NEWS
author nipkow
Sat Dec 29 17:18:01 2012 +0100 (2012-12-29)
changeset 50634 009a9fdabbad
parent 50616 5b6cf0fbc329
child 50645 cb8f93361e86
permissions -rw-r--r--
new theory Library/Finite_Lattice
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
    10 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
    11 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
    12 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
    13 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
    14 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
    15 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
    16 
    17 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
    18 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
    19 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
    20 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
    21 
    22 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    23 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    24 
    25 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
    26 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
    27 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
    28 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
    29 dependencies properly.
    30 
    31 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    32 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    33 
    34 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
    35 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
    36 
    37 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for
    38 specifications: nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
    39 and "class ... context ...".
    40 
    41 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
    42 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
    43 
    44 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
    45 to name patterns (with clickable results).
    46 
    47 
    48 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    49 
    50 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
    51 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
    52 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
    53 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
    54 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
    55 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
    56 
    57 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
    58 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
    59 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
    60 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
    61 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
    62 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
    63 
    64 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
    65 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
    66 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
    67 that frequently occur in user interaction.
    68 
    69 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
    70 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
    71 
    72 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
    73 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
    74 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
    75 potentially infinite message streams.
    76 
    77 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
    78 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
    79 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
    80 schemes.
    81 
    82 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
    83 symbols.
    84 
    85 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
    86 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
    87 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
    88 
    89 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
    90 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
    91 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS.
    92 
    93 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
    94 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
    95 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
    96 Isabelle distribution.
    97 
    98 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
    99 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   100 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   101 
   102 
   103 *** Pure ***
   104 
   105 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   106 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.  Dropped
   107 legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   108 
   109 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   110 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   111 
   112 * Command "export_code": relative file names are interpreted
   113 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than
   114 the rather arbitrary current working directory.
   115 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   116 
   117 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   118 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   119 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   120 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   121 with some care where this is really required.
   122 
   123 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   124 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   125 given given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   126 
   127   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   128 
   129 
   130 *** HOL ***
   131 
   132 * Removed constant "chars".  Prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   133 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   134 
   135 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from Enum.thy
   136 to List.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   137 
   138 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   139 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   140 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   141 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   142 accordingly.
   143 
   144 * Theory "Library/Multiset":
   145 
   146   - Renamed constants
   147       fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold  -- for coherence with other fold combinators
   148 
   149   - Renamed facts
   150       fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm  -- for coherence with fold_comm
   151 
   152 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   153 
   154 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   155 
   156 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   157 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   158 
   159 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type
   160 to lattice type classes.
   161 
   162 * New combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   163 
   164 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist.
   165 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Related changes are:
   166 
   167   - Renamed constants:
   168 
   169       prefix ~> prefixeq
   170       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   171 
   172     Renamed lemmas accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   173 
   174   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument order
   175     (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped old infix
   176     syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.  Renamed lemmas
   177     accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   178 
   179   - New constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on lists. New
   180     abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case "list_hembeq (op =)".
   181 
   182   - Library/Sublist does no longer provide "order" and "bot" type class
   183     instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   184     interpretations). The type class instances are to be found in
   185     Library/Prefix_Order. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   186 
   187   - The sublist relation from Library/Sublist_Order is now based on
   188     "Sublist.sublisteq". Replaced lemmas:
   189 
   190       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   191       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   192       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   193       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   194       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   195       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   196       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   197       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   198       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   199       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   200       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   201       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   202       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   203       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   204       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   205       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   206 
   207     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   208 
   209 * Further generalized the definition of limits:
   210 
   211   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which expresses that
   212     when the input values x converge to F then the output f x converges to G.
   213 
   214   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative infinity (at_bot).
   215     Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   216 
   217   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :> at_top".
   218     INCOMPATIBILITY
   219 
   220 * HOL/Transitive_Closure: renamed lemmas
   221   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   222   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   223 
   224 * HOL/Rings: renamed lemmas
   225 
   226 left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   227 right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   228 
   229 in class semiring.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   230 
   231 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural
   232 functors with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting
   233 non-free datatypes.
   234 
   235 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals
   236 (supersedes the AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   237 
   238 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis:
   239   Replaced "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real" and
   240   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space" on euclidean spaces by
   241   using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with vectors from the Basis set.
   242   "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is replaced by "SUM i : Basis. f i *r i".
   243 
   244   With this change the following constants are also chanegd or removed:
   245 
   246     DIM('a) :: nat   ~>   card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   247     a $$ i    ~>    inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   248     cart_base i     removed
   249     \<pi>, \<pi>'   removed
   250 
   251   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   252 
   253   Renamed lemmas:
   254 
   255     component_le_norm   ~>   Basis_le_norm
   256     euclidean_eq   ~>   euclidean_eq_iff
   257     differential_zero_maxmin_component   ~>   differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   258     euclidean_simps   ~>   inner_simps
   259     independent_basis   ~>   independent_Basis
   260     span_basis   ~>   span_Basis
   261     in_span_basis   ~>   in_span_Basis
   262     norm_bound_component_le   ~>   norm_boound_Basis_le
   263     norm_bound_component_lt   ~>   norm_boound_Basis_lt
   264     component_le_infnorm   ~>   Basis_le_infnorm
   265 
   266   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   267 
   268 * HOL/Probability:
   269   - Add simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability
   270 
   271   - Add induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint)
   272     and for Borel-measurable functions (borel_measurable_induct).
   273 
   274   - The Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a projective family)
   275 
   276 * Library/Countable_Set.thy: Theory of countable sets.
   277 
   278 * Library/Debug.thy and Library/Parallel.thy: debugging and parallel
   279 execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   280 
   281 * Library/FuncSet.thy: Extended support for Pi and extensional and introduce the
   282 extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaces extensional_funcset by an
   283 abbreviation, rename a couple of lemmas from extensional_funcset to PiE:
   284 
   285       extensional_empty ~> PiE_empty
   286       extensional_funcset_empty_domain ~> PiE_empty_domain
   287       extensional_funcset_empty_range ~> PiE_empty_range
   288       extensional_funcset_arb ~> PiE_arb
   289       extensional_funcset_mem > PiE_mem
   290       extensional_funcset_extend_domainI ~> PiE_fun_upd
   291       extensional_funcset_restrict_domain ~> fun_upd_in_PiE
   292       extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq ~> PiE_insert_eq
   293       card_extensional_funcset ~> card_PiE
   294       finite_extensional_funcset ~> finite_PiE
   295 
   296   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   297 
   298 * Library/FinFun.thy: theory of almost everywhere constant functions
   299 (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as Data").
   300 
   301 * Library/Phantom.thy: generic phantom type to make a type parameter
   302 appear in a constant's type. This alternative to adding TYPE('a) as
   303 another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated code.
   304 
   305 * Library/RBT_Impl.thy: efficient construction of red-black trees 
   306 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   307 return a structurally different tree than before. MINOR INCOMPATIBILITY.
   308 
   309 * Library/IArray.thy: immutable arrays with code generation.
   310 
   311 * Library/Finite_Lattice.thy: theory of finite lattices
   312 
   313 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   314 expressions.
   315 
   316 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   317 pointfree expressions.
   318 
   319 * Quickcheck:
   320 
   321   - added an optimisation for equality premises.
   322     It is switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting
   323     the configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   324 
   325 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   326 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   327 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   328 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".
   329 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   330 
   331 * Sledgehammer:
   332 
   333   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   334     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   335   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   336   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   337   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill".
   338   - Renamed options:
   339       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   340       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   341       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   342       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   343 
   344 
   345 *** Document preparation ***
   346 
   347 * Default for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package, instead of
   348 slightly exotic babel/greek.
   349 
   350 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   351 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   352 document/root.tex.
   353 
   354 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   355 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   356 
   357 
   358 *** ML ***
   359 
   360 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   361 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   362 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   363 
   364 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   365 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   366 necessarily printing visible text.
   367 
   368 
   369 *** System ***
   370 
   371 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   372 instead of 4.
   373 
   374 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   375 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   376 for home-made configurations.
   377 
   378 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   379 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   380 
   381 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   382 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   383 build" tool and its examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   384 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   385 
   386 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   387 
   388 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   389 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   390 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   391 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   392 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   393 
   394 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   395 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   396 
   397   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
   398 
   399 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   400 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   401 
   402 * The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares session root directories for use
   403 with "isabelle build", similar to former "isabelle mkdir" for
   404 "isabelle usedir".
   405 
   406 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   407 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   408 version of Isabelle.
   409 
   410 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   411 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   412 
   413 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   414 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   415 configuration.
   416 
   417 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   418 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   419 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   420 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   421 bundled as Isabelle component.
   422 
   423 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   424 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   425 
   426 
   427 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   428 ------------------------------
   429 
   430 *** General ***
   431 
   432 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   433 
   434   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   435     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   436   - markup for bound variables
   437   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   438   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   439   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   440     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   441 
   442 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   443 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   444 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   445 
   446 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   447 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   448 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   449 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   450 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   451 
   452   context
   453     fixes x y z :: 'a
   454     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   455   begin
   456 
   457   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   458 
   459   end
   460 
   461   thm my_trans
   462 
   463 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   464 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   465 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   466 
   467 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   468 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   469 
   470 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   471 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   472 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   473 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   474 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   475 
   476 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   477 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   478 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   479 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   480 indices of schematic variables.
   481 
   482 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   483 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   484 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   485 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   486 etc. was exploited.
   487 
   488 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   489 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   490 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   491 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   492 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   493 of the material of that old tutorial.
   494 
   495 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   496 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   497 manual.
   498 
   499 
   500 *** Pure ***
   501 
   502 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   503 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   504 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   505 
   506 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   507 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   508 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   509 undocumented feature.)
