML hacks --

4280 potential INCOMPATIBILITY; now use plain induct_tac instead of former

4281 lift.induct_tac, always use UU instead of Undef;

4283 * HOLCF/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory;

4286 *** ZF ***

4288 * Isar: proper integration of logic-specific tools and packages,

4289 including theory commands '(co)inductive', '(co)datatype',

4290 'rep_datatype', 'inductive_cases', as well as methods 'ind_cases',

4291 'induct_tac', 'case_tac', and 'typecheck' (with attribute 'TC');

4293 * theory Main no longer includes AC; for the Axiom of Choice, base

4294 your theory on Main_ZFC;

4296 * the integer library now covers quotients and remainders, with many

4297 laws relating division to addition, multiplication, etc.;

4299 * ZF/UNITY: Chandy and Misra's UNITY is now available in ZF, giving a

4300 typeless version of the formalism;

4302 * ZF/AC, Coind, IMP, Resid: updated and converted to new-style theory

4303 format;

4305 * ZF/Induct: new directory for examples of inductive definitions,

4306 including theory Multiset for multiset orderings; converted to

4307 new-style theory format;

4309 * ZF: many new theorems about lists, ordinals, etc.;

4312 *** General ***

4314 * Pure/kernel: meta-level proof terms (by Stefan Berghofer); reference

4315 variable proof controls level of detail: 0 = no proofs (only oracle

4316 dependencies), 1 = lemma dependencies, 2 = compact proof terms; see

4317 also ref manual for further ML interfaces;

4319 * Pure/axclass: removed obsolete ML interface

4320 goal_subclass/goal_arity;

4322 * Pure/syntax: new token syntax "num" for plain numerals (without "#"

4323 of "xnum"); potential INCOMPATIBILITY, since -0, -1 etc. are now

4324 separate tokens, so expressions involving minus need to be spaced

4325 properly;

4327 * Pure/syntax: support non-oriented infixes, using keyword "infix"

4328 rather than "infixl" or "infixr";

4330 * Pure/syntax: concrete syntax for dummy type variables admits genuine

4331 sort constraint specifications in type inference; e.g. "x::_::foo"

4332 ensures that the type of "x" is of sort "foo" (but not necessarily a

4333 type variable);

4335 * Pure/syntax: print modes "type_brackets" and "no_type_brackets"

4336 control output of nested => (types); the default behavior is

4337 "type_brackets";

4339 * Pure/syntax: builtin parse translation for "_constify" turns valued

4340 tokens into AST constants;

4342 * Pure/syntax: prefer later declarations of translations and print

4343 translation functions; potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to reverse

4344 multiple declarations for same syntax element constant;

4346 * Pure/show_hyps reset by default (in accordance to existing Isar

4347 practice);

4349 * Provers/classical: renamed addaltern to addafter, addSaltern to

4350 addSafter;

4352 * Provers/clasimp: ``iff'' declarations now handle conditional rules

4353 as well;

4355 * system: tested support for MacOS X; should be able to get Isabelle +

4356 Proof General to work in a plain Terminal after installing Poly/ML

4357 (e.g. from the Isabelle distribution area) and GNU bash alone

4358 (e.g. from http://www.apple.com); full X11, XEmacs and X-Symbol

4359 support requires further installations, e.g. from

4360 http://fink.sourceforge.net/);

4362 * system: support Poly/ML 4.1.1 (able to manage larger heaps);

4364 * system: reduced base memory usage by Poly/ML (approx. 20 MB instead

4365 of 40 MB), cf. ML_OPTIONS;

4367 * system: Proof General keywords specification is now part of the

4368 Isabelle distribution (see etc/isar-keywords.el);

4370 * system: support for persistent Proof General sessions (refrain from

4371 outdating all loaded theories on startup); user may create writable

4372 logic images like this: ``isabelle -q HOL Test'';

4374 * system: smart selection of Isabelle process versus Isabelle

4375 interface, accommodates case-insensitive file systems (e.g. HFS+); may

4376 run both "isabelle" and "Isabelle" even if file names are badly

4377 damaged (executable inspects the case of the first letter of its own

4378 name); added separate "isabelle-process" and "isabelle-interface";

4380 * system: refrain from any attempt at filtering input streams; no

4381 longer support ``8bit'' encoding of old isabelle font, instead proper

4382 iso-latin characters may now be used; the related isatools

4383 "symbolinput" and "nonascii" have disappeared as well;

4385 * system: removed old "xterm" interface (the print modes "xterm" and

4386 "xterm_color" are still available for direct use in a suitable

4387 terminal);

4391 New in Isabelle99-2 (February 2001)

4392 -----------------------------------

4394 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***

4396 * HOL: please note that theories in the Library and elsewhere often use the

4397 new-style (Isar) format; to refer to their theorems in an ML script you must

4398 bind them to ML identifers by e.g. val thm_name = thm "thm_name";

4400 * HOL: inductive package no longer splits induction rule aggressively,

4401 but only as far as specified by the introductions given; the old

4402 format may be recovered via ML function complete_split_rule or attribute

4403 'split_rule (complete)';

4405 * HOL: induct renamed to lfp_induct, lfp_Tarski to lfp_unfold,

4406 gfp_Tarski to gfp_unfold;

4408 * HOL: contrapos, contrapos2 renamed to contrapos_nn, contrapos_pp;

4410 * HOL: infix "dvd" now has priority 50 rather than 70 (because it is a

4411 relation); infix "^^" has been renamed "``"; infix "``" has been

4412 renamed "`"; "univalent" has been renamed "single_valued";

4414 * HOL/Real: "rinv" and "hrinv" replaced by overloaded "inverse"

4415 operation;

4417 * HOLCF: infix "`" has been renamed "$"; the symbol syntax is \<cdot>;

4419 * Isar: 'obtain' no longer declares "that" fact as simp/intro;

4421 * Isar/HOL: method 'induct' now handles non-atomic goals; as a

4422 consequence, it is no longer monotonic wrt. the local goal context

4423 (which is now passed through the inductive cases);

4425 * Document preparation: renamed standard symbols \<ll> to \<lless> and

4426 \<gg> to \<ggreater>;

4429 *** Document preparation ***

4431 * \isabellestyle{NAME} selects version of Isabelle output (currently

4432 available: are "it" for near math-mode best-style output, "sl" for

4433 slanted text style, and "tt" for plain type-writer; if no

4434 \isabellestyle command is given, output is according to slanted

4435 type-writer);

4437 * support sub/super scripts (for single symbols only), input syntax is

4438 like this: "A\<^sup>*" or "A\<^sup>\<star>";

4440 * some more standard symbols; see Appendix A of the system manual for

4441 the complete list of symbols defined in isabellesym.sty;

4443 * improved isabelle style files; more abstract symbol implementation

4444 (should now use \isamath{...} and \isatext{...} in custom symbol

4445 definitions);

4447 * antiquotation @{goals} and @{subgoals} for output of *dynamic* goals

4448 state; Note that presentation of goal states does not conform to

4449 actual human-readable proof documents. Please do not include goal

4450 states into document output unless you really know what you are doing!

4452 * proper indentation of antiquoted output with proportional LaTeX

4453 fonts;

4455 * no_document ML operator temporarily disables LaTeX document

4456 generation;

4458 * isatool unsymbolize tunes sources for plain ASCII communication;

4461 *** Isar ***

4463 * Pure: Isar now suffers initial goal statements to contain unbound

4464 schematic variables (this does not conform to actual readable proof

4465 documents, due to unpredictable outcome and non-compositional proof

4466 checking); users who know what they are doing may use schematic goals

4467 for Prolog-style synthesis of proven results;

4469 * Pure: assumption method (an implicit finishing) now handles actual

4470 rules as well;

4472 * Pure: improved 'obtain' --- moved to Pure, insert "that" into

4473 initial goal, declare "that" only as Pure intro (only for single

4474 steps); the "that" rule assumption may now be involved in implicit

4475 finishing, thus ".." becomes a feasible for trivial obtains;

4477 * Pure: default proof step now includes 'intro_classes'; thus trivial

4478 instance proofs may be performed by "..";

4480 * Pure: ?thesis / ?this / "..." now work for pure meta-level

4481 statements as well;

4483 * Pure: more robust selection of calculational rules;

4485 * Pure: the builtin notion of 'finished' goal now includes the ==-refl

4486 rule (as well as the assumption rule);

4488 * Pure: 'thm_deps' command visualizes dependencies of theorems and

4489 lemmas, using the graph browser tool;

4491 * Pure: predict failure of "show" in interactive mode;

4493 * Pure: 'thms_containing' now takes actual terms as arguments;

4495 * HOL: improved method 'induct' --- now handles non-atomic goals

4496 (potential INCOMPATIBILITY); tuned error handling;

4498 * HOL: cases and induct rules now provide explicit hints about the

4499 number of facts to be consumed (0 for "type" and 1 for "set" rules);

4500 any remaining facts are inserted into the goal verbatim;

4502 * HOL: local contexts (aka cases) may now contain term bindings as

4503 well; the 'cases' and 'induct' methods new provide a ?case binding for

4504 the result to be shown in each case;

4506 * HOL: added 'recdef_tc' command;

4508 * isatool convert assists in eliminating legacy ML scripts;

4511 *** HOL ***

4513 * HOL/Library: a collection of generic theories to be used together

4514 with main HOL; the theory loader path already includes this directory

4515 by default; the following existing theories have been moved here:

4516 HOL/Induct/Multiset, HOL/Induct/Acc (as Accessible_Part), HOL/While

4517 (as While_Combinator), HOL/Lex/Prefix (as List_Prefix);

