NEWS
author blanchet
Tue Jan 21 13:51:10 2014 +0100 (2014-01-21)
changeset 55098 01869d711567
parent 55049 327eafb594ba
child 55114 0ee5c17f2207
permissions -rw-r--r--
updated NEWS
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 
    24 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    25 
    26 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    27 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    28 
    29 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    30 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    31 
    32 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
    33 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
    34 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
    35 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
    36 
    37 
    38 *** Pure ***
    39 
    40 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
    41 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
    42 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
    43 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
    44 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
    45 
    46 
    47 *** HOL ***
    48 
    49 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
    50   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
    51   "primrec_new", "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" command are now part of
    52   "Main".
    53   INCOMPATIBILITY.
    54   Theory renamings:
    55     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
    56     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
    57     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
    58     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
    59     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
    60     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
    61     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
    62     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
    63     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
    64     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
    65     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
    66     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
    67     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
    68     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
    69     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
    70     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
    71     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
    72     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
    73     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
    74     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
    75     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
    76     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
    77   New theories:
    78     List_Prefix.thy (split from Library/Sublist.thy)
    79     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
    80     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
    81     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
    82     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
    83     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
    84   Discontinued theory:
    85     BNF/BNF.thy
    86     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
    87 
    88 * New theory:
    89     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
    90 
    91 * Theory reorganizations:
    92   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
    93 
    94 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
    95 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
    96 
    97 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
    98 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
    99 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   100 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   101 
   102 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   103 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   104 
   105 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   106 with the given constants.
   107 
   108 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   109 
   110 Fact consolidations:
   111     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   112     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   113     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   114     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   115     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   116     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   117     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   118     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   119     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   120     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   121     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   122     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   123     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   124     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   125     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   126     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   127     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   128     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   129     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   130     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   131     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   132     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   133     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   134     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   135     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   136     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   137     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   138     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   139     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   140     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   141     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   142     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   143     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   144     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   145     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   146     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   147     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   148     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   149     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   150     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   151 
   152 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   153 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   154 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   155 
   156 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   157 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   158 
   159 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
   160 
   161 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   162 
   163 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   164 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   165 
   166 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   167 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   168 
   169 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   170 operations on records.
   171 
   172 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   173 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   174 
   175 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   176     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   177 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   178 
   179 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   180     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   181     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   182 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   183 
   184 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   185   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   186   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   187   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   188     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   189   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   190     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   191   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   192 INCOMPATBILITY.
   193 
   194 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   195     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   196     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   197     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   198     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   199 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   200 
   201 * Fact name consolidation:
   202     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   203     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   204     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   205     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   206     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   207 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   208 
   209 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   210 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   211 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   212 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   213 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   214 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   215 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   216 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   217 
   218 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   219 
   220 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   221 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   222 
   223 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   224 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   225 
   226 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   227 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   228 or the brute way with
   229 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   230 
   231 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   232 
   233 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   234 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   235 
   236 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   237 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   238 
   239 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   240 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   241 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   242 INCOMPATIBILITY
   243 
   244 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   245 
   246 * Nitpick:
   247   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   248     infinite values.
   249 
   250 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   251   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   252   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   253     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   254     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   255     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   256     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   257     intervals.
   258 
   259 
   260 *** ML ***
   261 
   262 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   263 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   264 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   265 formal context.
   266 
   267 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   268 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   269 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   270 actually belongs to it).
   271 
   272 
   273 *** System ***
   274 
   275 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   276 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   277 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   278 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   279 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   280 
   281 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   282 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   283 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   284 
   285 
   286 
   287 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   288 -------------------------------------
   289 
   290 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   291 
   292 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   293 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   294 
   295 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   296 after edits surrounding the command location.
   297 
   298 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   299 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   300 e.g. out-of-memory).
   301 
   302 
   303 *** System ***
   304 
   305 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   306 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   307 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   308 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   309 
   310 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   311 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   312 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   313 
   314 
   315 
   316 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   317 -------------------------------------
   318 
   319 *** General ***
   320 
   321 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   322 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   323 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   324 
   325 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   326 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   327 
   328 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   329 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   330 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   331 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   332 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   333 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   334 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   335 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   336 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   337 syntax.
   338 
   339 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   340 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   341 
   342 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   343 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   344 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   345 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   346 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   347 
   348 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   349 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   350 
   351 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   352 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   353 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   354 
   355 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   356 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   357 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   358 
   359 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   360 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   361 
   362 
   363 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   364 
   365 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   366 Documentation panel.
   367 
   368 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   369 documentation.
   370 
   371 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   372 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   373 
   374 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   375 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   376 normal editing and checking process.
   377 
   378 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   379 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   380 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   381 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   382 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   383 
   384 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   385 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   386 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   387 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   388 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   389 
   390 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   391 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   392 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   393 
   394 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   395 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   396 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   397 to resolve conflict.
   398 
   399 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   400 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   401 
   402 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   403 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   404 such command executions while editing.
   405 
   406 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   407 document content.
   408 
   409 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   410 toplevel theorem statements.
   411 
   412 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   413 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   414 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   415 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   416 
   417 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   418 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   419 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   420 
   421 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   422 / Global Options / Appearance".
   423 
   424 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   425 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   426 
   427 
   428 *** Pure ***
   429 
   430 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   431 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   432 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   433 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   434 details.
   435 
   436 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   437 
   438 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   439 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   440 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   441 
   442 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   443 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   444 
   445 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   446 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   447 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   448 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   449 
   450 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   451 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   452 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   453 
   454 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   455 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   456 
   457 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   458 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   459 situations.
   460 
   461 
   462 *** HOL ***
   463 
   464 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   465 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   466 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   467 
   468 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   469 
   470 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   471 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   472 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   473 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   474 
   475   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   476 
   477 * Code generator:
   478   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   479     'code_instance'.
   480   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   481     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   482 
   483 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   484 examples.
   485 
   486 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   487 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   488 to distinguish both when desired.
   489 
   490 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   491 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   492 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   493 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   494 
   495 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   496 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   497 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   498 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   499 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   500 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   501 
   502 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   503 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   504 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   505 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   506 
   507 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   508 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   509 
   510 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   511 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   512 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   513 
   514 * Lifting:
   515   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   516     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   517       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   518       transfer rules
   519     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   520       correspondence relation can be generated
   521     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   522       parametricity
   523     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   524   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   525   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   526     copies
   527   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   528     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   529     anonymous context)
   530   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   531     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   532   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   533     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   534   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   535     INCOMPATIBILITY
   536 
   537 * Transfer:
   538   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   539     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   540   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   541   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   542     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   543   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   544 
   545 * Reification and reflection:
   546   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   547     "Reification".
   548   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   549   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   550 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   551 
   552 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   553   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   554     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   555     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   556   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   557     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   558   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   559     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   560     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   561     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   562     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   563     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   564     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   565     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   566   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   567     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   568   - Fact renames:
   569       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   570       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   571 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   572 
   573 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   574 
   575 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   576 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   577 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   578 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   579 
   580 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   581 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   582 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   583 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   584 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   585 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   586 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   587 lemmas.
   588 
   589 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   590 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   591 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   592 
   593 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   594 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   595 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   596 
   597 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   598 top and bottom elements.
   599 
   600 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   601 
   602 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   603 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   604 
   605  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   606    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   607    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   608 
   609  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   610    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   611    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   612 
   613    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   614    arbitrary filter.
   615 
   616  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   617    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   618    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   619    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   620    on a compact set.
   621 
   622  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   623    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   624    linear_continuum_topology).
   625 
   626  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   627    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   628    on all sequences converging to x.
   629 
   630  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   631    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   632    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   633    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   634    left or right.
   635 
   636  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   637 
   638      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   639 
   640  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   641    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   642 
   643  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   644    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   645    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   646    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   647    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   648    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   649 
   650  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   651 
   652    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   653 
   654    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   655      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   656 
   657    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   658 
   659    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   660      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   661 
   662    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   663 
   664    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   665 
   666  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   667 
   668 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   669 
   670 * Nitpick:
   671   - Added option "spy"
   672   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   673 
   674 * Sledgehammer:
   675   - Renamed option:
   676       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   677     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   678   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   679   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   680   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   681 
   682 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   683 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   684 
   685 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   686   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   687   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   688     generated code.
   689   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   690   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   691   - Fact renames:
   692     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   693     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   694     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   695 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   696 
   697 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   698 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   699 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   700 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   701 
   702 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   703 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   704 
   705 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   706 
   707 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   708 
   709     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   710     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   711 
   712 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   713 
   714 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   715 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   716 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   717 
   718 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   719 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   720 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   721 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   722 
   723 * HOL-BNF:
   724   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   725     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   726     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   727     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   728   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   729     coinduct).
   730   - Renamed keywords:
   731     data ~> datatype_new
   732     codata ~> codatatype
   733     bnf_def ~> bnf
   734   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   735     discs ~> disc
   736     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   737     map_id' ~> map_id
   738     sels ~> sel
   739     set_map' ~> set_map
   740     sets ~> set
   741 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   742 
   743 
   744 *** ML ***
   745 
   746 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   747 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   748 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   749 Examples.thy in particular.
   750 
   751 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   752 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   753 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   754 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   755 
   756 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   757 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   758 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   759 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   760 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   761 
   762 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   763 
   764     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   765     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   766 
   767 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   768 
   769 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   770 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   771 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   772 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   773 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   774 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   775 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   776 
   777 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   778 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   779 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   780 clasets separately from the context.