   510 
   511 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   512 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   513 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   514 
   515   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   516 
   517   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   518     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   519 
   520 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   521 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   522 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   523 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   524 
   525 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   526 
   527     num ~> num_token
   528     xnum ~> xnum_token
   529     xstr ~> str_token
   530 
   531 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   532 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   533 position information via constraints).
   534 
   535 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   536 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   537 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   538 
   539 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   540 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   541 
   542 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   543 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   544 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   545 
   546 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   547 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   548 
   549 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   550 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   551 
   552   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   553 
   554 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   555 
   556 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   557 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   558 
   559 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   560 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   561 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   562 
   563 
   564 *** HOL ***
   565 
   566 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   567 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   568 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   569 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   570 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   571 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   572 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   573 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   574 possible.
   575 
   576 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   577 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   578 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   579 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   580 
   581 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   582 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   583 
   584 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   585 
   586 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   587 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   588 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   589 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   590 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   591 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   592 
   593   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   594     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   595 
   596   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   597     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   598     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   599 
   600   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   601     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   602 
   603   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   604     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   605     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   606 
   607   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   608     Redefine using other integer operations.
   609 
   610 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   611 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   612 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   613 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   614 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   615 
   616   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   617     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   618     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   619     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   620     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   621 
   622     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   623     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   624 
   625   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   626     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   627     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   628     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   629     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   630     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   631     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   632     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   633 
   634   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   635     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   636     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   637     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   638 
   639   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   640     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   641     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   642     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   643 
   644   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   645     from type nat to type int.
   646 
   647 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   648 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   649 
   650   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   651     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   652     type.  Example syntax:
   653 
   654     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   655       is List.insert
   656 
   657     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   658     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   659     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   660     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   661     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   662     by the package.
   663 
   664   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   665     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   666     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   667     code generation for each constant.
   668 
   669   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   670     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   671     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   672     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   673     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   674 
   675   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   676     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   677     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   678 
   679 * Quotient package:
   680 
   681   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   682     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   683 
   684   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   685     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   686 
   687   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   688     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   689     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   690 
   691   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   692     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   693 
   694 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   695 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   696 
   697 * Quickcheck:
   698 
   699   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   700     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   701     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   702     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   703     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   704 
   705     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   706     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   707     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   708 
   709     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   710     continues searching for genuine ones.
   711 
   712     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   713     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   714     show genuine counterexamples.
   715 
   716   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   717     value generators for a given type and operations.
   718 
   719     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   720     constructors of that type.
   721 
   722   - Support for multisets.
   723 
   724   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   725 
   726   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   727     conjectures in a locale context.
   728 
   729 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   730 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   731 
   732 * Sledgehammer:
   733   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   734     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   735   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   736   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   737     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   738   - Sped up the minimizer.
   739   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   740   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   741   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   742 
   743 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   744 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   745 
   746 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   747 
   748 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   749 
   750 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   751 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   752 
   753   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   754 
   755 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   756 a list and a nat.
   757 
   758 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   759 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   760 
   761 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   762 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   763 default.
   764 
   765 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   766 
   767   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   768 
   769 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   770 
   771 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   772 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   773 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   774 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   775 one_case.
   776 
   777 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   778 the result of the fact expression.
   779 
   780 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   781 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   782 of some relation theorems:
   783 
   784   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   785   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   786   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   787   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   788   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   789   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   790 
   791 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   792 
   793 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   794 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   795 
   796 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   797 
   798 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   799 to match the constant's name:
   800 
   801   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   802   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   803   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   804   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   805   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   806   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   807   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   808   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   809   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   810   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   811   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   812   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   813   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   814   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   815   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   816   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   817   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   818   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   819   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   820   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   821   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   822   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   823   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   824   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   825 
   826 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   827 
   828 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   829 and corresponding theorem names:
   830 
   831   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   832 
   833   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   834 
   835   - Renamed theorems:
   836 
   837     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   838     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   839     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   840     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   841     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   842     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   843     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   844     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   845     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   846     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   847     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   848     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   849     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   850     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   851     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   852     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   853     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   854     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   855     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   856     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   857     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   858     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   859     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   860 
   861     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   862 
   863     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   864 
   865 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   866 
   867 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   868 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   869 
   870   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   871   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   872   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   873   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   874   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   875   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   876   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   877   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   878   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   879   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   880   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   881   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   882   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   883   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   884   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   885   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   886   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   887   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   888   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   889   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   890   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   891 
   892 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   893 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   894 
   895 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   896 
   897 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   898 
   899   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   900   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   901   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   902   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   903   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   904   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   905   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   906   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   907   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   908   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   909   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   910   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   911   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   912   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   913   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   914   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   915   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   916   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   917 
   918 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   919 
   920 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   921 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   922 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   923 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   924 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   925 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   926 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   927 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   928 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   929 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   930 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   931 
   932 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   933 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   934 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   935 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   936 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   937 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   938 
   939 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   940 through option types.
   941 
   942 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   943 relations.
   944 
   945 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   946 
   947 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   948 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   949 
   950   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   951   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   952   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   953   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   954   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   955   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   956   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   957   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   958   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   959   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   960   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   961   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   962   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   963   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   964   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   965   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   966   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   967   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   968   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   969   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   970   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   971   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   972   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   973   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   974   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   975   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   976   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   977   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   978   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   979   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   980   zless_le ~> less_le
   981   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   982   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   983   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   984 
   985 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   986 
   987   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   988 
   989 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   990 
   991 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
   992 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
   993 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
   994 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
   995 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   996 
   997 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   998 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   999 
  1000 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1001 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1002 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1003 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1004 follows:
  1005 
  1006   Operations:
  1007   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1008   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1009   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1010   del -> rbt_del
  1011   delete -> rbt_delete
  1012   ins -> rbt_ins
  1013   insert -> rbt_insert
  1014   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1015   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1016   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1017   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1018   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1019   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1020   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1021   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1022   union -> rbt_union
  1023   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1024   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1025 
  1026   Lemmas:
  1027   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1028   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1029   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1030   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1031   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1032   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1033   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1034   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1035   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1036   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1037   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1038   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1039   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1040   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1041   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1042   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1043   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1044   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1045   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1046   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1047   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1048   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1049   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1050   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1051   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1052   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1053   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1054   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1055   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1056   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1057   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1058   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1059   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1060   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1061   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1062   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1063   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1064   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1065   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1066   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1067   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1068   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1069   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1070   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1071   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1072   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1073   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1074   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1075   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1076   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1077   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1078   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1079   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1080   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1081   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1082   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1083   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1084   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1085   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1086   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1087   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1088   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1089   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1090   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1091   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1092   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1093   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1094   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1095   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1096   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1097   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1098   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1099   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1100   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1101   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1102   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1103   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1104   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1105   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1106   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1107   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1108   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1109   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1110 
  1111 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1112 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1113 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1114 
  1115   Changed Operations:
  1116   float_abs -> abs
  1117   float_nprt -> nprt
  1118   float_pprt -> pprt
  1119   pow2 -> use powr
  1120   round_down -> float_round_down
  1121   round_up -> float_round_up
  1122   scale -> exponent
  1123 
  1124   Removed Operations:
  1125   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1126 
  1127   Renamed Lemmas:
  1128   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1129   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1130   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1131   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1132   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1133   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1134   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1135   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1136   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1137   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1138   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1139   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1140   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1141   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1142   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1143   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1144   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1145   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1146   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1147   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1148   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1149   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1150   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1151   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1152   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1153   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1154   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1155   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1156   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1157   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1158   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1159   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1160   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1161   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1162   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1163   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1164 
  1165   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1166   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1167   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1168   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1169   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1170   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1171   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1172   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1173   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1174   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1175 
  1176 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1177 association lists with distinct keys.
  1178 
  1179 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1180 annotated commands.
  1181 
  1182 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1183 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1184 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1185 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1186 
  1187 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1188 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1189 instead.
  1190 
  1191   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1192   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1193   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1194   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1195   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1196   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1197   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1198   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1199   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1200   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1201   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1202   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1203   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1204   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1205   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1206   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1207   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1208   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1209   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1210   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1211   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1212   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1213   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1214   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1215   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1216   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1217   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1218   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1219   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1220   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1221   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1222   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1223   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1224   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1225   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1226   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1227   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1228   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1229   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1230   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1231   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1232 
  1233 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1234 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1235 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1236 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1237 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1238 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1239 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1240 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1241 
  1242 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1243 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1244 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1245 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1246 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1247 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1248 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1249 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1250 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1251 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1252 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1253 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1254 
  1255   Renamed constants:
  1256   measure -> emeasure
  1257   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1258   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1259   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1260   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1261 
  1262   Removed locales:
  1263   completeable_measure_space
  1264   finite_measure_space
  1265   finite_prob_space
  1266   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1267   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1268   finite_sigma_algebra
  1269   measure_space
  1270   pair_finite_prob_space
  1271   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1272   pair_finite_space
  1273   pair_sigma_algebra
  1274   product_sigma_algebra
  1275 
  1276   Removed constants:
  1277   conditional_space
  1278   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1279   image_space
  1280   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1281   pair_measure_generator
  1282   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1283   subvimage
  1284 
  1285   Replacement theorems:
  1286   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1287   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1288   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1289   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1290   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1291   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1292   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1293   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1294   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1295   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1296   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1297   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1298   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1299   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1300   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1301   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1302   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1303   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1304   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1305   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1306   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1307   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1308   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1309   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1310   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1311   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1312   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1313   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1314   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1315   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1316   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1317   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1318   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1319   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1320   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1321   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1322   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1323   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1324   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1325   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1326   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1327   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1328   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1329   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1330   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1331   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1332   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1333   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1334   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1335   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1336   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1337   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1338   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1339   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1340   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1341   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1342   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1343   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1344   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1345   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1346   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1347   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1348   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1349   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1350   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1351   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1352   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1353   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1354   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1355   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1356   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1357   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1358   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1359   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1360   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1361   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1362   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1363   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1364   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1365   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1366   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1367   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1368   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1369   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1370   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1371   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1372   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1373   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1374   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1375   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1376   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1377   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1378   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1379   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1380   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1381   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1382   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1383   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1384   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1385   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1386   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1387   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1388   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1389   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1390   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1391   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1392   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1393   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1394   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1395   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1396   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1397   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1398   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1399   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1400   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1401   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1402   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1403   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1404   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1405   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1406   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1407   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1408   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1409   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1410   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1411   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1412   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1413   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1414 
  1415 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1416 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1417 
  1418 
  1419 *** FOL ***
  1420 
  1421 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1422 
  1423 
  1424 *** ZF ***
  1425 
  1426 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1427 analysis.