4519 * HOL/Unix: "Some aspects of Unix file-system security", a typical

4520 modelling and verification task performed in Isabelle/HOL +

4521 Isabelle/Isar + Isabelle document preparation (by Markus Wenzel).

4523 * HOL/Algebra: special summation operator SUM no longer exists, it has

4524 been replaced by setsum; infix 'assoc' now has priority 50 (like

4525 'dvd'); axiom 'one_not_zero' has been moved from axclass 'ring' to

4526 'domain', this makes the theory consistent with mathematical

4527 literature;

4529 * HOL basics: added overloaded operations "inverse" and "divide"

4530 (infix "/"), syntax for generic "abs" operation, generic summation

4531 operator \<Sum>;

4533 * HOL/typedef: simplified package, provide more useful rules (see also

4534 HOL/subset.thy);

4536 * HOL/datatype: induction rule for arbitrarily branching datatypes is

4537 now expressed as a proper nested rule (old-style tactic scripts may

4538 require atomize_strip_tac to cope with non-atomic premises);

4540 * HOL: renamed theory "Prod" to "Product_Type", renamed "split" rule

4541 to "split_conv" (old name still available for compatibility);

4543 * HOL: improved concrete syntax for strings (e.g. allows translation

4544 rules with string literals);

4546 * HOL-Real-Hyperreal: this extends HOL-Real with the hyperreals

4547 and Fleuriot's mechanization of analysis, including the transcendental

4548 functions for the reals;

4550 * HOL/Real, HOL/Hyperreal: improved arithmetic simplification;

4553 *** CTT ***

4555 * CTT: x-symbol support for Pi, Sigma, -->, : (membership); note that

4556 "lam" is displayed as TWO lambda-symbols

4558 * CTT: theory Main now available, containing everything (that is, Bool

4559 and Arith);

4562 *** General ***

4564 * Pure: the Simplifier has been implemented properly as a derived rule

4565 outside of the actual kernel (at last!); the overall performance

4566 penalty in practical applications is about 50%, while reliability of

4567 the Isabelle inference kernel has been greatly improved;

4569 * print modes "brackets" and "no_brackets" control output of nested =>

4570 (types) and ==> (props); the default behaviour is "brackets";

4572 * Provers: fast_tac (and friends) now handle actual object-logic rules

4573 as assumptions as well;

4575 * system: support Poly/ML 4.0;

4577 * system: isatool install handles KDE version 1 or 2;

4581 New in Isabelle99-1 (October 2000)

4582 ----------------------------------

4584 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***

4586 * HOL: simplification of natural numbers is much changed; to partly

4587 recover the old behaviour (e.g. to prevent n+n rewriting to #2*n)

4588 issue the following ML commands:

4590 Delsimprocs Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.cancel_numerals;

4591 Delsimprocs [Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.combine_numerals];

4593 * HOL: simplification no longer dives into case-expressions; this is

4594 controlled by "t.weak_case_cong" for each datatype t;

4596 * HOL: nat_less_induct renamed to less_induct;

4598 * HOL: systematic renaming of the SOME (Eps) rules, may use isatool

4599 fixsome to patch .thy and .ML sources automatically;

4601 select_equality -> some_equality

4602 select_eq_Ex -> some_eq_ex

4603 selectI2EX -> someI2_ex

4604 selectI2 -> someI2

4605 selectI -> someI

4606 select1_equality -> some1_equality

4607 Eps_sym_eq -> some_sym_eq_trivial

4608 Eps_eq -> some_eq_trivial

4610 * HOL: exhaust_tac on datatypes superceded by new generic case_tac;

4612 * HOL: removed obsolete theorem binding expand_if (refer to split_if

4613 instead);

4615 * HOL: the recursion equations generated by 'recdef' are now called

4616 f.simps instead of f.rules;

4618 * HOL: qed_spec_mp now also handles bounded ALL as well;

4620 * HOL: 0 is now overloaded, so the type constraint ":: nat" may

4621 sometimes be needed;

4623 * HOL: the constant for "f``x" is now "image" rather than "op ``";

4625 * HOL: the constant for "f-``x" is now "vimage" rather than "op -``";

4627 * HOL: the disjoint sum is now "<+>" instead of "Plus"; the cartesian

4628 product is now "<*>" instead of "Times"; the lexicographic product is

4629 now "<*lex*>" instead of "**";

4631 * HOL: theory Sexp is now in HOL/Induct examples (it used to be part

4632 of main HOL, but was unused); better use HOL's datatype package;

4634 * HOL: removed "symbols" syntax for constant "override" of theory Map;

4635 the old syntax may be recovered as follows:

4637 syntax (symbols)

4638 override :: "('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b)"

4639 (infixl "\\<oplus>" 100)

4641 * HOL/Real: "rabs" replaced by overloaded "abs" function;

4643 * HOL/ML: even fewer consts are declared as global (see theories Ord,

4644 Lfp, Gfp, WF); this only affects ML packages that refer to const names

4645 internally;

4647 * HOL and ZF: syntax for quotienting wrt an equivalence relation

4648 changed from A/r to A//r;

4650 * ZF: new treatment of arithmetic (nat & int) may break some old

4651 proofs;

4653 * Isar: renamed some attributes (RS -> THEN, simplify -> simplified,

4654 rulify -> rule_format, elimify -> elim_format, ...);

4656 * Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed

4657 intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (in most cases, one

4658 should have to change intro!! to intro? only); replaced "delrule" by

4659 "rule del";

4661 * Isar/HOL: renamed "intrs" to "intros" in inductive definitions;

4663 * Provers: strengthened force_tac by using new first_best_tac;

4665 * LaTeX document preparation: several changes of isabelle.sty (see

4666 lib/texinputs);

4669 *** Document preparation ***

4671 * formal comments (text blocks etc.) in new-style theories may now

4672 contain antiquotations of thm/prop/term/typ/text to be presented

4673 according to latex print mode; concrete syntax is like this:

4674 @{term[show_types] "f(x) = a + x"};

4676 * isatool mkdir provides easy setup of Isabelle session directories,

4677 including proper document sources;

4679 * generated LaTeX sources are now deleted after successful run

4680 (isatool document -c); may retain a copy somewhere else via -D option

4681 of isatool usedir;

4683 * isatool usedir -D now lets isatool latex -o sty update the Isabelle

4684 style files, achieving self-contained LaTeX sources and simplifying

4685 LaTeX debugging;

4687 * old-style theories now produce (crude) LaTeX output as well;

4689 * browser info session directories are now self-contained (may be put

4690 on WWW server seperately); improved graphs of nested sessions; removed

4691 graph for 'all sessions';

4693 * several improvements in isabelle style files; \isabellestyle{it}

4694 produces fake math mode output; \isamarkupheader is now \section by

4695 default; see lib/texinputs/isabelle.sty etc.;

4698 *** Isar ***

4700 * Isar/Pure: local results and corresponding term bindings are now

4701 subject to Hindley-Milner polymorphism (similar to ML); this

4702 accommodates incremental type-inference very nicely;

4704 * Isar/Pure: new derived language element 'obtain' supports

4705 generalized existence reasoning;

4707 * Isar/Pure: new calculational elements 'moreover' and 'ultimately'

4708 support accumulation of results, without applying any rules yet;

4709 useful to collect intermediate results without explicit name

4710 references, and for use with transitivity rules with more than 2

4711 premises;

4713 * Isar/Pure: scalable support for case-analysis type proofs: new

4714 'case' language element refers to local contexts symbolically, as

4715 produced by certain proof methods; internally, case names are attached

4716 to theorems as "tags";

4718 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'hide' removes declarations from

4719 class/type/const name spaces;

4721 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'defs' supports option "(overloaded)" to

4722 indicate potential overloading;

4724 * Isar/Pure: changed syntax of local blocks from {{ }} to { };

4726 * Isar/Pure: syntax of sorts made 'inner', i.e. have to write

4727 "{a,b,c}" instead of {a,b,c};

4729 * Isar/Pure now provides its own version of intro/elim/dest

4730 attributes; useful for building new logics, but beware of confusion

4731 with the version in Provers/classical;

4733 * Isar/Pure: the local context of (non-atomic) goals is provided via

4734 case name 'antecedent';

4736 * Isar/Pure: removed obsolete 'transfer' attribute (transfer of thms

4737 to the current context is now done automatically);

4739 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'method_setup' provides a simple interface

4740 for definining proof methods in ML;

4742 * Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed

4743 intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (INCOMPATIBILITY, in

4744 most cases, one should have to change intro!! to intro? only);

4745 replaced "delrule" by "rule del";

4747 * Isar/Provers: new 'hypsubst' method, plain 'subst' method and

4748 'symmetric' attribute (the latter supercedes [RS sym]);

4750 * Isar/Provers: splitter support (via 'split' attribute and 'simp'

4751 method modifier); 'simp' method: 'only:' modifier removes loopers as

4752 well (including splits);

4754 * Isar/Provers: Simplifier and Classical methods now support all kind

4755 of modifiers used in the past, including 'cong', 'iff', etc.

