NEWS
author wenzelm
Sun Apr 22 14:30:18 2012 +0200 (2012-04-22)
changeset 47661 012a887997f3
parent 47659 e3c4d1b0b351
child 47673 dd253cfa5b23
permissions -rw-r--r--
USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home directory;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
     5 ------------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
    10 
    11   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
    12     command line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
    13   - markup for bound variables
    14   - markup for types of term variables (e.g. displayed as tooltips)
    15   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
    16   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
    17     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
    18 
    19 * Updated and extended reference manuals ("isar-ref" and
    20 "implementation"); reduced remaining material in old "ref" manual.
    21 
    22 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
    23 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
    24 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
    25 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
    26 etc. was exploited.
    27 
    28 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
    29 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
    30 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
    31 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
    32 indices of schematic variables.
    33 
    34 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
    35 
    36     num ~> num_token
    37     xnum ~> xnum_token
    38     xstr ~> str_token
    39 
    40 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
    41 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
    42 position information via constraints).
    43 
    44 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
    45 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
    46 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    47 
    48 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
    49 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
    50 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
    51 
    52 
    53 *** Pure ***
    54 
    55 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
    56 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
    57 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
    58 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
    59 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
    60 
    61   context
    62     fixes x y z :: 'a
    63     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
    64   begin
    65 
    66   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
    67 
    68   end
    69 
    70   thm my_trans
    71 
    72 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
    73 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
    74 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
    75 
    76 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
    77 ... begin ... end" block as well.
    78 
    79 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
    80 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
    81 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
    82 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.
    83 
    84 See commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref
    85 manual.
    86 
    87 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
    88 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
    89 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
    90 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
    91 
    92 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
    93 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
    94 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
    95 
    96 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
    97 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
    98 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
    99 undocumented feature.)
   100 
   101 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   102 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   103 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   104 
   105 * Obsolete command 'types' has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   106 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   107 
   108 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   109 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   110 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   111 
   112 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   113 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   114 
   115 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   116 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   117 
   118   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   119 
   120 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   121 
   122 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   123 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   124 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   125 
   126   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   127 
   128   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   129     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   130 
   131 
   132 *** HOL ***
   133 
   134 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL" ("prog-prove").
   135 It completely supercedes "A Tutorial Introduction to Structured Isar Proofs",
   136 which has been removed. It supercedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant
   137 for Higher-Order Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial
   138 but does not cover all of the material of that old tutorial.
   139 
   140 * Discontinued old Tutorial on Isar ("isar-overview");
   141 
   142 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   143 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   144 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   145 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase sets S accidentally
   146 used as predicates by "%x. x : S" and predicates P accidentally used
   147 as sets by "{x. P x}".  Corresponding proofs in a first step should be
   148 pruned from any tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def
   149 as far as possible.
   150 
   151 For developments which deliberately mixed predicates and sets, a
   152 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   153 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   154 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   155 
   156 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   157 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   158 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   159 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively. (See definitions
   160 in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.) Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some user theories
   161 may require adaptations as follows:
   162 
   163   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   164     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   165 
   166   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   167     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   168     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   169 
   170   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   171     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   172 
   173   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   174     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   175     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   176 
   177   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   178     Redefine using other integer operations.
   179 
   180 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   181 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   182 
   183 * New proof import from HOL Light: Faster, simpler, and more scalable.
   184 Requires a proof bundle, which is available as an external component.
   185 Discontinued old (and mostly dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.
   186 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   187 
   188 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   189 
   190 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   191 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   192 of some relation theorems:
   193 
   194   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   195   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   196   symp_def ~> (dropped, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   197   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   198   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   199   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   200 
   201 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   202 
   203 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   204 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   205 
   206 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   207 
   208 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   209 to match the constant's name:
   210 
   211   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   212   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   213   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   214   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   215   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   216   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   217   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   218   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   219   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   220   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   221   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   222   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   223   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   224   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   225   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   226   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   227   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   228   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   229   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   230   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   231   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   232   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   233   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   234   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   235 
   236 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   237 
   238 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   239 and corresponding theorem names:
   240 
   241   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   242 
   243   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   244 
   245   - Renamed theorems:
   246 
   247     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   248     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   249     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   250     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   251     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   252     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   253     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   254     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   255     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   256     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   257     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   258     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   259     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   260     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   261     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   262     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   263     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   264     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   265     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   266     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   267     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   268     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   269     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   270 
   271     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   272 
   273     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   274 
   275 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   276 
   277 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   278 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   279 
   280   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   281   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   282   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   283   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   284   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   285   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   286   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   287   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   288   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   289   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   290   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   291   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   292   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   293   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   294   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   295   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   296   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   297   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   298   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   299   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   300   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   301 
   302 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   303 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   304 
   305 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   306 
   307 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   308 
   309   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   310   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   311   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   312   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   313   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   314   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   315   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   316   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   317   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   318   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   319   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   320   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   321   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   322   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   323   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   324   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   325   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   326   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   327 
   328 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   329 
   330 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   331 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   332 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   333 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   334 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   335 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   336 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   337 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   338 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   339 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   340 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   341 
   342 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   343 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   344 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   345 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   346 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   347 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   348 
   349 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   350 through option types.
   351 
   352 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   353 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   354 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   355 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   356 one_case.
   357 
   358 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   359 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   360 
   361 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
   362 association lists with distinct keys.
   363 
   364 * 'datatype' specifications allow explicit sort constraints.
   365 
   366 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   367 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   368 
   369 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   370 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   371 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   372 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   373 follows:
   374 
   375   Operations:
   376   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   377   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   378   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   379   del -> rbt_del
   380   delete -> rbt_delete
   381   ins -> rbt_ins
   382   insert -> rbt_insert
   383   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   384   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   385   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   386   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   387   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   388   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   389   tree_less -> rbt_less
   390   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   391   union -> rbt_union
   392   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   393   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   394 
   395   Lemmas:
   396   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   397   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   398   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   399   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   400   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   401   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   402   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   403   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   404   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   405   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   406   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   407   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   408   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   409   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   410   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   411   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   412   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   413   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   414   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   415   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   416   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   417   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   418   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   419   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   420   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   421   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   422   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   423   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   424   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   425   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   426   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   427   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
   428   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
   429   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
   430   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
   431   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
   432   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
   433   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
   434   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
   435   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
   436   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
   437   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
   438   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
   439   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
   440   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
   441   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
   442   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
   443   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
   444   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
   445   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
   446   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
   447   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
   448   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
   449   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
   450   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
   451   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
   452   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
   453   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
   454   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
   455   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
   456   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
   457   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
   458   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
   459   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
   460   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
   461   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
   462   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
   463   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
   464   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
   465   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
   466   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
   467   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
   468   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
   469   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
   470   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
   471   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
   472   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
   473   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
   474   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
   475   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
   476   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
   477   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
   478   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
   479 
   480 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as a
   481 subset of the real numbers. All operations are defined using the
   482 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.
   483 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   484 
   485   Changed Operations:
   486   float_abs -> abs
   487   float_nprt -> nprt
   488   float_pprt -> pprt
   489   pow2 -> use powr
   490   round_down -> float_round_down
   491   round_up -> float_round_up
   492   scale -> exponent
   493 
   494   Removed Operations:
   495   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
   496 
   497   Renamed Lemmas:
   498   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
   499   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
   500   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
   501   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
   502   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
   503   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
   504   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
   505   float_power -> real_of_float_power
   506   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
   507   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
   508   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
   509   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
   510   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
   511   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
   512   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
   513   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
   514   normfloat -> normfloat_def
   515   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
   516   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
   517   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
   518   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
   519   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
   520   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
   521   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
   522   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
   523   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
   524   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
   525   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
   526   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
   527   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
   528   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
   529   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
   530   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
   531   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
   532   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
   533   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
   534 
   535   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
   536   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
   537   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
   538   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
   539   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
   540   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
   541   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
   542   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
   543   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
   544   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
   545 
   546 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
   547 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
   548 instead.
   549 
   550   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
   551   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
   552   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
   553   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
   554   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
   555   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
   556   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
   557   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
   558   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   559   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   560   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
   561   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
   562   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   563   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   564   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   565   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
   566   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
   567   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
   568   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
   569   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
   570   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
   571   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
   572   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
   573   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
   574   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
   575   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
   576   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
   577   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
   578   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
   579   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
   580   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
   581   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   582   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
   583   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
   584   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
   585   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
   586   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
   587   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
   588   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
   589   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
   590   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
   591 
   592 * New tactic "word_bitwise" for splitting machine word equalities and
   593 inequalities into logical circuits. Requires theory "WordBitwise" from HOL-Word
   594 session. Supports addition, subtraction, multiplication, shifting by
   595 constants, bitwise operators and numeric constants. Requires fixed-length word
   596 types, cannot operate on 'a word. Solves many standard word identies outright
   597 and converts more into first order problems amenable to blast or similar. See
   598 HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy and examples in HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
   599 
   600 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   601 the result of the fact expression.
   602 
   603 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   604 relations.
   605 
   606 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   607 
   608 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   609 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   610 
   611   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   612   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   613   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   614   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   615   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   616   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   617   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   618   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   619   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   620   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   621   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   622   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   623   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   624   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   625   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   626   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   627   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   628   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   629   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   630   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   631   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   632   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   633   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   634   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   635   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   636   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   637   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   638   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   639   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   640   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   641   zless_le ~> less_le
   642   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   643   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   644   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   645 
   646 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   647 
   648   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   649 
   650 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   651 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   652 
   653   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   654 
   655 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   656 a list and a nat.
   657 
   658 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   659 
   660 * New Transfer package:
   661 
   662   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   663     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   664     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   665     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   666     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   667 
   668     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   669     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   670 
   671   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   672     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   673     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   674     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   675     necessary for variables whose types changes, but can be overridden
   676     for specific variables with e.g. 'transfer fixing: x y z'.
   677     The variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with
   678     one that is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   679 
   680   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   681     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)". The
   682     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   683     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   684 
   685   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   686     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   687     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   688     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   689 
   690   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   691     from type nat to type int.
   692 
   693 * New Lifting package:
   694 
   695   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   696     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation type. Example
   697     syntax:
   698 
   699     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   700       is List.insert
   701 
   702     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   703     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   704     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   705     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   706     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   707     by the package.
   708 
   709   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   710     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   711     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   712     code generation for each constant.
   713 
   714   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with
   715     a user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient
   716     theorem or a type_definition theorem. The package configures
   717     transfer rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets
   718     up the lift_definition command to work with the type.