   781 
   782 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   783 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   784 
   785 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   786 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   787 
   788 
   789 *** System ***
   790 
   791 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   792 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   793 
   794 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   795 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   796 
   797 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   798 settings variable.
   799 
   800 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   801 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   802 always pdf.
   803 
   804 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   805 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   806 
   807 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   808 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   809 
   810 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   811 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   812 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   813 
   814 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   815 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   816 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   817 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   818 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   819 for HTML presentation of theories.
   820 
   821 
   822 
   823 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   824 -----------------------------------
   825 
   826 *** General ***
   827 
   828 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   829 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   830 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   831 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   832 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   833 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   834 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   835 
   836 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   837 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   838 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   839 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   840 
   841 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   842 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   843 
   844 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   845 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   846 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   847 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   848 dependencies properly.
   849 
   850 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   851 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   852 
   853 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   854 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   855 
   856 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   857 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   858 and "class ... context ...".
   859 
   860 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   861 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   862 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   863 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   864 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   865 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   866 
   867 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   868 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   869 
   870 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   871 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   872 
   873 
   874 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   875 
   876 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   877 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   878 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   879 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   880 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   881 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   882 
   883 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   884 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   885 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   886 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   887 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   888 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   889 
   890 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   891 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   892 browser on demand.
   893 
   894 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   895 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   896 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   897 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   898 
   899 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   900 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   901 
   902 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   903 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   904 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   905 potentially infinite message streams.
   906 
   907 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   908 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   909 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   910 schemes.
   911 
   912 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   913 symbols.
   914 
   915 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   916 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   917 
   918 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   919 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   920 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   921 
   922 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   923 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   924 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   925 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   926 
   927 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   928 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   929 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   930 
   931 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   932 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   933 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   934 Isabelle distribution.
   935 
   936 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   937 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   938 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   939 
   940 
   941 *** Pure ***
   942 
   943 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   944 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   945 
   946 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   947 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   948 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   949 
   950 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   951 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   952 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   953 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   954 with some care where this is really required.
   955 
   956 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   957 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   958 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   959 
   960   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   961 
   962 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   963 a Hasse diagram.
   964 
   965 
   966 *** HOL ***
   967 
   968 * Sledgehammer:
   969 
   970   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   971     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   972   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   973   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   974   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   975   - Renamed options:
   976       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   977       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   978       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   979       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   980 
   981 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   982 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   983 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   984 
   985 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   986 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   987 
   988 * Lifting:
   989   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   990   - quot_del attribute
   991   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   992 
   993 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   994 expressions.
   995 
   996 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   997 pointfree expressions.
   998 
   999 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1000 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1001 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1002 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1003 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1004 
  1005 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1006 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1007 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1008 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1009 accordingly.
  1010 
  1011 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1012 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1013 
  1014 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1015 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1016 
  1017 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1018 
  1019 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1020 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1021 
  1022 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1023 
  1024 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1025 
  1026   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1027   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1028 
  1029 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1030 
  1031 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1032 
  1033   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1034   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1035 
  1036 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1037 
  1038 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1039 
  1040   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1041     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1042     output f x converges to G.
  1043 
  1044   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1045     infinity (at_bot).
  1046 
  1047   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1048     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1049 
  1050   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1051     at_top".
  1052 
  1053 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1054 
  1055 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1056 lattice type classes.
  1057 
  1058 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1059 
  1060     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1061     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1062 
  1063 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1064 
  1065 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1066 changes as follows.
  1067 
  1068   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1069 
  1070       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1071       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1072 
  1073   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1074     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1075     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1076     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1077 
  1078   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1079     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1080     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1081 
  1082   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1083     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1084     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1085     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1086 
  1087   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1088     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1089 
  1090       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1091       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1092       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1093       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1094       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1095       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1096       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1097       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1098       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1099       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1100       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1101       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1102       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1103       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1104       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1105       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1106 
  1107 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1108 
  1109 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1110 
  1111 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1112 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1113 
  1114 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1115 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1116 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1117 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1118 
  1119   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1120   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1121   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1122   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1123   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1124   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1125   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1126   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1127   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1128   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1129 
  1130 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1131 
  1132 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1133 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1134 Data").
  1135 
  1136 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1137 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1138 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1139 code.
  1140 
  1141 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1142 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1143 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1144 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1145 
  1146 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1147 
  1148 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1149 
  1150 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1151 
  1152   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1153   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1154 
  1155 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1156 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1157 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1158 
  1159   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1160 
  1161     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1162     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1163     cart_base i  removed
  1164     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1165 
  1166   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1167 
  1168   Renamed lemmas:
  1169 
  1170     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1171     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1172     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1173     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1174     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1175     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1176     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1177     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1178     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1179     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1180 
  1181 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1182 
  1183 * HOL/Probability:
  1184 
  1185   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1186 
  1187   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1188     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1189     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1190 
  1191   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1192     projective family).
  1193 
  1194 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1195 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1196 
  1197 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1198 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1199 datatypes.
  1200 
  1201 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1202 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1203 
  1204 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1205 trees for the code generator.
  1206 
  1207 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1208 Lifting/Transfer.
  1209 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1210 
  1211 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1212 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1213 
  1214 
  1215 *** Document preparation ***
  1216 
  1217 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1218 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1219 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1220 
  1221 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1222 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1223 
  1224 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1225 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1226 document/root.tex.
  1227 
  1228 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1229 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1230 
  1231 
  1232 *** ML ***
  1233 
  1234 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1235 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1236 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1237 
  1238 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1239 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1240 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1241 
  1242 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1243 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1244 necessarily printing visible text.
  1245 
  1246 
  1247 *** System ***
  1248 
  1249 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1250 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1251 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1252 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1253 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1254 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1255 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1256 
  1257 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1258 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1259 
  1260   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1261 
  1262 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1263 
  1264 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1265 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1266 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1267 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1268 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1269 
  1270 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1271 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1272 
  1273 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1274 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1275 
  1276 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1277 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1278 
  1279 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1280 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1281 version of Isabelle.
  1282 
  1283 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1284 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1285 
  1286 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1287 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1288 for home-made settings.
  1289 
  1290 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1291 
  1292 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1293 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1294 configuration.
  1295 
  1296 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1297 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1298 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1299 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1300 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1301 
  1302 
  1303 
  1304 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1305 ------------------------------
  1306 
  1307 *** General ***
  1308 
  1309 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1310 
  1311   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1312     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1313   - markup for bound variables
  1314   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1315   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1316   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1317     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1318 
  1319 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1320 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1321 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1322 
  1323 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1324 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1325 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1326 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1327 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1328 
  1329   context
  1330     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1331     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1332   begin
  1333 
  1334   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1335 
  1336   end
  1337 
  1338   thm my_trans
  1339 
  1340 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1341 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1342 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1343 
  1344 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1345 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1346 
  1347 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1348 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1349 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1350 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1351 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1352 
  1353 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1354 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1355 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1356 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1357 indices of schematic variables.
  1358 
  1359 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1360 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1361 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1362 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1363 etc. was exploited.
  1364 
  1365 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1366 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1367 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1368 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1369 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1370 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1371 
  1372 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1373 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1374 manual.
  1375 
  1376 
  1377 *** Pure ***
  1378 
  1379 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1380 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1381 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1382 
  1383 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1384 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1385 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1386 undocumented feature.)
  1387 
  1388 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1389 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1390 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1391 
  1392   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1393 
  1394   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1395     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1396 
  1397 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1398 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1399 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1400 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1401 
  1402 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1403 
  1404     num ~> num_token
  1405     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1406     xstr ~> str_token
  1407 
  1408 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1409 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1410 position information via constraints).
  1411 
  1412 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1413 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1414 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1415 
  1416 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1417 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1418 
  1419 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1420 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1421 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1422 
  1423 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1424 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1425 
  1426 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1427 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1428 
  1429   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1430 
  1431 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1432 
  1433 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1434 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1435 
  1436 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1437 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1438 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1439 
  1440 
  1441 *** HOL ***
  1442 
  1443 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1444 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1445 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1446 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1447 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1448 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1449 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1450 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1451 possible.
  1452 
  1453 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1454 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1455 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1456 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1457 
  1458 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1459 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1460 
  1461 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1462 
  1463 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1464 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1465 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1466 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1467 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1468 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1469 
  1470   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1471     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1472 
  1473   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1474     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1475     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1476 
  1477   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1478     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1479 
  1480   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1481     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1482     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1483 
  1484   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1485     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1486 
  1487 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1488 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1489 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1490 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1491 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1492 
  1493   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1494     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1495     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1496     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1497     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1498 
  1499     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1500     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1501 
  1502   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1503     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1504     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1505     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1506     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1507     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1508     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1509     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1510 
  1511   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1512     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1513     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1514     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1515 
  1516   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1517     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1518     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1519     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1520 
  1521   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1522     from type nat to type int.
  1523 
  1524 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1525 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1526 
  1527   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1528     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1529     type.  Example syntax:
  1530 
  1531     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1532       is List.insert
  1533 
  1534     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1535     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1536     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1537     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1538     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1539     by the package.
  1540 
  1541   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1542     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1543     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1544     code generation for each constant.
  1545 
  1546   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1547     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1548     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1549     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1550     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1551 
  1552   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1553     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1554     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1555 
  1556 * Quotient package:
  1557 
  1558   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1559     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1560 
  1561   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1562     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1563 
  1564   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1565     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1566     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1567 
  1568   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1569     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1570 
  1571 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1572 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1573 
  1574 * Quickcheck:
  1575 
  1576   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1577     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1578     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1579     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1580     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1581 
  1582     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1583     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1584     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1585 
  1586     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1587     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1588 
  1589     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1590     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1591     show genuine counterexamples.