4757 * Isar/Provers: added 'fastsimp' and 'clarsimp' methods (combination

4758 of Simplifier and Classical reasoner);

4760 * Isar/HOL: new proof method 'cases' and improved version of 'induct'

4761 now support named cases; major packages (inductive, datatype, primrec,

4762 recdef) support case names and properly name parameters;

4764 * Isar/HOL: new transitivity rules for substitution in inequalities --

4765 monotonicity conditions are extracted to be proven at end of

4766 calculations;

4768 * Isar/HOL: removed 'case_split' thm binding, should use 'cases' proof

4769 method anyway;

4771 * Isar/HOL: removed old expand_if = split_if; theorems if_splits =

4772 split_if split_if_asm; datatype package provides theorems foo.splits =

4773 foo.split foo.split_asm for each datatype;

4775 * Isar/HOL: tuned inductive package, rename "intrs" to "intros"

4776 (potential INCOMPATIBILITY), emulation of mk_cases feature for proof

4777 scripts: new 'inductive_cases' command and 'ind_cases' method; (Note:

4778 use "(cases (simplified))" method in proper proof texts);

4780 * Isar/HOL: added global 'arith_split' attribute for 'arith' method;

4782 * Isar: names of theorems etc. may be natural numbers as well;

4784 * Isar: 'pr' command: optional arguments for goals_limit and

4785 ProofContext.prems_limit; no longer prints theory contexts, but only

4786 proof states;

4788 * Isar: diagnostic commands 'pr', 'thm', 'prop', 'term', 'typ' admit

4789 additional print modes to be specified; e.g. "pr(latex)" will print

4790 proof state according to the Isabelle LaTeX style;

4792 * Isar: improved support for emulating tactic scripts, including proof

4793 methods 'rule_tac' etc., 'cut_tac', 'thin_tac', 'subgoal_tac',

4794 'rename_tac', 'rotate_tac', 'tactic', and 'case_tac' / 'induct_tac'

4795 (for HOL datatypes);

4797 * Isar: simplified (more robust) goal selection of proof methods: 1st

4798 goal, all goals, or explicit goal specifier (tactic emulation); thus

4799 'proof method scripts' have to be in depth-first order;

4801 * Isar: tuned 'let' syntax: replaced 'as' keyword by 'and';

4803 * Isar: removed 'help' command, which hasn't been too helpful anyway;

4804 should instead use individual commands for printing items

4805 (print_commands, print_methods etc.);

4807 * Isar: added 'nothing' --- the empty list of theorems;

4810 *** HOL ***

4812 * HOL/MicroJava: formalization of a fragment of Java, together with a

4813 corresponding virtual machine and a specification of its bytecode

4814 verifier and a lightweight bytecode verifier, including proofs of

4815 type-safety; by Gerwin Klein, Tobias Nipkow, David von Oheimb, and

4816 Cornelia Pusch (see also the homepage of project Bali at

4817 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/Bali/);

4819 * HOL/Algebra: new theory of rings and univariate polynomials, by

4820 Clemens Ballarin;

4822 * HOL/NumberTheory: fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, Chinese

4823 Remainder Theorem, Fermat/Euler Theorem, Wilson's Theorem, by Thomas M

4824 Rasmussen;

4826 * HOL/Lattice: fundamental concepts of lattice theory and order

4827 structures, including duals, properties of bounds versus algebraic

4828 laws, lattice operations versus set-theoretic ones, the Knaster-Tarski

4829 Theorem for complete lattices etc.; may also serve as a demonstration

4830 for abstract algebraic reasoning using axiomatic type classes, and

4831 mathematics-style proof in Isabelle/Isar; by Markus Wenzel;

4833 * HOL/Prolog: a (bare-bones) implementation of Lambda-Prolog, by David

4834 von Oheimb;

4836 * HOL/IMPP: extension of IMP with local variables and mutually

4837 recursive procedures, by David von Oheimb;

4839 * HOL/Lambda: converted into new-style theory and document;

4841 * HOL/ex/Multiquote: example of multiple nested quotations and

4842 anti-quotations -- basically a generalized version of de-Bruijn

4843 representation; very useful in avoiding lifting of operations;

4845 * HOL/record: added general record equality rule to simpset; fixed

4846 select-update simplification procedure to handle extended records as

4847 well; admit "r" as field name;

4849 * HOL: 0 is now overloaded over the new sort "zero", allowing its use with

4850 other numeric types and also as the identity of groups, rings, etc.;

4852 * HOL: new axclass plus_ac0 for addition with the AC-laws and 0 as identity.

4853 Types nat and int belong to this axclass;

4855 * HOL: greatly improved simplification involving numerals of type nat, int, real:

4856 (i + #8 + j) = Suc k simplifies to #7 + (i + j) = k

4857 i*j + k + j*#3*i simplifies to #4*(i*j) + k

4858 two terms #m*u and #n*u are replaced by #(m+n)*u

4859 (where #m, #n and u can implicitly be 1; this is simproc combine_numerals)

4860 and the term/formula #m*u+x ~~ #n*u+y simplifies simplifies to #(m-n)+x ~~ y

4861 or x ~~ #(n-m)+y, where ~~ is one of = < <= or - (simproc cancel_numerals);

4863 * HOL: meson_tac is available (previously in ex/meson.ML); it is a

4864 powerful prover for predicate logic but knows nothing of clasets; see

4865 ex/mesontest.ML and ex/mesontest2.ML for example applications;

4867 * HOL: new version of "case_tac" subsumes both boolean case split and

4868 "exhaust_tac" on datatypes; INCOMPATIBILITY: exhaust_tac no longer

4869 exists, may define val exhaust_tac = case_tac for ad-hoc portability;

4871 * HOL: simplification no longer dives into case-expressions: only the

4872 selector expression is simplified, but not the remaining arms; to

4873 enable full simplification of case-expressions for datatype t, you may

4874 remove t.weak_case_cong from the simpset, either globally (Delcongs

4875 [thm"t.weak_case_cong"];) or locally (delcongs [...]).

4877 * HOL/recdef: the recursion equations generated by 'recdef' for

4878 function 'f' are now called f.simps instead of f.rules; if all

4879 termination conditions are proved automatically, these simplification

4880 rules are added to the simpset, as in primrec; rules may be named

4881 individually as well, resulting in a separate list of theorems for

4882 each equation;

4884 * HOL/While is a new theory that provides a while-combinator. It

4885 permits the definition of tail-recursive functions without the

4886 provision of a termination measure. The latter is necessary once the

4887 invariant proof rule for while is applied.

4889 * HOL: new (overloaded) notation for the set of elements below/above

4890 some element: {..u}, {..u(}, {l..}, {)l..}. See theory SetInterval.

4892 * HOL: theorems impI, allI, ballI bound as "strip";

4894 * HOL: new tactic induct_thm_tac: thm -> string -> int -> tactic

4895 induct_tac th "x1 ... xn" expects th to have a conclusion of the form

4896 P v1 ... vn and abbreviates res_inst_tac [("v1","x1"),...,("vn","xn")] th;

4898 * HOL/Real: "rabs" replaced by overloaded "abs" function;

4900 * HOL: theory Sexp now in HOL/Induct examples (it used to be part of

4901 main HOL, but was unused);

4903 * HOL: fewer consts declared as global (e.g. have to refer to

4904 "Lfp.lfp" instead of "lfp" internally; affects ML packages only);

4906 * HOL: tuned AST representation of nested pairs, avoiding bogus output

4907 in case of overlap with user translations (e.g. judgements over

4908 tuples); (note that the underlying logical represenation is still

4909 bogus);

4912 *** ZF ***

4914 * ZF: simplification automatically cancels common terms in arithmetic

4915 expressions over nat and int;

4917 * ZF: new treatment of nat to minimize type-checking: all operators

4918 coerce their operands to a natural number using the function natify,

4919 making the algebraic laws unconditional;

4921 * ZF: as above, for int: operators coerce their operands to an integer

4922 using the function intify;

4924 * ZF: the integer library now contains many of the usual laws for the

4925 orderings, including $<=, and monotonicity laws for $+ and $*;

4927 * ZF: new example ZF/ex/NatSum to demonstrate integer arithmetic

4928 simplification;

4930 * FOL and ZF: AddIffs now available, giving theorems of the form P<->Q

4931 to the simplifier and classical reasoner simultaneously;

4934 *** General ***

4936 * Provers: blast_tac now handles actual object-logic rules as

4937 assumptions; note that auto_tac uses blast_tac internally as well;

4939 * Provers: new functions rulify/rulify_no_asm: thm -> thm for turning

4940 outer -->/All/Ball into ==>/!!; qed_spec_mp now uses rulify_no_asm;

4942 * Provers: delrules now handles destruct rules as well (no longer need

4943 explicit make_elim);

4945 * Provers: Blast_tac now warns of and ignores "weak elimination rules" e.g.