   719 
   720   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   721     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Word/Word.thy and
   722     Library/Float.thy.
   723 
   724 * Quotient package:
   725 
   726   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   727     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   728 
   729   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   730     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   731 
   732   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   733     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   734     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   735 
   736   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   737     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   738 
   739 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   740 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   741 
   742 * Quickcheck:
   743 
   744   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   745     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   746     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   747     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   748     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   749 
   750     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   751     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   752     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   753 
   754     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   755     continues searching for genuine ones.
   756 
   757     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   758     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   759     show genuine counterexamples.
   760 
   761   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   762     value generators for a given type and operations.
   763 
   764     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   765     constructors of that type.
   766 
   767   - Support for multisets.
   768 
   769   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   770 
   771   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   772     conjectures in a locale context.
   773 
   774 * Nitpick:
   775   - Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option and
   776     affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   777 
   778 * Sledgehammer:
   779   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012 paper "More
   780     SPASS with Isabelle".
   781   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   782   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and TFF1),
   783     iProver, iProver-Eq.
   784   - Replaced remote E-SInE with remote Satallax in the default setup.
   785   - Sped up the minimizer.
   786   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   787   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   788   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   789 
   790 * Metis:
   791   - Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   792     parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   793 
   794 * SMT:
   795   - Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   796 
   797 * Command 'try0':
   798   - Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   799 
   800 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   801 eventually_elim* rules. Supports structured proofs.
   802 
   803 * HOL/TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all languages)
   804 into Isabelle/HOL.
   805 
   806 
   807 *** FOL ***
   808 
   809 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
   810 
   811 
   812 *** ZF ***
   813 
   814 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
   815 analysis.
   816 
   817 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
   818 
   819 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   820 
   821 
   822 *** ML ***
   823 
   824 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
   825 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
   826 
   827 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
   828 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
   829 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
   830 
   831 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
   832 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
   833 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
   834 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
   835 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
   836 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
   837 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
   838 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
   839 
   840 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
   841 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
   842 
   843 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
   844 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
   845 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
   846 
   847 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
   848 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   849 
   850 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
   851 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
   852 context as well.
   853 
   854 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
   855 
   856   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
   857   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
   858   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
   859   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
   860   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
   861   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
   862   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
   863   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
   864   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
   865   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
   866   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
   867   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
   868 
   869 
   870 *** System ***
   871 
   872 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
   873 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
   874 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
   875 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
   876 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
   877 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
   878 the generic user home was intended.
   879 
   880 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
   881 (not just JRE).
   882 
   883 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
   884 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
   885 
   886 
   887 
   888 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
   889 ------------------------------------
   890 
   891 *** General ***
   892 
   893 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
   894 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
   895 
   896   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
   897     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
   898     files for checking).
   899 
   900   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
   901     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
   902     positions.
   903 
   904   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
   905     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
   906     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
   907 
   908   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
   909     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
   910     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
   911 
   912   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
   913     cores.
   914 
   915   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
   916     versions (garbage collection).
   917 
   918 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
   919 including some remaining limitations.
   920 
   921 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
   922 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
   923 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
   924 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
   925 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
   926 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   927 
   928 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
   929 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
   930 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
   931 
   932 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
   933 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
   934 usedir option -Q.
   935 
   936 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
   937 configuration options, with more conventional names:
   938 
   939   long_names   ~> names_long
   940   short_names  ~> names_short
   941   unique_names ~> names_unique
   942 
   943 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
   944 
   945   declare [[names_unique = false]]
   946 
   947 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
   948 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
   949 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
   950 
   951 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
   952 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
   953 
   954 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
   955   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
   956   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
   957   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
   958     "Classical Reasoner".
   959 
   960 
   961 *** HOL ***
   962 
   963 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
   964 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   965 
   966 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
   967 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
   968 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
   969 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
   970 class complete_linorder.
   971 
   972 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
   973 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
   974 
   975 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
   976 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
   977 
   978   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
   979   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
   980   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
   981   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
   982   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
   983   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
   984   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
   985   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
   986   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
   987   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
   988   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
   989 
   990 More consistent and comprehensive names:
   991 
   992   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
   993   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
   994   INFI_def ~> INF_def
   995   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
   996   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
   997   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
   998   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
   999   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1000   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1001   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1002   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1003   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1004   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1005   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1006   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1007   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1008 
  1009 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1010 
  1011 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1012 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1013 
  1014 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1015 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1016 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1017 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1018 
  1019 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1020 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1021 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1022 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1023 
  1024 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1025 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1026 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1027 
  1028 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1029 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1030 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1031 
  1032 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1033 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1034 
  1035 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1036 
  1037     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1038     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1039 
  1040 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1041 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1042 
  1043 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1044 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1045 
  1046 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1047 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1048 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1049 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1050 
  1051   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1052   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1053   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1054   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1055   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1056   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1057   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1058 
  1059 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1060 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1061 
  1062   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1063   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1064   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1065   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1066   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1067   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1068   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1069   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1070   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1071   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1072   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1073   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1074   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1075   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1076   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1077   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1078   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1079   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1080   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1081   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1082   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1083   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1084   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1085   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1086   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1087   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1088   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1089   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1090   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1091   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1092   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1093   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1094   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1095   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1096   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1097   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1098   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1099   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1100   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1101   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1102   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1103   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1104   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1105   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1106   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1107   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1108   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1109   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1110   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1111   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1112   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1113   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1114   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1115   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1116   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1117   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1118   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1119   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1120   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1121   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1122   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1123   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1124   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1125   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1126   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1127   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1128   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1129   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1130   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1131   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1132   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1133   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1134   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1135   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1136   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1137   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1138   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1139   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1140   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1141   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1142   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1143   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1144 
  1145 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1146 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1147 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1148 
  1149 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1150 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1151 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1152 
  1153 * Code generation:
  1154 
  1155   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1156     characters in the target language.
  1157 
  1158   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1159     instead.
  1160 
  1161   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1162 
  1163   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1164     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1165 
  1166       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1167 
  1168 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1169 
  1170 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1171 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1172 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1173 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1174 syntax.
  1175 
  1176 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1177 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1178 
  1179 * Nitpick:
  1180   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1181   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1182   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1183     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1184 
  1185 * Sledgehammer:
  1186   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1187   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1188     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1189   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1190     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1191   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1192     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1193   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1194     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1195   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1196     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1197 
  1198 * Metis:
  1199   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1200   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1201     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1202 
  1203 * Command 'try':
  1204   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1205     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1206   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1207     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1208 
  1209 * Quickcheck:
  1210   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1211     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1212   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1213     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1214   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1215     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1216     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1217     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1218   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1219     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1220 
  1221 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1222 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1223 
  1224 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1225 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1226 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1227 
  1228 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1229 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1230 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1231 
  1232 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1233 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1234 
  1235 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1236 arithmetic.
  1237 
  1238 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1239 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1240 and lattice type classes.
  1241 
  1242 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1243 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1244 
  1245 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1246 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1247 
  1248 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1249 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1250 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1251 
  1252   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1253   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1254   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1255   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1256 
  1257 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1258 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1259 constants:
  1260 
  1261   type inat   ~> type enat
  1262   Fin         ~> enat
  1263   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1264   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1265   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1266 
  1267 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1268 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1269 
  1270 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1271 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1272 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1273 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1274 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1275 
  1276 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1277 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1278 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1279 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1280 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1281 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1282 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1283 
  1284   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1285   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1286   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1287   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1288 
  1289 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1290 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1291 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1292 
  1293   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1294   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1295   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1296   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1297   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1298   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1299   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1300   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1301   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1302   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1303   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1304   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1305   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1306   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1307   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1308   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1309   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1310   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1311   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1312   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1313   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1314   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1315   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1316   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1317   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1318   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1319   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1320   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1321   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1322   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1323   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1324   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1325   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1326   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1327   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1328   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1329   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1330   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1331   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1332   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1333   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1334   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1335   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1336   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1337   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1338   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1339   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1340   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1341   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1342   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1343   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1344 
  1345 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1346   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1347   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1348   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1349   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1350     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1351 
  1352 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1353 
  1354   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1355   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1356   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1357   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1358   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1359   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1360   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1361   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1362   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1363   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1364   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1365   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1366   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1367   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1368   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1369   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1370   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1371   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1372   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1373   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1374   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1375   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1376   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1377   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1378   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1379 
  1380 
  1381 *** Document preparation ***
  1382 
  1383 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1384 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1385 same.
  1386 
  1387 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1388 result.
  1389 
  1390 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1391 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1392 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1393 
  1394 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1395 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1396 
  1397 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1398 like this:
  1399 
  1400   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1401   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1402 
  1403 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1404 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1405 layouts.
  1406 
  1407 
  1408 *** ML ***
  1409 
  1410 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1411 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1412 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1413 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1414 under external program control.
  1415 
  1416 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1417 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1418 
  1419 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1420 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1421 (better known as Proof General).
  1422 
  1423 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1424 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1425 
  1426 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1427 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1428 
  1429 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1430 (including quotes etc.).
  1431 
  1432 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1433 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1434 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1435 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1436 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1437 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1438 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1439 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1440 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1441 
  1442 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1443 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1444 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1445 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1446 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1447 
  1448 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1449 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1450 
  1451 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1452 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1453 
  1454 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1455 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1456 
  1457 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1458 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1459 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1460 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1461 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1462 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1463 proper Proof.context.
  1464 
  1465 
  1466 *** System ***
  1467 
  1468 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1469 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1470 
  1471 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1472 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1473 
  1474 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1475 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1476 
  1477   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1478   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1479   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1480   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1481   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1482 
  1483 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1484 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1485 
  1486 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1487 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  1488 example:
  1489 
  1490   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  1491 
  1492 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  1493 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  1494 
  1495 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  1496 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  1497 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  1498 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  1499 
  1500 
  1501 
  1502 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  1503 ----------------------------------
  1504 
  1505 *** General ***
  1506 
  1507 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  1508 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  1509 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  1510 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  1511 like this:
  1512 
  1513   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  1514 
  1515 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  1516 
  1517 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  1518 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  1519 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  1520 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  1521 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  1522 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  1523 
  1524 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  1525 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  1526 the following package declarations:
  1527 
  1528   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  1529   \usepackage{textcomp}
  1530 
  1531 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  1532 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  1533 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  1534 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  1535 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  1536 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  1537 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  1538 
  1539 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  1540 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1541 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  1542 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  1543 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  1544 
  1545 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  1546 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  1547 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  1548 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1549 
  1550 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  1551 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  1552 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  1553 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  1554 
  1555   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  1556 
  1557   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  1558   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  1559   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  1560   show_types                    show_types
  1561   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  1562   show_consts                   show_consts
  1563   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  1564 
  1565   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  1566   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  1567   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  1568 
  1569   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  1570   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  1571 
  1572   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  1573 
  1574   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  1575   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  1576   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  1577   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  1578   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  1579 
  1580 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  1581 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  1582 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  1583 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  1584 
  1585 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  1586 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1587 
  1588   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  1589   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  1590 
  1591 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  1592 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  1593 float_token.