  1592 
  1593   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1594     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1595 
  1596     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1597     constructors of that type.
  1598 
  1599   - Support for multisets.
  1600 
  1601   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1602 
  1603   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1604     conjectures in a locale context.
  1605 
  1606 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1607 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1608 
  1609 * Sledgehammer:
  1610   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1611     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1612   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1613   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1614     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1615   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1616   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1617   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1618   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1619 
  1620 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1621 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1622 
  1623 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1624 
  1625 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1626 
  1627 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1628 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1629 
  1630   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1631 
  1632 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1633 a list and a nat.
  1634 
  1635 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1636 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1637 
  1638 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1639 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1640 default.
  1641 
  1642 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1643 
  1644   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1645 
  1646 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1647 
  1648 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1649 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1650 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1651 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1652 one_case.
  1653 
  1654 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1655 the result of the fact expression.
  1656 
  1657 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1658 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1659 of some relation theorems:
  1660 
  1661   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1662   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1663   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1664   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1665   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1666   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1667 
  1668 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1669 
  1670 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1671 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1672 
  1673 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1674 
  1675 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1676 to match the constant's name:
  1677 
  1678   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1679   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1680   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1681   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1682   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1683   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1684   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1685   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1686   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1687   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1688   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1689   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1690   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1691   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1692   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1693   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1694   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1695   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1696   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1697   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1698   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1699   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1700   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1701   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1702 
  1703 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1704 
  1705 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1706 and corresponding theorem names:
  1707 
  1708   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1709 
  1710   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1711 
  1712   - Renamed theorems:
  1713 
  1714     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1715     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1716     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1717     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1718     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1719     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1720     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1721     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1722     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1723     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1724     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1725     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1726     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1727     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1728     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1729     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1730     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1731     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1732     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1733     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1734     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1735     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1736     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1737 
  1738     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1739 
  1740     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1741 
  1742 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1743 
  1744 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1745 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1746 
  1747   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1748   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1749   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1750   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1751   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1752   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1753   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1754   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1755   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1756   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1757   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1758   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1759   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1760   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1761   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1762   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1763   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1764   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1765   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1766   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1767   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1768 
  1769 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1770 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1771 
  1772 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1773 
  1774 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1775 
  1776   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1777   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1778   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1779   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1780   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1781   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1782   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1783   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1784   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1785   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1786   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1787   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1788   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1789   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1790   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1791   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1792   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1793   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1794 
  1795 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1796 
  1797 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1798 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1799 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1800 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1801 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1802 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1803 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1804 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1805 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1806 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1807 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1808 
  1809 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1810 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1811 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1812 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1813 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1814 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1815 
  1816 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1817 through option types.
  1818 
  1819 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1820 relations.
  1821 
  1822 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1823 
  1824 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1825 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1826 
  1827   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1828   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1829   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1830   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1831   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1832   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1833   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1834   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1835   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1836   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1837   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1838   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1839   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1840   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1841   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1842   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1843   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1844   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1845   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1846   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1847   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1848   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1849   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1850   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1851   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1852   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1853   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1854   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1855   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1856   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1857   zless_le ~> less_le
  1858   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1859   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1860   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1861 
  1862 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1863 
  1864   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1865 
  1866 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1867 
  1868 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1869 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1870 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1871 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1872 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1873 
  1874 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1875 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1876 
  1877 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1878 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1879 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1880 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1881 follows:
  1882 
  1883   Operations:
  1884   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1885   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1886   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1887   del -> rbt_del
  1888   delete -> rbt_delete
  1889   ins -> rbt_ins
  1890   insert -> rbt_insert
  1891   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1892   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1893   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1894   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1895   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1896   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1897   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1898   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1899   union -> rbt_union
  1900   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1901   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1902 
  1903   Lemmas:
  1904   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1905   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1906   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1907   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1908   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1909   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1910   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1911   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1912   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1913   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1914   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1915   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1916   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1917   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1918   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1919   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1920   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1921   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1922   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1923   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1924   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1925   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1926   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1927   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1928   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1929   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1930   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1931   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1932   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1933   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1934   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1935   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1936   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1937   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1938   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1939   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1940   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1941   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1942   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1943   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1944   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1945   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1946   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1947   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1948   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1949   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1950   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1951   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1952   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1953   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1954   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1955   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1956   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1957   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1958   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1959   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1960   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1961   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1962   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1963   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1964   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1965   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1966   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1967   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1968   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1969   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1970   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1971   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1972   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1973   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1974   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1975   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1976   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1977   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1978   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1979   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1980   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1981   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1982   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1983   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1984   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1985   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1986   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1987 
  1988 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1989 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1990 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1991 
  1992   Changed Operations:
  1993   float_abs -> abs
  1994   float_nprt -> nprt
  1995   float_pprt -> pprt
  1996   pow2 -> use powr
  1997   round_down -> float_round_down
  1998   round_up -> float_round_up
  1999   scale -> exponent
  2000 
  2001   Removed Operations:
  2002   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2003 
  2004   Renamed Lemmas:
  2005   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2006   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2007   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2008   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2009   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2010   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2011   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2012   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2013   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2014   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2015   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2016   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2017   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2018   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2019   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2020   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2021   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2022   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2023   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2024   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2025   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2026   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2027   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2028   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2029   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2030   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2031   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2032   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2033   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2034   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2035   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2036   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2037   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2038   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2039   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2040   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2041 
  2042   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2043   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2044   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2045   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2046   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2047   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2048   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2049   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2050   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2051   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2052 
  2053 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2054 association lists with distinct keys.
  2055 
  2056 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2057 annotated commands.
  2058 
  2059 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2060 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2061 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2062 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2063 
  2064 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2065 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2066 instead.
  2067 
  2068   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2069   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2070   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2071   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2072   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2073   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2074   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2075   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2076   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2077   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2078   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2079   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2080   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2081   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2082   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2083   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2084   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2085   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2086   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2087   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2088   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2089   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2090   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2091   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2092   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2093   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2094   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2095   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2096   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2097   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2098   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2099   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2100   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2101   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2102   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2103   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2104   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2105   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2106   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2107   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2108   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2109 
  2110 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2111 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2112 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2113 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2114 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2115 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2116 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2117 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2118 
  2119 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2120 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2121 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2122 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2123 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2124 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2125 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2126 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2127 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2128 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2129 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2130 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2131 
  2132   Renamed constants:
  2133   measure -> emeasure
  2134   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2135   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2136   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2137   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2138 
  2139   Removed locales:
  2140   completeable_measure_space
  2141   finite_measure_space
  2142   finite_prob_space
  2143   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2144   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2145   finite_sigma_algebra
  2146   measure_space
  2147   pair_finite_prob_space
  2148   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2149   pair_finite_space
  2150   pair_sigma_algebra
  2151   product_sigma_algebra
  2152 
  2153   Removed constants:
  2154   conditional_space
  2155   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2156   image_space
  2157   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2158   pair_measure_generator
  2159   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2160   subvimage
  2161 
  2162   Replacement theorems:
  2163   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2164   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2165   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2166   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2167   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2168   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2169   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2170   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2171   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2172   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2173   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2174   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2175   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2176   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2177   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2178   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2179   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2180   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2181   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2182   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2183   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2184   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2185   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2186   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2187   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2188   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2189   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2190   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2191   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2192   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2193   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2194   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2195   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2196   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2197   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2198   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2199   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2200   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2201   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2202   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2203   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2204   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2205   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2206   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2207   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2208   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2209   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2210   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2211   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2212   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2213   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2214   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2215   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2216   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2217   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2218   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2219   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2220   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2221   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2222   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2223   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2224   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2225   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2226   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2227   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2228   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2229   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2230   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2231   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2232   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2233   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2234   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2235   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2236   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2237   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2238   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2239   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2240   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2241   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2242   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2243   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2244   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2245   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2246   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2247   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2248   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2249   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2250   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2251   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2252   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2253   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2254   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2255   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2256   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2257   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2258   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2259   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2260   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2261   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2262   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2263   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2264   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2265   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2266   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2267   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2268   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2269   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2270   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2271   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2272   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2273   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2274   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2275   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2276   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2277   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2278   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2279   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2280   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2281   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2282   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2283   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2284   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2285   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2286   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2287   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2288   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2289   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2290   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2291 
  2292 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2293 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2294 
  2295 
  2296 *** FOL ***
  2297 
  2298 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2299 
  2300 
  2301 *** ZF ***
  2302 
  2303 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2304 analysis.
  2305 
  2306 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2307 
  2308 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2309 
  2310 
  2311 *** ML ***
  2312 
  2313 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2314 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2315 
  2316 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2317 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2318 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2319 
  2320 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2321 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2322 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2323 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2324 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2325 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2326 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2327 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2328 
  2329 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2330 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2331 
  2332 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2333 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2334 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2335 
  2336 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2337 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2338 
  2339 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2340 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2341 context as well.
  2342 
  2343 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2344 
  2345   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2346   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2347   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2348   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2349   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2350   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2351   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2352   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2353   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2354   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2355   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2356   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2357 
  2358 
  2359 *** System ***
  2360 
  2361 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2362 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2363 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2364 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2365 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2366 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2367 the generic user home was intended.
  2368 
  2369 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2370 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2371 
  2372 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2373 (not just JRE).