4946 [| inj ?f; ?f ?x = ?f ?y; ?x = ?y ==> ?W |] ==> ?W

4947 use instead the strong form,

4948 [| inj ?f; ~ ?W ==> ?f ?x = ?f ?y; ?x = ?y ==> ?W |] ==> ?W

4949 in HOL, FOL and ZF the function cla_make_elim will create such rules

4950 from destruct-rules;

4952 * Provers: Simplifier.easy_setup provides a fast path to basic

4953 Simplifier setup for new object-logics;

4955 * Pure: AST translation rules no longer require constant head on LHS;

4957 * Pure: improved name spaces: ambiguous output is qualified; support

4958 for hiding of names;

4960 * system: smart setup of canonical ML_HOME, ISABELLE_INTERFACE, and

4961 XSYMBOL_HOME; no longer need to do manual configuration in most

4962 situations;

4964 * system: compression of ML heaps images may now be controlled via -c

4965 option of isabelle and isatool usedir (currently only observed by

4966 Poly/ML);

4968 * system: isatool installfonts may handle X-Symbol fonts as well (very

4969 useful for remote X11);

4971 * system: provide TAGS file for Isabelle sources;

4973 * ML: infix 'OF' is a version of 'MRS' with more appropriate argument

4974 order;

4976 * ML: renamed flags Syntax.trace_norm_ast to Syntax.trace_ast; global

4977 timing flag supersedes proof_timing and Toplevel.trace;

4979 * ML: new combinators |>> and |>>> for incremental transformations

4980 with secondary results (e.g. certain theory extensions):

4982 * ML: PureThy.add_defs gets additional argument to indicate potential

4983 overloading (usually false);

4985 * ML: PureThy.add_thms/add_axioms/add_defs now return theorems as

4986 results;

4990 New in Isabelle99 (October 1999)

4991 --------------------------------

4993 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

4995 * HOL: The THEN and ELSE parts of conditional expressions (if P then x else y)

4996 are no longer simplified. (This allows the simplifier to unfold recursive

4997 functional programs.) To restore the old behaviour, declare

4999 Delcongs [if_weak_cong];

5001 * HOL: Removed the obsolete syntax "Compl A"; use -A for set

5002 complement;

5004 * HOL: the predicate "inj" is now defined by translation to "inj_on";

5006 * HOL/datatype: mutual_induct_tac no longer exists --

5007 use induct_tac "x_1 ... x_n" instead of mutual_induct_tac ["x_1", ..., "x_n"]

5009 * HOL/typedef: fixed type inference for representing set; type

5010 arguments now have to occur explicitly on the rhs as type constraints;

5012 * ZF: The con_defs part of an inductive definition may no longer refer

5013 to constants declared in the same theory;

5015 * HOL, ZF: the function mk_cases, generated by the inductive

5016 definition package, has lost an argument. To simplify its result, it

5017 uses the default simpset instead of a supplied list of theorems.

5019 * HOL/List: the constructors of type list are now Nil and Cons;

5021 * Simplifier: the type of the infix ML functions

5022 setSSolver addSSolver setSolver addSolver

5023 is now simpset * solver -> simpset where `solver' is a new abstract type

5024 for packaging solvers. A solver is created via

5025 mk_solver: string -> (thm list -> int -> tactic) -> solver

5026 where the string argument is only a comment.

5029 *** Proof tools ***

5031 * Provers/Arith/fast_lin_arith.ML contains a functor for creating a

5032 decision procedure for linear arithmetic. Currently it is used for

5033 types `nat', `int', and `real' in HOL (see below); it can, should and

5034 will be instantiated for other types and logics as well.

5036 * The simplifier now accepts rewrite rules with flexible heads, eg

5037 hom ?f ==> ?f(?x+?y) = ?f ?x + ?f ?y

5038 They are applied like any rule with a non-pattern lhs, i.e. by first-order

5039 matching.

5042 *** General ***

5044 * New Isabelle/Isar subsystem provides an alternative to traditional

5045 tactical theorem proving; together with the ProofGeneral/isar user

5046 interface it offers an interactive environment for developing human

5047 readable proof documents (Isar == Intelligible semi-automated

5048 reasoning); for further information see isatool doc isar-ref,

5049 src/HOL/Isar_examples and http://isabelle.in.tum.de/Isar/

5051 * improved and simplified presentation of theories: better HTML markup

5052 (including colors), graph views in several sizes; isatool usedir now

5053 provides a proper interface for user theories (via -P option); actual

5054 document preparation based on (PDF)LaTeX is available as well (for

5055 new-style theories only); see isatool doc system for more information;

5057 * native support for Proof General, both for classic Isabelle and

5058 Isabelle/Isar;

5060 * ML function thm_deps visualizes dependencies of theorems and lemmas,

5061 using the graph browser tool;

5063 * Isabelle manuals now also available as PDF;

5065 * theory loader rewritten from scratch (may not be fully

5066 bug-compatible); old loadpath variable has been replaced by show_path,

5067 add_path, del_path, reset_path functions; new operations such as

5068 update_thy, touch_thy, remove_thy, use/update_thy_only (see also

5069 isatool doc ref);

5071 * improved isatool install: option -k creates KDE application icon,

5072 option -p DIR installs standalone binaries;

5074 * added ML_PLATFORM setting (useful for cross-platform installations);

5075 more robust handling of platform specific ML images for SML/NJ;

5077 * the settings environment is now statically scoped, i.e. it is never

5078 created again in sub-processes invoked from isabelle, isatool, or

5079 Isabelle;

5081 * path element specification '~~' refers to '$ISABELLE_HOME';

5083 * in locales, the "assumes" and "defines" parts may be omitted if

5084 empty;

5086 * new print_mode "xsymbols" for extended symbol support (e.g. genuine

5087 long arrows);

5089 * new print_mode "HTML";

5091 * new flag show_tags controls display of tags of theorems (which are

5092 basically just comments that may be attached by some tools);

5094 * Isamode 2.6 requires patch to accomodate change of Isabelle font

5095 mode and goal output format:

5097 diff -r Isamode-2.6/elisp/isa-load.el Isamode/elisp/isa-load.el

5098 244c244

5099 < (list (isa-getenv "ISABELLE") "-msymbols" logic-name)

5100 ---

5101 > (list (isa-getenv "ISABELLE") "-misabelle_font" "-msymbols" logic-name)

5102 diff -r Isabelle-2.6/elisp/isa-proofstate.el Isamode/elisp/isa-proofstate.el

5103 181c181

5104 < (defconst proofstate-proofstart-regexp "^Level [0-9]+$"

5105 ---

5106 > (defconst proofstate-proofstart-regexp "^Level [0-9]+"

5108 * function bind_thms stores lists of theorems (cf. bind_thm);

5110 * new shorthand tactics ftac, eatac, datac, fatac;

5112 * qed (and friends) now accept "" as result name; in that case the

5113 theorem is not stored, but proper checks and presentation of the

5114 result still apply;

5116 * theorem database now also indexes constants "Trueprop", "all",

5117 "==>", "=="; thus thms_containing, findI etc. may retrieve more rules;

5120 *** HOL ***

5122 ** HOL arithmetic **

5124 * There are now decision procedures for linear arithmetic over nat and

5125 int:

5127 1. arith_tac copes with arbitrary formulae involving `=', `<', `<=',

5128 `+', `-', `Suc', `min', `max' and numerical constants; other subterms

5129 are treated as atomic; subformulae not involving type `nat' or `int'

5130 are ignored; quantified subformulae are ignored unless they are

5131 positive universal or negative existential. The tactic has to be

5132 invoked by hand and can be a little bit slow. In particular, the

5133 running time is exponential in the number of occurrences of `min' and

5134 `max', and `-' on `nat'.

5136 2. fast_arith_tac is a cut-down version of arith_tac: it only takes

5137 (negated) (in)equalities among the premises and the conclusion into

5138 account (i.e. no compound formulae) and does not know about `min' and

5139 `max', and `-' on `nat'. It is fast and is used automatically by the

5140 simplifier.

5142 NB: At the moment, these decision procedures do not cope with mixed

5143 nat/int formulae where the two parts interact, such as `m < n ==>

5144 int(m) < int(n)'.

5146 * HOL/Numeral provides a generic theory of numerals (encoded

5147 efficiently as bit strings); setup for types nat/int/real is in place;

5148 INCOMPATIBILITY: since numeral syntax is now polymorphic, rather than

5149 int, existing theories and proof scripts may require a few additional

5150 type constraints;

5152 * integer division and remainder can now be performed on constant

5153 arguments;

5155 * many properties of integer multiplication, division and remainder

5156 are now available;

5158 * An interface to the Stanford Validity Checker (SVC) is available through the

5159 tactic svc_tac. Propositional tautologies and theorems of linear arithmetic

5160 are proved automatically. SVC must be installed separately, and its results

5161 must be TAKEN ON TRUST (Isabelle does not check the proofs, but tags any

5162 invocation of the underlying oracle). For SVC see

5163 http://verify.stanford.edu/SVC

5165 * IsaMakefile: the HOL-Real target now builds an actual image;

5168 ** HOL misc **

5170 * HOL/Real/HahnBanach: the Hahn-Banach theorem for real vector spaces

5171 (in Isabelle/Isar) -- by Gertrud Bauer;

5173 * HOL/BCV: generic model of bytecode verification, i.e. data-flow

5174 analysis for assembly languages with subtypes;

5176 * HOL/TLA (Lamport's Temporal Logic of Actions): major reorganization

5177 -- avoids syntactic ambiguities and treats state, transition, and

5178 temporal levels more uniformly; introduces INCOMPATIBILITIES due to

5179 changed syntax and (many) tactics;

5181 * HOL/inductive: Now also handles more general introduction rules such

5182 as "ALL y. (y, x) : r --> y : acc r ==> x : acc r"; monotonicity

5183 theorems are now maintained within the theory (maintained via the

5184 "mono" attribute);

5186 * HOL/datatype: Now also handles arbitrarily branching datatypes

5187 (using function types) such as

5189 datatype 'a tree = Atom 'a | Branch "nat => 'a tree"

5191 * HOL/record: record_simproc (part of the default simpset) takes care

5192 of selectors applied to updated records; record_split_tac is no longer

5193 part of the default claset; update_defs may now be removed from the

5194 simpset in many cases; COMPATIBILITY: old behavior achieved by

5196 claset_ref () := claset() addSWrapper record_split_wrapper;

5197 Delsimprocs [record_simproc]

5199 * HOL/typedef: fixed type inference for representing set; type

5200 arguments now have to occur explicitly on the rhs as type constraints;

5202 * HOL/recdef (TFL): 'congs' syntax now expects comma separated list of theorem

5203 names rather than an ML expression;

5205 * HOL/defer_recdef (TFL): like recdef but the well-founded relation can be

5206 supplied later. Program schemes can be defined, such as

5207 "While B C s = (if B s then While B C (C s) else s)"

5208 where the well-founded relation can be chosen after B and C have been given.