  1428 
  1429 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1430 
  1431 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1432 
  1433 
  1434 *** ML ***
  1435 
  1436 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1437 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1438 
  1439 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1440 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1441 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1442 
  1443 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1444 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1445 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1446 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1447 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1448 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1449 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1450 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1451 
  1452 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1453 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1454 
  1455 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1456 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1457 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1458 
  1459 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1460 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1461 
  1462 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1463 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1464 context as well.
  1465 
  1466 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1467 
  1468   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1469   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1470   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1471   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1472   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1473   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1474   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1475   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1476   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1477   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1478   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1479   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1480 
  1481 
  1482 *** System ***
  1483 
  1484 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1485 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1486 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1487 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1488 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1489 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1490 the generic user home was intended.
  1491 
  1492 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1493 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1494 
  1495 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1496 (not just JRE).
  1497 
  1498 
  1499 
  1500 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1501 ------------------------------------
  1502 
  1503 *** General ***
  1504 
  1505 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1506 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1507 
  1508   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1509     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1510     files for checking).
  1511 
  1512   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1513     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1514     positions.
  1515 
  1516   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1517     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1518     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1519 
  1520   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1521     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1522     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1523 
  1524   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1525     cores.
  1526 
  1527   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1528     versions (garbage collection).
  1529 
  1530 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1531 including some remaining limitations.
  1532 
  1533 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1534 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1535 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1536 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1537 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1538 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1539 
  1540 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1541 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1542 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1543 
  1544 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1545 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1546 usedir option -Q.
  1547 
  1548 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1549 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1550 
  1551   long_names   ~> names_long
  1552   short_names  ~> names_short
  1553   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1554 
  1555 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1556 
  1557   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1558 
  1559 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1560 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1561 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1562 
  1563 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1564 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1565 
  1566 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1567   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1568   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1569   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1570     "Classical Reasoner".
  1571 
  1572 
  1573 *** HOL ***
  1574 
  1575 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1576 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1577 
  1578 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1579 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1580 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1581 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1582 class complete_linorder.
  1583 
  1584 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1585 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1586 
  1587 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1588 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1589 
  1590   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1591   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1592   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1593   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1594   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1595   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1596   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1597   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1598   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1599   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1600   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1601 
  1602 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1603 
  1604   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1605   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1606   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1607   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1608   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1609   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1610   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1611   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1612   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1613   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1614   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1615   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1616   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1617   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1618   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1619   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1620 
  1621 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1622 
  1623 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1624 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1625 
  1626 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1627 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1628 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1629 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1630 
  1631 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1632 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1633 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1634 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1635 
  1636 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1637 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1638 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1639 
  1640 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1641 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1642 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1643 
  1644 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1645 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1646 
  1647 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1648 
  1649     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1650     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1651 
  1652 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1653 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1654 
  1655 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1656 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1657 
  1658 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1659 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1660 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1661 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1662 
  1663   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1664   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1665   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1666   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1667   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1668   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1669   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1670 
  1671 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1672 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1673 
  1674   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1675   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1676   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1677   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1678   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1679   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1680   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1681   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1682   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1683   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1684   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1685   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1686   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1687   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1688   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1689   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1690   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1691   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1692   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1693   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1694   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1695   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1696   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1697   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1698   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1699   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1700   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1701   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1702   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1703   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1704   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1705   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1706   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1707   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1708   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1709   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1710   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1711   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1712   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1713   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1714   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1715   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1716   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1717   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1718   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1719   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1720   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1721   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1722   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1723   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1724   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1725   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1726   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1727   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1728   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1729   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1730   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1731   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1732   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1733   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1734   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1735   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1736   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1737   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1738   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1739   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1740   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1741   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1742   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1743   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1744   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1745   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1746   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1747   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1748   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1749   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1750   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1751   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1752   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1753   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1754   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1755   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1756 
  1757 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1758 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1759 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1760 
  1761 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1762 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1763 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1764 
  1765 * Code generation:
  1766 
  1767   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1768     characters in the target language.
  1769 
  1770   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1771     instead.
  1772 
  1773   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1774 
  1775   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1776     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1777 
  1778       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1779 
  1780 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1781 
  1782 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1783 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1784 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1785 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1786 syntax.
  1787 
  1788 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1789 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1790 
  1791 * Nitpick:
  1792   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1793   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1794   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1795     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1796 
  1797 * Sledgehammer:
  1798   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1799   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1800     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1801   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1802     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1803   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1804     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1805   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1806     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1807   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1808     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1809 
  1810 * Metis:
  1811   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1812   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1813     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1814 
  1815 * Command 'try':
  1816   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1817     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1818   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1819     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1820 
  1821 * Quickcheck:
  1822   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1823     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1824   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1825     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1826   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1827     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1828     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1829     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1830   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1831     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1832 
  1833 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1834 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1835 
  1836 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1837 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1838 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1839 
  1840 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1841 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1842 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1843 
  1844 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1845 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1846 
  1847 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1848 arithmetic.
  1849 
  1850 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1851 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1852 and lattice type classes.
  1853 
  1854 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1855 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1856 
  1857 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1858 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1859 
  1860 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1861 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1862 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1863 
  1864   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1865   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1866   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1867   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1868 
  1869 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1870 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1871 constants:
  1872 
  1873   type inat   ~> type enat
  1874   Fin         ~> enat
  1875   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1876   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1877   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1878 
  1879 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1880 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1881 
  1882 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1883 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1884 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1885 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1886 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1887 
  1888 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1889 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1890 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1891 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1892 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1893 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1894 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1895 
  1896   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1897   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1898   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1899   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1900 
  1901 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1902 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1903 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1904 
  1905   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1906   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1907   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1908   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1909   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1910   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1911   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1912   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1913   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1914   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1915   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1916   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1917   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1918   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1919   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1920   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1921   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1922   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1923   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1924   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1925   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1926   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1927   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1928   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1929   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1930   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1931   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1932   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1933   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1934   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1935   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1936   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1937   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1938   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1939   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1940   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1941   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1942   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1943   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1944   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1945   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1946   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1947   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1948   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1949   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1950   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1951   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1952   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1953   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1954   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1955   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1956 
  1957 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1958   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1959   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1960   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1961   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1962     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1963 
  1964 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1965 
  1966   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1967   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1968   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1969   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1970   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1971   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1972   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1973   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1974   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1975   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1976   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1977   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1978   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1979   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1980   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1981   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1982   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1983   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1984   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1985   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1986   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1987   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1988   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1989   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1990   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1991 
  1992 
  1993 *** Document preparation ***
  1994 
  1995 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1996 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1997 same.
  1998 
  1999 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2000 result.
  2001 
  2002 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2003 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2004 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2005 
  2006 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2007 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2008 
  2009 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2010 like this:
  2011 
  2012   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2013   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2014 
  2015 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2016 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2017 layouts.
  2018 
  2019 
  2020 *** ML ***
  2021 
  2022 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2023 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2024 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2025 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2026 under external program control.
  2027 
  2028 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2029 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2030 
  2031 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2032 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2033 (better known as Proof General).
  2034 
  2035 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2036 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2037 
  2038 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2039 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2040 
  2041 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2042 (including quotes etc.).
  2043 
  2044 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2045 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2046 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2047 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2048 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2049 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2050 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2051 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2052 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2053 
  2054 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2055 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2056 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2057 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2058 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2059 
  2060 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2061 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2062 
  2063 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2064 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2065 
  2066 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2067 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2068 
  2069 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2070 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2071 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2072 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2073 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2074 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2075 proper Proof.context.
  2076 
  2077 
  2078 *** System ***
  2079 
  2080 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2081 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2082 
  2083 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2084 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2085 
  2086 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2087 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2088 
  2089   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2090   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2091   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2092   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2093   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2094 
  2095 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2096 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2097 
  2098 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2099 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2100 example:
  2101 
  2102   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2103 
  2104 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2105 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2106 
  2107 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2108 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2109 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2110 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2111 
  2112 
  2113 
  2114 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2115 ----------------------------------
  2116 
  2117 *** General ***
  2118 
  2119 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2120 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2121 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2122 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2123 like this:
  2124 
  2125   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2126 
  2127 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2128 
  2129 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2130 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2131 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2132 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2133 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2134 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2135 
  2136 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2137 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2138 the following package declarations:
  2139 
  2140   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2141   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2142 
  2143 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2144 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2145 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2146 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2147 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2148 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2149 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2150 
  2151 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2152 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2153 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2154 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2155 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2156 
  2157 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2158 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2159 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2160 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2161 
  2162 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2163 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2164 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2165 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2166 
  2167   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2168 
  2169   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2170   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2171   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2172   show_types                    show_types
  2173   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2174   show_consts                   show_consts
  2175   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2176 
  2177   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2178   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2179   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2180 
  2181   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2182   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2183 
  2184   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2185 
  2186   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2187   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2188   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2189   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2190   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2191 
  2192 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2193 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2194 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2195 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2196 
  2197 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2198 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2199 
  2200   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2201   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2202 
  2203 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2204 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2205 float_token.
  2206 
  2207 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2208 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2209 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2210 
  2211 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2212 DejaVu Sans.