  2374 
  2375 
  2376 
  2377 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2378 ------------------------------------
  2379 
  2380 *** General ***
  2381 
  2382 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2383 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2384 
  2385   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2386     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2387     files for checking).
  2388 
  2389   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2390     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2391     positions.
  2392 
  2393   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2394     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2395     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2396 
  2397   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2398     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2399     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2400 
  2401   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2402     cores.
  2403 
  2404   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2405     versions (garbage collection).
  2406 
  2407 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2408 including some remaining limitations.
  2409 
  2410 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2411 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2412 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2413 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2414 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2415 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2416 
  2417 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2418 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2419 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2420 
  2421 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2422 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2423 usedir option -Q.
  2424 
  2425 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2426 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2427 
  2428   long_names   ~> names_long
  2429   short_names  ~> names_short
  2430   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2431 
  2432 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2433 
  2434   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2435 
  2436 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2437 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2438 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2439 
  2440 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2441 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2442 
  2443 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2444   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2445   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2446   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2447     "Classical Reasoner".
  2448 
  2449 
  2450 *** HOL ***
  2451 
  2452 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2453 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2454 
  2455 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2456 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2457 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2458 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2459 class complete_linorder.
  2460 
  2461 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2462 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2463 
  2464 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2465 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2466 
  2467   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2468   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2469   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2470   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2471   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2472   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2473   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2474   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2475   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2476   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2477   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2478 
  2479 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2480 
  2481   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2482   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2483   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2484   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2485   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2486   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2487   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2488   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2489   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2490   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2491   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2492   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2493   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2494   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2495   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2496   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2497 
  2498 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2499 
  2500 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2501 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2502 
  2503 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2504 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2505 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2506 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2507 
  2508 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2509 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2510 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2511 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2512 
  2513 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2514 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2515 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2516 
  2517 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2518 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2519 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2520 
  2521 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2522 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2523 
  2524 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2525 
  2526     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2527     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2528 
  2529 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2530 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2531 
  2532 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2533 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2534 
  2535 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2536 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2537 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2538 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2539 
  2540   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2541   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2542   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2543   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2544   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2545   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2546   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2547 
  2548 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2549 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2550 
  2551   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2552   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2553   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2554   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2555   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2556   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2557   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2558   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2559   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2560   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2561   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2562   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2563   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2564   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2565   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2566   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2567   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2568   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2569   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2570   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2571   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2572   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2573   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2574   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2575   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2576   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2577   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2578   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2579   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2580   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2581   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2582   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2583   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2584   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2585   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2586   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2587   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2588   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2589   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2590   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2591   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2592   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2593   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2594   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2595   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2596   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2597   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2598   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2599   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2600   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2601   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2602   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2603   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2604   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2605   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2606   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2607   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2608   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2609   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2610   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2611   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2612   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2613   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2614   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2615   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2616   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2617   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2618   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2619   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2620   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2621   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2622   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2623   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2624   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2625   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2626   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2627   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2628   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2629   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2630   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2631   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2632   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2633 
  2634 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2635 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2636 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2637 
  2638 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2639 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2640 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2641 
  2642 * Code generation:
  2643 
  2644   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2645     characters in the target language.
  2646 
  2647   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2648     instead.
  2649 
  2650   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2651 
  2652   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2653     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2654 
  2655       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2656 
  2657 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2658 
  2659 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2660 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2661 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2662 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2663 syntax.
  2664 
  2665 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2666 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2667 
  2668 * Nitpick:
  2669   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2670   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2671   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2672     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2673 
  2674 * Sledgehammer:
  2675   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2676   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2677     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2678   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2679     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2680   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2681     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2682   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2683     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2684   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2685     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2686 
  2687 * Metis:
  2688   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2689   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2690     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2691 
  2692 * Command 'try':
  2693   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2694     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2695   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2696     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2697 
  2698 * Quickcheck:
  2699   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2700     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2701   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2702     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2703   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2704     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2705     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2706     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2707   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2708     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2709 
  2710 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2711 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2712 
  2713 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2714 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2715 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2716 
  2717 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2718 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2719 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2720 
  2721 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2722 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2723 
  2724 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2725 arithmetic.
  2726 
  2727 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2728 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2729 and lattice type classes.
  2730 
  2731 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2732 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2733 
  2734 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2735 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2736 
  2737 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2738 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2739 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2740 
  2741   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2742   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2743   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2744   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2745 
  2746 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2747 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2748 constants:
  2749 
  2750   type inat   ~> type enat
  2751   Fin         ~> enat
  2752   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2753   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2754   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2755 
  2756 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2757 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2758 
  2759 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2760 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2761 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2762 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2763 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2764 
  2765 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2766 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2767 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2768 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2769 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2770 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2771 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2772 
  2773   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2774   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2775   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2776   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2777 
  2778 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2779 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2780 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2781 
  2782   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2783   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2784   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2785   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2786   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2787   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2788   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2789   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2790   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2791   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2792   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2793   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2794   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2795   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2796   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2797   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2798   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2799   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2800   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2801   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2802   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2803   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2804   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2805   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2806   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2807   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2808   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2809   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2810   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2811   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2812   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2813   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2814   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2815   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2816   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2817   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2818   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2819   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2820   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2821   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2822   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2823   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2824   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2825   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2826   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2827   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2828   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2829   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2830   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2831   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2832   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2833 
  2834 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2835   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2836   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2837   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2838   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2839     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2840 
  2841 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2842 
  2843   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2844   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2845   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2846   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2847   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2848   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2849   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2850   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2851   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2852   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2853   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2854   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2855   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2856   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2857   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2858   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2859   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2860   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2861   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2862   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2863   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2864   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2865   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2866   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2867   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2868 
  2869 
  2870 *** Document preparation ***
  2871 
  2872 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2873 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2874 same.
  2875 
  2876 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2877 result.
  2878 
  2879 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2880 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2881 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2882 
  2883 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2884 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2885 
  2886 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2887 like this:
  2888 
  2889   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2890   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2891 
  2892 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2893 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2894 layouts.
  2895 
  2896 
  2897 *** ML ***
  2898 
  2899 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2900 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2901 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2902 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2903 under external program control.
  2904 
  2905 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2906 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2907 
  2908 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2909 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2910 (better known as Proof General).
  2911 
  2912 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2913 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2914 
  2915 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2916 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2917 
  2918 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2919 (including quotes etc.).
  2920 
  2921 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2922 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2923 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2924 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2925 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2926 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2927 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2928 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2929 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2930 
  2931 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2932 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2933 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2934 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2935 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2936 
  2937 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2938 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2939 
  2940 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2941 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2942 
  2943 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2944 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2945 
  2946 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2947 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2948 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2949 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2950 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2951 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2952 proper Proof.context.
  2953 
  2954 
  2955 *** System ***
  2956 
  2957 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2958 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2959 
  2960 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2961 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2962 
  2963 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2964 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2965 
  2966   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2967   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2968   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2969   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2970   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2971 
  2972 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2973 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2974 
  2975 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2976 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2977 example:
  2978 
  2979   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2980 
  2981 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2982 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2983 
  2984 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2985 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2986 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2987 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2988 
  2989 
  2990 
  2991 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2992 ----------------------------------
  2993 
  2994 *** General ***
  2995 
  2996 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2997 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2998 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2999 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3000 like this:
  3001 
  3002   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3003 
  3004 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3005 
  3006 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3007 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3008 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3009 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3010 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3011 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3012 
  3013 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3014 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3015 the following package declarations:
  3016 
  3017   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3018   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3019 
  3020 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3021 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3022 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3023 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3024 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3025 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3026 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3027 
  3028 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3029 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3030 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3031 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3032 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3033 
  3034 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3035 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3036 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3037 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3038 
  3039 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3040 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3041 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3042 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3043 
  3044   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3045 
  3046   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3047   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3048   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3049   show_types                    show_types
  3050   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3051   show_consts                   show_consts
  3052   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3053 
  3054   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3055   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3056   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3057 
  3058   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3059   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3060 
  3061   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3062 
  3063   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3064   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3065   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3066   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3067   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3068 
  3069 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3070 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3071 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3072 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3073 
  3074 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3075 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3076 
  3077   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3078   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3079 
  3080 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3081 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3082 float_token.
  3083 
  3084 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3085 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3086 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3087 
  3088 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3089 DejaVu Sans.
  3090 
  3091 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3092 
  3093 
  3094 *** Pure ***
  3095 
  3096 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3097 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3098 time.
  3099 
  3100 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3101 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3102 
  3103 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3104 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3105 
  3106 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3107 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3108 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3109 command already provided this functionality.
  3110 
  3111 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3112 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3113 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3114 without interpretations.
  3115 
  3116 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3117 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3118 
  3119 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3120 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3121 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3122 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3123 
  3124 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3125 'definition' instead.
  3126 
  3127 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3128 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3129 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3130 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3131 
  3132 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3133 constructors.
  3134 
  3135 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3136 the local file system.
  3137 
  3138 
  3139 *** HOL ***
  3140 
  3141 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3142 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3143 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3144 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3145 
  3146   declare [[coercion f]]
  3147 
  3148 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3149 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3150 
  3151   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3152 
  3153 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3154 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3155 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3156 other theories like this:
  3157 
  3158   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3159 
  3160 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3161 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3162 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3163 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3164 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3165 for examples.
  3166 
  3167 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3168 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3169 
  3170 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3171 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3172 
  3173 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3174 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3175 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3176 
  3177 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3178 functorial structure of types.