5210 * HOL/List: the constructors of type list are now Nil and Cons;

5211 INCOMPATIBILITY: while [] and infix # syntax is still there, of

5212 course, ML tools referring to List.list.op # etc. have to be adapted;

5214 * HOL_quantifiers flag superseded by "HOL" print mode, which is

5215 disabled by default; run isabelle with option -m HOL to get back to

5216 the original Gordon/HOL-style output;

5218 * HOL/Ord.thy: new bounded quantifier syntax (input only): ALL x<y. P,

5219 ALL x<=y. P, EX x<y. P, EX x<=y. P;

5221 * HOL basic syntax simplified (more orthogonal): all variants of

5222 All/Ex now support plain / symbolic / HOL notation; plain syntax for

5223 Eps operator is provided as well: "SOME x. P[x]";

5225 * HOL/Sum.thy: sum_case has been moved to HOL/Datatype;

5227 * HOL/Univ.thy: infix syntax <*>, <+>, <**>, <+> eliminated and made

5228 thus available for user theories;

5230 * HOLCF/IOA/Sequents: renamed 'Cons' to 'Consq' to avoid clash with

5231 HOL/List; hardly an INCOMPATIBILITY since '>>' syntax is used all the

5232 time;

5234 * HOL: new tactic smp_tac: int -> int -> tactic, which applies spec

5235 several times and then mp;

5238 *** LK ***

5240 * the notation <<...>> is now available as a notation for sequences of

5241 formulas;

5243 * the simplifier is now installed

5245 * the axiom system has been generalized (thanks to Soren Heilmann)

5247 * the classical reasoner now has a default rule database

5250 *** ZF ***

5252 * new primrec section allows primitive recursive functions to be given

5253 directly (as in HOL) over datatypes and the natural numbers;

5255 * new tactics induct_tac and exhaust_tac for induction (or case

5256 analysis) over datatypes and the natural numbers;

5258 * the datatype declaration of type T now defines the recursor T_rec;

5260 * simplification automatically does freeness reasoning for datatype

5261 constructors;

5263 * automatic type-inference, with AddTCs command to insert new

5264 type-checking rules;

5266 * datatype introduction rules are now added as Safe Introduction rules

5267 to the claset;

5269 * the syntax "if P then x else y" is now available in addition to

5270 if(P,x,y);

5273 *** Internal programming interfaces ***

5275 * tuned simplifier trace output; new flag debug_simp;

5277 * structures Vartab / Termtab (instances of TableFun) offer efficient

5278 tables indexed by indexname_ord / term_ord (compatible with aconv);

5280 * AxClass.axclass_tac lost the theory argument;

5282 * tuned current_goals_markers semantics: begin / end goal avoids

5283 printing empty lines;

5285 * removed prs and prs_fn hook, which was broken because it did not

5286 include \n in its semantics, forcing writeln to add one

5287 uncoditionally; replaced prs_fn by writeln_fn; consider std_output:

5288 string -> unit if you really want to output text without newline;

5290 * Symbol.output subject to print mode; INCOMPATIBILITY: defaults to

5291 plain output, interface builders may have to enable 'isabelle_font'

5292 mode to get Isabelle font glyphs as before;

5294 * refined token_translation interface; INCOMPATIBILITY: output length

5295 now of type real instead of int;

5297 * theory loader actions may be traced via new ThyInfo.add_hook

5298 interface (see src/Pure/Thy/thy_info.ML); example application: keep

5299 your own database of information attached to *whole* theories -- as

5300 opposed to intra-theory data slots offered via TheoryDataFun;

5302 * proper handling of dangling sort hypotheses (at last!);

5303 Thm.strip_shyps and Drule.strip_shyps_warning take care of removing

5304 extra sort hypotheses that can be witnessed from the type signature;

5305 the force_strip_shyps flag is gone, any remaining shyps are simply

5306 left in the theorem (with a warning issued by strip_shyps_warning);

5310 New in Isabelle98-1 (October 1998)

5311 ----------------------------------

5313 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

5315 * several changes of automated proof tools;

5317 * HOL: major changes to the inductive and datatype packages, including

5318 some minor incompatibilities of theory syntax;

5320 * HOL: renamed r^-1 to 'converse' from 'inverse'; 'inj_onto' is now

5321 called `inj_on';

5323 * HOL: removed duplicate thms in Arith:

5324 less_imp_add_less should be replaced by trans_less_add1

5325 le_imp_add_le should be replaced by trans_le_add1

5327 * HOL: unary minus is now overloaded (new type constraints may be

5328 required);

5330 * HOL and ZF: unary minus for integers is now #- instead of #~. In

5331 ZF, expressions such as n#-1 must be changed to n#- 1, since #-1 is

5332 now taken as an integer constant.

5334 * Pure: ML function 'theory_of' renamed to 'theory';

5337 *** Proof tools ***

5339 * Simplifier:

5340 1. Asm_full_simp_tac is now more aggressive.

5341 1. It will sometimes reorient premises if that increases their power to

5342 simplify.

5343 2. It does no longer proceed strictly from left to right but may also

5344 rotate premises to achieve further simplification.

5345 For compatibility reasons there is now Asm_lr_simp_tac which is like the

5346 old Asm_full_simp_tac in that it does not rotate premises.

5347 2. The simplifier now knows a little bit about nat-arithmetic.

5349 * Classical reasoner: wrapper mechanism for the classical reasoner now

5350 allows for selected deletion of wrappers, by introduction of names for

5351 wrapper functionals. This implies that addbefore, addSbefore,

5352 addaltern, and addSaltern now take a pair (name, tactic) as argument,

5353 and that adding two tactics with the same name overwrites the first

5354 one (emitting a warning).

5355 type wrapper = (int -> tactic) -> (int -> tactic)

5356 setWrapper, setSWrapper, compWrapper and compSWrapper are replaced by

5357 addWrapper, addSWrapper: claset * (string * wrapper) -> claset

5358 delWrapper, delSWrapper: claset * string -> claset

5359 getWrapper is renamed to appWrappers, getSWrapper to appSWrappers;

5361 * Classical reasoner: addbefore/addSbefore now have APPEND/ORELSE

5362 semantics; addbefore now affects only the unsafe part of step_tac

5363 etc.; this affects addss/auto_tac/force_tac, so EXISTING PROOFS MAY

5364 FAIL, but proofs should be fixable easily, e.g. by replacing Auto_tac

5365 by Force_tac;

5367 * Classical reasoner: setwrapper to setWrapper and compwrapper to

5368 compWrapper; added safe wrapper (and access functions for it);

5370 * HOL/split_all_tac is now much faster and fails if there is nothing

5371 to split. Some EXISTING PROOFS MAY REQUIRE ADAPTION because the order

5372 and the names of the automatically generated variables have changed.

5373 split_all_tac has moved within claset() from unsafe wrappers to safe

5374 wrappers, which means that !!-bound variables are split much more

5375 aggressively, and safe_tac and clarify_tac now split such variables.

5376 If this splitting is not appropriate, use delSWrapper "split_all_tac".

5377 Note: the same holds for record_split_tac, which does the job of

5378 split_all_tac for record fields.

5380 * HOL/Simplifier: Rewrite rules for case distinctions can now be added

5381 permanently to the default simpset using Addsplits just like

5382 Addsimps. They can be removed via Delsplits just like

5383 Delsimps. Lower-case versions are also available.

5385 * HOL/Simplifier: The rule split_if is now part of the default

5386 simpset. This means that the simplifier will eliminate all occurrences

5387 of if-then-else in the conclusion of a goal. To prevent this, you can

5388 either remove split_if completely from the default simpset by

5389 `Delsplits [split_if]' or remove it in a specific call of the

5390 simplifier using `... delsplits [split_if]'. You can also add/delete

5391 other case splitting rules to/from the default simpset: every datatype

5392 generates suitable rules `split_t_case' and `split_t_case_asm' (where

5393 t is the name of the datatype).

5395 * Classical reasoner / Simplifier combination: new force_tac (and

5396 derivatives Force_tac, force) combines rewriting and classical

5397 reasoning (and whatever other tools) similarly to auto_tac, but is

5398 aimed to solve the given subgoal completely.