  1594 
  1595 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  1596 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  1597 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1598 
  1599 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  1600 DejaVu Sans.
  1601 
  1602 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  1603 
  1604 
  1605 *** Pure ***
  1606 
  1607 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  1608 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  1609 time.
  1610 
  1611 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  1612 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1613 
  1614 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  1615 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1616 
  1617 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  1618 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  1619 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  1620 command already provided this functionality.
  1621 
  1622 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  1623 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  1624 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  1625 without interpretations.
  1626 
  1627 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  1628 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  1629 
  1630 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  1631 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  1632 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  1633 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  1634 
  1635 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1636 'definition' instead.
  1637 
  1638 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  1639 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  1640 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  1641 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  1642 
  1643 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  1644 constructors.
  1645 
  1646 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  1647 the local file system.
  1648 
  1649 
  1650 *** HOL ***
  1651 
  1652 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  1653 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  1654 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  1655 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  1656 
  1657   declare [[coercion f]]
  1658 
  1659 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  1660 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  1661 
  1662   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  1663 
  1664 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  1665 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  1666 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  1667 other theories like this:
  1668 
  1669   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  1670 
  1671 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  1672 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  1673 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  1674 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  1675 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  1676 for examples.
  1677 
  1678 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  1679 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1680 
  1681 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  1682 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  1683 
  1684 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  1685 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  1686 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  1687 
  1688 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  1689 functorial structure of types.
  1690 
  1691 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  1692 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  1693 
  1694 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  1695 languages.
  1696 
  1697 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  1698 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  1699 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1700 
  1701 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  1702 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1703 
  1704 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  1705 combinators any longer.
  1706 
  1707 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  1708 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  1709 
  1710 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  1711 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  1712 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  1713 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  1714 
  1715   record 'a foo = ...
  1716   ...
  1717   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  1718 
  1719 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  1720 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  1721 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1722 
  1723 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  1724 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  1725 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  1726 
  1727 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  1728 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  1729 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  1730 
  1731 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  1732 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1733 
  1734 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  1735 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  1736 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  1737 independently.
  1738 
  1739 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  1740 counter example search.
  1741 
  1742 * Sledgehammer:
  1743   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  1744     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  1745     sledgehammer").
  1746   - Renamed commands:
  1747     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  1748     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  1749     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  1750     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1751   - Renamed options:
  1752     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  1753     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  1754     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  1755     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  1756     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1757 
  1758 * Nitpick:
  1759   - Renamed options:
  1760     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  1761     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  1762     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1763   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  1764   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  1765   - Added "whack" option.
  1766   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  1767   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  1768   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  1769   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  1770     higher cardinalities.
  1771   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  1772 
  1773 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  1774 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  1775 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  1776 
  1777     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  1778 
  1779 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  1780 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  1781 
  1782 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  1783 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  1784 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  1785 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  1786 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  1787 "smt_solver".
  1788 
  1789 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  1790 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  1791 
  1792 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  1793 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  1794 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  1795 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1796 
  1797 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  1798   - Renamed:
  1799     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  1800     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  1801     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1802   - Added:
  1803     smt_verbose
  1804     smt_random_seed
  1805     smt_datatypes
  1806     smt_infer_triggers
  1807     smt_monomorph_limit
  1808     cvc3_options
  1809     remote_cvc3_options
  1810     remote_z3_options
  1811     yices_options
  1812 
  1813 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  1814 header.
  1815 
  1816 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  1817 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  1818 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  1819 
  1820   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  1821 
  1822 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1823 
  1824 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  1825 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1826 
  1827 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1828 
  1829 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  1830 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1831 
  1832 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  1833 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  1834 
  1835 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  1836 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1837 
  1838 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  1839 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  1840 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1841 
  1842 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1843 
  1844 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  1845 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1846 
  1847 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  1848 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1849 
  1850 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  1851 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  1852 for congruent(2)).
  1853 
  1854 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  1855 
  1856   types
  1857     bool ~> HOL.bool
  1858     nat ~> Nat.nat
  1859 
  1860   constants
  1861     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  1862     True ~> HOL.True
  1863     False ~> HOL.False
  1864     op & ~> HOL.conj
  1865     op | ~> HOL.disj
  1866     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  1867     op = ~> HOL.eq
  1868     Not ~> HOL.Not
  1869     The ~> HOL.The
  1870     All ~> HOL.All
  1871     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  1872     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  1873     Let ~> HOL.Let
  1874     If ~> HOL.If
  1875     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  1876     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  1877     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  1878     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  1879     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  1880     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  1881     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  1882     op : ~> Set.member
  1883     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  1884 
  1885 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1886 
  1887 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  1888 
  1889     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  1890     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  1891     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  1892     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  1893     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  1894     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  1895     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  1896     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  1897 
  1898 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1899 
  1900 * More stylized fact names:
  1901 
  1902   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  1903   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  1904   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  1905   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  1906 
  1907 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1908 
  1909 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  1910 
  1911   constants
  1912     null ~> List.null
  1913 
  1914   facts
  1915     mem_iff ~> member_def
  1916     null_empty ~> null_def
  1917 
  1918 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  1919 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  1920 generation.
  1921 
  1922 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  1923 Haskell code.
  1924 
  1925 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  1926 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  1927 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1928 
  1929 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  1930 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1931 
  1932 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  1933 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  1934 
  1935 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  1936 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  1937 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1938 
  1939 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  1940 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1941 
  1942 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  1943 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1944 
  1945 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  1946 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  1947 referred to by its qualified name.
  1948 
  1949   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  1950   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  1951   product ~>  Enum.product
  1952 
  1953 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  1954 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  1955 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1956 
  1957 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  1958 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  1959 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  1960 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1961 
  1962 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  1963 sort_key.
  1964 
  1965 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  1966 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1967 
  1968 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  1969 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  1970 instead of finite cartesian products.
  1971 
  1972   types
  1973     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  1974               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  1975               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  1976         (depends on your needs)
  1977 
  1978   constants
  1979      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  1980      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  1981      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  1982 
  1983 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  1984 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  1985 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  1986 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1987 
  1988 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  1989 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  1990 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  1991 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  1992 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1993 
  1994 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  1995 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1996 
  1997 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  1998 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  1999 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2000 
  2001 
  2002 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2003 
  2004 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2005 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2006 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2007 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2008 compatibility.
  2009 
  2010 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2011 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2012 
  2013 
  2014 *** HOLCF ***
  2015 
  2016 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2017 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2018 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2019 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2020 
  2021 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2022 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2023 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2024 
  2025   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2026   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2027   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2028 
  2029 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2030 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2031 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2032 
  2033 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2034 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2035 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2036 domain definition now works:
  2037 
  2038   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2039 
  2040 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2041 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2042 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2043 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2044 
  2045   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2046     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2047 
  2048   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2049 
  2050 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2051 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2052 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2053 
  2054 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2055 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2056 
  2057 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2058 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2059 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2060 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2061 
  2062 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2063 
  2064 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2065 
  2066 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2067 
  2068 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2069 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2070 
  2071 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2072 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2073 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2074 
  2075 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2076 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2077 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2078 
  2079 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2080 still supported as an input translation.
  2081 
  2082 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2083 
  2084   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2085   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2086   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2087   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2088   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2089   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2090   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2091 
  2092 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2093 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2094 
  2095   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2096   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2097   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2098   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2099   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2100   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2101 
  2102 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2103 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2104 
  2105 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2106 
  2107   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2108   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2109   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2110   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2111 
  2112 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2113 
  2114 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2115 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2116 
  2117 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2118 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2119 
  2120   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2121   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2122   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2123   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2124   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2125   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2126   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2127   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2128   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2129   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2130   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2131   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2132   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2133   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2134   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2135   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2136   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2137   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2138   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2139   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2140 
  2141 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2142 
  2143   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2144   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2145   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2146   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2147   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2148   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2149   box_less             ~> box_below
  2150   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2151   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2152   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2153   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2154   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2155   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2156   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2157   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2158   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2159   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2160   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2161   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2162   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2163   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2164   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2165   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2166   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2167   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2168   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2169   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2170   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2171   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2172   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2173   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2174   up_less              ~> up_below
  2175   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2176   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2177   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2178   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2179   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2180   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2181   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2182   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2183   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2184   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2185   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2186   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2187   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2188 
  2189 
  2190 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2191 
  2192 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2193 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2194 
  2195 
  2196 *** ML ***
  2197 
  2198 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2199 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2200 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2201 
  2202 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2203 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2204 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2205 
  2206 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2207 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2208 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2209 
  2210 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2211 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2212 
  2213 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2214 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2215 
  2216 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2217 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2218 
  2219 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2220 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2221 
  2222 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2223 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2224 almost all situations.
  2225 
  2226 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2227 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2228 Isabelle/ML.
  2229 
  2230 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2231 meaning.
  2232 
  2233 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2234 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2235 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2236 
  2237 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2238 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2239 
  2240 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2241 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2242 
  2243 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2244 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2245 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2246 
  2247 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2248 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2249 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2250 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2251 configuration options.
  2252 
  2253 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2254 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2255 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2256 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2257 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2258 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2259 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2260 
  2261 
  2262 
  2263 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2264 ---------------------------------
  2265 
  2266 *** General ***
  2267 
  2268 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2269 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2270 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2271 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2272 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2273 their full internal name.
  2274 
  2275 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2276 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2277 Some hints on upgrading:
  2278 
  2279   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2280     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2281     which are independent of this issue.
  2282 
  2283   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2284     provides the following special forms:
  2285 
  2286       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2287       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2288       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2289 
  2290     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2291     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2292     extra variables".
  2293 
  2294     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2295     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2296     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2297     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2298     "logic".
  2299 
  2300   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2301     antiquotations:
  2302 
  2303       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2304       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2305       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2306       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2307 
  2308   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2309     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2310     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2311     antiquotations.
  2312 
  2313 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2314 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2315 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2316 diagnose syntax problems.
  2317 
  2318 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2319 
  2320 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2321 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2322 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2323 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2324 
  2325 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2326 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2327 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2328 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2329 
  2330 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2331 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2332 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2333 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2334 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2335 
  2336 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2337 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2338 
  2339 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2340 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2341 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2342 
  2343   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2344 
  2345 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2346 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2347 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2348 
  2349 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2350 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2351 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2352 
  2353 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2354 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2355 
  2356 
  2357 *** Pure ***
  2358 
  2359 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2360 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2361 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2362 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2363 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2364 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2365 inspect proof terms.
  2366 
  2367 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2368 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2369 are added internally.  For example:
  2370 
  2371   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2372 
  2373 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2374 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2375 
  2376 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2377 
  2378 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2379 'class' instead.
  2380 
  2381 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2382 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2383 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2384 
  2385 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2386 invariants.
  2387 
  2388 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2389 user space functionality any longer.
  2390 
  2391 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2392 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2393 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2394 
  2395 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2396 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2397 
  2398 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2399 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2400 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2401 
  2402 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2403 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2404 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2405 
  2406 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2407 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2408 
  2409 
  2410 *** HOL ***
  2411 
  2412 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2413 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2414 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2415 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2416 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2417 
  2418 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2419 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2420 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2421 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2422 
  2423   fun
  2424     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2425   where
  2426     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2427 
  2428   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2429     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2430 
  2431   quotient_definition
  2432     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2433 
  2434 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2435 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2436 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2437 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2438 
  2439 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2440 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2441 
  2442 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2443 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2444 
  2445 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2446 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2447 
  2448 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2449 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2450 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2451 
  2452 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2453 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2454 
  2455 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2456 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2457 
  2458 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2459 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2460 
  2461 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2462 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2463 
  2464 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2465 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2466 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2467 
  2468   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2469   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2470   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2471   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2472   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2473   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2474   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2475   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2476   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2477   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2478   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2479   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2480   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2481   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2482   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2483   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2484   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2485   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2486   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2487   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  2488   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  2489   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  2490   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  2491   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  2492   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  2493   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  2494   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  2495   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  2496   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  2497   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  2498 
  2499 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  2500 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  2501 
  2502 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  2503 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  2504 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2505 
  2506 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  2507 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  2508 
  2509 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  2510 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2511 
  2512 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  2513 
  2514 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  2515 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2516 
  2517 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  2518 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2519 
  2520 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2521 
  2522 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  2523 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  2524 
  2525 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  2526 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  2527 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  2528 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2529 
  2530 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  2531   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  2532   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  2533   - inverse, divide: Rings
  2534 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2535 
  2536 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  2537 lattices):
  2538 
  2539     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  2540     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  2541 
  2542     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  2543 
  2544     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  2545     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  2546     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2547     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  2548     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2549     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  2550     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  2551     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  2552     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  2553     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  2554     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  2555     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  2556     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  2557 
  2558     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  2559     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2560     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2561     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  2562     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  2563     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  2564     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  2565     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  2566     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  2567     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  2568     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  2569     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  2570     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  2571     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  2572     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  2573     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  2574     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  2575     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  2576 
  2577   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  2578   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  2579 
  2580     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  2581     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  2582     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  2583     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  2584     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  2585 
  2586 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2587 
  2588 * Refined field classes:
  2589   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  2590     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  2591     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  2592   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  2593 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2594 
  2595 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  2596   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  2597   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  2598   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  2599     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  2600   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  2601     equal_neg_zero.
  2602 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2603 
  2604 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  2605 sets to lattices:
  2606 
  2607   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  2608   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  2609   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  2610   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  2611   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  2612   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  2613   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  2614   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  2615   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  2616   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  2617 
  2618 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  2619 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  2620 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  2621 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  2622 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  2623 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2624 
  2625 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  2626 multiset order:
  2627 
  2628   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  2629     <= and <;
  2630   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  2631     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  2632     multiset_order;
  2633   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  2634     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  2635     generation;
  2636   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  2637     if needed.
  2638 
  2639 Renamed:
  2640 
  2641   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  2642   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  2643   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  2644 
  2645 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2646 
  2647 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  2648 
  2649 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  2650 
  2651 * Theory List: added transpose.
  2652 
  2653 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  2654 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  2655 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2656 
  2657   Constants:
  2658   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  2659   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  2660   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  2661   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  2662   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  2663   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  2664   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  2665   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  2666   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  2667   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  2668   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  2669   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  2670   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  2671 
  2672   Lemmas:
  2673   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2674   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  2675   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  2676   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  2677   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  2678   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  2679   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  2680   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  2681   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  2682   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  2683   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  2684   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  2685   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2686 
  2687 * Sledgehammer:
  2688   - Renamed ATP commands:
  2689     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  2690     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  2691     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  2692     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  2693     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  2694     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2695   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  2696   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  2697     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  2698   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  2699     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  2700     is still experimental.)
  2701   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  2702     full-typed mode.
  2703   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  2704 
  2705 * Nitpick:
  2706   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  2707   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  2708   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  2709     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  2710   - Added support for quotient types.
  2711   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  2712     constructs.
  2713   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  2714     "termination" proofs).
  2715   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  2716   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  2717   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2718   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  2719     record getters.
  2720   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  2721   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  2722   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  2723   - Added "atoms" option.
  2724   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  2725     problems.
  2726   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  2727     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  2728     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2729   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  2730     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2731   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2732 
  2733 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  2734   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  2735   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  2736   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  2737   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  2738   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  2739   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  2740   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  2741   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  2742   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2743 
  2744 
  2745 *** HOLCF ***
  2746 
  2747 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  2748 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  2749 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2750 
  2751 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  2752 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  2753 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  2754 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2755 
  2756 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  2757 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  2758 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  2759 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  2760 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2761 
  2762 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  2763 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  2764 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2765 
  2766 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  2767 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2768 
  2769   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  2770   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  2771 
  2772 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  2773 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2774 
  2775   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  2776   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  2777   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  2778   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  2779   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  2780 
  2781 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  2782 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2783 
  2784   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  2785   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  2786   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  2787 
  2788 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  2789 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  2790 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2791 
  2792 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  2793 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2794 
  2795 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2796 
  2797 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  2798 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2799 
  2800 
  2801 *** ML ***
  2802 
  2803 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  2804 
  2805     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  2806     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  2807 
  2808     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  2809     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  2810     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  2811     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  2812 
  2813     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  2814     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  2815     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  2816 
  2817 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  2818 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  2819 
  2820 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  2821 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  2822 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  2823 
  2824 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  2825 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  2826 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  2827 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  2828 
  2829 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  2830 the context or even global references.
  2831 
  2832 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  2833 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  2834 
  2835 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  2836 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  2837 
  2838   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  2839   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  2840   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  2841   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  2842   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  2843   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  2844   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  2845   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  2846   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  2847   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  2848 
  2849 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  2850 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  2851 
  2852 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  2853 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  2854 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  2855 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  2856 pass the proper local context through the code!
  2857 
  2858 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  2859 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  2860 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  2861 Theory_Data version.
  2862 
  2863 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  2864 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  2865 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  2866 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  2867 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  2868 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  2869 explicitly in rare situations.
  2870 
  2871 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  2872 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  2873 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2874 
  2875 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  2876 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2877 
  2878 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  2879 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  2880 quite rare).
  2881 
  2882 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  2883 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2884 
  2885 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  2886 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  2887 terms.
  2888 
  2889 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  2890 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  2891 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  2892 
  2893 
  2894 *** System ***
  2895 
  2896 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  2897 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  2898 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  2899 
  2900 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  2901 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  2902 respectively.
  2903 
  2904 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  2905 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  2906 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  2907 prefers 64 bit if available:
  2908 
  2909   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  2910 
  2911 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  2912 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  2913 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  2914 component.
  2915 
  2916 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  2917 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  2918 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  2919 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  2920 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  2921 the user for manual installation.
  2922 
  2923 
  2924 
  2925 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  2926 -------------------------------------
  2927 
  2928 *** General ***
  2929 
  2930 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  2931 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  2932 
  2933 
  2934 *** Pure ***
  2935 
  2936 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  2937 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  2938 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  2939 
  2940 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  2941 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  2942 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  2943 
  2944 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  2945 interpretation.
  2946 
  2947 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  2948 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2949 
  2950 
  2951 *** Document preparation ***
  2952 
  2953 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  2954 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  2955 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  2956 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  2957 
  2958 
  2959 *** HOL ***
  2960 
  2961 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  2962 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  2963 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  2964 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  2965 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  2966 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  2967 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  2968 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  2969 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  2970 
  2971 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  2972 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  2973 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  2974 
  2975 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  2976 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  2977 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  2978 
  2979 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  2980 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  2981 
  2982 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  2983 
  2984 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  2985 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  2986 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  2987 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  2988 
  2989 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  2990 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  2991 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  2992 "mirabelle" utility.
  2993 
  2994 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  2995 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  2996 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  2997 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  2998 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  2999 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3000 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3001 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3002 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3003 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3004 
  3005 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3006 procedure only.
  3007 
  3008 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3009 
  3010 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3011 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3012 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3013 that fail later.
  3014 
  3015 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3016 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3017 
  3018 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3019 the same method as the approximation method.
  3020 
  3021 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3022 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3023 series expansion.
  3024 
  3025 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3026 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3027 
  3028 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3029 reals.
  3030 
  3031 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3032 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3033 
  3034 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3035 fixpoint theorem.
  3036 
  3037 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3038   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3039     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3040   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3041     accordingly
  3042   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3043     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3044   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3045     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3046 
  3047 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3048 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3049 lattice.
  3050 
  3051 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3052 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3053 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3054 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3055 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3056 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3057 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3058 
  3059 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3060   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3061     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3062   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3063     le_inf_iff
  3064   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3065     sup_aci)
  3066   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3067   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3068   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3069     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3070     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3071     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3072     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3073     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3074     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3075     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3076     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3077     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3078     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3079   - authentic syntax for
  3080     Set.Pow
  3081     Set.image
  3082   - mere abbreviations:
  3083     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3084     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3085     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3086     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3087     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3088     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3089     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3090     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3091   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3092 
  3093 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3094 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3095 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3096 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3097 
  3098 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3099 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3100 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3101 
  3102 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3103 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3104 
  3105 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3106 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3107 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3108 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3109 
  3110 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3111 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3112 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3113 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3114 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3115 
  3116 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3117 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3118 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3119 
  3120 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3121 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3122 
  3123 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3124 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3125 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3126 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3127 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3128 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3129 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3130 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3131 
  3132 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3133     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3134     code_post       replaces    code post
  3135     etc.
  3136   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3137 
  3138 * Renamed methods:
  3139     sizechange -> size_change
  3140     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3141   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3142 
  3143 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3144 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3145 
  3146 * Renamed theorems:
  3147     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3148     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3149     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3150     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3151     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3152   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3153 
  3154 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3155 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3156 
  3157 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3158 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3159 
  3160 
  3161 *** HOLCF ***
  3162 
  3163 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3164 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3165 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3166 
  3167 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3168 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3169 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3170 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3171 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3172 
  3173 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3174 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3175 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3176 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3177 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3178 
  3179 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3180 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3181 constructor are pre-configured.
  3182 
  3183 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3184 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3185 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3186 
  3187 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3188 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3189 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3190 as well.)
  3191 
  3192 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3193 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3194 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3195 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3196 examples.
  3197 
  3198 
  3199 *** ML ***
  3200 
  3201 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3202 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3203 
  3204 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3205 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3206 position, logical grouping etc.
  3207 
  3208 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3209 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3210 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3211 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3212 
  3213 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3214 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3215 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3216 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3217 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3218 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3219 
  3220 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3221 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3222 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3223 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3224 experiments with references.
  3225 
  3226 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3227 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3228 
  3229 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3230 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3231 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3232 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3233 
  3234 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3235 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3236 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3237 
  3238 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3239 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3240 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3241 
  3242 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3243 
  3244 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3245 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3246 
  3247 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3248 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3249 
  3250 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3251 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3252 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3253 
  3254 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3255 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3256 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3257 
  3258 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3259 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3260 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3261 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3262 
  3263 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3264 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3265 instead of global theory.
  3266 
  3267 
  3268 *** System ***
  3269 
  3270 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3271 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3272 usedir option -q.
  3273 
  3274 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3275 also the system manual.
  3276 
  3277 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3278 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3279 
  3280 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3281 this is always enabled.
  3282 
  3283 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3284 
  3285 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3286 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3287 currently supported on Linux only.
  3288 
  3289 
  3290 
  3291 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3292 --------------------------------
  3293 
  3294 *** General ***
  3295 
  3296 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3297 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3298 
  3299   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3300     "isatool."
  3301 
  3302   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3303     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3304 
  3305   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3306     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3307 
  3308 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3309 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3310 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3311 
  3312 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3313 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3314 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3315 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3316 via "isabelle emacs".
  3317 
  3318 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3319 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3320 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3321 
  3322 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3323 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3324 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3325 
  3326 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3327 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3328 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3329 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3330 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3331 
  3332 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3333 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3334 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3335 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3336 
  3337 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3338 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3339 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3340 
  3341 
  3342 *** Pure ***
  3343 
  3344 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3345 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3346 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3347 
  3348 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3349 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3350 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3351 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3352 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3353 
  3354 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3355 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3356 useful in locale declarations.
  3357 
  3358 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3359 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3360 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3361 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3362 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3363 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3364 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3365 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3366 no longer generated.
  3367 
  3368 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3369 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3370 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3371 
  3372 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3373 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3374 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3375 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3376 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3377 
  3378 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3379 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3380 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3381 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3382 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3383 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3384 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3385 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3386 
  3387 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3388 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3389 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3390 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3391 
  3392 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3393 
  3394 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3395 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3396 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3397 
  3398 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3399 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3400 
  3401 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3402 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3403 in HOL, write
  3404 
  3405     class foo = ...
  3406 
  3407 instead of
  3408 
  3409     class foo = type + ...
  3410 
  3411 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3412 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3413 
  3414 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3415 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3416 
  3417 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3418 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3419 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3420 
  3421 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3422 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3423 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3424 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3425 directly in regular applications.
  3426 
  3427 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3428 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3429 
  3430 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3431 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3432 
  3433 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3434 theory context.
  3435 
  3436 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3437 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3438 
  3439 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3440 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3441 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3442 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3443 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3444 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3445 
  3446   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3447 
  3448 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3449 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3450 normalization.
  3451 
  3452 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3453 addressing etc.
  3454 
  3455 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3456 
  3457   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3458   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3459 
  3460 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3461 
  3462   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3463      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3464      parts of the code generator framework).
  3465 
  3466   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3467      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3468      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3469 
  3470 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3471 
  3472 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3473 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3474 
  3475 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3476 patterns, e.g.
  3477 
  3478     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3479 
  3480 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3481 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3482 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3483 hyphen:
  3484 
  3485     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3486 
  3487 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  3488 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  3489 
  3490 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  3491 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  3492 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  3493 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  3494 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  3495 higher-order unification.
  3496 
  3497 
  3498 *** Document preparation ***
  3499 
  3500 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  3501 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  3502 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  3503 
  3504 
  3505 *** HOL ***
  3506 
  3507 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  3508 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  3509 
  3510 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  3511 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  3512 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  3513 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  3514 Main, as before.
  3515 
  3516 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  3517 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  3518 
  3519 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  3520 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  3521 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  3522 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  3523 
  3524 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  3525 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  3526 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  3527 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  3528 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  3529 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  3530 
  3531 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  3532 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  3533 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  3534 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  3535 
  3536 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  3537 menu.
  3538 
  3539 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  3540 (contains the empty clause).
  3541 
  3542 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  3543 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  3544 
  3545 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  3546 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  3547 
  3548 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  3549 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  3550 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3551 
  3552 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  3553 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  3554 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  3555 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  3556 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  3557 
  3558 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  3559 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  3560 
  3561 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  3562 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  3563 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  3564 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  3565 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  3566 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  3567 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  3568 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  3569 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  3570 
  3571 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  3572 
  3573 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  3574 
  3575 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  3576 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3577 
  3578 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  3579 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  3580 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  3581 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  3582 
  3583 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  3584 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3585 
  3586     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  3587     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  3588     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  3589     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  3590     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  3591     Union ~>    Set.Union
  3592     {} ~>       Set.empty
  3593     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  3594 
  3595 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  3596 theory Set.
  3597 
  3598 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  3599 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  3600 
  3601 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  3602 
  3603 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  3604 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  3605 
  3606 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  3607 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  3608 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  3609 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  3610 allowed. For examples see
  3611 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  3612 
  3613 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  3614 
  3615 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  3616 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3617 
  3618 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  3619 structure:
  3620 
  3621     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  3622     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3623     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3624     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3625     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3626     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3627     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3628     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3629     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3630     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3631     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3632     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3633     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3634     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3635     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3636     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3637     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3638     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3639     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3640     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3641     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3642     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3643     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3644     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3645     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3646     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3647     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3648     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3649     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3650     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3651     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3652     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  3653     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3654 
  3655     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3656     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3657     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3658     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  3659     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3660     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3661     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3662     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3663     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3664     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3665 
  3666     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3667     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3668     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3669     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3670     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3671     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3672 
  3673 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  3674 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  3675 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  3676 
  3677 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  3678 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  3679 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  3680 
  3681 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  3682 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3683 
  3684 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  3685 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  3686 
  3687 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  3688 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  3689 proofs, e.g.
  3690 
  3691   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  3692 
  3693 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  3694 
  3695 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  3696 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  3697 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3698 
  3699 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  3700 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  3701 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3702 
  3703 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  3704 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  3705 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  3706 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3707 
  3708 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  3709 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  3710 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  3711 preorder_class.*.
  3712 
  3713 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  3714 "diag" to "Id_on".
  3715 
  3716 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  3717 
  3718   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  3719 
  3720 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  3721 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  3722 fold_image.
  3723 
  3724 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  3725 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  3726 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  3727 the former will disappear at some point.
  3728 
  3729 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  3730 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  3731 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  3732 
  3733 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  3734 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  3735 realpow_0      -> power_0
  3736 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  3737 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  3738 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  3739 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  3740 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  3741 
  3742 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  3743 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  3744 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  3745 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  3746 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  3747 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  3748 
  3749     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  3750     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  3751     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  3752     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  3753     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  3754     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  3755     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  3756 
  3757 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  3758 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3759 rename old lemmas as follows:
  3760 
  3761 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  3762 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  3763 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  3764 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  3765 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  3766 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  3767 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  3768 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  3769 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  3770 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  3771 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  3772 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  3773 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  3774 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  3775 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  3776 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  3777 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  3778 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  3779 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  3780 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  3781 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  3782 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  3783 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  3784 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  3785 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  3786 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  3787 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  3788 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  3789 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  3790 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  3791 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  3792 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  3793 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  3794 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  3795 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  3796 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  3797 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  3798 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  3799 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  3800 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  3801 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  3802 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  3803 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  3804 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  3805 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  3806 
  3807 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3808 
  3809 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  3810 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  3811 
  3812 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  3813 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  3814 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  3815 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  3816 
  3817 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  3818 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  3819 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  3820 theory RealVector.
  3821 
  3822 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  3823 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  3824 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  3825 and inner products are included.
  3826 
  3827 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  3828 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  3829 supported.
  3830 
  3831 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  3832 first diagonalization argument.
  3833 
  3834 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  3835 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  3836 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  3837 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3838 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  3839 
  3840     hide (open) const gcd
  3841     abbreviation gcd where
  3842       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  3843     notation (output)
  3844       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  3845 
  3846 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  3847 
  3848 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  3849 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  3850 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3851 
  3852 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  3853 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  3854 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  3855 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  3856 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  3857 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  3858 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  3859 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  3860 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  3861 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  3862 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  3863 cases.
  3864 
  3865 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  3866 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  3867 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  3868 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  3869 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  3870 
  3871     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  3872     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  3873     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  3874     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  3875     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  3876 
  3877 
  3878 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3879 
  3880 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  3881 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  3882 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  3883 
  3884 * New theory of factorial domains.
  3885 
  3886 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  3887 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  3888 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  3889 
  3890 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3891 
  3892 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  3893 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  3894 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  3895 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  3896 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  3897 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  3898 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  3899 
  3900 
  3901 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  3902 
  3903 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  3904 
  3905 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  3906 theory targets.
  3907 
  3908 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  3909 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  3910 'inductive' etc.
  3911 
  3912 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  3913 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  3914 
  3915 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  3916 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  3917 
  3918 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  3919 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  3920 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  3921 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  3922 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  3923 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  3924 the algorithm W:
  3925 
  3926  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  3927  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  3928          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  3929 
  3930 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  3931 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  3932 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  3933 
  3934 
  3935 *** HOLCF ***
  3936 
  3937 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  3938 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  3939 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  3940 
  3941 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  3942 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  3943 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  3944 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  3945 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3946 
  3947 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  3948 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3949 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3950 
  3951 
  3952 *** ZF ***
  3953 
  3954 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  3955 
  3956 
  3957 *** ML ***
  3958 
  3959 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  3960 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  3961 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  3962 5.2.1!
  3963 
  3964 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  3965 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  3966 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  3967 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  3968 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  3969 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  3970 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3971 
  3972 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  3973 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  3974 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  3975 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  3976 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  3977 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  3978 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  3979 
  3980 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  3981 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  3982 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  3983 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  3984 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  3985 
  3986 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  3987 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  3988 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  3989 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  3990 Method.add_method.
  3991 
  3992 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  3993 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  3994 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  3995 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  3996 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  3997 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  3998 
  3999 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4000 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4001 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4002 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4003 examples.
  4004 
  4005 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4006 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4007 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4008 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4009 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4010 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4011 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4012 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4013 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4014 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4015 
  4016 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4017 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4018 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4019 
  4020 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4021 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4022 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4023 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4024 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4025 resort for legacy applications.
  4026 
  4027 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4028 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4029 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4030 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4031 explicit runtime argument.
  4032 
  4033 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4034 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4035 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4036 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4037 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4038 
  4039 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4040 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4041 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4042 theory state.
  4043 
  4044 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4045 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4046 
  4047   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4048   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4049   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4050   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4051   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4052   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4053   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4054   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4055   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4056   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4057 
  4058 
  4059 *** System ***
  4060 
  4061 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4062 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4063 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4064 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4065 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4066 
  4067 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4068 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4069 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4070 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4071 
  4072 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4073 
  4074 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4075 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4076 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4077 prover operations.
  4078 
  4079 
  4080 
  4081 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4082 -------------------------------
  4083 
  4084 *** General ***
  4085 
  4086 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4087 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4088 
  4089 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4090 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4091 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4092 provides a proper context already.
  4093 
  4094 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4095 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4096 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4097 
  4098 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4099 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4100 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4101 swap theory imports.
  4102 
  4103 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4104 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4105 
  4106 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4107 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4108 white space without escapes.
  4109 
  4110 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4111 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4112 "foo_bar".
  4113 
  4114 
  4115 *** Pure ***
  4116 
  4117 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4118 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4119 
  4120 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4121 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4122 
  4123 (1) unused_thms
  4124      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4125 
  4126 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4127      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4128      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4129 
  4130 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4131      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4132      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4133      their ancestors.
  4134 
  4135 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4136 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4137 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4138 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4139 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4140 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4141 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4142 
  4143 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4144 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4145 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4146 
  4147 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4148 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4149 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4150 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4151 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4152 
  4153 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4154 
  4155 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4156 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4157 update of theories within ML code.
  4158 
  4159 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4160 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4161 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4162 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4163 
  4164 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4165 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4166 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4167 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4168 
  4169 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4170 
  4171 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4172 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4173 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4174 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4175 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4176 
  4177 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4178 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4179 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4180 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4181 situations.
  4182 
  4183 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4184 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4185 proof text.
  4186 
  4187 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4188 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4189 
  4190 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4191 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4192 predicates.
  4193 
  4194 
  4195 *** Document preparation ***
  4196 
  4197 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4198 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4199 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4200 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4201 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4202 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4203 
  4204 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4205 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4206 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4207 
  4208 
  4209 *** HOL ***
  4210 
  4211 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4212 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4213 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4214 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4215 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4216 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4217 
  4218 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4219 with multithreading.
  4220 
  4221 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4222 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4223 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4224 
  4225 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4226 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4227 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4228 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4229 
  4230 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4231 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4232 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4233 and makes them available separately.  See
  4234 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4235 
  4236 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4237 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4238 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4239 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4240 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4241 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4242 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4243 the declared rules.
  4244 
  4245 This setup also deals with rules like 
  4246 
  4247   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4248 
  4249 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4250 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4251 
  4252 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4253 
  4254   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4255 
  4256   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4257     definitions on => and bool.
  4258 
  4259   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4260     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4261     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4262 
  4263       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4264       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4265       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4266       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4267       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4268       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4269       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4270       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4271 
  4272   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4273     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4274     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4275 
  4276   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4277     The proof pattern
  4278 
  4279       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4280       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4281 
  4282     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4283     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4284 
  4285       have "EX S. P S"
  4286       proof
  4287         show "P S" <...>
  4288       qed
  4289 
  4290   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4291     The proof pattern
  4292 
  4293       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4294       also have "S = T" <...>
  4295       finally have "P T" .
  4296 
  4297     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4298     must be replaced by something like
  4299 
  4300       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4301       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4302       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4303 
  4304   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4305     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4306 
  4307       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4308 
  4309     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4310     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4311     type of the form
  4312 
  4313       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4314 
  4315     rather than
  4316 
  4317       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4318 
  4319 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4320 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4321 
  4322 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4323 
  4324 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4325 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4326 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4327 
  4328 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4329 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4330 
  4331 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4332 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4333 
  4334 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4335 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4336 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4337 
  4338 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4339 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4340 
  4341   less_trans
  4342   less_linear
  4343   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4344   le_less_trans
  4345   less_le_trans
  4346   less_not_sym
  4347   less_asym
  4348 
  4349 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4350 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4351 and different variable names.
  4352 
  4353 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4354 
  4355 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4356 finite maps.
  4357 
  4358 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4359 
  4360 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4361 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4362 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4363 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4364 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4365 accordingly.
  4366 
  4367 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4368 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4369 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4370 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4371 
  4372 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4373 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4374 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4375 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4376 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4377 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4378 
  4379 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4380 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4381 
  4382 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4383 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4384 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4385 
  4386 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4387 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4388 
  4389 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4390 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4391 
  4392 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4393 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4394 
  4395 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4396 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4397 
  4398 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4399 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4400 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4401 
  4402 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4403 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4404 
  4405 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4406 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4407 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4408 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4409 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4410 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4411 
  4412 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4413 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4414 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4415 
  4416 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4417 
  4418 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4419 
  4420 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4421 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4422 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4423 
  4424 
  4425 *** ZF ***
  4426 
  4427 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4428 same session:
  4429 
  4430   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4431   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4432   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4433   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4434   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4435   List      -> List_ZF
  4436   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4437 
  4438 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4439 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4440 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4441 
  4442 
  4443 *** ML ***
  4444 
  4445 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4446 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4447 
  4448 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4449 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4450 
  4451 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4452 
  4453 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4454 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4455 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4456 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4457 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4458 
  4459 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4460 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4461 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4462 
  4463 
  4464 *** System ***
  4465 
  4466 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4467 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4468 
  4469 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4470 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4471 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4472 
  4473 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4474 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4475 
  4476 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4477 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4478 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4479 
  4480 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4481 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4482 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4483 
  4484 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4485 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4486 
  4487 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  4488 way of changing the user's settings is via
  4489 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  4490 script.
  4491 
  4492 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  4493 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  4494 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  4495 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  4496 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  4497 
  4498 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  4499 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  4500 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  4501 
  4502 
  4503 
  4504 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  4505 -----------------------------------
  4506 
  4507 *** General ***
  4508 
  4509 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  4510 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  4511 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4512 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  4513 
  4514 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  4515 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  4516 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4517 
  4518 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  4519 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  4520 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  4521 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4522 
  4523 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  4524 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  4525 quotes.
  4526 
  4527 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  4528 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  4529 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  4530 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  4531 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  4532 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  4533 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  4534 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  4535 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  4536 
  4537 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  4538 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  4539 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  4540 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  4541 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  4542 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  4543 
  4544 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4545 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  4546 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  4547 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  4548 
  4549 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  4550 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  4551 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  4552 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  4553 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  4554 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  4555 
  4556 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  4557 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  4558 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  4559 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  4560 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  4561 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  4562 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  4563 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  4564 
  4565 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  4566 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  4567 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  4568 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  4569 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  4570 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  4571 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  4572 
  4573 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  4574 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  4575 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  4576 
  4577 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  4578 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  4579 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  4580 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  4581 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  4582 limit is imposed.
  4583 
  4584 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  4585 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  4586 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  4587 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  4588 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  4589 and scalability.
  4590 
  4591 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  4592 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  4593 
  4594 
  4595 *** Document preparation ***
  4596 
  4597 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  4598 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  4599 current context.
  4600 
  4601 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  4602 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  4603 
  4604 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  4605 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  4606 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  4607 
  4608 
  4609 *** Pure ***
  4610 
  4611 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  4612 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  4613 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  4614 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  4615 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  4616 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  4617 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  4618 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  4619 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  4620 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  4621 
  4622 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  4623 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  4624 sketch:
  4625 
  4626     internal compilation:
  4627         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  4628     writing SML code to a file:
  4629         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  4630     writing OCaml code to a file:
  4631         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  4632     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  4633         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  4634 
  4635     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  4636         method ``eval''
  4637 
  4638 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  4639 
  4640 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  4641 
  4642     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4643     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4644     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4645     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4646 
  4647 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  4648 
  4649     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  4650       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  4651 
  4652     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  4653       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  4654 
  4655     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  4656       {(target)}+
  4657         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  4658 
  4659     code_class <and_list of classes>
  4660       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  4661         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  4662 
  4663 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  4664 
  4665 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  4666 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  4667 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  4668 codegen".
  4669 
  4670 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  4671 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  4672 annotations).
  4673 
  4674 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  4675 syntax.
  4676 
  4677 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  4678 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  4679 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  4680 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  4681 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  4682 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  4683 
  4684 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  4685 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  4686 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  4687 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  4688 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  4689 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  4690 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  4691 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  4692 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  4693 equations, see section "definitions".
  4694 
  4695 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  4696 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  4697 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  4698 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  4699 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  4700 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  4701 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  4702 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  4703 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  4704 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  4705 
  4706 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  4707 configuration options:
  4708 
  4709   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  4710   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  4711   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  4712   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  4713   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  4714   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  4715   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  4716   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  4717   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  4718 
  4719 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  4720 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  4721 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  4722 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  4723 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  4724 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  4725 order.
  4726 
  4727 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  4728 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  4729 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  4730 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  4731 context encountered later on.
  4732 
  4733 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  4734 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  4735 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  4736 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  4737 
  4738 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  4739 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  4740 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  4741 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  4742 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  4743 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  4744 
  4745 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  4746 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  4747 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  4748 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  4749 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  4750 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  4751 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  4752 more permissive.
  4753 
  4754 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  4755 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  4756 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  4757 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  4758 maintainability of proof texts.
  4759 
  4760 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  4761 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  4762 
  4763   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  4764   then guess x and y by clarify
  4765 
  4766 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  4767 proof tools being involved here.
  4768 
  4769 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  4770 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  4771 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  4772 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  4773 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  4774 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  4775 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  4776 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  4777 
  4778 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  4779 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  4780 certain special cases of literal facts:
  4781 
  4782   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  4783   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  4784   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  4785   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  4786 
  4787 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  4788 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  4789 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  4790 
  4791 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  4792 both named and unnamed ones.
  4793 
  4794 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  4795 
  4796   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  4797 
  4798 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  4799 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  4800 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  4801 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  4802 
  4803 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  4804 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  4805 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  4806 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  4807 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  4808 
  4809 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  4810 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  4811 
  4812 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  4813 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  4814 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  4815 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  4816 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  4817 originally first one.
  4818 
  4819 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  4820 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  4821 expected.
  4822 
  4823 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  4824 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  4825 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  4826 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  4827 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  4828 
  4829   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4830     assumes "EX x. P x"
  4831     obtains x where "P x"
  4832 
  4833   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4834     assumes "A & B"
  4835     obtains A and B
  4836 
  4837   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4838     assumes "A | B"
  4839     obtains
  4840       A
  4841     | B
  4842 
  4843 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  4844 explicitly:
  4845 
  4846   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4847     obtains "~ thesis"
  4848 
  4849   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4850     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  4851 
  4852 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  4853 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  4854 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  4855 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  4856 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  4857 case_names).
  4858 
  4859 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  4860 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  4861 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  4862 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  4863 
  4864 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  4865 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  4866 top-level lemma.
  4867 
  4868 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  4869 introduction rule (default "that").
  4870 
  4871 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4872 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  4873 to occur.
  4874 
  4875 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  4876 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  4877 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  4878 representations independently of name spaces.
  4879 
  4880 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  4881 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  4882 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4883 
  4884 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  4885 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  4886 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  4887 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  4888 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  4889 current context.
  4890 
  4891 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  4892 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  4893 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  4894 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  4895 
  4896   axiomatization
  4897     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  4898     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  4899 
  4900   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  4901   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  4902 
  4903   abbreviation
  4904     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  4905     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  4906 
  4907 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  4908 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  4909 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  4910 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  4911 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  4912 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  4913 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  4914 
  4915 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  4916 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  4917 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  4918 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  4919 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  4920 
  4921 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  4922 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  4923 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  4924 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  4925 
  4926 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  4927 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  4928 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  4929 
  4930   definition "K x _ = x"
  4931 
  4932   inductive conj for A B
  4933   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  4934 
  4935 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  4936 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  4937 abbreviations on output.
  4938 
  4939 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  4940 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  4941 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  4942 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  4943 
  4944 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  4945 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  4946 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  4947 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  4948 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  4949 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  4950 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  4951 
  4952 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  4953 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  4954 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  4955 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  4956 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  4957 
  4958 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  4959 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  4960 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  4961 
  4962 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  4963 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  4964 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  4965 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  4966 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  4967 
  4968   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  4969     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  4970 
  4971 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  4972 definition specification element in the context of locale
  4973 partial_order.
  4974 
  4975 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  4976 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  4977 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  4978 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  4979 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  4980 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  4981 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  4982 examples.
  4983 
  4984 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  4985 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  4986 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  4987 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  4988 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  4989 
  4990 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  4991 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  4992 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  4993 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  4994 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  4995 
  4996   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  4997   (induct set: foo bar)
  4998   (induct pred: foo bar)
  4999   (induct type: foo bar)
  5000 
  5001 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5002 new format.
  5003 
  5004 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5005 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5006 
  5007 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5008 considered a legacy feature.
  5009 
  5010 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5011 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5012 
  5013 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5014 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5015 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5016 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5017   
  5018 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5019 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5020 manipulating the claset.
  5021 
  5022 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5023 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5024 least one premise.
  5025 
  5026 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5027 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5028 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5029 rule steps.
  5030 
  5031 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5032 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5033 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5034 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5035 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5036 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5037 
  5038 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5039 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5040 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5041 
  5042 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5043 the graph browser tool.
  5044 
  5045 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5046 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5047 
  5048 
  5049 *** HOL ***
  5050 
  5051 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5052 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5053 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5054 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5055 multi-threading.
  5056   
  5057 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5058 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5059 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5060 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5061 work with multi-threading.
  5062 
  5063 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5064 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5065 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5066 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5067 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5068 
  5069 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5070 
  5071 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5072 equality.
  5073 
  5074 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5075 the new 'class' package:
  5076 
  5077     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5078     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5079     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5080     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5081     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5082     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5083     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5084     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5085     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5086     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5087     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5088     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5089     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5090     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5091     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5092     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5093     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5094     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5095     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5096     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5097 
  5098 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5099 
  5100 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5101 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5102 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5103 names.
  5104 
  5105 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5106 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5107 
  5108 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5109 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5110 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5111 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5112 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5113 
  5114 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5115 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5116 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5117 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5118 
  5119 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5120 
  5121 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5122 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5123 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5124 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5125 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5126 
  5127 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5128 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5129 
  5130 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5131 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5132 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5133 
  5134 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5135 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5136 
  5137 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5138 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5139 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5140 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5141 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5142 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5143 in the current context.
  5144 
  5145 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5146 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5147 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5148 
  5149 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5150 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5151 
  5152 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5153 
  5154     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5155     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5156 
  5157     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5158       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5159     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5160     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5161 
  5162     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5163     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5164 
  5165   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5166 
  5167     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5168     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5169     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5170     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5171     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5172     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5173     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5174     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5175     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5176     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5177     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5178     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5179     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5180     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5181     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5182     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5183     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5184     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5185     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5186     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5187     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5188     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5189     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5190     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5191     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5192     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5193     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5194     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5195     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5196     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5197     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5198     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5199     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5200     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5201     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5202 
  5203     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5204     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5205     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5206     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5207     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5208     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5209     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5210     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5211     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5212     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5213     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5214     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5215     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5216     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5217     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5218     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5219     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5220 
  5221     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5222     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5223     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5224     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5225     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5226     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5227     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5228     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5229     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5230     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5231     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5232     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5233     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5234     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5235     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5236     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5237     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5238     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5239     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5240     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5241     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5242     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5243     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5244     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5245     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5246     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5247     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5248     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5249 
  5250     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5251     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5252     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5253     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5254     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5255     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5256 
  5257     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5258     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5259     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5260     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5261 
  5262     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5263     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5264 
  5265     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5266     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5267 
  5268 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5269 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5270 
  5271 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5272 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5273 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5274 "*.size".
  5275 
  5276 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5277 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5278 
  5279 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5280 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5281 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5282 
  5283 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5284 
  5285 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5286 machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5287 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5288 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5289 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5290 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5291 numerals on all operations.
  5292 
  5293 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5294 
  5295 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5296 
  5297 * Code generator library theories:
  5298   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5299     languages.
  5300   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5301     languages.
  5302   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5303     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5304   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5305   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5306     denominator).
  5307   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5308     representable by rational numbers.
  5309   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5310     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5311     includes Code_Integer.
  5312   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5313     target-language built-in integers.
  5314   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5315     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5316 
  5317 * New package for inductive predicates
  5318 
  5319   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5320 
  5321     inductive
  5322       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5323       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5324     where
  5325       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5326     | ...
  5327 
  5328   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5329 
  5330     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5331 
  5332     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5333     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5334 
  5335     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5336     intros
  5337       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5338       ...
  5339 
  5340   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5341   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5342 
  5343     inductive_set
  5344       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5345       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5346     where
  5347       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5348     | ...
  5349 
  5350   or
  5351 
  5352     inductive_set
  5353       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5354       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5355       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5356     where
  5357       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5358     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5359     | ...
  5360 
  5361   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5362 
  5363   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5364   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5365 
  5366   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5367 
  5368   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5369     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5370     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5371     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5372     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5373 
  5374   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5375     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5376     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5377     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5378     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5379     statements of the form
  5380 
  5381       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5382 
  5383     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5384     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5385 
  5386       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5387 
  5388   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5389 
  5390       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5391         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5392         ==> ... ==> P
  5393 
  5394     for predicates and
  5395 
  5396       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5397         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5398         ==> ... ==> P
  5399 
  5400     for sets rather than
  5401 
  5402       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5403         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5404         ==> ... ==> P
  5405 
  5406     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5407     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5408     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5409 
  5410   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5411     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5412     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5413 
  5414 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5415 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5416 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5417 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5418 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5419 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5420 
  5421 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5422 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  5423 
  5424 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5425 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5426 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5427 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5428 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5429 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5430 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5431 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5432 variable.
  5433 
  5434 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5435 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5436 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5437 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5438   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5439   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5440 
  5441 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5442 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5443 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5444 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5445 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5446 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5447 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5448 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5449 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5450 
  5451 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5452 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5453 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5454 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5455 rat, etc.
  5456 
  5457 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5458 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5459 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5460 
  5461 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5462 
  5463 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5464 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5465 
  5466 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5467 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5468 
  5469 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5470 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5471 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5472 
  5473 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5474 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5475 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5476 
  5477 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5478 
  5479 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5480 
  5481 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5482 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5483 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5484 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5485 
  5486 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5487 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  5488 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  5489 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5490 
  5491 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  5492 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  5493 algebraic operations.
  5494 
  5495 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  5496 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5497 
  5498 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  5499 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5500 
  5501 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  5502 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  5503 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  5504 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  5505 adapted.
  5506  
  5507 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  5508 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  5509 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  5510 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  5511 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  5512 
  5513 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  5514 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  5515 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  5516 
  5517 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  5518 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  5519 better use 'abbreviation'.
  5520 
  5521 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5522 
  5523 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  5524 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  5525 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  5526   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  5527       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  5528   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  5529   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  5530   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  5531 
  5532 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  5533 
  5534 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  5535 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  5536 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  5537 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  5538 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  5539 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  5540 
  5541 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  5542 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  5543 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  5544 
  5545 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  5546 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  5547 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  5548 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5549 
  5550 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  5551 
  5552 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  5553 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5554 
  5555 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  5556 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  5557 
  5558 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  5559 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  5560 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  5561 
  5562 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  5563 True/False.
  5564 
  5565 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  5566 
  5567 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  5568 
  5569 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  5570 ``rule'' method.
  5571 
  5572 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  5573 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  5574 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  5575 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  5576 
  5577 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  5578 zChaff is still supported as well.
  5579 
  5580 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  5581 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  5582 
  5583 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  5584 Library.
  5585 
  5586 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  5587 
  5588 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  5589 as greatest fixed-point.
  5590 
  5591 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  5592 association lists.
  5593 
  5594 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  5595 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  5596 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  5597 
  5598 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  5599 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  5600 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5601 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  5602 behavior.
  5603 
  5604 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  5605 
  5606 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  5607 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  5608 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  5609 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  5610 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  5611 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  5612 
  5613 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  5614 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  5615 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  5616 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  5617 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  5618 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  5619 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  5620 
  5621 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  5622 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  5623 
  5624 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  5625 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  5626 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  5627 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  5628 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  5629 
  5630 
  5631 *** HOL-Complex ***
  5632 
  5633 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  5634 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  5635 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  5636 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  5637 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5638 
  5639 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  5640 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  5641 and norm :: 'a => real.
  5642 
  5643 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  5644 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  5645 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5646 
  5647 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  5648 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  5649 
  5650 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  5651 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  5652 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  5653 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5654 
  5655   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5656   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5657   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5658   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  5659   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5660   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5661   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5662   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5663   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5664   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5665   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  5666   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5667   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  5668   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  5669   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  5670 
  5671 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  5672 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  5673 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  5674 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5675 
  5676   approx        <-- capprox
  5677   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  5678   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  5679   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  5680   monad         <-- cmonad
  5681   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  5682   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  5683   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  5684   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  5685 
  5686 
  5687 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5688 
  5689 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  5690 
  5691 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  5692 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5693 
  5694 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  5695 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5696 
  5697 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  5698 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  5699 of algebraic structures.
  5700 
  5701 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  5702 
  5703 
  5704 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5705 
  5706 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  5707 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  5708 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  5709 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  5710 
  5711 
  5712 *** ML ***
  5713 
  5714 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  5715 (even on SML/NJ).
  5716 
  5717 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  5718 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  5719 compile-time.  For example:
  5720 
  5721 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  5722 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  5723 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  5724 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  5725 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  5726 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  5727 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  5728 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  5729 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  5730 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  5731 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  5732 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  5733 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  5734 ML {* @{context} *}
  5735 ML {* @{theory} *}
  5736 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  5737 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  5738 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  5739 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  5740 ML {* @{claset} *}
  5741 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  5742 
  5743 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  5744 
  5745 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  5746 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  5747 
  5748 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  5749 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  5750 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  5751 
  5752 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  5753 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  5754 
  5755 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  5756 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  5757 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  5758 
  5759 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  5760 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  5761 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  5762 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  5763 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  5764 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  5765 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  5766 declarations and definitions.
  5767 
  5768 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  5769 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  5770 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  5771 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  5772 
  5773 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  5774 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  5775 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  5776 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5777 
  5778 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  5779 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  5780 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  5781 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  5782 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  5783 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  5784 
  5785 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  5786 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  5787 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  5788 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  5789 attributes, methods, etc.
  5790 
  5791 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  5792 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  5793 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  5794 fold_map combinators.
  5795 
  5796 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  5797 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  5798 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  5799 derivation.
  5800 
  5801 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  5802 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  5803 achieve the old behaviour.
  5804 
  5805 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  5806 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  5807 statements.
  5808 
  5809 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  5810 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  5811 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  5812 
  5813 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  5814 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  5815 some popular functions from term.ML:
  5816 
  5817   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  5818   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  5819   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  5820 
  5821 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  5822 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  5823 
  5824 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  5825 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  5826 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  5827 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  5828 various freeze_thaw operations.
  5829 
  5830 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  5831 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  5832 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  5833 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  5834 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  5835 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  5836 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  5837 in a locale context).
  5838 
  5839 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  5840 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  5841 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  5842 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  5843 
  5844 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  5845 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  5846 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  5847 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  5848 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  5849 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  5850 
  5851 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  5852 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  5853 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  5854 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  5855 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  5856 
  5857   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  5858 
  5859 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  5860 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  5861 this:
  5862 
  5863   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  5864 
  5865 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  5866 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  5867 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  5868 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  5869 
  5870 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  5871 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  5872 
  5873 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  5874 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  5875 
  5876 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  5877 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  5878 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  5879 batch mode.
  5880 
  5881 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  5882 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  5883 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  5884 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5885 
  5886 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  5887 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  5888 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  5889 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  5890 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  5891 
  5892 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  5893 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  5894 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  5895 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  5896 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  5897 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  5898 
  5899 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  5900 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  5901 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  5902 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5903 
  5904 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  5905 "Trueprop" etc.
  5906 
  5907 
  5908 *** System ***
  5909 
  5910 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  5911 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  5912 Isabelle installations.
  5913 
  5914 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
  5915 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
  5916 code.
  5917 
  5918 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
  5919 
  5920 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
  5921 Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
  5922 independent theories, according to the given theory header
  5923 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
  5924 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
  5925 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
  5926 to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
  5927 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
  5928 Implementation manual.
  5929 
  5930 
  5931 
  5932 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
  5933 ----------------------------------
  5934 
  5935 *** General ***
  5936 
  5937 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
  5938 
  5939   theory <name>
  5940   imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
  5941   uses <file1> ... <fileM>
  5942   begin
  5943 
  5944 where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
  5945 
  5946   theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
  5947 
  5948 will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
  5949 existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
  5950 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
  5951 
  5952 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
  5953 relative and absolute paths.
  5954 
  5955 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
  5956 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
  5957 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
  5958 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
  5959 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
  5960 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
  5961 lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
  5962 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
  5963 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
  5964 
  5965   C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
  5966 
  5967 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
  5968 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
  5969 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
  5970 
  5971 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
  5972 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5973 
  5974 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
  5975 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
  5976 formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
  5977 General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
  5978 
  5979   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
  5980   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
  5981 
  5982 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
  5983 Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
  5984 faster.
  5985 
  5986 
  5987 *** Document preparation ***
  5988 
  5989 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
  5990 of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
  5991 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
  5992 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
  5993 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
  5994 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
  5995 
  5996 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
  5997 notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
  5998 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
  5999 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
  6000 "invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
  6001 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
  6002 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
  6003 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
  6004 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
  6005 \isadroptag.
  6006 
  6007 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
  6008 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
  6009 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
  6010 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
  6011 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
  6012 these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
  6013 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
  6014 specified above.
  6015 
  6016 * Several new antiquotations:
  6017 
  6018   @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
  6019 
  6020   @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
  6021 
  6022   @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
  6023   argument is a known logical constant;
  6024 
  6025   @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
  6026   theorem applying a "style" to it
  6027 
  6028   @{ML text}
  6029 
  6030 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
  6031 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
  6032 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
  6033 to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
  6034 interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
  6035 document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
  6036 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
  6037 
  6038 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
  6039 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
  6040 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
  6041 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
  6042 
  6043 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
  6044 context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
  6045 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.
  6046 
  6047 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within
  6048 a proof context.
  6049 
  6050 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a
  6051 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').
  6052 
  6053 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX
  6054 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).
  6055 
  6056 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option
  6057 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false
  6058 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.
  6059 
  6060 
  6061 *** Pure ***
  6062 
  6063 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command.  Now performs
  6064 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for
  6065 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also
  6066 isar-ref manual.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly
  6067 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'
  6068 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier.  If
  6069 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.
  6070 
  6071 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures.  First of all,
  6072 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted
  6073 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary
  6074 expressions.  Secondly, in a local context with structure
  6075 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default
  6076 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option
  6077 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures.  Typical
  6078 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.
  6079 
  6080 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and
  6081 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is
  6082 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.
  6083 
  6084 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend
  6085 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for
  6086 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.
  6087 
  6088 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an
  6089 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of
  6090 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle
  6091 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;
  6092 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6093 
  6094 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"
  6095 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.
  6096 INCOMPATIBILITY.  This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for
  6097 axclasses vs. locales.
  6098 
  6099 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes
  6100 instead of base 26 numbers.
  6101 
  6102 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question
  6103 marks in schematic variable names.
  6104 
  6105 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or
  6106 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name.  For example, the
  6107 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:
  6108 
  6109   lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"
  6110     by simp
  6111 
  6112 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).
  6113 
  6114 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix
  6115 annotations as "(00...)".
  6116 
  6117 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter
  6118 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.
  6119 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class
  6120 "logic" vs. "{}".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper
  6121 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'.  Some very
  6122 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption
  6123 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).
  6124 
  6125 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.
  6126 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'
  6127 rather than 'types'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic
  6128 specifications.
  6129 
  6130 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be
  6131 locally fixed variables as well.
  6132 
  6133 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting
  6134 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth
  6135 Limit.
  6136 
  6137 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current
  6138 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc
  6139 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier
  6140 recursively.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs
  6141 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead.  Moreover, the
  6142 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to
  6143 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.
  6144 
  6145 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!
  6146 or ==>.  More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of
  6147 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.
  6148 
  6149 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6150 
  6151 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived
  6152 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already.  Both
  6153 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.
  6154 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /
  6155 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;
  6156 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.
  6157 
  6158 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific
  6159 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.
  6160 
  6161 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference
  6162 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),
  6163 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');
  6164 
  6165 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.
  6166 
  6167 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive
  6168 theory development.
  6169 
  6170 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code
  6171 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures
  6172 for each theory).  INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'
  6173 must be quoted when used as identifiers.
  6174 
  6175 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using
  6176 the code generator.  INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be
  6177 quoted when used as identifier.
  6178 
  6179 
  6180 *** Locales ***
  6181 
  6182 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in
  6183 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3).  These generate
  6184 proof obligations from the expression specification.  After the
  6185 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added
  6186 to the theory, target locale or proof context.  The synopsis of the
  6187 commands is a follows:
  6188 
  6189   (1) interpretation expr inst
  6190   (2) interpretation target < expr
  6191   (3) interpret expr inst
  6192 
  6193 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter
  6194 instantiation of terms from the current context.  This is applied to
  6195 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.
  6196 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the
  6197 locale expression.  Interpretation is smart in that interpretations
  6198 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are
  6199 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate.  Use 'print_interps' to
  6200 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale.  For details,
  6201 see the Isar Reference manual.  Examples can be found in
  6202 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.
  6203 
  6204 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use
  6205 'interpret' instead.
  6206 
  6207 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to
  6208 parameters.
  6209 
  6210 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax
  6211 redeclaration.
  6212 
  6213 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.
  6214 
  6215 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /
  6216 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition
  6217 context, independently of the context of later invocations.  Moreover,
  6218 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied
  6219 to attribute arguments as expected.
  6220 
  6221 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of
  6222 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to
  6223 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.
  6224 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static
  6225 binding mechanism.  Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and
  6226 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further
  6227 intervention.  Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"
  6228 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both
  6229 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed
  6230 values to argument tokens explicitly.
  6231 
  6232 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal
  6233 statements with 'includes'.  INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different
  6234 theorem statement in rare situations.
  6235 
  6236 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements.  Use
  6237 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.
  6238 
  6239 
  6240 *** Provers ***
  6241 
  6242 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for
  6243 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is
  6244 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may
  6245 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is
  6246 still available as 'simplesubst'.
  6247 
  6248 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only
  6249 and quasi orders.
  6250 
  6251 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and
  6252 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.
  6253 
  6254 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth
  6255</