  3179 
  3180 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3181 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3182 
  3183 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3184 languages.
  3185 
  3186 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3187 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3188 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3189 
  3190 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3191 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3192 
  3193 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3194 combinators any longer.
  3195 
  3196 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3197 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3198 
  3199 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3200 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3201 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3202 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3203 
  3204   record 'a foo = ...
  3205   ...
  3206   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3207 
  3208 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3209 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3210 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3211 
  3212 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3213 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3214 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3215 
  3216 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3217 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3218 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3219 
  3220 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3221 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3222 
  3223 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3224 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3225 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3226 independently.
  3227 
  3228 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3229 counter example search.
  3230 
  3231 * Sledgehammer:
  3232   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3233     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3234     sledgehammer").
  3235   - Renamed commands:
  3236     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3237     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3238     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3239     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3240   - Renamed options:
  3241     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3242     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3243     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3244     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3245     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3246 
  3247 * Nitpick:
  3248   - Renamed options:
  3249     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3250     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3251     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3252   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3253   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3254   - Added "whack" option.
  3255   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3256   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3257   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3258   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3259     higher cardinalities.
  3260   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3261 
  3262 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3263 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3264 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3265 
  3266     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3267 
  3268 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3269 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3270 
  3271 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3272 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3273 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3274 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3275 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3276 "smt_solver".
  3277 
  3278 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3279 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3280 
  3281 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3282 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3283 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3284 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3285 
  3286 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3287   - Renamed:
  3288     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3289     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3290     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3291   - Added:
  3292     smt_verbose
  3293     smt_random_seed
  3294     smt_datatypes
  3295     smt_infer_triggers
  3296     smt_monomorph_limit
  3297     cvc3_options
  3298     remote_cvc3_options
  3299     remote_z3_options
  3300     yices_options
  3301 
  3302 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3303 header.
  3304 
  3305 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3306 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3307 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3308 
  3309   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3310 
  3311 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3312 
  3313 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3314 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3315 
  3316 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3317 
  3318 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3319 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3320 
  3321 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3322 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3323 
  3324 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3325 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3326 
  3327 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3328 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3329 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3330 
  3331 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3332 
  3333 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3334 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3335 
  3336 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3337 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3338 
  3339 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3340 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3341 for congruent(2)).
  3342 
  3343 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3344 
  3345   types
  3346     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3347     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3348 
  3349   constants
  3350     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3351     True ~> HOL.True
  3352     False ~> HOL.False
  3353     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3354     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3355     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3356     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3357     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3358     The ~> HOL.The
  3359     All ~> HOL.All
  3360     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3361     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3362     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3363     If ~> HOL.If
  3364     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3365     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3366     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3367     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3368     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3369     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3370     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3371     op : ~> Set.member
  3372     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3373 
  3374 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3375 
  3376 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3377 
  3378     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3379     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3380     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3381     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3382     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3383     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3384     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3385     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3386 
  3387 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3388 
  3389 * More stylized fact names:
  3390 
  3391   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3392   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3393   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3394   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3395 
  3396 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3397 
  3398 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3399 
  3400   constants
  3401     null ~> List.null
  3402 
  3403   facts
  3404     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3405     null_empty ~> null_def
  3406 
  3407 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3408 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3409 generation.
  3410 
  3411 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3412 Haskell code.
  3413 
  3414 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3415 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3416 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3417 
  3418 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3419 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3420 
  3421 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3422 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3423 
  3424 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3425 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3426 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3427 
  3428 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3429 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3430 
  3431 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3432 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3433 
  3434 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3435 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3436 referred to by its qualified name.
  3437 
  3438   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3439   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3440   product ~>  Enum.product
  3441 
  3442 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3443 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3444 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3445 
  3446 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3447 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3448 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3449 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3450 
  3451 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3452 sort_key.
  3453 
  3454 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3455 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3456 
  3457 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3458 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3459 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3460 
  3461   types
  3462     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3463               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3464               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3465         (depends on your needs)
  3466 
  3467   constants
  3468      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3469      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3470      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3471 
  3472 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3473 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3474 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3475 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3476 
  3477 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3478 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3479 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3480 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3481 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3482 
  3483 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3484 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3485 
  3486 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3487 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3488 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3489 
  3490 
  3491 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3492 
  3493 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3494 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3495 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3496 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3497 compatibility.
  3498 
  3499 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3500 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3501 
  3502 
  3503 *** HOLCF ***
  3504 
  3505 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3506 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3507 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3508 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3509 
  3510 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3511 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3512 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3513 
  3514   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3515   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3516   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3517 
  3518 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3519 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3520 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3521 
  3522 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3523 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3524 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3525 domain definition now works:
  3526 
  3527   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3528 
  3529 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3530 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3531 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3532 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3533 
  3534   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3535     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3536 
  3537   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3538 
  3539 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3540 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3541 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3542 
  3543 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3544 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3545 
  3546 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3547 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3548 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3549 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3550 
  3551 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3552 
  3553 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3554 
  3555 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3556 
  3557 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3558 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3559 
  3560 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3561 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3562 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3563 
  3564 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3565 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3566 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3567 
  3568 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3569 still supported as an input translation.
  3570 
  3571 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3572 
  3573   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3574   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3575   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3576   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3577   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3578   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3579   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3580 
  3581 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3582 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3583 
  3584   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3585   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3586   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3587   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3588   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3589   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3590 
  3591 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3592 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3593 
  3594 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3595 
  3596   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3597   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3598   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3599   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3600 
  3601 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3602 
  3603 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3604 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3605 
  3606 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3607 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3608 
  3609   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3610   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3611   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3612   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3613   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3614   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3615   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3616   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3617   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3618   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3619   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3620   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3621   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3622   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3623   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3624   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3625   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3626   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3627   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3628   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3629 
  3630 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3631 
  3632   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3633   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3634   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3635   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3636   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3637   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3638   box_less             ~> box_below
  3639   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3640   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3641   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3642   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3643   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3644   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3645   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3646   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3647   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3648   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3649   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3650   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3651   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3652   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3653   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3654   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3655   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3656   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3657   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3658   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3659   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3660   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3661   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3662   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3663   up_less              ~> up_below
  3664   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3665   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3666   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3667   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3668   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3669   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3670   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3671   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3672   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3673   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3674   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3675   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3676   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3677 
  3678 
  3679 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3680 
  3681 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3682 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3683 
  3684 
  3685 *** ML ***
  3686 
  3687 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3688 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3689 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3690 
  3691 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3692 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3693 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3694 
  3695 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3696 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3697 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3698 
  3699 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3700 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3701 
  3702 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3703 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3704 
  3705 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3706 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3707 
  3708 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3709 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3710 
  3711 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3712 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3713 almost all situations.
  3714 
  3715 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3716 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3717 Isabelle/ML.
  3718 
  3719 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3720 meaning.
  3721 
  3722 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3723 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3724 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3725 
  3726 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3727 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3728 
  3729 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3730 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3731 
  3732 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3733 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3734 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3735 
  3736 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3737 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3738 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3739 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3740 configuration options.
  3741 
  3742 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3743 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3744 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3745 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3746 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3747 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3748 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3749 
  3750 
  3751 
  3752 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3753 ---------------------------------
  3754 
  3755 *** General ***
  3756 
  3757 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3758 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3759 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3760 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3761 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3762 their full internal name.
  3763 
  3764 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3765 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3766 Some hints on upgrading:
  3767 
  3768   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3769     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3770     which are independent of this issue.
  3771 
  3772   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3773     provides the following special forms:
  3774 
  3775       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3776       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3777       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3778 
  3779     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3780     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3781     extra variables".
  3782 
  3783     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3784     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3785     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3786     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3787     "logic".
  3788 
  3789   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3790     antiquotations:
  3791 
  3792       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3793       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3794       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3795       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3796 
  3797   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3798     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3799     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3800     antiquotations.
  3801 
  3802 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3803 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3804 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3805 diagnose syntax problems.
  3806 
  3807 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3808 
  3809 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3810 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3811 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3812 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3813 
  3814 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3815 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3816 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3817 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3818 
  3819 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3820 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3821 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3822 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3823 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3824 
  3825 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3826 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3827 
  3828 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3829 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3830 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3831 
  3832   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3833 
  3834 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3835 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3836 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3837 
  3838 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3839 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3840 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3841 
  3842 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3843 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3844 
  3845 
  3846 *** Pure ***
  3847 
  3848 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3849 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3850 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3851 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3852 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3853 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3854 inspect proof terms.
  3855 
  3856 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3857 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3858 are added internally.  For example:
  3859 
  3860   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3861 
  3862 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3863 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3864 
  3865 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3866 
  3867 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3868 'class' instead.
  3869 
  3870 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3871 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3872 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3873 
  3874 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3875 invariants.
  3876 
  3877 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3878 user space functionality any longer.