5401 *** General ***

5403 * new top-level commands `Goal' and `Goalw' that improve upon `goal'

5404 and `goalw': the theory is no longer needed as an explicit argument -

5405 the current theory context is used; assumptions are no longer returned

5406 at the ML-level unless one of them starts with ==> or !!; it is

5407 recommended to convert to these new commands using isatool fixgoal

5408 (backup your sources first!);

5410 * new top-level commands 'thm' and 'thms' for retrieving theorems from

5411 the current theory context, and 'theory' to lookup stored theories;

5413 * new theory section 'locale' for declaring constants, assumptions and

5414 definitions that have local scope;

5416 * new theory section 'nonterminals' for purely syntactic types;

5418 * new theory section 'setup' for generic ML setup functions

5419 (e.g. package initialization);

5421 * the distribution now includes Isabelle icons: see

5422 lib/logo/isabelle-{small,tiny}.xpm;

5424 * isatool install - install binaries with absolute references to

5425 ISABELLE_HOME/bin;

5427 * isatool logo -- create instances of the Isabelle logo (as EPS);

5429 * print mode 'emacs' reserved for Isamode;

5431 * support multiple print (ast) translations per constant name;

5433 * theorems involving oracles are now printed with a suffixed [!];

5436 *** HOL ***

5438 * there is now a tutorial on Isabelle/HOL (do 'isatool doc tutorial');

5440 * HOL/inductive package reorganized and improved: now supports mutual

5441 definitions such as

5443 inductive EVEN ODD

5444 intrs

5445 null "0 : EVEN"

5446 oddI "n : EVEN ==> Suc n : ODD"

5447 evenI "n : ODD ==> Suc n : EVEN"

5449 new theorem list "elims" contains an elimination rule for each of the

5450 recursive sets; inductive definitions now handle disjunctive premises

5451 correctly (also ZF);

5453 INCOMPATIBILITIES: requires Inductive as an ancestor; component

5454 "mutual_induct" no longer exists - the induction rule is always

5455 contained in "induct";

5458 * HOL/datatype package re-implemented and greatly improved: now

5459 supports mutually recursive datatypes such as

5461 datatype

5462 'a aexp = IF_THEN_ELSE ('a bexp) ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

5463 | SUM ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

5464 | DIFF ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

5465 | NUM 'a

5466 and

5467 'a bexp = LESS ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

5468 | AND ('a bexp) ('a bexp)

5469 | OR ('a bexp) ('a bexp)

5471 as well as indirectly recursive datatypes such as

5473 datatype

5474 ('a, 'b) term = Var 'a

5475 | App 'b ((('a, 'b) term) list)

5477 The new tactic mutual_induct_tac [<var_1>, ..., <var_n>] i performs

5478 induction on mutually / indirectly recursive datatypes.

5480 Primrec equations are now stored in theory and can be accessed via

5481 <function_name>.simps.

5483 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

5485 - Theories using datatypes must now have theory Datatype as an

5486 ancestor.

5487 - The specific <typename>.induct_tac no longer exists - use the

5488 generic induct_tac instead.

5489 - natE has been renamed to nat.exhaust - use exhaust_tac

5490 instead of res_inst_tac ... natE. Note that the variable

5491 names in nat.exhaust differ from the names in natE, this

5492 may cause some "fragile" proofs to fail.

5493 - The theorems split_<typename>_case and split_<typename>_case_asm

5494 have been renamed to <typename>.split and <typename>.split_asm.

5495 - Since default sorts of type variables are now handled correctly,

5496 some datatype definitions may have to be annotated with explicit

5497 sort constraints.

5498 - Primrec definitions no longer require function name and type

5499 of recursive argument.

5501 Consider using isatool fixdatatype to adapt your theories and proof

5502 scripts to the new package (backup your sources first!).

5505 * HOL/record package: considerably improved implementation; now

5506 includes concrete syntax for record types, terms, updates; theorems

5507 for surjective pairing and splitting !!-bound record variables; proof

5508 support is as follows:

5510 1) standard conversions (selectors or updates applied to record

5511 constructor terms) are part of the standard simpset;

5513 2) inject equations of the form ((x, y) = (x', y')) == x=x' & y=y' are

5514 made part of standard simpset and claset via addIffs;

5516 3) a tactic for record field splitting (record_split_tac) is part of

5517 the standard claset (addSWrapper);

5519 To get a better idea about these rules you may retrieve them via

5520 something like 'thms "foo.simps"' or 'thms "foo.iffs"', where "foo" is

5521 the name of your record type.

5523 The split tactic 3) conceptually simplifies by the following rule:

5525 "(!!x. PROP ?P x) == (!!a b. PROP ?P (a, b))"

5527 Thus any record variable that is bound by meta-all will automatically

5528 blow up into some record constructor term, consequently the

5529 simplifications of 1), 2) apply. Thus force_tac, auto_tac etc. shall

5530 solve record problems automatically.

5533 * reorganized the main HOL image: HOL/Integ and String loaded by

5534 default; theory Main includes everything;

5536 * automatic simplification of integer sums and comparisons, using cancellation;

5538 * added option_map_eq_Some and not_Some_eq to the default simpset and claset;

5540 * added disj_not1 = "(~P | Q) = (P --> Q)" to the default simpset;

5542 * many new identities for unions, intersections, set difference, etc.;

5544 * expand_if, expand_split, expand_sum_case and expand_nat_case are now

5545 called split_if, split_split, split_sum_case and split_nat_case (to go

5546 with add/delsplits);

5548 * HOL/Prod introduces simplification procedure unit_eq_proc rewriting

5549 (?x::unit) = (); this is made part of the default simpset, which COULD

5550 MAKE EXISTING PROOFS FAIL under rare circumstances (consider

5551 'Delsimprocs [unit_eq_proc];' as last resort); also note that

5552 unit_abs_eta_conv is added in order to counter the effect of

5553 unit_eq_proc on (%u::unit. f u), replacing it by f rather than by

5554 %u.f();

5556 * HOL/Fun INCOMPATIBILITY: `inj_onto' is now called `inj_on' (which

5557 makes more sense);

5559 * HOL/Set INCOMPATIBILITY: rule `equals0D' is now a well-formed destruct rule;

5560 It and 'sym RS equals0D' are now in the default claset, giving automatic

5561 disjointness reasoning but breaking a few old proofs.

5563 * HOL/Relation INCOMPATIBILITY: renamed the relational operator r^-1

5564 to 'converse' from 'inverse' (for compatibility with ZF and some

5565 literature);

5567 * HOL/recdef can now declare non-recursive functions, with {} supplied as

5568 the well-founded relation;

5570 * HOL/Set INCOMPATIBILITY: the complement of set A is now written -A instead of

5571 Compl A. The "Compl" syntax remains available as input syntax for this

5572 release ONLY.

5574 * HOL/Update: new theory of function updates:

5575 f(a:=b) == %x. if x=a then b else f x

5576 may also be iterated as in f(a:=b,c:=d,...);

5578 * HOL/Vimage: new theory for inverse image of a function, syntax f-``B;

5580 * HOL/List:

5581 - new function list_update written xs[i:=v] that updates the i-th

5582 list position. May also be iterated as in xs[i:=a,j:=b,...].

5583 - new function `upt' written [i..j(] which generates the list

5584 [i,i+1,...,j-1], i.e. the upper bound is excluded. To include the upper

5585 bound write [i..j], which is a shorthand for [i..j+1(].

5586 - new lexicographic orderings and corresponding wellfoundedness theorems.

5588 * HOL/Arith:

5589 - removed 'pred' (predecessor) function;

5590 - generalized some theorems about n-1;

5591 - many new laws about "div" and "mod";

5592 - new laws about greatest common divisors (see theory ex/Primes);

5594 * HOL/Relation: renamed the relational operator r^-1 "converse"

5595 instead of "inverse";

5597 * HOL/Induct/Multiset: a theory of multisets, including the wellfoundedness

5598 of the multiset ordering;

5600 * directory HOL/Real: a construction of the reals using Dedekind cuts

5601 (not included by default);

5603 * directory HOL/UNITY: Chandy and Misra's UNITY formalism;

5605 * directory HOL/Hoare: a new version of Hoare logic which permits many-sorted

5606 programs, i.e. different program variables may have different types.

5608 * calling (stac rew i) now fails if "rew" has no effect on the goal

5609 [previously, this check worked only if the rewrite rule was unconditional]

5610 Now rew can involve either definitions or equalities (either == or =).

5613 *** ZF ***

5615 * theory Main includes everything; INCOMPATIBILITY: theory ZF.thy contains

5616 only the theorems proved on ZF.ML;

5618 * ZF INCOMPATIBILITY: rule `equals0D' is now a well-formed destruct rule;

5619 It and 'sym RS equals0D' are now in the default claset, giving automatic

5620 disjointness reasoning but breaking a few old proofs.

5622 * ZF/Update: new theory of function updates

5623 with default rewrite rule f(x:=y) ` z = if(z=x, y, f`z)

5624 may also be iterated as in f(a:=b,c:=d,...);

5626 * in let x=t in u(x), neither t nor u(x) has to be an FOL term.

5628 * calling (stac rew i) now fails if "rew" has no effect on the goal

5629 [previously, this check worked only if the rewrite rule was unconditional]

5630 Now rew can involve either definitions or equalities (either == or =).

5632 * case_tac provided for compatibility with HOL

5633 (like the old excluded_middle_tac, but with subgoals swapped)

5636 *** Internal programming interfaces ***

5638 * Pure: several new basic modules made available for general use, see

5639 also src/Pure/README;

5641 * improved the theory data mechanism to support encapsulation (data

5642 kind name replaced by private Object.kind, acting as authorization

5643 key); new type-safe user interface via functor TheoryDataFun; generic

5644 print_data function becomes basically useless;

5646 * removed global_names compatibility flag -- all theory declarations

5647 are qualified by default;

5649 * module Pure/Syntax now offers quote / antiquote translation

5650 functions (useful for Hoare logic etc. with implicit dependencies);

5651 see HOL/ex/Antiquote for an example use;

5653 * Simplifier now offers conversions (asm_)(full_)rewrite: simpset ->

5654 cterm -> thm;

5656 * new tactical CHANGED_GOAL for checking that a tactic modifies a

5657 subgoal;

5659 * Display.print_goals function moved to Locale.print_goals;

5661 * standard print function for goals supports current_goals_markers

5662 variable for marking begin of proof, end of proof, start of goal; the

5663 default is ("", "", ""); setting current_goals_markers := ("<proof>",

5664 "</proof>", "<goal>") causes SGML like tagged proof state printing,

5665 for example;