  2213 
  2214 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2215 
  2216 
  2217 *** Pure ***
  2218 
  2219 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2220 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2221 time.
  2222 
  2223 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2224 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2225 
  2226 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2227 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2228 
  2229 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2230 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2231 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2232 command already provided this functionality.
  2233 
  2234 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2235 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2236 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2237 without interpretations.
  2238 
  2239 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2240 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2241 
  2242 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2243 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2244 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2245 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2246 
  2247 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2248 'definition' instead.
  2249 
  2250 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2251 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2252 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2253 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2254 
  2255 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2256 constructors.
  2257 
  2258 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2259 the local file system.
  2260 
  2261 
  2262 *** HOL ***
  2263 
  2264 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2265 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2266 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2267 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2268 
  2269   declare [[coercion f]]
  2270 
  2271 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2272 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2273 
  2274   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2275 
  2276 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2277 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2278 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2279 other theories like this:
  2280 
  2281   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2282 
  2283 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2284 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2285 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2286 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2287 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2288 for examples.
  2289 
  2290 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2291 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2292 
  2293 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2294 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2295 
  2296 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2297 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2298 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2299 
  2300 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2301 functorial structure of types.
  2302 
  2303 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2304 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2305 
  2306 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2307 languages.
  2308 
  2309 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2310 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2311 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2312 
  2313 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2314 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2315 
  2316 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2317 combinators any longer.
  2318 
  2319 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2320 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2321 
  2322 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2323 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2324 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2325 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2326 
  2327   record 'a foo = ...
  2328   ...
  2329   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2330 
  2331 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2332 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2333 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2334 
  2335 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2336 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2337 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2338 
  2339 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2340 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2341 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2342 
  2343 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2344 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2345 
  2346 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2347 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2348 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2349 independently.
  2350 
  2351 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2352 counter example search.
  2353 
  2354 * Sledgehammer:
  2355   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2356     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2357     sledgehammer").
  2358   - Renamed commands:
  2359     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2360     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2361     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2362     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2363   - Renamed options:
  2364     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2365     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2366     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2367     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2368     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2369 
  2370 * Nitpick:
  2371   - Renamed options:
  2372     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2373     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2374     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2375   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2376   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2377   - Added "whack" option.
  2378   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2379   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2380   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2381   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2382     higher cardinalities.
  2383   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2384 
  2385 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2386 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2387 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2388 
  2389     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2390 
  2391 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2392 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2393 
  2394 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2395 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2396 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2397 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2398 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2399 "smt_solver".
  2400 
  2401 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2402 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2403 
  2404 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2405 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2406 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2407 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2408 
  2409 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2410   - Renamed:
  2411     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2412     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2413     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2414   - Added:
  2415     smt_verbose
  2416     smt_random_seed
  2417     smt_datatypes
  2418     smt_infer_triggers
  2419     smt_monomorph_limit
  2420     cvc3_options
  2421     remote_cvc3_options
  2422     remote_z3_options
  2423     yices_options
  2424 
  2425 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2426 header.
  2427 
  2428 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2429 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2430 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2431 
  2432   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2433 
  2434 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2435 
  2436 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2437 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2438 
  2439 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2440 
  2441 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2442 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2443 
  2444 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2445 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2446 
  2447 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2448 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2449 
  2450 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2451 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2452 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2453 
  2454 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2455 
  2456 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2457 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2458 
  2459 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2460 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2461 
  2462 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2463 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2464 for congruent(2)).
  2465 
  2466 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2467 
  2468   types
  2469     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2470     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2471 
  2472   constants
  2473     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2474     True ~> HOL.True
  2475     False ~> HOL.False
  2476     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2477     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2478     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2479     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2480     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2481     The ~> HOL.The
  2482     All ~> HOL.All
  2483     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2484     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2485     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2486     If ~> HOL.If
  2487     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2488     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2489     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2490     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2491     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2492     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2493     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2494     op : ~> Set.member
  2495     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2496 
  2497 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2498 
  2499 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2500 
  2501     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2502     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2503     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2504     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2505     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2506     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2507     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2508     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2509 
  2510 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2511 
  2512 * More stylized fact names:
  2513 
  2514   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2515   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2516   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2517   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2518 
  2519 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2520 
  2521 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2522 
  2523   constants
  2524     null ~> List.null
  2525 
  2526   facts
  2527     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2528     null_empty ~> null_def
  2529 
  2530 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2531 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2532 generation.
  2533 
  2534 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2535 Haskell code.
  2536 
  2537 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2538 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2539 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2540 
  2541 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2542 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2543 
  2544 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2545 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2546 
  2547 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2548 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2549 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2550 
  2551 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2552 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2553 
  2554 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2555 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2556 
  2557 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2558 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2559 referred to by its qualified name.
  2560 
  2561   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2562   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2563   product ~>  Enum.product
  2564 
  2565 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2566 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2567 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2568 
  2569 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2570 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2571 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2572 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2573 
  2574 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2575 sort_key.
  2576 
  2577 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2578 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2579 
  2580 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2581 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2582 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2583 
  2584   types
  2585     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2586               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2587               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2588         (depends on your needs)
  2589 
  2590   constants
  2591      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2592      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2593      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2594 
  2595 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2596 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2597 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2598 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2599 
  2600 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2601 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2602 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2603 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2604 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2605 
  2606 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2607 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2608 
  2609 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2610 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2611 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2612 
  2613 
  2614 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2615 
  2616 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2617 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2618 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2619 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2620 compatibility.
  2621 
  2622 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2623 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2624 
  2625 
  2626 *** HOLCF ***
  2627 
  2628 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2629 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2630 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2631 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2632 
  2633 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2634 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2635 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2636 
  2637   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2638   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2639   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2640 
  2641 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2642 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2643 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2644 
  2645 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2646 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2647 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2648 domain definition now works:
  2649 
  2650   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2651 
  2652 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2653 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2654 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2655 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2656 
  2657   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2658     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2659 
  2660   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2661 
  2662 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2663 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2664 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2665 
  2666 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2667 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2668 
  2669 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2670 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2671 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2672 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2673 
  2674 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2675 
  2676 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2677 
  2678 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2679 
  2680 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2681 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2682 
  2683 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2684 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2685 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2686 
  2687 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2688 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2689 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2690 
  2691 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2692 still supported as an input translation.
  2693 
  2694 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2695 
  2696   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2697   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2698   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2699   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2700   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2701   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2702   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2703 
  2704 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2705 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2706 
  2707   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2708   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2709   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2710   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2711   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2712   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2713 
  2714 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2715 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2716 
  2717 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2718 
  2719   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2720   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2721   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2722   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2723 
  2724 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2725 
  2726 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2727 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2728 
  2729 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2730 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2731 
  2732   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2733   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2734   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2735   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2736   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2737   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2738   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2739   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2740   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2741   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2742   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2743   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2744   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2745   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2746   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2747   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2748   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2749   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2750   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2751   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2752 
  2753 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2754 
  2755   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2756   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2757   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2758   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2759   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2760   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2761   box_less             ~> box_below
  2762   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2763   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2764   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2765   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2766   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2767   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2768   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2769   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2770   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2771   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2772   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2773   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2774   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2775   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2776   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2777   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2778   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2779   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2780   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2781   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2782   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2783   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2784   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2785   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2786   up_less              ~> up_below
  2787   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2788   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2789   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2790   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2791   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2792   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2793   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2794   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2795   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2796   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2797   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2798   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2799   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2800 
  2801 
  2802 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2803 
  2804 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2805 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2806 
  2807 
  2808 *** ML ***
  2809 
  2810 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2811 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2812 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2813 
  2814 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2815 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2816 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2817 
  2818 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2819 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2820 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2821 
  2822 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2823 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2824 
  2825 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2826 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2827 
  2828 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2829 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2830 
  2831 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2832 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2833 
  2834 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2835 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2836 almost all situations.
  2837 
  2838 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2839 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2840 Isabelle/ML.
  2841 
  2842 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2843 meaning.
  2844 
  2845 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2846 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2847 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2848 
  2849 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2850 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2851 
  2852 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2853 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2854 
  2855 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2856 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2857 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2858 
  2859 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2860 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2861 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2862 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2863 configuration options.
  2864 
  2865 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2866 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2867 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2868 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2869 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2870 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2871 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2872 
  2873 
  2874 
  2875 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2876 ---------------------------------
  2877 
  2878 *** General ***
  2879 
  2880 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2881 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2882 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2883 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2884 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2885 their full internal name.
  2886 
  2887 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2888 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2889 Some hints on upgrading:
  2890 
  2891   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2892     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2893     which are independent of this issue.
  2894 
  2895   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2896     provides the following special forms:
  2897 
  2898       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2899       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2900       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2901 
  2902     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2903     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2904     extra variables".
  2905 
  2906     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2907     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2908     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2909     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2910     "logic".
  2911 
  2912   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2913     antiquotations:
  2914 
  2915       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2916       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2917       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2918       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2919 
  2920   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2921     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2922     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2923     antiquotations.
  2924 
  2925 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2926 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2927 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2928 diagnose syntax problems.
  2929 
  2930 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2931 
  2932 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2933 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2934 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2935 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2936 
  2937 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2938 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2939 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2940 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2941 
  2942 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2943 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2944 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2945 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2946 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2947 
  2948 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2949 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2950 
  2951 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2952 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2953 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2954 
  2955   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2956 
  2957 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2958 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2959 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2960 
  2961 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2962 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2963 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2964 
  2965 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2966 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2967 
  2968 
  2969 *** Pure ***
  2970 
  2971 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2972 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2973 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2974 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2975 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2976 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2977 inspect proof terms.
  2978 
  2979 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2980 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2981 are added internally.  For example:
  2982 
  2983   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2984 
  2985 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2986 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2987 
  2988 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2989 
  2990 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2991 'class' instead.