  3879 
  3880 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3881 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3882 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3883 
  3884 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3885 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3886 
  3887 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3888 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3889 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3890 
  3891 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3892 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3893 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3894 
  3895 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3896 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3897 
  3898 
  3899 *** HOL ***
  3900 
  3901 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3902 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3903 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3904 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3905 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3906 
  3907 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3908 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3909 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3910 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3911 
  3912   fun
  3913     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3914   where
  3915     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3916 
  3917   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3918     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3919 
  3920   quotient_definition
  3921     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3922 
  3923 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3924 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3925 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3926 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3927 
  3928 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3929 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3930 
  3931 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3932 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3933 
  3934 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3935 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3936 
  3937 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3938 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3939 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3940 
  3941 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3942 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3943 
  3944 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3945 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3946 
  3947 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3948 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3949 
  3950 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3951 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3952 
  3953 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3954 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3955 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3956 
  3957   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3958   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3959   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3960   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3961   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3962   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3963   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3964   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3965   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3966   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3967   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3968   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3969   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3970   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3971   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3972   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3973   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3974   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3975   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3976   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3977   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3978   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3979   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3980   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3981   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3982   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3983   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3984   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3985   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3986   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3987 
  3988 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3989 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3990 
  3991 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3992 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3993 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3994 
  3995 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3996 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3997 
  3998 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3999 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4000 
  4001 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4002 
  4003 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4004 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4005 
  4006 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4007 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4008 
  4009 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4010 
  4011 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4012 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4013 
  4014 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4015 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4016 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4017 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4018 
  4019 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4020   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4021   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4022   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4023 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4024 
  4025 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4026 lattices):
  4027 
  4028     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4029     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4030 
  4031     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4032 
  4033     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4034     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4035     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4036     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4037     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4038     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4039     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4040     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4041     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4042     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4043     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4044     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4045     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4046 
  4047     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4048     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4049     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4050     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4051     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4052     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4053     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4054     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4055     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4056     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4057     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4058     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4059     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4060     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4061     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4062     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4063     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4064     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4065 
  4066   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4067   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4068 
  4069     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4070     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4071     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4072     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4073     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4074 
  4075 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4076 
  4077 * Refined field classes:
  4078   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4079     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4080     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4081   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4082 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4083 
  4084 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4085   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4086   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4087   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4088     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4089   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4090     equal_neg_zero.
  4091 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4092 
  4093 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4094 sets to lattices:
  4095 
  4096   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4097   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4098   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4099   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4100   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4101   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4102   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4103   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4104   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4105   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4106 
  4107 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4108 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4109 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4110 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4111 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4112 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4113 
  4114 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4115 multiset order:
  4116 
  4117   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4118     <= and <;
  4119   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4120     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4121     multiset_order;
  4122   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4123     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4124     generation;
  4125   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4126     if needed.
  4127 
  4128 Renamed:
  4129 
  4130   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4131   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4132   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4133 
  4134 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4135 
  4136 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4137 
  4138 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4139 
  4140 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4141 
  4142 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4143 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4144 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4145 
  4146   Constants:
  4147   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4148   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4149   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4150   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4151   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4152   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4153   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4154   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4155   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4156   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4157   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4158   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4159   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4160 
  4161   Lemmas:
  4162   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4163   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4164   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4165   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4166   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4167   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4168   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4169   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4170   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4171   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4172   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4173   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4174   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4175 
  4176 * Sledgehammer:
  4177   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4178     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4179     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4180     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4181     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4182     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4183     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4184   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4185   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4186     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4187   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4188     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4189     is still experimental.)
  4190   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4191     full-typed mode.
  4192   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4193 
  4194 * Nitpick:
  4195   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4196   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4197   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4198     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4199   - Added support for quotient types.
  4200   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4201     constructs.
  4202   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4203     "termination" proofs).
  4204   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4205   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4206   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4207   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4208     record getters.
  4209   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4210   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4211   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4212   - Added "atoms" option.
  4213   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4214     problems.
  4215   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4216     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4217     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4218   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4219     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4220   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4221 
  4222 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4223   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4224   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4225   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4226   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4227   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4228   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4229   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4230   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4231   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4232 
  4233 
  4234 *** HOLCF ***
  4235 
  4236 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4237 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4238 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4239 
  4240 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4241 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4242 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4243 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4244 
  4245 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4246 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4247 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4248 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4249 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4250 
  4251 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4252 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4253 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4254 
  4255 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4256 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4257 
  4258   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4259   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4260 
  4261 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4262 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4263 
  4264   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4265   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4266   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4267   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4268   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4269 
  4270 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4271 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4272 
  4273   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4274   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4275   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4276 
  4277 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4278 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4279 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4280 
  4281 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4282 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4283 
  4284 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4285 
  4286 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4287 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4288 
  4289 
  4290 *** ML ***
  4291 
  4292 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4293 
  4294     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4295     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4296 
  4297     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4298     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4299     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4300     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4301 
  4302     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4303     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4304     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4305 
  4306 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4307 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4308 
  4309 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4310 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4311 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4312 
  4313 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4314 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4315 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4316 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4317 
  4318 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4319 the context or even global references.
  4320 
  4321 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4322 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4323 
  4324 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4325 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4326 
  4327   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4328   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4329   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4330   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4331   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4332   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4333   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4334   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4335   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4336   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4337 
  4338 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4339 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4340 
  4341 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4342 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4343 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4344 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4345 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4346 
  4347 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4348 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4349 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4350 Theory_Data version.
  4351 
  4352 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4353 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4354 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4355 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4356 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4357 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4358 explicitly in rare situations.
  4359 
  4360 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4361 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4362 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4363 
  4364 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4365 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4366 
  4367 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4368 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4369 quite rare).
  4370 
  4371 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4372 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4373 
  4374 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4375 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4376 terms.
  4377 
  4378 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4379 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4380 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4381 
  4382 
  4383 *** System ***
  4384 
  4385 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4386 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4387 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4388 
  4389 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4390 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4391 respectively.
  4392 
  4393 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4394 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4395 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4396 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4397 
  4398   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4399 
  4400 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4401 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4402 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4403 component.
  4404 
  4405 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4406 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4407 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4408 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4409 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4410 the user for manual installation.
  4411 
  4412 
  4413 
  4414 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4415 -------------------------------------
  4416 
  4417 *** General ***
  4418 
  4419 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4420 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4421 
  4422 
  4423 *** Pure ***
  4424 
  4425 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4426 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4427 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4428 
  4429 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4430 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4431 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4432 
  4433 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4434 interpretation.
  4435 
  4436 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4437 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4438 
  4439 
  4440 *** Document preparation ***
  4441 
  4442 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4443 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4444 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4445 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4446 
  4447 
  4448 *** HOL ***
  4449 
  4450 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4451 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4452 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4453 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4454 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4455 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4456 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4457 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4458 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4459 
  4460 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4461 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4462 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4463 
  4464 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4465 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4466 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4467 
  4468 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4469 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4470 
  4471 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4472 
  4473 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4474 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4475 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4476 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4477 
  4478 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4479 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4480 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4481 "mirabelle" utility.
  4482 
  4483 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4484 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4485 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4486 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4487 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4488 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4489 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4490 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4491 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4492 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4493 
  4494 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4495 procedure only.
  4496 
  4497 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4498 
  4499 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4500 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4501 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4502 that fail later.
  4503 
  4504 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4505 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4506 
  4507 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4508 the same method as the approximation method.
  4509 
  4510 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4511 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4512 series expansion.
  4513 
  4514 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4515 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4516 
  4517 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4518 reals.
  4519 
  4520 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4521 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4522 
  4523 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4524 fixpoint theorem.
  4525 
  4526 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4527   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4528     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4529   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4530     accordingly
  4531   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4532     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4533   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4534     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4535 
  4536 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4537 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4538 lattice.
  4539 
  4540 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4541 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4542 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4543 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4544 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4545 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4546 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4547 
  4548 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4549   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4550     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4551   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4552     le_inf_iff
  4553   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4554     sup_aci)
  4555   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4556   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4557   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4558     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4559     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4560     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4561     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4562     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4563     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4564     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4565     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4566     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4567     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4568   - authentic syntax for
  4569     Set.Pow
  4570     Set.image
  4571   - mere abbreviations:
  4572     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4573     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4574     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4575     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4576     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4577     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4578     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4579     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4580   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4581 
  4582 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4583 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4584 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4585 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4586 
  4587 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4588 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4589 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4590 
  4591 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4592 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4593 
  4594 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4595 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4596 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4597 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4598 
  4599 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4600 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4601 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4602 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4603 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4604 
  4605 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4606 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4607 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4608 
  4609 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4610 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4611 
  4612 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4613 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4614 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4615 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4616 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4617 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4618 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4619 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4620 
  4621 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4622     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4623     code_post       replaces    code post
  4624     etc.
  4625   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4626 
  4627 * Renamed methods:
  4628     sizechange -> size_change
  4629     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4630   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4631 
  4632 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4633 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4634 
  4635 * Renamed theorems:
  4636     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4637     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4638     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4639     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4640     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4641   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4642 
  4643 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4644 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4645 
  4646 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4647 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4648 
  4649 
  4650 *** HOLCF ***
  4651 
  4652 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4653 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4654 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4655 
  4656 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4657 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4658 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4659 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4660 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4661 
  4662 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4663 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4664 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4665 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4666 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4667 
  4668 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4669 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4670 constructor are pre-configured.
  4671 
  4672 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4673 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4674 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4675 
  4676 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4677 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4678 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4679 as well.)
  4680 
  4681 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4682 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4683 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4684 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4685 examples.
  4686 
  4687 
  4688 *** ML ***
  4689 
  4690 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4691 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4692 
  4693 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4694 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4695 position, logical grouping etc.
  4696 
  4697 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4698 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4699 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4700 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4701 
  4702 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4703 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4704 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4705 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4706 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4707 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4708 
  4709 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4710 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4711 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4712 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4713 experiments with references.