5669 New in Isabelle98 (January 1998)

5670 --------------------------------

5672 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

5674 * changed lexical syntax of terms / types: dots made part of long

5675 identifiers, e.g. "%x.x" no longer possible, should be "%x. x";

5677 * simpset (and claset) reference variable replaced by functions

5678 simpset / simpset_ref;

5680 * no longer supports theory aliases (via merge) and non-trivial

5681 implicit merge of thms' signatures;

5683 * most internal names of constants changed due to qualified names;

5685 * changed Pure/Sequence interface (see Pure/seq.ML);

5688 *** General Changes ***

5690 * hierachically structured name spaces (for consts, types, axms, thms

5691 etc.); new lexical class 'longid' (e.g. Foo.bar.x) may render much of

5692 old input syntactically incorrect (e.g. "%x.x"); COMPATIBILITY:

5693 isatool fixdots ensures space after dots (e.g. "%x. x"); set

5694 long_names for fully qualified output names; NOTE: ML programs

5695 (special tactics, packages etc.) referring to internal names may have

5696 to be adapted to cope with fully qualified names; in case of severe

5697 backward campatibility problems try setting 'global_names' at compile

5698 time to have enrything declared within a flat name space; one may also

5699 fine tune name declarations in theories via the 'global' and 'local'

5700 section;

5702 * reimplemented the implicit simpset and claset using the new anytype

5703 data filed in signatures; references simpset:simpset ref etc. are

5704 replaced by functions simpset:unit->simpset and

5705 simpset_ref:unit->simpset ref; COMPATIBILITY: use isatool fixclasimp

5706 to patch your ML files accordingly;

5708 * HTML output now includes theory graph data for display with Java

5709 applet or isatool browser; data generated automatically via isatool

5710 usedir (see -i option, ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS);

5712 * defs may now be conditional; improved rewrite_goals_tac to handle

5713 conditional equations;

5715 * defs now admits additional type arguments, using TYPE('a) syntax;

5717 * theory aliases via merge (e.g. M=A+B+C) no longer supported, always

5718 creates a new theory node; implicit merge of thms' signatures is

5719 restricted to 'trivial' ones; COMPATIBILITY: one may have to use

5720 transfer:theory->thm->thm in (rare) cases;

5722 * improved handling of draft signatures / theories; draft thms (and

5723 ctyps, cterms) are automatically promoted to real ones;

5725 * slightly changed interfaces for oracles: admit many per theory, named

5726 (e.g. oracle foo = mlfun), additional name argument for invoke_oracle;

5728 * print_goals: optional output of const types (set show_consts and

5729 show_types);

5731 * improved output of warnings (###) and errors (***);

5733 * subgoal_tac displays a warning if the new subgoal has type variables;

5735 * removed old README and Makefiles;

5737 * replaced print_goals_ref hook by print_current_goals_fn and result_error_fn;

5739 * removed obsolete init_pps and init_database;

5741 * deleted the obsolete tactical STATE, which was declared by

5742 fun STATE tacfun st = tacfun st st;

5744 * cd and use now support path variables, e.g. $ISABELLE_HOME, or ~

5745 (which abbreviates $HOME);

5747 * changed Pure/Sequence interface (see Pure/seq.ML); COMPATIBILITY:

5748 use isatool fixseq to adapt your ML programs (this works for fully

5749 qualified references to the Sequence structure only!);

5751 * use_thy no longer requires writable current directory; it always

5752 reloads .ML *and* .thy file, if either one is out of date;

5755 *** Classical Reasoner ***

5757 * Clarify_tac, clarify_tac, clarify_step_tac, Clarify_step_tac: new

5758 tactics that use classical reasoning to simplify a subgoal without

5759 splitting it into several subgoals;

5761 * Safe_tac: like safe_tac but uses the default claset;

5764 *** Simplifier ***

5766 * added simplification meta rules:

5767 (asm_)(full_)simplify: simpset -> thm -> thm;

5769 * simplifier.ML no longer part of Pure -- has to be loaded by object

5770 logics (again);

5772 * added prems argument to simplification procedures;

5774 * HOL, FOL, ZF: added infix function `addsplits':

5775 instead of `<simpset> setloop (split_tac <thms>)'

5776 you can simply write `<simpset> addsplits <thms>'

5779 *** Syntax ***

5781 * TYPE('a) syntax for type reflection terms;

5783 * no longer handles consts with name "" -- declare as 'syntax' instead;

5785 * pretty printer: changed order of mixfix annotation preference (again!);

5787 * Pure: fixed idt/idts vs. pttrn/pttrns syntactic categories;

5790 *** HOL ***

5792 * HOL: there is a new splitter `split_asm_tac' that can be used e.g.

5793 with `addloop' of the simplifier to faciliate case splitting in premises.

5795 * HOL/TLA: Stephan Merz's formalization of Lamport's Temporal Logic of Actions;

5797 * HOL/Auth: new protocol proofs including some for the Internet

5798 protocol TLS;

5800 * HOL/Map: new theory of `maps' a la VDM;

5802 * HOL/simplifier: simplification procedures nat_cancel_sums for

5803 cancelling out common nat summands from =, <, <= (in)equalities, or

5804 differences; simplification procedures nat_cancel_factor for

5805 cancelling common factor from =, <, <= (in)equalities over natural

5806 sums; nat_cancel contains both kinds of procedures, it is installed by

5807 default in Arith.thy -- this COULD MAKE EXISTING PROOFS FAIL;

5809 * HOL/simplifier: terms of the form

5810 `? x. P1(x) & ... & Pn(x) & x=t & Q1(x) & ... Qn(x)' (or t=x)

5811 are rewritten to

5812 `P1(t) & ... & Pn(t) & Q1(t) & ... Qn(t)',

5813 and those of the form

5814 `! x. P1(x) & ... & Pn(x) & x=t & Q1(x) & ... Qn(x) --> R(x)' (or t=x)

5815 are rewritten to

5816 `P1(t) & ... & Pn(t) & Q1(t) & ... Qn(t) --> R(t)',

5818 * HOL/datatype

5819 Each datatype `t' now comes with a theorem `split_t_case' of the form

5821 P(t_case f1 ... fn x) =

5822 ( (!y1 ... ym1. x = C1 y1 ... ym1 --> P(f1 y1 ... ym1)) &

5823 ...

5824 (!y1 ... ymn. x = Cn y1 ... ymn --> P(f1 y1 ... ymn))

5825 )

5827 and a theorem `split_t_case_asm' of the form

5829 P(t_case f1 ... fn x) =

5830 ~( (? y1 ... ym1. x = C1 y1 ... ym1 & ~P(f1 y1 ... ym1)) |

5831 ...

5832 (? y1 ... ymn. x = Cn y1 ... ymn & ~P(f1 y1 ... ymn))

5833 )

5834 which can be added to a simpset via `addsplits'. The existing theorems

5835 expand_list_case and expand_option_case have been renamed to

5836 split_list_case and split_option_case.

5838 * HOL/Arithmetic:

5839 - `pred n' is automatically converted to `n-1'.

5840 Users are strongly encouraged not to use `pred' any longer,

5841 because it will disappear altogether at some point.

5842 - Users are strongly encouraged to write "0 < n" rather than

5843 "n ~= 0". Theorems and proof tools have been modified towards this

5844 `standard'.

5846 * HOL/Lists:

5847 the function "set_of_list" has been renamed "set" (and its theorems too);

5848 the function "nth" now takes its arguments in the reverse order and

5849 has acquired the infix notation "!" as in "xs!n".

5851 * HOL/Set: UNIV is now a constant and is no longer translated to Compl{};

5853 * HOL/Set: The operator (UN x.B x) now abbreviates (UN x:UNIV. B x) and its

5854 specialist theorems (like UN1_I) are gone. Similarly for (INT x.B x);

5856 * HOL/record: extensible records with schematic structural subtyping

5857 (single inheritance); EXPERIMENTAL version demonstrating the encoding,

5858 still lacks various theorems and concrete record syntax;

5861 *** HOLCF ***

5863 * removed "axioms" and "generated by" sections;

5865 * replaced "ops" section by extended "consts" section, which is capable of

5866 handling the continuous function space "->" directly;

5868 * domain package:

5869 . proves theorems immediately and stores them in the theory,

5870 . creates hierachical name space,

5871 . now uses normal mixfix annotations (instead of cinfix...),

5872 . minor changes to some names and values (for consistency),

5873 . e.g. cases -> casedist, dists_eq -> dist_eqs, [take_lemma] -> take_lemmas,

5874 . separator between mutual domain defs: changed "," to "and",

5875 . improved handling of sort constraints; now they have to

5876 appear on the left-hand side of the equations only;

5878 * fixed LAM <x,y,zs>.b syntax;

5880 * added extended adm_tac to simplifier in HOLCF -- can now discharge

5881 adm (%x. P (t x)), where P is chainfinite and t continuous;

5884 *** FOL and ZF ***

5886 * FOL: there is a new splitter `split_asm_tac' that can be used e.g.

5887 with `addloop' of the simplifier to faciliate case splitting in premises.