  2992 
  2993 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2994 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2995 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2996 
  2997 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2998 invariants.
  2999 
  3000 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3001 user space functionality any longer.
  3002 
  3003 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3004 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3005 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3006 
  3007 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3008 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3009 
  3010 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3011 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3012 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3013 
  3014 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3015 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3016 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3017 
  3018 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3019 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3020 
  3021 
  3022 *** HOL ***
  3023 
  3024 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3025 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3026 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3027 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3028 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3029 
  3030 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3031 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3032 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3033 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3034 
  3035   fun
  3036     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3037   where
  3038     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3039 
  3040   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3041     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3042 
  3043   quotient_definition
  3044     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3045 
  3046 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3047 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3048 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3049 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3050 
  3051 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3052 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3053 
  3054 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3055 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3056 
  3057 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3058 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3059 
  3060 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3061 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3062 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3063 
  3064 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3065 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3066 
  3067 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3068 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3069 
  3070 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3071 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3072 
  3073 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3074 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3075 
  3076 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3077 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3078 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3079 
  3080   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3081   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3082   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3083   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3084   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3085   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3086   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3087   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3088   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3089   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3090   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3091   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3092   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3093   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3094   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3095   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3096   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3097   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3098   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3099   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3100   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3101   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3102   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3103   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3104   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3105   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3106   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3107   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3108   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3109   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3110 
  3111 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3112 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3113 
  3114 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3115 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3116 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3117 
  3118 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3119 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3120 
  3121 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3122 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3123 
  3124 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3125 
  3126 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3127 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3128 
  3129 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3130 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3131 
  3132 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3133 
  3134 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3135 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3136 
  3137 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3138 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3139 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3140 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3141 
  3142 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3143   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3144   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3145   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3146 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3147 
  3148 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3149 lattices):
  3150 
  3151     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3152     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3153 
  3154     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3155 
  3156     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3157     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3158     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3159     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3160     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3161     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3162     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3163     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3164     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3165     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3166     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3167     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3168     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3169 
  3170     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3171     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3172     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3173     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3174     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3175     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3176     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3177     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3178     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3179     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3180     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3181     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3182     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3183     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3184     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3185     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3186     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3187     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3188 
  3189   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3190   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3191 
  3192     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3193     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3194     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3195     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3196     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3197 
  3198 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3199 
  3200 * Refined field classes:
  3201   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3202     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3203     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3204   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3205 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3206 
  3207 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3208   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3209   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3210   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3211     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3212   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3213     equal_neg_zero.
  3214 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3215 
  3216 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3217 sets to lattices:
  3218 
  3219   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3220   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3221   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3222   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3223   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3224   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3225   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3226   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3227   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3228   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3229 
  3230 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3231 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3232 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3233 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3234 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3235 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3236 
  3237 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3238 multiset order:
  3239 
  3240   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3241     <= and <;
  3242   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3243     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3244     multiset_order;
  3245   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3246     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3247     generation;
  3248   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3249     if needed.
  3250 
  3251 Renamed:
  3252 
  3253   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3254   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3255   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3256 
  3257 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3258 
  3259 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3260 
  3261 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3262 
  3263 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3264 
  3265 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3266 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3267 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3268 
  3269   Constants:
  3270   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3271   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3272   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3273   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3274   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3275   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3276   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3277   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3278   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3279   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3280   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3281   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3282   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3283 
  3284   Lemmas:
  3285   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3286   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3287   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3288   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3289   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3290   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3291   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3292   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3293   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3294   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3295   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3296   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3297   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3298 
  3299 * Sledgehammer:
  3300   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3301     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3302     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3303     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3304     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3305     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3306     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3307   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3308   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3309     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3310   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3311     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3312     is still experimental.)
  3313   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3314     full-typed mode.
  3315   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3316 
  3317 * Nitpick:
  3318   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3319   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3320   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3321     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3322   - Added support for quotient types.
  3323   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3324     constructs.
  3325   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3326     "termination" proofs).
  3327   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3328   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3329   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3330   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3331     record getters.
  3332   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3333   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3334   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3335   - Added "atoms" option.
  3336   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3337     problems.
  3338   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3339     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3340     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3341   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3342     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3343   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3344 
  3345 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3346   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3347   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3348   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3349   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3350   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3351   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3352   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3353   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3354   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3355 
  3356 
  3357 *** HOLCF ***
  3358 
  3359 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3360 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3361 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3362 
  3363 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3364 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3365 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3366 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3367 
  3368 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3369 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3370 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3371 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3372 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3373 
  3374 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3375 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3376 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3377 
  3378 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3379 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3380 
  3381   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3382   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3383 
  3384 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3385 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3386 
  3387   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3388   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3389   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3390   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3391   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3392 
  3393 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3394 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3395 
  3396   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3397   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3398   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3399 
  3400 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3401 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3402 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3403 
  3404 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3405 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3406 
  3407 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3408 
  3409 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3410 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3411 
  3412 
  3413 *** ML ***
  3414 
  3415 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3416 
  3417     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3418     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3419 
  3420     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3421     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3422     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3423     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3424 
  3425     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3426     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3427     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3428 
  3429 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3430 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3431 
  3432 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3433 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3434 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3435 
  3436 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3437 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3438 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3439 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3440 
  3441 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3442 the context or even global references.
  3443 
  3444 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3445 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3446 
  3447 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3448 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3449 
  3450   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3451   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3452   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3453   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3454   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3455   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3456   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3457   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3458   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3459   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3460 
  3461 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3462 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3463 
  3464 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3465 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3466 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3467 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3468 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3469 
  3470 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3471 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3472 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3473 Theory_Data version.
  3474 
  3475 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3476 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3477 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3478 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3479 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3480 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3481 explicitly in rare situations.
  3482 
  3483 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3484 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3485 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3486 
  3487 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3488 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3489 
  3490 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3491 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3492 quite rare).
  3493 
  3494 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3495 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3496 
  3497 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3498 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3499 terms.
  3500 
  3501 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3502 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3503 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3504 
  3505 
  3506 *** System ***
  3507 
  3508 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3509 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3510 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3511 
  3512 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3513 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3514 respectively.
  3515 
  3516 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3517 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3518 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3519 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3520 
  3521   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3522 
  3523 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3524 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3525 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3526 component.
  3527 
  3528 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3529 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3530 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3531 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3532 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3533 the user for manual installation.
  3534 
  3535 
  3536 
  3537 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3538 -------------------------------------
  3539 
  3540 *** General ***
  3541 
  3542 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3543 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3544 
  3545 
  3546 *** Pure ***
  3547 
  3548 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3549 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3550 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3551 
  3552 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3553 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3554 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3555 
  3556 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3557 interpretation.
  3558 
  3559 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3560 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3561 
  3562 
  3563 *** Document preparation ***
  3564 
  3565 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3566 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3567 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3568 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3569 
  3570 
  3571 *** HOL ***
  3572 
  3573 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3574 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3575 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3576 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3577 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3578 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3579 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3580 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3581 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3582 
  3583 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3584 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3585 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3586 
  3587 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3588 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3589 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3590 
  3591 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3592 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3593 
  3594 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3595 
  3596 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3597 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3598 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3599 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3600 
  3601 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3602 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3603 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3604 "mirabelle" utility.
  3605 
  3606 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3607 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3608 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3609 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3610 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3611 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3612 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3613 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3614 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3615 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3616 
  3617 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3618 procedure only.
  3619 
  3620 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3621 
  3622 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3623 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3624 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3625 that fail later.
  3626 
  3627 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3628 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3629 
  3630 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3631 the same method as the approximation method.
  3632 
  3633 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3634 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3635 series expansion.
  3636 
  3637 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3638 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3639 
  3640 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3641 reals.
  3642 
  3643 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3644 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3645 
  3646 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3647 fixpoint theorem.
  3648 
  3649 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3650   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3651     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3652   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3653     accordingly
  3654   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3655     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3656   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3657     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3658 
  3659 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3660 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3661 lattice.
  3662 
  3663 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3664 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3665 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3666 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3667 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3668 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3669 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3670 
  3671 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3672   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3673     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3674   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3675     le_inf_iff
  3676   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3677     sup_aci)
  3678   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3679   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3680   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3681     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3682     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3683     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3684     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3685     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3686     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3687     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3688     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3689     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3690     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3691   - authentic syntax for
  3692     Set.Pow
  3693     Set.image
  3694   - mere abbreviations:
  3695     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3696     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3697     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3698     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3699     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3700     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3701     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3702     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3703   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3704 
  3705 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3706 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3707 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3708 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3709 
  3710 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3711 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3712 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3713 
  3714 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3715 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3716 
  3717 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3718 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3719 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3720 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3721 
  3722 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3723 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3724 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3725 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3726 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3727 
  3728 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3729 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3730 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3731 
  3732 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3733 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3734 
  3735 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3736 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3737 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3738 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3739 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3740 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3741 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3742 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3743 
  3744 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3745     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3746     code_post       replaces    code post
  3747     etc.
  3748   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3749 
  3750 * Renamed methods:
  3751     sizechange -> size_change
  3752     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3753   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3754 
  3755 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3756 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3757 
  3758 * Renamed theorems:
  3759     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3760     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3761     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3762     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3763     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3764   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3765 
  3766 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3767 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3768 
  3769 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3770 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3771 
  3772 
  3773 *** HOLCF ***
  3774 
  3775 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3776 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3777 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3778 
  3779 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3780 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3781 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3782 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3783 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3784 
  3785 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3786 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3787 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3788 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3789 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3790 
  3791 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3792 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3793 constructor are pre-configured.
  3794 
  3795 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3796 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3797 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3798 
  3799 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3800 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3801 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3802 as well.)
  3803 
  3804 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3805 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3806 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3807 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3808 examples.
  3809 
  3810 
  3811 *** ML ***
  3812 
  3813 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3814 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3815 
  3816 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3817 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3818 position, logical grouping etc.
  3819 
  3820 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3821 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3822 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3823 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3824 
  3825 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3826 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3827 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3828 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3829 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3830 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3831 
  3832 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3833 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3834 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3835 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3836 experiments with references.
  3837 
  3838 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3839 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3840 
  3841 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3842 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3843 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3844 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3845 
  3846 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3847 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3848 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3849 
  3850 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3851 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3852 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3853 
  3854 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3855 
  3856 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3857 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3858 
  3859 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3860 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3861 
  3862 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3863 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3864 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3865 
  3866 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3867 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3868 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3869 
  3870 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3871 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3872 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3873 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3874 
  3875 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3876 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3877 instead of global theory.
  3878 
  3879 
  3880 *** System ***
  3881 
  3882 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3883 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3884 usedir option -q.
  3885 
  3886 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3887 also the system manual.
  3888 
  3889 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3890 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3891 
  3892 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3893 this is always enabled.
  3894 
  3895 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3896 
  3897 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3898 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3899 currently supported on Linux only.
  3900 
  3901 
  3902 
  3903 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3904 --------------------------------
  3905 
  3906 *** General ***
  3907 
  3908 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3909 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3910 
  3911   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3912     "isatool."
  3913 
  3914   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3915     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3916 
  3917   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3918     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3919 
  3920 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3921 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3922 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3923 
  3924 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3925 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3926 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3927 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3928 via "isabelle emacs".
  3929 
  3930 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3931 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3932 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3933 
  3934 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3935 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3936 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3937 
  3938 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3939 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3940 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3941 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3942 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3943 
  3944 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3945 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3946 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3947 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3948 
  3949 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3950 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3951 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3952 
  3953 
  3954 *** Pure ***
  3955 
  3956 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3957 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3958 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3959 
  3960 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3961 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3962 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3963 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3964 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3965 
  3966 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3967 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3968 useful in locale declarations.
  3969 
  3970 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3971 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3972 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3973 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3974 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3975 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3976 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3977 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3978 no longer generated.
  3979 
  3980 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3981 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3982 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3983 
  3984 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3985 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3986 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3987 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3988 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3989 
  3990 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3991 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3992 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3993 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3994 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3995 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3996 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3997 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3998 
  3999 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4000 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4001 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4002 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4003 
  4004 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4005 
  4006 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4007 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4008 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4009 
  4010 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4011 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4012 
  4013 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4014 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4015 in HOL, write
  4016 
  4017     class foo = ...
  4018 
  4019 instead of
  4020 
  4021     class foo = type + ...
  4022 
  4023 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4024 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4025 
  4026 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4027 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4028 
  4029 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4030 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4031 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4032 
  4033 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4034 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4035 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4036 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4037 directly in regular applications.
  4038 
  4039 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4040 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4041 
  4042 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4043 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4044 
  4045 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4046 theory context.
  4047 
  4048 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4049 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4050 
  4051 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4052 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4053 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4054 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4055 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4056 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4057 
  4058   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4059 
  4060 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4061 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4062 normalization.
  4063 
  4064 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4065 addressing etc.
  4066 
  4067 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4068 
  4069   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4070   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4071 
  4072 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4073 
  4074   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4075      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4076      parts of the code generator framework).
  4077 
  4078   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4079      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4080      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4081 
  4082 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4083 
  4084 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4085 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4086 
  4087 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4088 patterns, e.g.
  4089 
  4090     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4091 
  4092 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4093 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4094 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4095 hyphen:
  4096 
  4097     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4098 
  4099 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4100 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4101 
  4102 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4103 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4104 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4105 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4106 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4107 higher-order unification.
  4108 
  4109 
  4110 *** Document preparation ***
  4111 
  4112 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4113 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4114 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4115 
  4116 
  4117 *** HOL ***
  4118 
  4119 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4120 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4121 
  4122 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4123 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4124 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4125 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4126 Main, as before.
  4127 
  4128 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4129 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4130 
  4131 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4132 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4133 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4134 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4135 
  4136 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4137 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4138 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4139 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4140 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4141 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4142 
  4143 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4144 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4145 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4146 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4147 
  4148 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4149 menu.
  4150 
  4151 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4152 (contains the empty clause).
  4153 
  4154 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4155 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4156 
  4157 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4158 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4159 
  4160 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4161 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4162 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4163 
  4164 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4165 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4166 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4167 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4168 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4169 
  4170 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4171 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4172 
  4173 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4174 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4175 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4176 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4177 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4178 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4179 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4180 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4181 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4182 
  4183 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4184 
  4185 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4186 
  4187 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4188 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4189 
  4190 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4191 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4192 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4193 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4194 
  4195 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4196 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4197 
  4198     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4199     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4200     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4201     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4202     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4203     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4204     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4205     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4206 
  4207 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4208 theory Set.
  4209 
  4210 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4211 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4212 
  4213 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4214 
  4215 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4216 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4217 
  4218 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4219 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4220 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4221 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4222 allowed. For examples see
  4223 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4224 
  4225 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4226 
  4227 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4228 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4229 
  4230 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4231 structure:
  4232 
  4233     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4234     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4235     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4236     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4237     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4238     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4239     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4240     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4241     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4242     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4243     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4244     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4245     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4246     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4247     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4248     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4249     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4250     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4251     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4252     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4253     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4254     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4255     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4256     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4257     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4258     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4259     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4260     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4261     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4262     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4263     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4264     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4265     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4266 
  4267     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4268     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4269     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4270     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4271     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4272     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4273     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4274     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4275     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4276     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4277 
  4278     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4279     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4280     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4281     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4282     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4283     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4284 
  4285 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4286 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4287 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4288 
  4289 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4290 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4291 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4292 
  4293 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4294 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4295 
  4296 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4297 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4298 
  4299 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4300 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4301 proofs, e.g.
  4302 
  4303   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4304 
  4305 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4306 
  4307 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4308 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4309 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4310 
  4311 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4312 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4313 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4314 
  4315 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4316 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4317 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4318 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4319 
  4320 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4321 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4322 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4323 preorder_class.*.
  4324 
  4325 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4326 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4327 
  4328 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4329 
  4330   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4331 
  4332 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4333 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4334 fold_image.
  4335 
  4336 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4337 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4338 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4339 the former will disappear at some point.
  4340 
  4341 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4342 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4343 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4344 
  4345 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4346 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4347 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4348 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4349 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4350 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4351 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4352 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4353 
  4354 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4355 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4356 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4357 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4358 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4359 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4360 
  4361     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4362     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4363     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4364     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4365     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4366     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4367     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4368 
  4369 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4370 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4371 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4372 
  4373 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4374 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4375 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4376 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4377 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4378 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4379 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4380 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4381 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4382 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4383 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4384 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4385 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4386 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4387 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4388 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4389 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4390 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4391 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4392 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4393 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4394 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4395 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4396 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4397 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4398 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4399 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4400 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4401 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4402 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4403 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4404 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4405 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4406 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4407 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4408 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4409 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4410 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4411 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4412 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4413 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4414 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4415 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4416 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4417 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4418 
  4419 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4420 
  4421 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4422 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4423 
  4424 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4425 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4426 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4427 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4428 
  4429 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4430 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4431 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4432 theory RealVector.
  4433 
  4434 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4435 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4436 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4437 and inner products are included.
  4438 
  4439 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4440 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4441 supported.
  4442 
  4443 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4444 first diagonalization argument.
  4445 
  4446 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4447 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4448 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4449 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4450 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4451 
  4452     hide (open) const gcd
  4453     abbreviation gcd where
  4454       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4455     notation (output)
  4456       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4457 
  4458 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4459 
  4460 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4461 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4462 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4463 
  4464 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4465 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4466 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4467 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4468 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4469 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4470 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4471 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4472 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4473 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4474 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4475 cases.
  4476 
  4477 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4478 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4479 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4480 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4481 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4482 
  4483     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4484     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4485     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4486     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4487     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4488 
  4489 
  4490 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4491 
  4492 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4493 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4494 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4495 
  4496 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4497 
  4498 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4499 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4500 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4501 
  4502 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4503 
  4504 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4505 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4506 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4507 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4508 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4509 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4510 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4511 
  4512 
  4513 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4514 
  4515 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4516 
  4517 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4518 theory targets.
  4519 
  4520 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4521 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4522 'inductive' etc.
  4523 
  4524 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4525 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4526 
  4527 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4528 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4529 
  4530 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4531 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4532 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4533 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4534 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4535 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4536 the algorithm W:
  4537 
  4538  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4539  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4540          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4541 
  4542 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4543 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4544 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4545 
  4546 
  4547 *** HOLCF ***
  4548 
  4549 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4550 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4551 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4552 
  4553 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4554 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4555 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4556 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4557 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4558 
  4559 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4560 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4561 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4562 
  4563 
  4564 *** ZF ***
  4565 
  4566 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4567 
  4568 
  4569 *** ML ***
  4570 
  4571 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4572 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4573 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4574 5.2.1!
  4575 
  4576 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4577 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4578 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4579 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4580 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4581 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4582 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4583 
  4584 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4585 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4586 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4587 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4588 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4589 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4590 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4591 
  4592 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4593 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4594 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4595 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4596 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4597 
  4598 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4599 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4600 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4601 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4602 Method.add_method.
  4603 
  4604 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4605 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4606 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4607 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4608 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4609 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4610 
  4611 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4612 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4613 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4614 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4615 examples.
  4616 
  4617 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4618 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4619 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4620 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4621 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4622 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4623 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4624 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4625 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4626 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4627 
  4628 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4629 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4630 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4631 
  4632 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4633 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4634 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4635 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4636 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4637 resort for legacy applications.
  4638 
  4639 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4640 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4641 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4642 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4643 explicit runtime argument.
  4644 
  4645 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4646 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4647 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4648 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4649 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4650 
  4651 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4652 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4653 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4654 theory state.
  4655 
  4656 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4657 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4658 
  4659   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4660   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4661   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4662   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4663   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4664   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4665   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4666   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4667   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4668   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4669 
  4670 
  4671 *** System ***
  4672 
  4673 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4674 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4675 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4676 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4677 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4678 
  4679 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4680 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4681 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4682 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4683 
  4684 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4685 
  4686 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4687 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4688 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4689 prover operations.
  4690 
  4691 
  4692 
  4693 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4694 -------------------------------
  4695 
  4696 *** General ***
  4697 
  4698 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4699 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4700 
  4701 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4702 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4703 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4704 provides a proper context already.
  4705 
  4706 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4707 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4708 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4709 
  4710 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4711 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4712 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4713 swap theory imports.
  4714 
  4715 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4716 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4717 
  4718 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4719 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4720 white space without escapes.
  4721 
  4722 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4723 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4724 "foo_bar".
  4725 
  4726 
  4727 *** Pure ***
  4728 
  4729 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4730 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4731 
  4732 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4733 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4734 
  4735 (1) unused_thms
  4736      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4737 
  4738 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4739      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4740      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4741 
  4742 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4743      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4744      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4745      their ancestors.
  4746 
  4747 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4748 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4749 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4750 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4751 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4752 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4753 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4754 
  4755 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4756 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4757 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4758 
  4759 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4760 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4761 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4762 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4763 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4764 
  4765 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4766 
  4767 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4768 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4769 update of theories within ML code.
  4770 
  4771 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4772 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4773 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4774 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4775 
  4776 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4777 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4778 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4779 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4780 
  4781 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4782 
  4783 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4784 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4785 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4786 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4787 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4788 
  4789 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4790 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4791 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4792 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4793 situations.
  4794 
  4795 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4796 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4797 proof text.
  4798 
  4799 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4800 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4801 
  4802 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4803 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4804 predicates.
  4805 
  4806 
  4807 *** Document preparation ***
  4808 
  4809 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4810 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4811 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4812 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4813 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4814 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4815 
  4816 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4817 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4818 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4819 
  4820 
  4821 *** HOL ***
  4822 
  4823 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4824 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4825 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4826 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4827 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4828 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4829 
  4830 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4831 with multithreading.
  4832 
  4833 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4834 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4835 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4836 
  4837 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4838 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4839 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4840 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4841 
  4842 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4843 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4844 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4845 and makes them available separately.  See
  4846 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4847 
  4848 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4849 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4850 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4851 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4852 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4853 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4854 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4855 the declared rules.
  4856 
  4857 This setup also deals with rules like
  4858 
  4859   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4860 
  4861 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4862 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4863 
  4864 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4865 
  4866   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4867 
  4868   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4869     definitions on => and bool.
  4870 
  4871   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4872     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4873     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4874 
  4875       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4876       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4877       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4878       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4879       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4880       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4881       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4882       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4883 
  4884   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4885     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4886     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4887 
  4888   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4889     The proof pattern
  4890 
  4891       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4892       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4893 
  4894     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4895     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4896 
  4897       have "EX S. P S"
  4898       proof
  4899         show "P S" <...>
  4900       qed
  4901 
  4902   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4903     The proof pattern
  4904 
  4905       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4906       also have "S = T" <...>
  4907       finally have "P T" .
  4908 
  4909     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4910     must be replaced by something like
  4911 
  4912       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4913       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4914       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4915 
  4916   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4917     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4918 
  4919       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4920 
  4921     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4922     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4923     type of the form
  4924 
  4925       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4926 
  4927     rather than
  4928 
  4929       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4930 
  4931 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4932 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4933 
  4934 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4935 
  4936 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4937 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4938 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4939 
  4940 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4941 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4942 
  4943 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4944 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4945 
  4946 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4947 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4948 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4949 
  4950 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4951 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4952 
  4953   less_trans
  4954   less_linear
  4955   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4956   le_less_trans
  4957   less_le_trans
  4958   less_not_sym
  4959   less_asym
  4960 
  4961 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4962 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4963 and different variable names.
  4964 
  4965 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4966 
  4967 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4968 finite maps.
  4969 
  4970 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4971 
  4972 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4973 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4974 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4975 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4976 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4977 accordingly.
  4978 
  4979 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4980 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4981 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4982 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4983 
  4984 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4985 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4986 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4987 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4988 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4989 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4990 
  4991 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4992 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4993 
  4994 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4995 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4996 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4997 
  4998 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4999 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5000 
  5001 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5002 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5003 
  5004 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5005 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5006 
  5007 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5008 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5009 
  5010 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5011 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5012 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5013 
  5014 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5015 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5016 
  5017 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5018 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5019 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5020 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5021 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5022 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5023 
  5024 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5025 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5026 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5027 
  5028 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5029 
  5030 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5031 
  5032 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5033 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5034 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5035 
  5036 
  5037 *** ZF ***
  5038 
  5039 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5040 same session:
  5041 
  5042   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5043   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5044   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5045   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5046   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5047   List      -> List_ZF
  5048   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5049 
  5050 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5051 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5052 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5053 
  5054 
  5055 *** ML ***
  5056 
  5057 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5058 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5059 
  5060 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5061 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5062 
  5063 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5064 
  5065 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5066 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5067 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5068 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5069 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5070 
  5071 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5072 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5073 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5074 
  5075 
  5076 *** System ***
  5077 
  5078 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5079 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5080 
  5081 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5082 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5083 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5084 
  5085 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5086 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5087 
  5088 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5089 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5090 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5091 
  5092 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5093 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5094 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5095 
  5096 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5097 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5098 
  5099 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5100 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5101 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5102 script.
  5103 
  5104 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5105 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5106 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5107 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5108 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5109 
  5110 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5111 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5112 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5113 
  5114 
  5115 
  5116 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5117 -----------------------------------
  5118 
  5119 *** General ***
  5120 
  5121 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5122 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5123 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5124 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5125 
  5126 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5127 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5128 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5129 
  5130 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5131 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5132 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5133 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5134 
  5135 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5136 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5137 quotes.
  5138 
  5139 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5140 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5141 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5142 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5143 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5144 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5145 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5146 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5147 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5148 
  5149 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5150 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5151 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5152 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5153 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5154 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5155 
  5156 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5157 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5158 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5159 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5160 
  5161 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5162 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5163 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5164 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5165 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5166 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5167 
  5168 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5169 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5170 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5171 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5172 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5173 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5174 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5175 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5176 
  5177 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5178 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5179 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5180 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5181 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5182 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5183 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5184 
  5185 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5186 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5187 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5188 
  5189 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5190 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5191 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5192 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5193 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5194 limit is imposed.
  5195 
  5196 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5197 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5198 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5199 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5200 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5201 and scalability.
  5202 
  5203 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5204 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5205 
  5206 
  5207 *** Document preparation ***
  5208 
  5209 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5210 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5211 current context.
  5212 
  5213 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5214 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5215 
  5216 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5217 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5218 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5219 
  5220 
  5221 *** Pure ***
  5222 
  5223 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5224 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5225 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5226 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5227 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5228 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5229 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5230 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5231 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5232 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5233 
  5234 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5235 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5236 sketch:
  5237 
  5238     internal compilation:
  5239         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5240     writing SML code to a file:
  5241         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5242     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5243         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5244     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5245         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5246 
  5247     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5248         method ``eval''
  5249 
  5250 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5251 
  5252 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5253 
  5254     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5255     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5256     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5257     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5258 
  5259 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5260 
  5261     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5262       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5263 
  5264     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5265       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5266 
  5267     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5268       {(target)}+
  5269         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5270 
  5271     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5272       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5273         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5274 
  5275 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5276 
  5277 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5278 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5279 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5280 codegen".
  5281 
  5282 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5283 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5284 annotations).
  5285 
  5286 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5287 syntax.
  5288 
  5289 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5290 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5291 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5292 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5293 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5294 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5295 
  5296 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5297 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5298 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5299 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5300 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5301 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5302 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5303 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5304 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5305 equations, see section "definitions".
  5306 
  5307 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5308 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5309 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5310 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5311 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5312 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5313 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5314 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5315 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5316 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5317 
  5318 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5319 configuration options:
  5320 
  5321   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5322   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5323   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5324   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5325   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5326   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5327   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5328   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5329   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5330 
  5331 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5332 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5333 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5334 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5335 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5336 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5337 order.
  5338 
  5339 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5340 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5341 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5342 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5343 context encountered later on.
  5344 
  5345 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5346 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5347 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5348 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5349 
  5350 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5351 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5352 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5353 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5354 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5355 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5356 
  5357 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5358 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5359 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5360 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5361 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5362 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5363 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5364 more permissive.
  5365 
  5366 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5367 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5368 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5369 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5370 maintainability of proof texts.
  5371 
  5372 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5373 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5374 
  5375   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5376   then guess x and y by clarify
  5377 
  5378 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5379 proof tools being involved here.
  5380 
  5381 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5382 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5383 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5384 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5385 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5386 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5387 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5388 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5389 
  5390 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5391 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5392 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5393 
  5394   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5395   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5396   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5397   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5398 
  5399 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5400 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5401 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5402 
  5403 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5404 both named and unnamed ones.
  5405 
  5406 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5407 
  5408   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5409 
  5410 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5411 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5412 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5413 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5414 
  5415 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5416 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5417 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5418 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5419 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5420 
  5421 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5422 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5423 
  5424 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5425 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5426 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5427 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5428 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5429 originally first one.
  5430 
  5431 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5432 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5433 expected.
  5434 
  5435 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5436 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5437 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5438 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5439 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5440 
  5441   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5442     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5443     obtains x where "P x"
  5444 
  5445   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5446     assumes "A & B"
  5447     obtains A and B
  5448 
  5449   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5450     assumes "A | B"
  5451     obtains
  5452       A
  5453     | B
  5454 
  5455 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5456 explicitly:
  5457 
  5458   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5459     obtains "~ thesis"
  5460 
  5461   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5462     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5463 
  5464 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5465 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5466 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5467 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5468 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5469 case_names).
  5470 
  5471 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5472 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5473 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5474 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5475 
  5476 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5477 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5478 top-level lemma.
  5479 
  5480 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5481 introduction rule (default "that").
  5482 
  5483 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5484 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5485 to occur.
  5486 
  5487 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5488 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5489 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5490 representations independently of name spaces.
  5491 
  5492 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5493 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5494 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5495 
  5496 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5497 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5498 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5499 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5500 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5501 current context.
  5502 
  5503 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5504 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5505 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5506 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5507 
  5508   axiomatization
  5509     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5510     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5511 
  5512   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5513   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5514 
  5515   abbreviation
  5516     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5517     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5518 
  5519 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5520 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5521 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5522 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5523 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5524 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5525 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5526 
  5527 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5528 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5529 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5530 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5531 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5532 
  5533 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5534 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5535 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5536 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5537 
  5538 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5539 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5540 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5541 
  5542   definition "K x _ = x"
  5543 
  5544   inductive conj for A B
  5545   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5546 
  5547 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5548 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5549 abbreviations on output.
  5550 
  5551 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5552 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5553 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5554 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5555 
  5556 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5557 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5558 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5559 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5560 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5561 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5562 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5563 
  5564 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5565 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5566 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5567 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5568 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5569 
  5570 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5571 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5572 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5573 
  5574 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5575 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5576 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5577 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5578 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5579 
  5580   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5581     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5582 
  5583 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5584 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5585 partial_order.
  5586 
  5587 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5588 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5589 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5590 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5591 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5592 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5593 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5594 examples.
  5595 
  5596 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5597 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5598 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5599 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5600 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5601 
  5602 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5603 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5604 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5605 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5606 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5607 
  5608   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5609   (induct set: foo bar)
  5610   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5611   (induct type: foo bar)
  5612 
  5613 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5614 new format.
  5615 
  5616 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5617 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5618 
  5619 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5620 considered a legacy feature.
  5621 
  5622 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5623 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5624 
  5625 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5626 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5627 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5628 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5629 
  5630 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5631 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5632 manipulating the claset.
  5633 
  5634 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5635 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5636 least one premise.
  5637 
  5638 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5639 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5640 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5641 rule steps.
  5642 
  5643 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5644 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5645 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5646 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5647 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5648 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5649 
  5650 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5651 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5652 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5653 
  5654 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5655 the graph browser tool.
  5656 
  5657 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5658 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5659 
  5660 
  5661 *** HOL ***
  5662 
  5663 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5664 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5665 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5666 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5667 multi-threading.
  5668 
  5669 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5670 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5671 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5672 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5673 work with multi-threading.
  5674 
  5675 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5676 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5677 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5678 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5679 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5680 
  5681 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5682 
  5683 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5684 equality.
  5685 
  5686 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5687 the new 'class' package:
  5688 
  5689     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5690     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5691     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5692     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5693     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5694     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5695     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5696     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5697     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5698     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5699     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5700     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5701     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5702     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5703     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5704     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5705     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5706     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5707     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5708     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5709 
  5710 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5711 
  5712 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5713 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5714 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5715 names.
  5716 
  5717 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5718 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5719 
  5720 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5721 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5722 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5723 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5724 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5725 
  5726 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5727 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5728 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5729 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5730 
  5731 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5732 
  5733 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5734 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5735 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5736 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5737 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5738 
  5739 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5740 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5741 
  5742 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5743 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5744 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5745 
  5746 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5747 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5748 
  5749 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5750 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5751 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5752 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5753 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5754 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5755 in the current context.
  5756 
  5757 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5758 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5759 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5760 
  5761 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5762 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5763 
  5764 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5765 
  5766     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5767     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5768 
  5769     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5770       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5771     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5772     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5773 
  5774     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5775     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5776 
  5777   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5778 
  5779     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5780     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5781     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5782     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5783     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5784     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5785     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5786     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5787     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5788     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5789     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5790     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5791     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5792     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5793     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5794     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5795     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5796     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5797     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5798     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5799     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5800     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5801     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5802     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5803     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5804     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5805     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5806     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5807     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5808     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5809     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5810     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5811     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5812     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5813     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5814 
  5815     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5816     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5817     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5818     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5819     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5820     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5821     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5822     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5823     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5824     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5825     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5826     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5827     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5828     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5829     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5830     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5831     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5832 
  5833     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5834     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5835     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5836     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5837     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5838     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5839     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5840     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5841     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5842     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5843     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5844     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5845     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5846     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5847     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5848     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5849     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5850     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5851     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5852     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5853     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5854     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5855     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5856     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5857     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5858     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5859     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5860     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5861 
  5862     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5863     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5864     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5865     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5866     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5867     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5868 
  5869     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5870     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5871     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5872     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5873 
  5874     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5875     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5876 
  5877     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5878     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5879 
  5880 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5881 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5882 
  5883 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5884 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5885 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5886 "*.size".
  5887 
  5888 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5889 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5890 
  5891 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5892 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5893 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5894 
  5895 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5896 
  5897 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5898 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5899 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5900 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5901 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5902 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5903 numerals on all operations.
  5904 
  5905 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5906 
  5907 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5908 
  5909 * Code generator library theories:
  5910   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5911     languages.
  5912   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5913     languages.
  5914   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5915     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5916   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5917   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5918     denominator).
  5919   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5920     representable by rational numbers.
  5921   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5922     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5923     includes Code_Integer.
  5924   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5925     target-language built-in integers.
  5926   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5927     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5928 
  5929 * New package for inductive predicates
  5930 
  5931   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5932 
  5933     inductive
  5934       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5935       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5936     where
  5937       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5938     | ...
  5939 
  5940   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5941 
  5942     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5943 
  5944     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5945     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5946 
  5947     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5948     intros
  5949       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5950       ...
  5951 
  5952   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5953   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5954 
  5955     inductive_set
  5956       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5957       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5958     where
  5959       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5960     | ...
  5961 
  5962   or
  5963 
  5964     inductive_set
  5965       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5966       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5967       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5968     where
  5969       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5970     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5971     | ...
  5972 
  5973   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5974 
  5975   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5976   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5977 
  5978   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5979 
  5980   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5981     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5982     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5983     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5984     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5985 
  5986   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5987     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5988     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5989     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5990     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5991     statements of the form
  5992 
  5993       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5994 
  5995     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5996     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5997 
  5998       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5999 
  6000   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  6001 
  6002       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  6003         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  6004         ==> ... ==> P
  6005 
  6006     for predicates and
  6007 
  6008       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  6009         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  6010         ==> ... ==> P
  6011 
  6012     for sets rather than
  6013 
  6014       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  6015         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  6016         ==> ... ==> P
  6017 
  6018     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  6019     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  6020     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  6021 
  6022   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  6023     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  6024     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  6025 
  6026 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  6027 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  6028 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  6029 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  6030 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  6031 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  6032 
  6033 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  6034 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.
  6035 
  6036 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  6037 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  6038 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  6039 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  6040 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  6041 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  6042 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  6043 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  6044 variable.
  6045 
  6046 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  6047 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  6048 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  6049 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6050   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  6051   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  6052 
  6053 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  6054 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  6055 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  6056 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  6057 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  6058 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  6059 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  6060 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  6061 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  6062 
  6063 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  6064 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  6065 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  6066 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  6067 rat, etc.
  6068 
  6069 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  6070 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  6071 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  6072 
  6073 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  6074 
  6075 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  6076 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  6077 
  6078 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  6079 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  6080 
  6081 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  6082 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  6083 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6084 
  6085 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  6086 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  6087 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6088 
  6089 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  6090 
  6091 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  6092 
  6093 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  6094 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  6095 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  6096 positive/negative (in inequations).
  6097 
  6098 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  6099 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  6100 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  6101 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6102 
  6103 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  6104 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  6105 algebraic operations.
  6106 
  6107 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  6108 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6109 
  6110 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  6111 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6112 
  6113 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  6114 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  6115 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  6116 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  6117 adapted.
  6118 
  6119 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  6120 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  6121 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  6122 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  6123 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  6124 
  6125 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  6126 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  6127 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  6128 
  6129 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  6130 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  6131 better use 'abbreviation'.
  6132 
  6133 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6134 
  6135 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  6136 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  6137 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  6138   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  6139       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  6140   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  6141   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  6142   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  6143 
  6144 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  6145 
  6146 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  6147 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  6148 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  6149 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  6150 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  6151 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  6152 
  6153 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  6154 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  6155 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  6156 
  6157 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  6158 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  6159 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  6160 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6161 
  6162 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  6163 
  6164 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  6165 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6166 
  6167 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  6168 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  6169 
  6170 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  6171 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  6172 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  6173 
  6174 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  6175 True/False.
  6176 
  6177 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  6178 
  6179 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  6180 
  6181 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  6182 ``rule'' method.
  6183 
  6184 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  6185 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  6186 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  6187 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  6188 
  6189 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  6190 zChaff is still supported as well.
  6191 
  6192 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  6193 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  6194 
  6195 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  6196 Library.
  6197 
  6198 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  6199 
  6200 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  6201 as greatest fixed-point.
  6202 
  6203 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  6204 association lists.
  6205 
  6206 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  6207 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  6208 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  6209 
  6210 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  6211 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  6212 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6213 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  6214 behavior.
  6215 
  6216 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  6217 
  6218 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  6219 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  6220 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  6221 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  6222 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  6223 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  6224 
  6225 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  6226 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  6227 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  6228 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  6229 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  6230 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  6231 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  6232 
  6233 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  6234 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  6235 
  6236 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  6237 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an