  4714 
  4715 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4716 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4717 
  4718 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4719 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4720 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4721 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4722 
  4723 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4724 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4725 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4726 
  4727 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4728 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4729 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4730 
  4731 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4732 
  4733 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4734 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4735 
  4736 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4737 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4738 
  4739 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4740 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4741 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4742 
  4743 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4744 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4745 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4746 
  4747 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4748 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4749 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4750 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4751 
  4752 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4753 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4754 instead of global theory.
  4755 
  4756 
  4757 *** System ***
  4758 
  4759 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4760 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4761 usedir option -q.
  4762 
  4763 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4764 also the system manual.
  4765 
  4766 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4767 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4768 
  4769 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4770 this is always enabled.
  4771 
  4772 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4773 
  4774 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4775 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4776 currently supported on Linux only.
  4777 
  4778 
  4779 
  4780 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4781 --------------------------------
  4782 
  4783 *** General ***
  4784 
  4785 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4786 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4787 
  4788   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4789     "isatool."
  4790 
  4791   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4792     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4793 
  4794   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4795     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4796 
  4797 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4798 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4799 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4800 
  4801 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4802 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4803 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4804 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4805 via "isabelle emacs".
  4806 
  4807 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4808 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4809 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4810 
  4811 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4812 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4813 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4814 
  4815 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4816 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4817 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4818 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4819 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4820 
  4821 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4822 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4823 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4824 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4825 
  4826 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4827 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4828 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4829 
  4830 
  4831 *** Pure ***
  4832 
  4833 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4834 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4835 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4836 
  4837 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4838 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4839 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4840 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4841 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4842 
  4843 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4844 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4845 useful in locale declarations.
  4846 
  4847 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4848 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4849 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4850 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4851 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4852 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4853 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4854 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4855 no longer generated.
  4856 
  4857 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4858 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4859 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4860 
  4861 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4862 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4863 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4864 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4865 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4866 
  4867 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4868 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4869 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4870 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4871 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4872 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4873 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4874 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4875 
  4876 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4877 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4878 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4879 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4880 
  4881 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4882 
  4883 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4884 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4885 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4886 
  4887 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4888 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4889 
  4890 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4891 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4892 in HOL, write
  4893 
  4894     class foo = ...
  4895 
  4896 instead of
  4897 
  4898     class foo = type + ...
  4899 
  4900 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4901 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4902 
  4903 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4904 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4905 
  4906 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4907 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4908 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4909 
  4910 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4911 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4912 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4913 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4914 directly in regular applications.
  4915 
  4916 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4917 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4918 
  4919 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4920 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4921 
  4922 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4923 theory context.
  4924 
  4925 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4926 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4927 
  4928 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4929 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4930 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4931 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4932 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4933 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4934 
  4935   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4936 
  4937 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4938 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4939 normalization.
  4940 
  4941 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4942 addressing etc.
  4943 
  4944 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4945 
  4946   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4947   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4948 
  4949 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4950 
  4951   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4952      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4953      parts of the code generator framework).
  4954 
  4955   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4956      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4957      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4958 
  4959 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4960 
  4961 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4962 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4963 
  4964 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4965 patterns, e.g.
  4966 
  4967     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4968 
  4969 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4970 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4971 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4972 hyphen:
  4973 
  4974     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4975 
  4976 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4977 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4978 
  4979 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4980 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4981 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4982 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4983 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4984 higher-order unification.
  4985 
  4986 
  4987 *** Document preparation ***
  4988 
  4989 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4990 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4991 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4992 
  4993 
  4994 *** HOL ***
  4995 
  4996 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4997 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4998 
  4999 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5000 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5001 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5002 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5003 Main, as before.
  5004 
  5005 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5006 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5007 
  5008 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5009 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5010 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5011 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5012 
  5013 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5014 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5015 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5016 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5017 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5018 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5019 
  5020 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5021 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5022 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5023 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5024 
  5025 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5026 menu.
  5027 
  5028 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5029 (contains the empty clause).
  5030 
  5031 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5032 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5033 
  5034 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5035 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5036 
  5037 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5038 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5039 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5040 
  5041 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5042 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5043 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5044 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5045 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5046 
  5047 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5048 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5049 
  5050 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5051 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5052 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5053 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5054 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5055 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5056 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5057 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5058 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5059 
  5060 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5061 
  5062 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5063 
  5064 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5065 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5066 
  5067 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5068 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5069 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5070 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5071 
  5072 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5073 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5074 
  5075     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5076     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5077     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5078     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5079     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5080     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5081     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5082     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5083 
  5084 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5085 theory Set.
  5086 
  5087 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5088 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5089 
  5090 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5091 
  5092 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5093 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5094 
  5095 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5096 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5097 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5098 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5099 allowed. For examples see
  5100 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5101 
  5102 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5103 
  5104 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5105 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5106 
  5107 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5108 structure:
  5109 
  5110     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5111     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5112     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5113     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5114     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5115     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5116     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5117     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5118     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5119     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5120     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5121     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5122     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5123     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5124     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5125     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5126     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5127     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5128     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5129     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5130     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5131     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5132     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5133     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5134     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5135     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5136     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5137     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5138     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5139     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5140     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5141     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5142     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5143 
  5144     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5145     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5146     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5147     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5148     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5149     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5150     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5151     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5152     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5153     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5154 
  5155     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5156     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5157     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5158     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5159     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5160     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5161 
  5162 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5163 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5164 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5165 
  5166 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5167 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5168 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5169 
  5170 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5171 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5172 
  5173 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5174 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5175 
  5176 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5177 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5178 proofs, e.g.
  5179 
  5180   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5181 
  5182 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5183 
  5184 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5185 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5186 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5187 
  5188 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5189 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5190 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5191 
  5192 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5193 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5194 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5195 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5196 
  5197 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5198 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5199 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5200 preorder_class.*.
  5201 
  5202 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5203 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5204 
  5205 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5206 
  5207   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5208 
  5209 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5210 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5211 fold_image.
  5212 
  5213 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5214 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5215 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5216 the former will disappear at some point.
  5217 
  5218 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5219 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5220 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5221 
  5222 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5223 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5224 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5225 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5226 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5227 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5228 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5229 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5230 
  5231 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5232 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5233 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5234 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5235 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5236 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5237 
  5238     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5239     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5240     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5241     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5242     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5243     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5244     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5245 
  5246 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5247 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5248 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5249 
  5250 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5251 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5252 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5253 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5254 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5255 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5256 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5257 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5258 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5259 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5260 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5261 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5262 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5263 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5264 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5265 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5266 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5267 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5268 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5269 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5270 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5271 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5272 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5273 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5274 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5275 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5276 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5277 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5278 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5279 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5280 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5281 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5282 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5283 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5284 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5285 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5286 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5287 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5288 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5289 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5290 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5291 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5292 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5293 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5294 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5295 
  5296 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5297 
  5298 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5299 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5300 
  5301 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5302 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5303 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5304 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5305 
  5306 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5307 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5308 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5309 theory RealVector.
  5310 
  5311 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5312 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5313 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5314 and inner products are included.
  5315 
  5316 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5317 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5318 supported.
  5319 
  5320 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5321 first diagonalization argument.
  5322 
  5323 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5324 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5325 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5326 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5327 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5328 
  5329     hide (open) const gcd
  5330     abbreviation gcd where
  5331       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5332     notation (output)
  5333       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5334 
  5335 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5336 
  5337 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5338 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5339 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5340 
  5341 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5342 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5343 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5344 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5345 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5346 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5347 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5348 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5349 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5350 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5351 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5352 cases.
  5353 
  5354 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5355 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5356 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5357 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5358 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5359 
  5360     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5361     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5362     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5363     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5364     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5365 
  5366 
  5367 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5368 
  5369 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5370 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5371 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5372 
  5373 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5374 
  5375 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5376 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5377 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5378 
  5379 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5380 
  5381 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5382 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5383 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5384 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5385 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5386 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5387 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5388 
  5389 
  5390 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5391 
  5392 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5393 
  5394 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5395 theory targets.
  5396 
  5397 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5398 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5399 'inductive' etc.
  5400 
  5401 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5402 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5403 
  5404 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5405 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5406 
  5407 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5408 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5409 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5410 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5411 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5412 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5413 the algorithm W:
  5414 
  5415  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5416  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5417          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5418 
  5419 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5420 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5421 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5422 
  5423 
  5424 *** HOLCF ***
  5425 
  5426 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5427 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5428 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5429 
  5430 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5431 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5432 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5433 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5434 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5435 
  5436 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5437 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5438 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5439 
  5440 
  5441 *** ZF ***
  5442 
  5443 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5444 
  5445 
  5446 *** ML ***
  5447 
  5448 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5449 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5450 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5451 5.2.1!
  5452 
  5453 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5454 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5455 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5456 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5457 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5458 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5459 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5460 
  5461 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5462 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5463 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5464 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5465 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5466 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5467 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5468 
  5469 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5470 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5471 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5472 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5473 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5474 
  5475 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5476 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5477 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5478 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5479 Method.add_method.
  5480 
  5481 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5482 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5483 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5484 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5485 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5486 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5487 
  5488 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5489 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5490 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5491 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5492 examples.
  5493 
  5494 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5495 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5496 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5497 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5498 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5499 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5500 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5501 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5502 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5503 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5504 
  5505 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5506 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5507 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5508 
  5509 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5510 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5511 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5512 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5513 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5514 resort for legacy applications.
  5515 
  5516 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5517 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5518 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5519 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5520 explicit runtime argument.
  5521 
  5522 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5523 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5524 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5525 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5526 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5527 
  5528 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5529 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5530 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5531 theory state.
  5532 
  5533 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5534 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5535 
  5536   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5537   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5538   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5539   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5540   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5541   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5542   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5543   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5544   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5545   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5546 
  5547 
  5548 *** System ***
  5549 
  5550 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5551 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5552 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5553 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5554 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5555 
  5556 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5557 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5558 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5559 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5560 
  5561 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5562 
  5563 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5564 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5565 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5566 prover operations.
  5567 
  5568 
  5569 
  5570 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5571 -------------------------------
  5572 
  5573 *** General ***
  5574 
  5575 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5576 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5577 
  5578 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5579 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5580 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5581 provides a proper context already.
  5582 
  5583 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5584 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5585 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5586 
  5587 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5588 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5589 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5590 swap theory imports.
  5591 
  5592 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5593 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5594 
  5595 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5596 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5597 white space without escapes.
  5598 
  5599 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5600 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5601 "foo_bar".
  5602 
  5603 
  5604 *** Pure ***
  5605 
  5606 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5607 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5608 
  5609 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5610 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5611 
  5612 (1) unused_thms
  5613      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5614 
  5615 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5616      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5617      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5618 
  5619 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5620      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5621      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5622      their ancestors.
  5623 
  5624 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5625 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5626 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5627 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5628 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5629 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5630 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5631 
  5632 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5633 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5634 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5635 
  5636 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5637 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5638 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5639 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5640 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5641 
  5642 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5643 
  5644 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5645 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5646 update of theories within ML code.
  5647 
  5648 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5649 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5650 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5651 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5652 
  5653 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5654 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5655 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5656 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5657 
  5658 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5659 
  5660 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5661 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5662 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5663 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5664 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5665 
  5666 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5667 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5668 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5669 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5670 situations.
  5671 
  5672 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5673 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5674 proof text.
  5675 
  5676 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5677 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5678 
  5679 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5680 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5681 predicates.
  5682 
  5683 
  5684 *** Document preparation ***
  5685 
  5686 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5687 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5688 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5689 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5690 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5691 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5692 
  5693 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5694 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5695 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5696 
  5697 
  5698 *** HOL ***
  5699 
  5700 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5701 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5702 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5703 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5704 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5705 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5706 
  5707 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5708 with multithreading.
  5709 
  5710 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5711 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5712 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5713 
  5714 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5715 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5716 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5717 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5718 
  5719 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5720 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5721 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5722 and makes them available separately.  See
  5723 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5724 
  5725 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5726 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5727 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5728 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5729 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5730 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5731 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5732 the declared rules.
  5733 
  5734 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5735 
  5736   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5737 
  5738 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5739 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5740 
  5741 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5742 
  5743   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5744 
  5745   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5746     definitions on => and bool.
  5747 
  5748   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5749     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5750     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5751 
  5752       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5753       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5754       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5755       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5756       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5757       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5758       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5759       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5760 
  5761   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5762     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5763     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5764 
  5765   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5766     The proof pattern
  5767 
  5768       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5769       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5770 
  5771     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5772     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5773 
  5774       have "EX S. P S"
  5775       proof
  5776         show "P S" <...>
  5777       qed
  5778 
  5779   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5780     The proof pattern
  5781 
  5782       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5783       also have "S = T" <...>
  5784       finally have "P T" .
  5785 
  5786     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5787     must be replaced by something like
  5788 
  5789       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5790       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5791       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5792 
  5793   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5794     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5795 
  5796       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5797 
  5798     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5799     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5800     type of the form
  5801 
  5802       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5803 
  5804     rather than
  5805 
  5806       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5807 
  5808 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5809 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5810 
  5811 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5812 
  5813 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5814 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5815 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5816 
  5817 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5818 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5819 
  5820 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5821 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5822 
  5823 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5824 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5825 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5826 
  5827 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5828 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5829 
  5830   less_trans
  5831   less_linear
  5832   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5833   le_less_trans
  5834   less_le_trans
  5835   less_not_sym
  5836   less_asym
  5837 
  5838 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5839 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5840 and different variable names.
  5841 
  5842 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5843 
  5844 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5845 finite maps.
  5846 
  5847 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5848 
  5849 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5850 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5851 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5852 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5853 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5854 accordingly.
  5855 
  5856 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5857 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5858 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5859 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5860 
  5861 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5862 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5863 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5864 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5865 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5866 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5867 
  5868 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5869 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5870 
  5871 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5872 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5873 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5874 
  5875 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5876 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5877 
  5878 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5879 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5880 
  5881 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5882 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5883 
  5884 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5885 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5886 
  5887 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5888 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5889 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5890 
  5891 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5892 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5893 
  5894 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5895 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5896 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5897 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5898 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5899 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5900 
  5901 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5902 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5903 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5904 
  5905 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5906 
  5907 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5908 
  5909 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5910 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5911 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5912 
  5913 
  5914 *** ZF ***
  5915 
  5916 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5917 same session:
  5918 
  5919   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5920   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5921   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5922   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5923   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5924   List      -> List_ZF
  5925   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5926 
  5927 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5928 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5929 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5930 
  5931 
  5932 *** ML ***
  5933 
  5934 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5935 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5936 
  5937 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5938 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5939 
  5940 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5941 
  5942 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5943 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5944 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5945 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5946 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5947 
  5948 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5949 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5950 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5951 
  5952 
  5953 *** System ***
  5954 
  5955 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5956 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5957 
  5958 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5959 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5960 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5961 
  5962 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5963 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5964 
  5965 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5966 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5967 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5968 
  5969 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5970 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5971 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5972 
  5973 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5974 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5975 
  5976 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5977 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5978 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5979 script.
  5980 
  5981 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5982 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5983 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5984 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5985 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5986 
  5987 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5988 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5989 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5990 
  5991 
  5992 
  5993 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5994 -----------------------------------
  5995 
  5996 *** General ***
  5997 
  5998 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5999 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  6000 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6001 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  6002 
  6003 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  6004 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  6005 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6006 
  6007 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  6008 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  6009 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  6010 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6011 
  6012 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  6013 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  6014 quotes.
  6015 
  6016 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  6017 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  6018 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  6019 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  6020 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  6021 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  6022 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  6023 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  6024 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  6025 
  6026 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  6027 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  6028 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  6029 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  6030 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  6031 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  6032 
  6033 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6034 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  6035 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  6036 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  6037 
  6038 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  6039 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  6040 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  6041 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  6042 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  6043 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  6044 
  6045 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  6046 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  6047 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  6048 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  6049 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  6050 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  6051 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  6052 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  6053 
  6054 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  6055 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  6056 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  6057 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  6058 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  6059 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  6060 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  6061 
  6062 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  6063 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  6064 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  6065 
  6066 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  6067 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  6068 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  6069 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  6070 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  6071 limit is imposed.
  6072 
  6073 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  6074 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  6075 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  6076 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  6077 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  6078 and scalability.
  6079 
  6080 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  6081 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  6082 
  6083 
  6084 *** Document preparation ***
  6085 
  6086 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  6087 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  6088 current context.
  6089 
  6090 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  6091 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  6092 
  6093 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  6094 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  6095 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  6096 
  6097 
  6098 *** Pure ***
  6099 
  6100 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  6101 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  6102 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  6103 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  6104 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  6105 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  6106 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  6107 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  6108 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  6109 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  6110 
  6111 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  6112 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  6113 sketch:
  6114 
  6115     internal compilation:
  6116         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  6117     writing SML code to a file:
  6118         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  6119     writing OCaml code to a file:
  6120         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  6121     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  6122         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  6123 
  6124     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  6125         method ``eval''
  6126 
  6127 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  6128 
  6129 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  6130 
  6131     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6132     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6133     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6134     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6135 
  6136 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  6137 
  6138     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  6139       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  6140 
  6141     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  6142       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  6143 
  6144     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  6145       {(target)}+
  6146         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  6147 
  6148     code_class <and_list of classes>
  6149       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  6150         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  6151 
  6152 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  6153 
  6154 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  6155 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  6156 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  6157 codegen".
  6158 
  6159 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  6160 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  6161 annotations).
  6162 
  6163 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  6164 syntax.
  6165 
  6166 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  6167 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  6168 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  6169 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  6170 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  6171 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  6172 
  6173 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  6174 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  6175 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  6176 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  6177 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  6178 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  6179 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  6180 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  6181 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  6182 equations, see section "definitions".
  6183 
  6184 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  6185 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  6186 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  6187 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  6188 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  6189 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  6190 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  6191 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  6192 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  6193 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  6194 
  6195 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  6196 configuration options:
  6197 
  6198   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  6199   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  6200   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  6201   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  6202   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  6203   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  6204   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  6205   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  6206   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  6207 
  6208 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  6209 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  6210 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  6211 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  6212 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  6213 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  6214 order.
  6215 
  6216 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  6217 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  6218 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  6219 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  6220 context encountered later on.
  6221 
  6222 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  6223 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  6224 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  6225 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  6226 
  6227 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  6228 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  6229 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  6230 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  6231 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  6232 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  6233 
  6234 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  6235 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  6236 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  6237 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  6238 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  6239 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  6240 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  6241 more permissive.
  6242 
  6243 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  6244 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  6245 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  6246 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  6247 maintainability of proof texts.
  6248 
  6249 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  6250 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  6251 
  6252   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  6253   then guess x and y by clarify
  6254 
  6255 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  6256 proof tools being involved here.
  6257 
  6258 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  6259 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  6260 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  6261 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  6262 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  6263 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known