5889 * qed_spec_mp, qed_goal_spec_mp, qed_goalw_spec_mp are available, as

5890 in HOL, they strip ALL and --> from proved theorems;

5894 New in Isabelle94-8 (May 1997)

5895 ------------------------------

5897 *** General Changes ***

5899 * new utilities to build / run / maintain Isabelle etc. (in parts

5900 still somewhat experimental); old Makefiles etc. still functional;

5902 * new 'Isabelle System Manual';

5904 * INSTALL text, together with ./configure and ./build scripts;

5906 * reimplemented type inference for greater efficiency, better error

5907 messages and clean internal interface;

5909 * prlim command for dealing with lots of subgoals (an easier way of

5910 setting goals_limit);

5913 *** Syntax ***

5915 * supports alternative (named) syntax tables (parser and pretty

5916 printer); internal interface is provided by add_modesyntax(_i);

5918 * Pure, FOL, ZF, HOL, HOLCF now support symbolic input and output; to

5919 be used in conjunction with the Isabelle symbol font; uses the

5920 "symbols" syntax table;

5922 * added token_translation interface (may translate name tokens in

5923 arbitrary ways, dependent on their type (free, bound, tfree, ...) and

5924 the current print_mode); IMPORTANT: user print translation functions

5925 are responsible for marking newly introduced bounds

5926 (Syntax.mark_boundT);

5928 * token translations for modes "xterm" and "xterm_color" that display

5929 names in bold, underline etc. or colors (which requires a color

5930 version of xterm);

5932 * infixes may now be declared with names independent of their syntax;

5934 * added typed_print_translation (like print_translation, but may

5935 access type of constant);

5938 *** Classical Reasoner ***

5940 Blast_tac: a new tactic! It is often more powerful than fast_tac, but has

5941 some limitations. Blast_tac...

5942 + ignores addss, addbefore, addafter; this restriction is intrinsic

5943 + ignores elimination rules that don't have the correct format

5944 (the conclusion MUST be a formula variable)

5945 + ignores types, which can make HOL proofs fail

5946 + rules must not require higher-order unification, e.g. apply_type in ZF

5947 [message "Function Var's argument not a bound variable" relates to this]

5948 + its proof strategy is more general but can actually be slower

5950 * substitution with equality assumptions no longer permutes other

5951 assumptions;

5953 * minor changes in semantics of addafter (now called addaltern); renamed

5954 setwrapper to setWrapper and compwrapper to compWrapper; added safe wrapper

5955 (and access functions for it);

5957 * improved combination of classical reasoner and simplifier:

5958 + functions for handling clasimpsets

5959 + improvement of addss: now the simplifier is called _after_ the

5960 safe steps.

5961 + safe variant of addss called addSss: uses safe simplifications

5962 _during_ the safe steps. It is more complete as it allows multiple

5963 instantiations of unknowns (e.g. with slow_tac).

5965 *** Simplifier ***

5967 * added interface for simplification procedures (functions that

5968 produce *proven* rewrite rules on the fly, depending on current

5969 redex);

5971 * ordering on terms as parameter (used for ordered rewriting);

5973 * new functions delcongs, deleqcongs, and Delcongs. richer rep_ss;

5975 * the solver is now split into a safe and an unsafe part.

5976 This should be invisible for the normal user, except that the

5977 functions setsolver and addsolver have been renamed to setSolver and

5978 addSolver; added safe_asm_full_simp_tac;

5981 *** HOL ***

5983 * a generic induction tactic `induct_tac' which works for all datatypes and

5984 also for type `nat';

5986 * a generic case distinction tactic `exhaust_tac' which works for all

5987 datatypes and also for type `nat';

5989 * each datatype comes with a function `size';

5991 * patterns in case expressions allow tuple patterns as arguments to

5992 constructors, for example `case x of [] => ... | (x,y,z)#ps => ...';

5994 * primrec now also works with type nat;

5996 * recdef: a new declaration form, allows general recursive functions to be

5997 defined in theory files. See HOL/ex/Fib, HOL/ex/Primes, HOL/Subst/Unify.

5999 * the constant for negation has been renamed from "not" to "Not" to

6000 harmonize with FOL, ZF, LK, etc.;

6002 * HOL/ex/LFilter theory of a corecursive "filter" functional for

6003 infinite lists;

6005 * HOL/Modelcheck demonstrates invocation of model checker oracle;

6007 * HOL/ex/Ring.thy declares cring_simp, which solves equational

6008 problems in commutative rings, using axiomatic type classes for + and *;

6010 * more examples in HOL/MiniML and HOL/Auth;

6012 * more default rewrite rules for quantifiers, union/intersection;

6014 * a new constant `arbitrary == @x.False';

6016 * HOLCF/IOA replaces old HOL/IOA;

6018 * HOLCF changes: derived all rules and arities

6019 + axiomatic type classes instead of classes

6020 + typedef instead of faking type definitions

6021 + eliminated the internal constants less_fun, less_cfun, UU_fun, UU_cfun etc.

6022 + new axclasses cpo, chfin, flat with flat < chfin < pcpo < cpo < po

6023 + eliminated the types void, one, tr

6024 + use unit lift and bool lift (with translations) instead of one and tr

6025 + eliminated blift from Lift3.thy (use Def instead of blift)

6026 all eliminated rules are derived as theorems --> no visible changes ;

6029 *** ZF ***

6031 * ZF now has Fast_tac, Simp_tac and Auto_tac. Union_iff is a now a default

6032 rewrite rule; this may affect some proofs. eq_cs is gone but can be put back

6033 as ZF_cs addSIs [equalityI];

6037 New in Isabelle94-7 (November 96)

6038 ---------------------------------

6040 * allowing negative levels (as offsets) in prlev and choplev;

6042 * super-linear speedup for large simplifications;

6044 * FOL, ZF and HOL now use miniscoping: rewriting pushes

6045 quantifications in as far as possible (COULD MAKE EXISTING PROOFS

6046 FAIL); can suppress it using the command Delsimps (ex_simps @

6047 all_simps); De Morgan laws are also now included, by default;

6049 * improved printing of ==> : ~:

6051 * new object-logic "Sequents" adds linear logic, while replacing LK

6052 and Modal (thanks to Sara Kalvala);

6054 * HOL/Auth: correctness proofs for authentication protocols;

6056 * HOL: new auto_tac combines rewriting and classical reasoning (many

6057 examples on HOL/Auth);

6059 * HOL: new command AddIffs for declaring theorems of the form P=Q to

6060 the rewriter and classical reasoner simultaneously;

6062 * function uresult no longer returns theorems in "standard" format;

6063 regain previous version by: val uresult = standard o uresult;

6067 New in Isabelle94-6

6068 -------------------

6070 * oracles -- these establish an interface between Isabelle and trusted

6071 external reasoners, which may deliver results as theorems;

6073 * proof objects (in particular record all uses of oracles);

6075 * Simp_tac, Fast_tac, etc. that refer to implicit simpset / claset;

6077 * "constdefs" section in theory files;

6079 * "primrec" section (HOL) no longer requires names;

6081 * internal type "tactic" now simply "thm -> thm Sequence.seq";

6085 New in Isabelle94-5

6086 -------------------

6088 * reduced space requirements;

6090 * automatic HTML generation from theories;

6092 * theory files no longer require "..." (quotes) around most types;

6094 * new examples, including two proofs of the Church-Rosser theorem;

6096 * non-curried (1994) version of HOL is no longer distributed;

6100 New in Isabelle94-4

6101 -------------------

6103 * greatly reduced space requirements;

6105 * theory files (.thy) no longer require \...\ escapes at line breaks;

6107 * searchable theorem database (see the section "Retrieving theorems" on

6108 page 8 of the Reference Manual);

6110 * new examples, including Grabczewski's monumental case study of the

6111 Axiom of Choice;

6113 * The previous version of HOL renamed to Old_HOL;

6115 * The new version of HOL (previously called CHOL) uses a curried syntax

6116 for functions. Application looks like f a b instead of f(a,b);

6118 * Mutually recursive inductive definitions finally work in HOL;

6120 * In ZF, pattern-matching on tuples is now available in all abstractions and

6121 translates to the operator "split";

6125 New in Isabelle94-3

6126 -------------------

6128 * new infix operator, addss, allowing the classical reasoner to

6129 perform simplification at each step of its search. Example:

6130 fast_tac (cs addss ss)

6132 * a new logic, CHOL, the same as HOL, but with a curried syntax

6133 for functions. Application looks like f a b instead of f(a,b). Also pairs

6134 look like (a,b) instead of <a,b>;

6136 * PLEASE NOTE: CHOL will eventually replace HOL!

6138 * In CHOL, pattern-matching on tuples is now available in all abstractions.

6139 It translates to the operator "split". A new theory of integers is available;

6141 * In ZF, integer numerals now denote two's-complement binary integers.

6142 Arithmetic operations can be performed by rewriting. See ZF/ex/Bin.ML;

6144 * Many new examples: I/O automata, Church-Rosser theorem, equivalents

6145 of the Axiom of Choice;

6149 New in Isabelle94-2

6150 -------------------

6152 * Significantly faster resolution;

6154 * the different sections in a .thy file can now be mixed and repeated

6155 freely;

6157 * Database of theorems for FOL, HOL and ZF. New

6158 commands including qed, qed_goal and bind_thm store theorems in the database.

6160 * Simple database queries: return a named theorem (get_thm) or all theorems of

6161 a given theory (thms_of), or find out what theory a theorem was proved in

6162 (theory_of_thm);

6164 * Bugs fixed in the inductive definition and datatype packages;

6166 * The classical reasoner provides deepen_tac and depth_tac, making FOL_dup_cs

6167 and HOL_dup_cs obsolete;

6169 * Syntactic ambiguities caused by the new treatment of syntax in Isabelle94-1

6170 have been removed;

6172 * Simpler definition of function space in ZF;

6174 * new results about cardinal and ordinal arithmetic in ZF;

6176 * 'subtype' facility in HOL for introducing new types as subsets of existing

6177 types;

6179 :mode=text:wrap=hard:maxLineLen=72: