NEWS
author nipkow
Thu Sep 15 11:48:20 2016 +0200 (2016-09-15)
changeset 63882 018998c00003
parent 63875 2683c3be36eb
child 63891 8947157ca830
permissions -rw-r--r--
renamed listsum -> sum_list, listprod ~> prod_list
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 (Note: Isabelle/jEdit shows a tree-view of the NEWS file in Sidekick.)
     5 
     6 
     7 New in this Isabelle version
     8 ----------------------------
     9 
    10 *** General ***
    11 
    12 * Embedded content (e.g. the inner syntax of types, terms, props) may be
    13 delimited uniformly via cartouches. This works better than old-fashioned
    14 quotes when sub-languages are nested.
    15 
    16 * Type-inference improves sorts of newly introduced type variables for
    17 the object-logic, using its base sort (i.e. HOL.type for Isabelle/HOL).
    18 Thus terms like "f x" or "\<And>x. P x" without any further syntactic context
    19 produce x::'a::type in HOL instead of x::'a::{} in Pure. Rare
    20 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide explicit type constraints for Pure
    21 types where this is really intended.
    22 
    23 * Simplified outer syntax: uniform category "name" includes long
    24 identifiers. Former "xname" / "nameref" / "name reference" has been
    25 discontinued.
    26 
    27 * Mixfix annotations support general block properties, with syntax
    28 "(\<open>x=a y=b z \<dots>\<close>". Notable property names are "indent", "consistent",
    29 "unbreakable", "markup". The existing notation "(DIGITS" is equivalent
    30 to "(\<open>indent=DIGITS\<close>". The former notation "(00" for unbreakable blocks
    31 is superseded by "(\<open>unbreabable\<close>" --- rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
    32 
    33 * New symbol \<circle>, e.g. for temporal operator.
    34 
    35 * Old 'header' command is no longer supported (legacy since
    36 Isabelle2015).
    37 
    38 * Command 'bundle' provides a local theory target to define a bundle
    39 from the body of specification commands (such as 'declare',
    40 'declaration', 'notation', 'lemmas', 'lemma'). For example:
    41 
    42 bundle foo
    43 begin
    44   declare a [simp]
    45   declare b [intro]
    46 end
    47 
    48 * Command 'unbundle' is like 'include', but works within a local theory
    49 context. Unlike "context includes ... begin", the effect of 'unbundle'
    50 on the target context persists, until different declarations are given.
    51 
    52 * Splitter in simp, auto and friends:
    53 - The syntax "split add" has been discontinued, use plain "split".
    54 - For situations with many conditional or case expressions,
    55 there is an alternative splitting strategy that can be much faster.
    56 It is selected by writing "split!" instead of "split". It applies
    57 safe introduction and elimination rules after each split rule.
    58 As a result the subgoal may be split into several subgoals.
    59 
    60 * Proof method "blast" is more robust wrt. corner cases of Pure
    61 statements without object-logic judgment.
    62 
    63 * Pure provides basic versions of proof methods "simp" and "simp_all"
    64 that only know about meta-equality (==). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in
    65 theory imports that merge Pure with e.g. Main of Isabelle/HOL: the order
    66 is relevant to avoid confusion of Pure.simp vs. HOL.simp.
    67 
    68 * Commands 'prf' and 'full_prf' are somewhat more informative (again):
    69 proof terms are reconstructed and cleaned from administrative thm
    70 nodes.
    71 
    72 * The command 'unfolding' and proof method "unfold" include a second
    73 stage where given equations are passed through the attribute "abs_def"
    74 before rewriting. This ensures that definitions are fully expanded,
    75 regardless of the actual parameters that are provided. Rare
    76 INCOMPATIBILITY in some corner cases: use proof method (simp only:)
    77 instead, or declare [[unfold_abs_def = false]] in the proof context.
    78 
    79 
    80 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    81 
    82 * Dockable window "Symbols" also provides access to 'abbrevs' from the
    83 outer syntax of the current theory buffer. This provides clickable
    84 syntax templates, including entries with empty abbrevs name (which are
    85 inaccessible via keyboard completion).
    86 
    87 * Cartouche abbreviations work both for " and ` to accomodate typical
    88 situations where old ASCII notation may be updated.
    89 
    90 * Isabelle/ML and Standard ML files are presented in Sidekick with the
    91 tree structure of section headings: this special comment format is
    92 described in "implementation" chapter 0, e.g. (*** section ***).
    93 
    94 * IDE support for the Isabelle/Pure bootstrap process, with the
    95 following independent stages:
    96 
    97   src/Pure/ROOT0.ML
    98   src/Pure/ROOT.ML
    99   src/Pure/Pure.thy
   100   src/Pure/ML_Bootstrap.thy
   101 
   102 The ML ROOT files act like quasi-theories in the context of theory
   103 ML_Bootstrap: this allows continuous checking of all loaded ML files.
   104 The theory files are presented with a modified header to import Pure
   105 from the running Isabelle instance. Results from changed versions of
   106 each stage are *not* propagated to the next stage, and isolated from the
   107 actual Isabelle/Pure that runs the IDE itself. The sequential
   108 dependencies of the above files are only observed for batch build.
   109 
   110 * Highlighting of entity def/ref positions wrt. cursor.
   111 
   112 * Refined folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax: 'next' and 'qed'
   113 are treated as delimiters for fold structure; 'begin' and 'end'
   114 structure of theory specifications is treated as well.
   115 
   116 * Sidekick parser "isabelle-context" shows nesting of context blocks
   117 according to 'begin' and 'end' structure.
   118 
   119 * Syntactic indentation according to Isabelle outer syntax. Action
   120 "indent-lines" (shortcut C+i) indents the current line according to
   121 command keywords and some command substructure. Action
   122 "isabelle.newline" (shortcut ENTER) indents the old and the new line
   123 according to command keywords only; see also option
   124 "jedit_indent_newline".
   125 
   126 * Semantic indentation for unstructured proof scripts ('apply' etc.) via
   127 number of subgoals. This requires information of ongoing document
   128 processing and may thus lag behind, when the user is editing too
   129 quickly; see also option "jedit_script_indent" and
   130 "jedit_script_indent_limit".
   131 
   132 * Action "isabelle.select-entity" (shortcut CS+ENTER) selects all
   133 occurences of the formal entity at the caret position. This facilitates
   134 systematic renaming.
   135 
   136 * Action "isabelle.keymap-merge" asks the user to resolve pending
   137 Isabelle keymap changes that are in conflict with the current jEdit
   138 keymap; non-conflicting changes are always applied implicitly. This
   139 action is automatically invoked on Isabelle/jEdit startup and thus
   140 increases chances that users see new keyboard shortcuts when re-using
   141 old keymaps.
   142 
   143 * Document markup works across multiple Isar commands, e.g. the results
   144 established at the end of a proof are properly identified in the theorem
   145 statement.
   146 
   147 * Command 'proof' provides information about proof outline with cases,
   148 e.g. for proof methods "cases", "induct", "goal_cases".
   149 
   150 * Completion templates for commands involving "begin ... end" blocks,
   151 e.g. 'context', 'notepad'.
   152 
   153 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified
   154 within the theory header as 'abbrevs'. The theory syntax for 'keywords'
   155 has been simplified accordingly: optional abbrevs need to go into the
   156 new 'abbrevs' section.
   157 
   158 * Global abbreviations via $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and
   159 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs are no longer supported. Minor
   160 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'abbrevs' within theory header instead.
   161 
   162 * ML and document antiquotations for file-systems paths are more uniform
   163 and diverse:
   164 
   165   @{path NAME}   -- no file-system check
   166   @{file NAME}   -- check for plain file
   167   @{dir NAME}    -- check for directory
   168 
   169 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, former uses of @{file} and @{file_unchecked} may
   170 have to be changed.
   171 
   172 
   173 *** Isar ***
   174 
   175 * The defining position of a literal fact \<open>prop\<close> is maintained more
   176 carefully, and made accessible as hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
   177 
   178 * Commands 'finally' and 'ultimately' used to expose the result as
   179 literal fact: this accidental behaviour has been discontinued. Rare
   180 INCOMPATIBILITY, use more explicit means to refer to facts in Isar.
   181 
   182 * Command 'axiomatization' has become more restrictive to correspond
   183 better to internal axioms as singleton facts with mandatory name. Minor
   184 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   185 
   186 * Many specification elements support structured statements with 'if' /
   187 'for' eigen-context, e.g. 'axiomatization', 'abbreviation',
   188 'definition', 'inductive', 'function'.
   189 
   190 * Toplevel theorem statements support eigen-context notation with 'if' /
   191 'for' (in postfix), which corresponds to 'assumes' / 'fixes' in the
   192 traditional long statement form (in prefix). Local premises are called
   193 "that" or "assms", respectively. Empty premises are *not* bound in the
   194 context: INCOMPATIBILITY.
   195 
   196 * Command 'define' introduces a local (non-polymorphic) definition, with
   197 optional abstraction over local parameters. The syntax resembles
   198 'definition' and 'obtain'. It fits better into the Isar language than
   199 old 'def', which is now a legacy feature.
   200 
   201 * Command 'obtain' supports structured statements with 'if' / 'for'
   202 context.
   203 
   204 * Command '\<proof>' is an alias for 'sorry', with different
   205 typesetting. E.g. to produce proof holes in examples and documentation.
   206 
   207 * The old proof method "default" has been removed (legacy since
   208 Isabelle2016). INCOMPATIBILITY, use "standard" instead.
   209 
   210 * Proof methods may refer to the main facts via the dynamic fact
   211 "method_facts". This is particularly useful for Eisbach method
   212 definitions.
   213 
   214 * Proof method "use" allows to modify the main facts of a given method
   215 expression, e.g.
   216 
   217   (use facts in simp)
   218   (use facts in \<open>simp add: ...\<close>)
   219 
   220 
   221 *** Pure ***
   222 
   223 * Code generator: config option "code_timing" triggers measurements of
   224 different phases of code generation. See src/HOL/ex/Code_Timing.thy for
   225 examples.
   226 
   227 * Code generator: implicits in Scala (stemming from type class instances)
   228 are generated into companion object of corresponding type class, to resolve
   229 some situations where ambiguities may occur.
   230 
   231 
   232 *** HOL ***
   233 
   234 * Renamed session HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Analysis.
   235 
   236 * Moved measure theory from HOL-Probability to HOL-Analysis. When importing
   237 HOL-Analysis some theorems need additional name spaces prefixes due to name
   238 clashes.
   239 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   240 
   241 * Number_Theory: algebraic foundation for primes: Generalisation of 
   242 predicate "prime" and introduction of predicates "prime_elem",
   243 "irreducible", a "prime_factorization" function, and the "factorial_ring" 
   244 typeclass with instance proofs for nat, int, poly. Some theorems now have 
   245 different names, most notably "prime_def" is now "prime_nat_iff".
   246 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   247 
   248 * Probability: Code generation and QuickCheck for Probability Mass 
   249 Functions.
   250 
   251 * Theory Set_Interval.thy: substantial new theorems on indexed sums
   252 and products.
   253 
   254 * Theory List.thy:
   255   listsum ~> sum_list
   256   listprod ~> prod_list
   257 
   258 * Theory Library/LaTeXsugar.thy: New style "dummy_pats" for displaying
   259 equations in functional programming style: variables present on the
   260 left-hand but not on the righ-hand side are replaced by underscores.
   261 
   262 * "surj" is a mere input abbreviation, to avoid hiding an equation in
   263 term output.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   264 
   265 * Theory Library/Combinator_PER.thy: combinator to build partial
   266 equivalence relations from a predicate and an equivalence relation.
   267 
   268 * Theory Library/Perm.thy: basic facts about almost everywhere fix
   269 bijections.
   270 
   271 * Locale bijection establishes convenient default simp rules
   272 like "inv f (f a) = a" for total bijections.
   273 
   274 * Former locale lifting_syntax is now a bundle, which is easier to
   275 include in a local context or theorem statement, e.g. "context includes
   276 lifting_syntax begin ... end". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   277 
   278 * Code generation for scala: ambiguous implicts in class diagrams
   279 are spelt out explicitly.
   280 
   281 * Abstract locales semigroup, abel_semigroup, semilattice,
   282 semilattice_neutr, ordering, ordering_top, semilattice_order,
   283 semilattice_neutr_order, comm_monoid_set, semilattice_set,
   284 semilattice_neutr_set, semilattice_order_set, semilattice_order_neutr_set
   285 monoid_list, comm_monoid_list, comm_monoid_list_set, comm_monoid_mset,
   286 comm_monoid_fun use boldified syntax uniformly that does not clash
   287 with corresponding global syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   288 
   289 * Conventional syntax "%(). t" for unit abstractions.  Slight syntactic
   290 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   291 
   292 * Command 'code_reflect' accepts empty constructor lists for datatypes,
   293 which renders those abstract effectively.
   294 
   295 * Command 'export_code' checks given constants for abstraction violations:
   296 a small guarantee that given constants specify a safe interface for the
   297 generated code.
   298 
   299 * Probability/Random_Permutations.thy contains some theory about 
   300 choosing a permutation of a set uniformly at random and folding over a 
   301 list in random order.
   302 
   303 * Probability/SPMF formalises discrete subprobability distributions.
   304 
   305 * Library/FinFun.thy: bundles "finfun_syntax" and "no_finfun_syntax"
   306 allow to control optional syntax in local contexts; this supersedes
   307 former Library/FinFun_Syntax.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. use "unbundle
   308 finfun_syntax" to imitate import of "~~/src/HOL/Library/FinFun_Syntax".
   309 
   310 * Library/Set_Permutations.thy (executably) defines the set of 
   311 permutations of a set, i.e. the set of all lists that contain every 
   312 element of the carrier set exactly once.
   313 
   314 * Static evaluators (Code_Evaluation.static_* in Isabelle/ML) rely on
   315 explicitly provided auxiliary definitions for required type class
   316 dictionaries rather than half-working magic.  INCOMPATIBILITY, see
   317 the tutorial on code generation for details.
   318 
   319 * New abbreviations for negated existence (but not bounded existence):
   320 
   321   \<nexists>x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>x. P x)
   322   \<nexists>!x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>!x. P x)
   323 
   324 * The print mode "HOL" for ASCII syntax of binders "!", "?", "?!", "@"
   325 has been removed for output. It is retained for input only, until it is
   326 eliminated altogether.
   327 
   328 * metis: The problem encoding has changed very slightly. This might
   329 break existing proofs. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   330 
   331 * Sledgehammer:
   332   - The MaSh relevance filter has been sped up.
   333   - Produce syntactically correct Vampire 4.0 problem files.
   334 
   335 * (Co)datatype package:
   336   - New commands for defining corecursive functions and reasoning about
   337     them in "~~/src/HOL/Library/BNF_Corec.thy": 'corec', 'corecursive',
   338     'friend_of_corec', and 'corecursion_upto'; and 'corec_unique' proof
   339     method. See 'isabelle doc corec'.
   340   - The predicator :: ('a => bool) => 'a F => bool is now a first-class
   341     citizen in bounded natural functors.
   342   - 'primrec' now allows nested calls through the predicator in addition
   343     to the map function.
   344   - 'bnf' automatically discharges reflexive proof obligations.
   345   - 'bnf' outputs a slightly modified proof obligation expressing rel in
   346        terms of map and set
   347        (not giving a specification for rel makes this one reflexive).
   348   - 'bnf' outputs a new proof obligation expressing pred in terms of set
   349        (not giving a specification for pred makes this one reflexive).
   350     INCOMPATIBILITY: manual 'bnf' declarations may need adjustment.
   351   - Renamed lemmas:
   352       rel_prod_apply ~> rel_prod_inject
   353       pred_prod_apply ~> pred_prod_inject
   354     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   355   - The "size" plugin has been made compatible again with locales.
   356   - The theorems about "rel" and "set" may have a slightly different (but
   357     equivalent) form.
   358     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   359 
   360 * Some old / obsolete theorems have been renamed / removed, potential
   361 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   362 
   363   nat_less_cases  --  removed, use linorder_cases instead
   364   inv_image_comp  --  removed, use image_inv_f_f instead
   365   image_surj_f_inv_f  ~>  image_f_inv_f
   366 
   367 * Some theorems about groups and orders have been generalised from
   368   groups to semi-groups that are also monoids:
   369     le_add_same_cancel1
   370     le_add_same_cancel2
   371     less_add_same_cancel1
   372     less_add_same_cancel2
   373     add_le_same_cancel1
   374     add_le_same_cancel2
   375     add_less_same_cancel1
   376     add_less_same_cancel2
   377 
   378 * Some simplifications theorems about rings have been removed, since
   379   superseeded by a more general version:
   380     less_add_cancel_left_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel1
   381     less_add_cancel_right_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel2
   382     less_eq_add_cancel_left_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel1
   383     less_eq_add_cancel_right_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel2
   384     less_eq_add_cancel_left_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel1
   385     less_eq_add_cancel_right_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel2
   386     less_add_cancel_left_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel1
   387     less_add_cancel_right_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel2
   388 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   389 
   390 * Renamed split_if -> if_split and split_if_asm -> if_split_asm to
   391 resemble the f.split naming convention, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   392 
   393 * Characters (type char) are modelled as finite algebraic type
   394 corresponding to {0..255}.
   395 
   396   - Logical representation:
   397     * 0 is instantiated to the ASCII zero character.
   398     * All other characters are represented as "Char n"
   399       with n being a raw numeral expression less than 256.
   400     * Expressions of the form "Char n" with n greater than 255
   401       are non-canonical.
   402   - Printing and parsing:
   403     * Printable characters are printed and parsed as "CHR ''\<dots>''"
   404       (as before).
   405     * The ASCII zero character is printed and parsed as "0".
   406     * All other canonical characters are printed as "CHR 0xXX"
   407       with XX being the hexadecimal character code.  "CHR n"
   408       is parsable for every numeral expression n.
   409     * Non-canonical characters have no special syntax and are
   410       printed as their logical representation.
   411   - Explicit conversions from and to the natural numbers are
   412     provided as char_of_nat, nat_of_char (as before).
   413   - The auxiliary nibble type has been discontinued.
   414 
   415 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   416 
   417 * Multiset membership is now expressed using set_mset rather than count.
   418 
   419   - Expressions "count M a > 0" and similar simplify to membership
   420     by default.
   421 
   422   - Converting between "count M a = 0" and non-membership happens using
   423     equations count_eq_zero_iff and not_in_iff.
   424 
   425   - Rules count_inI and in_countE obtain facts of the form
   426     "count M a = n" from membership.
   427 
   428   - Rules count_in_diffI and in_diff_countE obtain facts of the form
   429     "count M a = n + count N a" from membership on difference sets.
   430 
   431 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   432 
   433 * The names of multiset theorems have been normalised to distinguish which
   434   ordering the theorems are about
   435     mset_less_eqI ~> mset_subset_eqI
   436     mset_less_insertD ~> mset_subset_insertD
   437     mset_less_eq_count ~> mset_subset_eq_count
   438     mset_less_diff_self ~> mset_subset_diff_self
   439     mset_le_exists_conv ~> mset_subset_eq_exists_conv
   440     mset_le_mono_add_right_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel
   441     mset_le_mono_add_left_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel
   442     mset_le_mono_add ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add
   443     mset_le_add_left ~> mset_subset_eq_add_left
   444     mset_le_add_right ~> mset_subset_eq_add_right
   445     mset_le_single ~> mset_subset_eq_single
   446     mset_le_multiset_union_diff_commute ~> mset_subset_eq_multiset_union_diff_commute
   447     diff_le_self ~> diff_subset_eq_self
   448     mset_leD ~> mset_subset_eqD
   449     mset_lessD ~> mset_subsetD
   450     mset_le_insertD ~> mset_subset_eq_insertD
   451     mset_less_of_empty ~> mset_subset_of_empty
   452     le_empty ~> subset_eq_empty
   453     mset_less_add_bothsides ~> mset_subset_add_bothsides
   454     mset_less_empty_nonempty ~> mset_subset_empty_nonempty
   455     mset_less_size ~> mset_subset_size
   456     wf_less_mset_rel ~> wf_subset_mset_rel
   457     count_le_replicate_mset_le ~> count_le_replicate_mset_subset_eq
   458     mset_remdups_le ~> mset_remdups_subset_eq
   459     ms_lesseq_impl ~> subset_eq_mset_impl
   460 
   461   Some functions have been renamed:
   462     ms_lesseq_impl -> subset_eq_mset_impl
   463 
   464 * Multisets are now ordered with the multiset ordering
   465     #\<subseteq># ~> \<le>
   466     #\<subset># ~> <
   467     le_multiset ~> less_eq_multiset
   468     less_multiset ~> le_multiset
   469 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   470 
   471 * The prefix multiset_order has been discontinued: the theorems can be directly
   472 accessed. As a consequence, the lemmas "order_multiset" and "linorder_multiset"
   473 have been discontinued, and the interpretations "multiset_linorder" and
   474 "multiset_wellorder" have been replaced by instantiations.
   475 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   476 
   477 * Some theorems about the multiset ordering have been renamed:
   478     le_multiset_def ~> less_eq_multiset_def
   479     less_multiset_def ~> le_multiset_def
   480     less_eq_imp_le_multiset ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
   481     mult_less_not_refl ~> mset_le_not_refl
   482     mult_less_trans ~> mset_le_trans
   483     mult_less_not_sym ~> mset_le_not_sym
   484     mult_less_asym ~> mset_le_asym
   485     mult_less_irrefl ~> mset_le_irrefl
   486     union_less_mono2{,1,2} ~> union_le_mono2{,1,2}
   487 
   488     le_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O ~> less_eq_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O
   489     le_multiset_total ~> less_eq_multiset_total
   490     less_multiset_right_total ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
   491     le_multiset_empty_left ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_left
   492     le_multiset_empty_right ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_right
   493     less_multiset_empty_right ~> le_multiset_empty_left
   494     less_multiset_empty_left ~> le_multiset_empty_right
   495     union_less_diff_plus ~> union_le_diff_plus
   496     ex_gt_count_imp_less_multiset ~> ex_gt_count_imp_le_multiset
   497     less_multiset_plus_left_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_left_nonempty
   498     le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty
   499     less_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> le_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff
   500     less_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> le_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff
   501 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   502 
   503 * The lemma mset_map has now the attribute [simp].
   504 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   505 
   506 * Some theorems about multisets have been removed:
   507     le_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
   508     le_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
   509     add_eq_self_empty_iff ~> add_cancel_left_right
   510     mset_subset_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
   511 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   512 
   513 * Some typeclass constraints about multisets have been reduced from ordered or
   514 linordered to preorder. Multisets have the additional typeclasses order_bot,
   515 no_top, ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le, ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add,
   516 linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add, and ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le.
   517 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   518 
   519 * There are some new simplification rules about multisets, the multiset
   520 ordering, and the subset ordering on multisets.
   521 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   522 
   523 * The subset ordering on multisets has now the interpretations
   524 ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le and bounded_lattice_bot.
   525 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   526 
   527 * Multiset: single has been removed in favor of add_mset that roughly
   528 corresponds to Set.insert. Some theorems have removed or changed:
   529   single_not_empty ~> add_mset_not_empty or empty_not_add_mset
   530   fold_mset_insert ~> fold_mset_add_mset
   531   image_mset_insert ~> image_mset_add_mset
   532   union_single_eq_diff
   533   multi_self_add_other_not_self
   534   diff_single_eq_union
   535 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   536 
   537 * Multiset: some theorems have been changed to use add_mset instead of single:
   538   mset_add
   539   multi_self_add_other_not_self
   540   diff_single_eq_union
   541   union_single_eq_diff
   542   union_single_eq_member
   543   add_eq_conv_diff
   544   insert_noteq_member
   545   add_eq_conv_ex
   546   multi_member_split
   547   multiset_add_sub_el_shuffle
   548   mset_subset_eq_insertD
   549   mset_subset_insertD
   550   insert_subset_eq_iff
   551   insert_union_subset_iff
   552   multi_psub_of_add_self
   553   inter_add_left1
   554   inter_add_left2
   555   inter_add_right1
   556   inter_add_right2
   557   sup_union_left1
   558   sup_union_left2
   559   sup_union_right1
   560   sup_union_right2
   561   size_eq_Suc_imp_eq_union
   562   multi_nonempty_split
   563   mset_insort
   564   mset_update
   565   mult1I
   566   less_add
   567   mset_zip_take_Cons_drop_twice
   568   rel_mset_Zero
   569   msed_map_invL
   570   msed_map_invR
   571   msed_rel_invL
   572   msed_rel_invR
   573   le_multiset_right_total
   574   multiset_induct
   575   multiset_induct2_size
   576   multiset_induct2
   577 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   578 
   579 * Multiset: the definitions of some constants have changed to use add_mset instead
   580 of adding a single element:
   581   image_mset
   582   mset
   583   replicate_mset
   584   mult1
   585   pred_mset
   586   rel_mset'
   587   mset_insort
   588 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   589 
   590 * Due to the above changes, the attributes of some multiset theorems have
   591 been changed:
   592   insert_DiffM  [] ~> [simp]
   593   insert_DiffM2 [simp] ~> []
   594   diff_add_mset_swap [simp]
   595   fold_mset_add_mset [simp]
   596   diff_diff_add [simp] (for multisets only)
   597   diff_cancel [simp] ~> []
   598   count_single [simp] ~> []
   599   set_mset_single [simp] ~> []
   600   size_multiset_single [simp] ~> []
   601   size_single [simp] ~> []
   602   image_mset_single [simp] ~> []
   603   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel [simp] ~> []
   604   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel [simp] ~> []
   605   fold_mset_single [simp] ~> []
   606   subset_eq_empty [simp] ~> []
   607   empty_sup [simp] ~> []
   608   sup_empty [simp] ~> []
   609   inter_empty [simp] ~> []
   610   empty_inter [simp] ~> []
   611 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   612 
   613 * The order of the variables in the second cases of multiset_induct,
   614 multiset_induct2_size, multiset_induct2 has been changed (e.g. Add A a ~> Add a A).
   615 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   616 
   617 * There is now a simplification procedure on multisets. It mimics the behavior
   618 of the procedure on natural numbers.
   619 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   620 
   621 * Renamed sums and products of multisets:
   622   msetsum ~> sum_mset
   623   msetprod ~> prod_mset
   624 
   625 * The lemma one_step_implies_mult_aux on multisets has been removed, use
   626 one_step_implies_mult instead.
   627 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   628 
   629 * Compound constants INFIMUM and SUPREMUM are mere abbreviations now.
   630 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   631 
   632 * More complex analysis including Cauchy's inequality, Liouville theorem,
   633 open mapping theorem, maximum modulus principle, Residue theorem, Schwarz Lemma.
   634 
   635 * Theory of polyhedra: faces, extreme points, polytopes, and the Krein–Milman
   636 Minkowski theorem.
   637 
   638 * "Gcd (f ` A)" and "Lcm (f ` A)" are printed with optional
   639 comprehension-like syntax analogously to "Inf (f ` A)" and "Sup (f ` A)".
   640 
   641 * Class semiring_Lcd merged into semiring_Gcd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   642 
   643 * The type class ordered_comm_monoid_add is now called
   644 ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add. A new type class ordered_comm_monoid_add is
   645 introduced as the combination of ordered_ab_semigroup_add + comm_monoid_add.
   646 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   647 
   648 * Introduced the type classes canonically_ordered_comm_monoid_add and dioid.
   649 
   650 * Introduced the type class ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. When
   651 instantiating linordered_semiring_strict and ordered_ab_group_add, an explicit
   652 instantiation of ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le might be
   653 required.
   654 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   655 
   656 * Added topological_monoid
   657 
   658 * Library/Complete_Partial_Order2.thy provides reasoning support for
   659 proofs about monotonicity and continuity in chain-complete partial
   660 orders and about admissibility conditions for fixpoint inductions.
   661 
   662 * Library/Polynomial.thy contains also derivation of polynomials
   663 but not gcd/lcm on polynomials over fields.  This has been moved
   664 to a separate theory Library/Polynomial_GCD_euclidean.thy, to
   665 pave way for a possible future different type class instantiation
   666 for polynomials over factorial rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   667 
   668 * Library/Sublist.thy: added function "prefixes" and renamed
   669   prefixeq -> prefix
   670   prefix -> strict_prefix
   671   suffixeq -> suffix
   672   suffix -> strict_suffix
   673   Added theory of longest common prefixes.
   674 
   675 * Dropped various legacy fact bindings, whose replacements are often
   676 of a more general type also:
   677   lcm_left_commute_nat ~> lcm.left_commute
   678   lcm_left_commute_int ~> lcm.left_commute
   679   gcd_left_commute_nat ~> gcd.left_commute
   680   gcd_left_commute_int ~> gcd.left_commute
   681   gcd_greatest_iff_nat ~> gcd_greatest_iff
   682   gcd_greatest_iff_int ~> gcd_greatest_iff
   683   coprime_dvd_mult_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult
   684   coprime_dvd_mult_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult
   685   zpower_numeral_even ~> power_numeral_even
   686   gcd_mult_cancel_nat ~> gcd_mult_cancel
   687   gcd_mult_cancel_int ~> gcd_mult_cancel
   688   div_gcd_coprime_nat ~> div_gcd_coprime
   689   div_gcd_coprime_int ~> div_gcd_coprime
   690   zpower_numeral_odd ~> power_numeral_odd
   691   zero_less_int_conv ~> of_nat_0_less_iff
   692   gcd_greatest_nat ~> gcd_greatest
   693   gcd_greatest_int ~> gcd_greatest
   694   coprime_mult_nat ~> coprime_mult
   695   coprime_mult_int ~> coprime_mult
   696   lcm_commute_nat ~> lcm.commute
   697   lcm_commute_int ~> lcm.commute
   698   int_less_0_conv ~> of_nat_less_0_iff
   699   gcd_commute_nat ~> gcd.commute
   700   gcd_commute_int ~> gcd.commute
   701   Gcd_insert_nat ~> Gcd_insert
   702   Gcd_insert_int ~> Gcd_insert
   703   of_int_int_eq ~> of_int_of_nat_eq
   704   lcm_least_nat ~> lcm_least
   705   lcm_least_int ~> lcm_least
   706   lcm_assoc_nat ~> lcm.assoc
   707   lcm_assoc_int ~> lcm.assoc
   708   int_le_0_conv ~> of_nat_le_0_iff
   709   int_eq_0_conv ~> of_nat_eq_0_iff
   710   Gcd_empty_nat ~> Gcd_empty
   711   Gcd_empty_int ~> Gcd_empty
   712   gcd_assoc_nat ~> gcd.assoc
   713   gcd_assoc_int ~> gcd.assoc
   714   zero_zle_int ~> of_nat_0_le_iff
   715   lcm_dvd2_nat ~> dvd_lcm2
   716   lcm_dvd2_int ~> dvd_lcm2
   717   lcm_dvd1_nat ~> dvd_lcm1
   718   lcm_dvd1_int ~> dvd_lcm1
   719   gcd_zero_nat ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
   720   gcd_zero_int ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
   721   gcd_dvd2_nat ~> gcd_dvd2
   722   gcd_dvd2_int ~> gcd_dvd2
   723   gcd_dvd1_nat ~> gcd_dvd1
   724   gcd_dvd1_int ~> gcd_dvd1
   725   int_numeral ~> of_nat_numeral
   726   lcm_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
   727   lcm_ac_int ~> ac_simps
   728   gcd_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
   729   gcd_ac_int ~> ac_simps
   730   abs_int_eq ~> abs_of_nat
   731   zless_int ~> of_nat_less_iff
   732   zdiff_int ~> of_nat_diff
   733   zadd_int ~> of_nat_add
   734   int_mult ~> of_nat_mult
   735   int_Suc ~> of_nat_Suc
   736   inj_int ~> inj_of_nat
   737   int_1 ~> of_nat_1
   738   int_0 ~> of_nat_0
   739   Lcm_empty_nat ~> Lcm_empty
   740   Lcm_empty_int ~> Lcm_empty
   741   Lcm_insert_nat ~> Lcm_insert
   742   Lcm_insert_int ~> Lcm_insert
   743   comp_fun_idem_gcd_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
   744   comp_fun_idem_gcd_int ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
   745   comp_fun_idem_lcm_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
   746   comp_fun_idem_lcm_int ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
   747   Lcm_eq_0 ~> Lcm_eq_0_I
   748   Lcm0_iff ~> Lcm_0_iff
   749   Lcm_dvd_int ~> Lcm_least
   750   divides_mult_nat ~> divides_mult
   751   divides_mult_int ~> divides_mult
   752   lcm_0_nat ~> lcm_0_right
   753   lcm_0_int ~> lcm_0_right
   754   lcm_0_left_nat ~> lcm_0_left
   755   lcm_0_left_int ~> lcm_0_left
   756   dvd_gcd_D1_nat ~> dvd_gcdD1
   757   dvd_gcd_D1_int ~> dvd_gcdD1
   758   dvd_gcd_D2_nat ~> dvd_gcdD2
   759   dvd_gcd_D2_int ~> dvd_gcdD2
   760   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
   761   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
   762   realpow_minus_mult ~> power_minus_mult
   763   realpow_Suc_le_self ~> power_Suc_le_self
   764   dvd_Gcd, dvd_Gcd_nat, dvd_Gcd_int removed in favour of Gcd_greatest
   765 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   766 
   767 * Session HOL-NSA has been renamed to HOL-Nonstandard_Analysis.
   768 
   769 * In HOL-Probability the type of emeasure and nn_integral was changed
   770 from ereal to ennreal:
   771   emeasure :: 'a measure => 'a set => ennreal
   772   nn_integral :: 'a measure => ('a => ennreal) => ennreal
   773 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   774 
   775 
   776 *** ML ***
   777 
   778 * ML antiquotation @{path} is superseded by @{file}, which ensures that
   779 the argument is a plain file. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   780 
   781 * Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm use efficient operations from the Poly/ML
   782 library (notably for big integers). Subtle change of semantics:
   783 Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm both normalize the sign, results are never
   784 negative. This coincides with the definitions in HOL/GCD.thy.
   785 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   786 
   787 * Structure Rat for rational numbers is now an integral part of
   788 Isabelle/ML, with special notation @int/nat or @int for numerals (an
   789 abbreviation for antiquotation @{Pure.rat argument}) and ML pretty
   790 printing. Standard operations on type Rat.rat are provided via ad-hoc
   791 overloading of + - * / < <= > >= ~ abs. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   792 use + instead of +/ etc. Moreover, exception Rat.DIVZERO has been
   793 superseded by General.Div.
   794 
   795 * The ML function "ML" provides easy access to run-time compilation.
   796 This is particularly useful for conditional compilation, without
   797 requiring separate files.
   798 
   799 * Low-level ML system structures (like PolyML and RunCall) are no longer
   800 exposed to Isabelle/ML user-space. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   801 
   802 * Antiquotation @{make_string} is available during Pure bootstrap --
   803 with approximative output quality.
   804 
   805 * Option ML_exception_debugger controls detailed exception trace via the
   806 Poly/ML debugger. Relevant ML modules need to be compiled beforehand
   807 with ML_file_debug, or with ML_file and option ML_debugger enabled. Note
   808 debugger information requires consirable time and space: main
   809 Isabelle/HOL with full debugger support may need ML_system_64.
   810 
   811 * Local_Theory.restore has been renamed to Local_Theory.reset to
   812 emphasize its disruptive impact on the cumulative context, notably the
   813 scope of 'private' or 'qualified' names. Note that Local_Theory.reset is
   814 only appropriate when targets are managed, e.g. starting from a global
   815 theory and returning to it. Regular definitional packages should use
   816 balanced blocks of Local_Theory.open_target versus
   817 Local_Theory.close_target instead. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   818 
   819 * Structure TimeLimit (originally from the SML/NJ library) has been
   820 replaced by structure Timeout, with slightly different signature.
   821 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   822 
   823 * Discontinued cd and pwd operations, which are not well-defined in a
   824 multi-threaded environment. Note that files are usually located
   825 relatively to the master directory of a theory (see also
   826 File.full_path). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   827 
   828 * Binding.empty_atts supersedes Thm.empty_binding and
   829 Attrib.empty_binding. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   830 
   831 
   832 *** System ***
   833 
   834 * Many Isabelle tools that require a Java runtime system refer to the
   835 settings ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS64,
   836 depending on the underlying platform. The settings for "isabelle build"
   837 ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64 have been
   838 discontinued. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   839 
   840 * The Isabelle system environment always ensures that the main
   841 executables are found within the shell search $PATH: "isabelle" and
   842 "isabelle_scala_script".
   843 
   844 * Isabelle tools may consist of .scala files: the Scala compiler is
   845 invoked on the spot. The source needs to define some object that extends
   846 Isabelle_Tool.Body.
   847 
   848 * The Isabelle ML process is now managed directly by Isabelle/Scala, and
   849 shell scripts merely provide optional command-line access. In
   850 particular:
   851 
   852   . Scala module ML_Process to connect to the raw ML process,
   853     with interaction via stdin/stdout/stderr or in batch mode;
   854   . command-line tool "isabelle console" as interactive wrapper;
   855   . command-line tool "isabelle process" as batch mode wrapper.
   856 
   857 * The executable "isabelle_process" has been discontinued. Tools and
   858 prover front-ends should use ML_Process or Isabelle_Process in
   859 Isabelle/Scala. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   860 
   861 * New command-line tool "isabelle process" supports ML evaluation of
   862 literal expressions (option -e) or files (option -f) in the context of a
   863 given heap image. Errors lead to premature exit of the ML process with
   864 return code 1.
   865 
   866 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" provides option -r to help to
   867 bootstrapping Isabelle/Pure interactively.
   868 
   869 * Command-line tool "isabelle yxml" has been discontinued.
   870 INCOMPATIBILITY, use operations from the modules "XML" and "YXML" in
   871 Isabelle/ML or Isabelle/Scala.
   872 
   873 * File.bash_string, File.bash_path etc. represent Isabelle/ML and
   874 Isabelle/Scala strings authentically within GNU bash. This is useful to
   875 produce robust shell scripts under program control, without worrying
   876 about spaces or special characters. Note that user output works via
   877 Path.print (ML) or Path.toString (Scala). INCOMPATIBILITY, the old (and
   878 less versatile) operations File.shell_quote, File.shell_path etc. have
   879 been discontinued.
   880 
   881 * SML/NJ and old versions of Poly/ML are no longer supported.
   882 
   883 * Poly/ML heaps now follow the hierarchy of sessions, and thus require
   884 much less disk space.
   885 
   886 * System option "checkpoint" helps to fine-tune the global heap space
   887 management of isabelle build. This is relevant for big sessions that may
   888 exhaust the small 32-bit address space of the ML process (which is used
   889 by default).
   890 
   891 
   892 
   893 New in Isabelle2016 (February 2016)
   894 -----------------------------------
   895 
   896 *** General ***
   897 
   898 * Eisbach is now based on Pure instead of HOL. Objects-logics may import
   899 either the theory ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach (for HOL etc.) or
   900 ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach_Old_Appl_Syntax (for FOL, ZF etc.). Note that
   901 the HOL-Eisbach session located in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/ contains further
   902 examples that do require HOL.
   903 
   904 * Better resource usage on all platforms (Linux, Windows, Mac OS X) for
   905 both Isabelle/ML and Isabelle/Scala.  Slightly reduced heap space usage.
   906 
   907 * Former "xsymbols" syntax with Isabelle symbols is used by default,
   908 without any special print mode. Important ASCII replacement syntax
   909 remains available under print mode "ASCII", but less important syntax
   910 has been removed (see below).
   911 
   912 * Support for more arrow symbols, with rendering in LaTeX and Isabelle
   913 fonts: \<Lleftarrow> \<Rrightarrow> \<longlongleftarrow> \<longlongrightarrow> \<longlonglongleftarrow> \<longlonglongrightarrow>.
   914 
   915 * Special notation \<struct> for the first implicit 'structure' in the
   916 context has been discontinued. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit
   917 structure name instead, notably in indexed notation with block-subscript
   918 (e.g. \<odot>\<^bsub>A\<^esub>).
   919 
   920 * The glyph for \<diamond> in the IsabelleText font now corresponds better to its
   921 counterpart \<box> as quantifier-like symbol. A small diamond is available as
   922 \<diamondop>; the old symbol \<struct> loses this rendering and any special
   923 meaning.
   924 
   925 * Syntax for formal comments "-- text" now also supports the symbolic
   926 form "\<comment> text". Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -c" helps
   927 to update old sources.
   928 
   929 * Toplevel theorem statements have been simplified as follows:
   930 
   931   theorems             ~>  lemmas
   932   schematic_lemma      ~>  schematic_goal
   933   schematic_theorem    ~>  schematic_goal
   934   schematic_corollary  ~>  schematic_goal
   935 
   936 Command-line tool "isabelle update_theorems" updates theory sources
   937 accordingly.
   938 
   939 * Toplevel theorem statement 'proposition' is another alias for
   940 'theorem'.
   941 
   942 * The old 'defs' command has been removed (legacy since Isabelle2014).
   943 INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular 'definition' instead. Overloaded and/or
   944 deferred definitions require a surrounding 'overloading' block.
   945 
   946 
   947 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   948 
   949 * IDE support for the source-level debugger of Poly/ML, to work with
   950 Isabelle/ML and official Standard ML. Option "ML_debugger" and commands
   951 'ML_file_debug', 'ML_file_no_debug', 'SML_file_debug',
   952 'SML_file_no_debug' control compilation of sources with or without
   953 debugging information. The Debugger panel allows to set breakpoints (via
   954 context menu), step through stopped threads, evaluate local ML
   955 expressions etc. At least one Debugger view needs to be active to have
   956 any effect on the running ML program.
   957 
   958 * The State panel manages explicit proof state output, with dynamic
   959 auto-update according to cursor movement. Alternatively, the jEdit
   960 action "isabelle.update-state" (shortcut S+ENTER) triggers manual
   961 update.
   962 
   963 * The Output panel no longer shows proof state output by default, to
   964 avoid GUI overcrowding. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the State panel instead or
   965 enable option "editor_output_state".
   966 
   967 * The text overview column (status of errors, warnings etc.) is updated
   968 asynchronously, leading to much better editor reactivity. Moreover, the
   969 full document node content is taken into account. The width of the
   970 column is scaled according to the main text area font, for improved
   971 visibility.
   972 
   973 * The main text area no longer changes its color hue in outdated
   974 situations. The text overview column takes over the role to indicate
   975 unfinished edits in the PIDE pipeline. This avoids flashing text display
   976 due to ad-hoc updates by auxiliary GUI components, such as the State
   977 panel.
   978 
   979 * Slightly improved scheduling for urgent print tasks (e.g. command
   980 state output, interactive queries) wrt. long-running background tasks.
   981 
   982 * Completion of symbols via prefix of \<name> or \<^name> or \name is
   983 always possible, independently of the language context. It is never
   984 implicit: a popup will show up unconditionally.
   985 
   986 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified in
   987 $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs, with
   988 support for simple templates using ASCII 007 (bell) as placeholder.
   989 
   990 * Symbols \<oplus>, \<Oplus>, \<otimes>, \<Otimes>, \<odot>, \<Odot>, \<ominus>, \<oslash> no longer provide abbreviations for
   991 completion like "+o", "*o", ".o" etc. -- due to conflicts with other
   992 ASCII syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain backslash-completion or define
   993 suitable abbreviations in $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs.
   994 
   995 * Action "isabelle-emph" (with keyboard shortcut C+e LEFT) controls
   996 emphasized text style; the effect is visible in document output, not in
   997 the editor.
   998 
   999 * Action "isabelle-reset" now uses keyboard shortcut C+e BACK_SPACE,
  1000 instead of former C+e LEFT.
  1001 
  1002 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" and the isabelle.Main
  1003 application wrapper treat the default $USER_HOME/Scratch.thy more
  1004 uniformly, and allow the dummy file argument ":" to open an empty buffer
  1005 instead.
  1006 
  1007 * New command-line tool "isabelle jedit_client" allows to connect to an
  1008 already running Isabelle/jEdit process. This achieves the effect of
  1009 single-instance applications seen on common GUI desktops.
  1010 
  1011 * The default look-and-feel for Linux is the traditional "Metal", which
  1012 works better with GUI scaling for very high-resolution displays (e.g.
  1013 4K). Moreover, it is generally more robust than "Nimbus".
  1014 
  1015 * Update to jedit-5.3.0, with improved GUI scaling and support of
  1016 high-resolution displays (e.g. 4K).
  1017 
  1018 * The main Isabelle executable is managed as single-instance Desktop
  1019 application uniformly on all platforms: Linux, Windows, Mac OS X.
  1020 
  1021 
  1022 *** Document preparation ***
  1023 
  1024 * Text and ML antiquotation @{locale} for locales, similar to existing
  1025 antiquotations for classes.
  1026 
  1027 * Commands 'paragraph' and 'subparagraph' provide additional section
  1028 headings. Thus there are 6 levels of standard headings, as in HTML.
  1029 
  1030 * Command 'text_raw' has been clarified: input text is processed as in
  1031 'text' (with antiquotations and control symbols). The key difference is
  1032 the lack of the surrounding isabelle markup environment in output.
  1033 
  1034 * Text is structured in paragraphs and nested lists, using notation that
  1035 is similar to Markdown. The control symbols for list items are as
  1036 follows:
  1037 
  1038   \<^item>  itemize
  1039   \<^enum>  enumerate
  1040   \<^descr>  description
  1041 
  1042 * There is a new short form for antiquotations with a single argument
  1043 that is a cartouche: \<^name>\<open>...\<close> is equivalent to @{name \<open>...\<close>} and
  1044 \<open>...\<close> without control symbol is equivalent to @{cartouche \<open>...\<close>}.
  1045 \<^name> without following cartouche is equivalent to @{name}. The
  1046 standard Isabelle fonts provide glyphs to render important control
  1047 symbols, e.g. "\<^verbatim>", "\<^emph>", "\<^bold>".
  1048 
  1049 * Antiquotations @{noindent}, @{smallskip}, @{medskip}, @{bigskip} with
  1050 corresponding control symbols \<^noindent>, \<^smallskip>, \<^medskip>, \<^bigskip> specify spacing formally, using
  1051 standard LaTeX macros of the same names.
  1052 
  1053 * Antiquotation @{cartouche} in Isabelle/Pure is the same as @{text}.
  1054 Consequently, \<open>...\<close> without any decoration prints literal quasi-formal
  1055 text. Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -t" helps to update
  1056 old sources, by approximative patching of the content of string and
  1057 cartouche tokens seen in theory sources.
  1058 
  1059 * The @{text} antiquotation now ignores the antiquotation option
  1060 "source". The given text content is output unconditionally, without any
  1061 surrounding quotes etc. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, put quotes into the
  1062 argument where they are really intended, e.g. @{text \<open>"foo"\<close>}. Initial
  1063 or terminal spaces are ignored.
  1064 
  1065 * Antiquotations @{emph} and @{bold} output LaTeX source recursively,
  1066 adding appropriate text style markup. These may be used in the short
  1067 form \<^emph>\<open>...\<close> and \<^bold>\<open>...\<close>.
  1068 
  1069 * Document antiquotation @{footnote} outputs LaTeX source recursively,
  1070 marked as \footnote{}. This may be used in the short form \<^footnote>\<open>...\<close>.
  1071 
  1072 * Antiquotation @{verbatim [display]} supports option "indent".
  1073 
  1074 * Antiquotation @{theory_text} prints uninterpreted theory source text
  1075 (Isar outer syntax with command keywords etc.). This may be used in the
  1076 short form \<^theory_text>\<open>...\<close>. @{theory_text [display]} supports option "indent".
  1077 
  1078 * Antiquotation @{doc ENTRY} provides a reference to the given
  1079 documentation, with a hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  1080 
  1081 * Antiquotations @{command}, @{method}, @{attribute} print checked
  1082 entities of the Isar language.
  1083 
  1084 * HTML presentation uses the standard IsabelleText font and Unicode
  1085 rendering of Isabelle symbols like Isabelle/Scala/jEdit.  The former
  1086 print mode "HTML" loses its special meaning.
  1087 
  1088 
  1089 *** Isar ***
  1090 
  1091 * Local goals ('have', 'show', 'hence', 'thus') allow structured rule
  1092 statements like fixes/assumes/shows in theorem specifications, but the
  1093 notation is postfix with keywords 'if' (or 'when') and 'for'. For
  1094 example:
  1095 
  1096   have result: "C x y"
  1097     if "A x" and "B y"
  1098     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  1099     <proof>
  1100 
  1101 The local assumptions are bound to the name "that". The result is
  1102 exported from context of the statement as usual. The above roughly
  1103 corresponds to a raw proof block like this:
  1104 
  1105   {
  1106     fix x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  1107     assume that: "A x" "B y"
  1108     have "C x y" <proof>
  1109   }
  1110   note result = this
  1111 
  1112 The keyword 'when' may be used instead of 'if', to indicate 'presume'
  1113 instead of 'assume' above.
  1114 
  1115 * Assumptions ('assume', 'presume') allow structured rule statements
  1116 using 'if' and 'for', similar to 'have' etc. above. For example:
  1117 
  1118   assume result: "C x y"
  1119     if "A x" and "B y"
  1120     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  1121 
  1122 This assumes "\<And>x y::'a. A x \<Longrightarrow> B y \<Longrightarrow> C x y" and produces a general
  1123 result as usual: "A ?x \<Longrightarrow> B ?y \<Longrightarrow> C ?x ?y".
  1124 
  1125 Vacuous quantification in assumptions is omitted, i.e. a for-context
  1126 only effects propositions according to actual use of variables. For
  1127 example:
  1128 
  1129   assume "A x" and "B y" for x and y
  1130 
  1131 is equivalent to:
  1132 
  1133   assume "\<And>x. A x" and "\<And>y. B y"
  1134 
  1135 * The meaning of 'show' with Pure rule statements has changed: premises
  1136 are treated in the sense of 'assume', instead of 'presume'. This means,
  1137 a goal like "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x" can be solved completely as
  1138 follows:
  1139 
  1140   show "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  1141 
  1142 or:
  1143 
  1144   show "C x" if "A x" "B x" for x
  1145 
  1146 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, the old behaviour may be recovered as follows:
  1147 
  1148   show "C x" when "A x" "B x" for x
  1149 
  1150 * New command 'consider' states rules for generalized elimination and
  1151 case splitting. This is like a toplevel statement "theorem obtains" used
  1152 within a proof body; or like a multi-branch 'obtain' without activation
  1153 of the local context elements yet.
  1154 
  1155 * Proof method "cases" allows to specify the rule as first entry of
  1156 chained facts.  This is particularly useful with 'consider':
  1157 
  1158   consider (a) A | (b) B | (c) C <proof>
  1159   then have something
  1160   proof cases
  1161     case a
  1162     then show ?thesis <proof>
  1163   next
  1164     case b
  1165     then show ?thesis <proof>
  1166   next
  1167     case c
  1168     then show ?thesis <proof>
  1169   qed
  1170 
  1171 * Command 'case' allows fact name and attribute specification like this:
  1172 
  1173   case a: (c xs)
  1174   case a [attributes]: (c xs)
  1175 
  1176 Facts that are introduced by invoking the case context are uniformly
  1177 qualified by "a"; the same name is used for the cumulative fact. The old
  1178 form "case (c xs) [attributes]" is no longer supported. Rare
  1179 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt uses of case facts in exotic situations,
  1180 and always put attributes in front.
  1181 
  1182 * The standard proof method of commands 'proof' and '..' is now called
  1183 "standard" to make semantically clear what it is; the old name "default"
  1184 is still available as legacy for some time. Documentation now explains
  1185 '..' more accurately as "by standard" instead of "by rule".
  1186 
  1187 * Nesting of Isar goal structure has been clarified: the context after
  1188 the initial backwards refinement is retained for the whole proof, within
  1189 all its context sections (as indicated via 'next'). This is e.g.
  1190 relevant for 'using', 'including', 'supply':
  1191 
  1192   have "A \<and> A" if a: A for A
  1193     supply [simp] = a
  1194   proof
  1195     show A by simp
  1196   next
  1197     show A by simp
  1198   qed
  1199 
  1200 * Command 'obtain' binds term abbreviations (via 'is' patterns) in the
  1201 proof body as well, abstracted over relevant parameters.
  1202 
  1203 * Improved type-inference for theorem statement 'obtains': separate
  1204 parameter scope for of each clause.
  1205 
  1206 * Term abbreviations via 'is' patterns also work for schematic
  1207 statements: result is abstracted over unknowns.
  1208 
  1209 * Command 'subgoal' allows to impose some structure on backward
  1210 refinements, to avoid proof scripts degenerating into long of 'apply'
  1211 sequences. Further explanations and examples are given in the isar-ref
  1212 manual.
  1213 
  1214 * Command 'supply' supports fact definitions during goal refinement
  1215 ('apply' scripts).
  1216 
  1217 * Proof method "goal_cases" turns the current subgoals into cases within
  1218 the context; the conclusion is bound to variable ?case in each case. For
  1219 example:
  1220 
  1221 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  1222   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  1223 proof goal_cases
  1224   case (1 x)
  1225   then show ?case using \<open>A x\<close> \<open>B x\<close> sorry
  1226 next
  1227   case (2 y z)
  1228   then show ?case using \<open>U y\<close> \<open>V z\<close> sorry
  1229 qed
  1230 
  1231 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  1232   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  1233 proof goal_cases
  1234   case prems: 1
  1235   then show ?case using prems sorry
  1236 next
  1237   case prems: 2
  1238   then show ?case using prems sorry
  1239 qed
  1240 
  1241 * The undocumented feature of implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc.
  1242 is marked as legacy, and will be removed eventually. The proof method
  1243 "goals" achieves a similar effect within regular Isar; often it can be
  1244 done more adequately by other means (e.g. 'consider').
  1245 
  1246 * The vacuous fact "TERM x" may be established "by fact" or as `TERM x`
  1247 as well, not just "by this" or "." as before.
  1248 
  1249 * Method "sleep" succeeds after a real-time delay (in seconds). This is
  1250 occasionally useful for demonstration and testing purposes.
  1251 
  1252 
  1253 *** Pure ***
  1254 
  1255 * Qualifiers in locale expressions default to mandatory ('!') regardless
  1256 of the command. Previously, for 'locale' and 'sublocale' the default was
  1257 optional ('?'). The old synatx '!' has been discontinued.
  1258 INCOMPATIBILITY, remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  1259 
  1260 * Keyword 'rewrites' identifies rewrite morphisms in interpretation
  1261 commands. Previously, the keyword was 'where'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1262 
  1263 * More gentle suppression of syntax along locale morphisms while
  1264 printing terms. Previously 'abbreviation' and 'notation' declarations
  1265 would be suppressed for morphisms except term identity. Now
  1266 'abbreviation' is also kept for morphims that only change the involved
  1267 parameters, and only 'notation' is suppressed. This can be of great help
  1268 when working with complex locale hierarchies, because proof states are
  1269 displayed much more succinctly. It also means that only notation needs
  1270 to be redeclared if desired, as illustrated by this example:
  1271 
  1272   locale struct = fixes composition :: "'a => 'a => 'a" (infixl "\<cdot>" 65)
  1273   begin
  1274     definition derived (infixl "\<odot>" 65) where ...
  1275   end
  1276 
  1277   locale morphism =
  1278     left: struct composition + right: struct composition'
  1279     for composition (infix "\<cdot>" 65) and composition' (infix "\<cdot>''" 65)
  1280   begin
  1281     notation right.derived ("\<odot>''")
  1282   end
  1283 
  1284 * Command 'global_interpretation' issues interpretations into global
  1285 theories, with optional rewrite definitions following keyword 'defines'.
  1286 
  1287 * Command 'sublocale' accepts optional rewrite definitions after keyword
  1288 'defines'.
  1289 
  1290 * Command 'permanent_interpretation' has been discontinued. Use
  1291 'global_interpretation' or 'sublocale' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1292 
  1293 * Command 'print_definitions' prints dependencies of definitional
  1294 specifications. This functionality used to be part of 'print_theory'.
  1295 
  1296 * Configuration option rule_insts_schematic has been discontinued
  1297 (intermediate legacy feature in Isabelle2015). INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1298 
  1299 * Abbreviations in type classes now carry proper sort constraint. Rare
  1300 INCOMPATIBILITY in situations where the previous misbehaviour has been
  1301 exploited.
  1302 
  1303 * Refinement of user-space type system in type classes: pseudo-local
  1304 operations behave more similar to abbreviations. Potential
  1305 INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  1306 
  1307 
  1308 *** HOL ***
  1309 
  1310 * The 'typedef' command has been upgraded from a partially checked
  1311 "axiomatization", to a full definitional specification that takes the
  1312 global collection of overloaded constant / type definitions into
  1313 account. Type definitions with open dependencies on overloaded
  1314 definitions need to be specified as "typedef (overloaded)". This
  1315 provides extra robustness in theory construction. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1316 
  1317 * Qualification of various formal entities in the libraries is done more
  1318 uniformly via "context begin qualified definition ... end" instead of
  1319 old-style "hide_const (open) ...". Consequently, both the defined
  1320 constant and its defining fact become qualified, e.g. Option.is_none and
  1321 Option.is_none_def. Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY in applications.
  1322 
  1323 * Some old and rarely used ASCII replacement syntax has been removed.
  1324 INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax with symbols should be used instead.
  1325 The subsequent commands help to reproduce the old forms, e.g. to
  1326 simplify porting old theories:
  1327 
  1328   notation iff  (infixr "<->" 25)
  1329 
  1330   notation Times  (infixr "<*>" 80)
  1331 
  1332   type_notation Map.map  (infixr "~=>" 0)
  1333   notation Map.map_comp  (infixl "o'_m" 55)
  1334 
  1335   type_notation FinFun.finfun ("(_ =>f /_)" [22, 21] 21)
  1336 
  1337   notation FuncSet.funcset  (infixr "->" 60)
  1338   notation FuncSet.extensional_funcset  (infixr "->\<^sub>E" 60)
  1339 
  1340   notation Omega_Words_Fun.conc (infixr "conc" 65)
  1341 
  1342   notation Preorder.equiv ("op ~~")
  1343     and Preorder.equiv ("(_/ ~~ _)" [51, 51] 50)
  1344 
  1345   notation (in topological_space) tendsto (infixr "--->" 55)
  1346   notation (in topological_space) LIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  1347   notation LIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  1348 
  1349   notation NSA.approx (infixl "@=" 50)
  1350   notation NSLIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----NS> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  1351   notation NSLIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --NS> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  1352 
  1353 * The alternative notation "\<Colon>" for type and sort constraints has been
  1354 removed: in LaTeX document output it looks the same as "::".
  1355 INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain "::" instead.
  1356 
  1357 * Commands 'inductive' and 'inductive_set' work better when names for
  1358 intro rules are omitted: the "cases" and "induct" rules no longer
  1359 declare empty case_names, but no case_names at all. This allows to use
  1360 numbered cases in proofs, without requiring method "goal_cases".
  1361 
  1362 * Inductive definitions ('inductive', 'coinductive', etc.) expose
  1363 low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  1364 "inductive_internals" is enabled. This refers to the internal predicate
  1365 definition and its monotonicity result. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1366 
  1367 * Recursive function definitions ('fun', 'function', 'partial_function')
  1368 expose low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  1369 "function_internals" is enabled. Its internal inductive definition is
  1370 also subject to "inductive_internals". Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1371 
  1372 * BNF datatypes ('datatype', 'codatatype', etc.) expose low-level facts
  1373 of the internal construction only if the option "bnf_internals" is
  1374 enabled. This supersedes the former option "bnf_note_all". Rare
  1375 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1376 
  1377 * Combinator to represent case distinction on products is named
  1378 "case_prod", uniformly, discontinuing any input aliasses. Very popular
  1379 theorem aliasses have been retained.
  1380 
  1381 Consolidated facts:
  1382   PairE ~> prod.exhaust
  1383   Pair_eq ~> prod.inject
  1384   pair_collapse ~> prod.collapse
  1385   Pair_fst_snd_eq ~> prod_eq_iff
  1386   split_twice ~> prod.case_distrib
  1387   split_weak_cong ~> prod.case_cong_weak
  1388   split_split ~> prod.split
  1389   split_split_asm ~> prod.split_asm
  1390   splitI ~> case_prodI
  1391   splitD ~> case_prodD
  1392   splitI2 ~> case_prodI2
  1393   splitI2' ~> case_prodI2'
  1394   splitE ~> case_prodE
  1395   splitE' ~> case_prodE'
  1396   split_pair ~> case_prod_Pair
  1397   split_eta ~> case_prod_eta
  1398   split_comp ~> case_prod_comp
  1399   mem_splitI ~> mem_case_prodI
  1400   mem_splitI2 ~> mem_case_prodI2
  1401   mem_splitE ~> mem_case_prodE
  1402   The_split ~> The_case_prod
  1403   cond_split_eta ~> cond_case_prod_eta
  1404   Collect_split_in_rel_leE ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leE
  1405   Collect_split_in_rel_leI ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leI
  1406   in_rel_Collect_split_eq ~> in_rel_Collect_case_prod_eq
  1407   Collect_split_Grp_eqD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_eqD
  1408   Collect_split_Grp_inD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_in
  1409   Domain_Collect_split ~> Domain_Collect_case_prod
  1410   Image_Collect_split ~> Image_Collect_case_prod
  1411   Range_Collect_split ~> Range_Collect_case_prod
  1412   Eps_split ~> Eps_case_prod
  1413   Eps_split_eq ~> Eps_case_prod_eq
  1414   split_rsp ~> case_prod_rsp
  1415   curry_split ~> curry_case_prod
  1416   split_curry ~> case_prod_curry
  1417 
  1418 Changes in structure HOLogic:
  1419   split_const ~> case_prod_const
  1420   mk_split ~> mk_case_prod
  1421   mk_psplits ~> mk_ptupleabs
  1422   strip_psplits ~> strip_ptupleabs
  1423 
  1424 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1425 
  1426 * The coercions to type 'real' have been reorganised. The function
  1427 'real' is no longer overloaded, but has type 'nat => real' and
  1428 abbreviates of_nat for that type. Also 'real_of_int :: int => real'
  1429 abbreviates of_int for that type. Other overloaded instances of 'real'
  1430 have been replaced by 'real_of_ereal' and 'real_of_float'.
  1431 
  1432 Consolidated facts (among others):
  1433   real_of_nat_le_iff -> of_nat_le_iff
  1434   real_of_nat_numeral of_nat_numeral
  1435   real_of_int_zero of_int_0
  1436   real_of_nat_zero of_nat_0
  1437   real_of_one of_int_1
  1438   real_of_int_add of_int_add
  1439   real_of_nat_add of_nat_add
  1440   real_of_int_diff of_int_diff
  1441   real_of_nat_diff of_nat_diff
  1442   floor_subtract floor_diff_of_int
  1443   real_of_int_inject of_int_eq_iff
  1444   real_of_int_gt_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_less_iff
  1445   real_of_int_ge_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_le_iff
  1446   real_of_nat_ge_zero of_nat_0_le_iff
  1447   real_of_int_ceiling_ge le_of_int_ceiling
  1448   ceiling_less_eq ceiling_less_iff
  1449   ceiling_le_eq ceiling_le_iff
  1450   less_floor_eq less_floor_iff
  1451   floor_less_eq floor_less_iff
  1452   floor_divide_eq_div floor_divide_of_int_eq
  1453   real_of_int_zero_cancel of_nat_eq_0_iff
  1454   ceiling_real_of_int ceiling_of_int
  1455 
  1456 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1457 
  1458 * Theory Map: lemma map_of_is_SomeD was a clone of map_of_SomeD and has
  1459 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1460 
  1461 * Quickcheck setup for finite sets.
  1462 
  1463 * Discontinued simp_legacy_precond. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1464 
  1465 * Sledgehammer:
  1466   - The MaSh relevance filter has been sped up.
  1467   - Proof reconstruction has been improved, to minimize the incidence of
  1468     cases where Sledgehammer gives a proof that does not work.
  1469   - Auto Sledgehammer now minimizes and preplays the results.
  1470   - Handle Vampire 4.0 proof output without raising exception.
  1471   - Eliminated "MASH" environment variable. Use the "MaSh" option in
  1472     Isabelle/jEdit instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1473   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option and related subcommands.
  1474 
  1475 * Nitpick:
  1476   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "finite" predicate.
  1477   - Fixed soundness bug in "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  1478   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "rat" type.
  1479   - Removed "check_potential" and "check_genuine" options.
  1480   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option.
  1481 
  1482 * (Co)datatype package:
  1483   - New commands "lift_bnf" and "copy_bnf" for lifting (copying) a BNF
  1484     structure on the raw type to an abstract type defined using typedef.
  1485   - Always generate "case_transfer" theorem.
  1486   - For mutual types, generate slightly stronger "rel_induct",
  1487     "rel_coinduct", and "coinduct" theorems. INCOMPATIBLITY.
  1488   - Allow discriminators and selectors with the same name as the type
  1489     being defined.
  1490   - Avoid various internal name clashes (e.g., 'datatype f = f').
  1491 
  1492 * Transfer: new methods for interactive debugging of 'transfer' and
  1493 'transfer_prover': 'transfer_start', 'transfer_step', 'transfer_end',
  1494 'transfer_prover_start' and 'transfer_prover_end'.
  1495 
  1496 * New diagnostic command print_record for displaying record definitions.
  1497 
  1498 * Division on integers is bootstrapped directly from division on
  1499 naturals and uses generic numeral algorithm for computations. Slight
  1500 INCOMPATIBILITY, simproc numeral_divmod replaces and generalizes former
  1501 simprocs binary_int_div and binary_int_mod
  1502 
  1503 * Tightened specification of class semiring_no_zero_divisors. Minor
  1504 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1505 
  1506 * Class algebraic_semidom introduces common algebraic notions of
  1507 integral (semi)domains, particularly units. Although logically subsumed
  1508 by fields, is is not a super class of these in order not to burden
  1509 fields with notions that are trivial there.
  1510 
  1511 * Class normalization_semidom specifies canonical representants for
  1512 equivalence classes of associated elements in an integral (semi)domain.
  1513 This formalizes associated elements as well.
  1514 
  1515 * Abstract specification of gcd/lcm operations in classes semiring_gcd,
  1516 semiring_Gcd, semiring_Lcd. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: facts gcd_nat.commute
  1517 and gcd_int.commute are subsumed by gcd.commute, as well as
  1518 gcd_nat.assoc and gcd_int.assoc by gcd.assoc.
  1519 
  1520 * Former constants Fields.divide (_ / _) and Divides.div (_ div _) are
  1521 logically unified to Rings.divide in syntactic type class Rings.divide,
  1522 with infix syntax (_ div _). Infix syntax (_ / _) for field division is
  1523 added later as abbreviation in class Fields.inverse. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1524 instantiations must refer to Rings.divide rather than the former
  1525 separate constants, hence infix syntax (_ / _) is usually not available
  1526 during instantiation.
  1527 
  1528 * New cancellation simprocs for boolean algebras to cancel complementary
  1529 terms for sup and inf. For example, "sup x (sup y (- x))" simplifies to
  1530 "top". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1531 
  1532 * Class uniform_space introduces uniform spaces btw topological spaces
  1533 and metric spaces. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: open_<type>_def needs to be
  1534 introduced in the form of an uniformity. Some constants are more general
  1535 now, it may be necessary to add type class constraints.
  1536 
  1537   open_real_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  1538   open_complex_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  1539 
  1540 * Library/Monad_Syntax: notation uses symbols \<bind> and \<then>. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1541 
  1542 * Library/Multiset:
  1543   - Renamed multiset inclusion operators:
  1544       < ~> <#
  1545       > ~> >#
  1546       <= ~> <=#
  1547       >= ~> >=#
  1548       \<le> ~> \<le>#
  1549       \<ge> ~> \<ge>#
  1550     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1551   - Added multiset inclusion operator syntax:
  1552       \<subset>#
  1553       \<subseteq>#
  1554       \<supset>#
  1555       \<supseteq>#
  1556   - "'a multiset" is no longer an instance of the "order",
  1557     "ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le", "ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_diff",
  1558     "semilattice_inf", and "semilattice_sup" type classes. The theorems
  1559     previously provided by these type classes (directly or indirectly)
  1560     are now available through the "subset_mset" interpretation
  1561     (e.g. add_mono ~> subset_mset.add_mono).
  1562     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1563   - Renamed conversions:
  1564       multiset_of ~> mset
  1565       multiset_of_set ~> mset_set
  1566       set_of ~> set_mset
  1567     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1568   - Renamed lemmas:
  1569       mset_le_def ~> subseteq_mset_def
  1570       mset_less_def ~> subset_mset_def
  1571       less_eq_multiset.rep_eq ~> subseteq_mset_def
  1572     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1573   - Removed lemmas generated by lift_definition:
  1574     less_eq_multiset.abs_eq, less_eq_multiset.rsp,
  1575     less_eq_multiset.transfer, less_eq_multiset_def
  1576     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1577 
  1578 * Library/Omega_Words_Fun: Infinite words modeled as functions nat \<Rightarrow> 'a.
  1579 
  1580 * Library/Bourbaki_Witt_Fixpoint: Added formalisation of the
  1581 Bourbaki-Witt fixpoint theorem for increasing functions in
  1582 chain-complete partial orders.
  1583 
  1584 * Library/Old_Recdef: discontinued obsolete 'defer_recdef' command.
  1585 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'function' instead.
  1586 
  1587 * Library/Periodic_Fun: a locale that provides convenient lemmas for
  1588 periodic functions.
  1589 
  1590 * Library/Formal_Power_Series: proper definition of division (with
  1591 remainder) for formal power series; instances for Euclidean Ring and
  1592 GCD.
  1593 
  1594 * HOL-Imperative_HOL: obsolete theory Legacy_Mrec has been removed.
  1595 
  1596 * HOL-Statespace: command 'statespace' uses mandatory qualifier for
  1597 import of parent, as for general 'locale' expressions. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1598 remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  1599 
  1600 * HOL-Decision_Procs: The "approximation" method works with "powr"
  1601 (exponentiation on real numbers) again.
  1602 
  1603 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: theory Cauchy_Integral_Thm with Contour
  1604 integrals (= complex path integrals), Cauchy's integral theorem, winding
  1605 numbers and Cauchy's integral formula, Liouville theorem, Fundamental
  1606 Theorem of Algebra. Ported from HOL Light.
  1607 
  1608 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: topological concepts such as connected
  1609 components, homotopic paths and the inside or outside of a set.
  1610 
  1611 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: radius of convergence of power series and
  1612 various summability tests; Harmonic numbers and the Euler–Mascheroni
  1613 constant; the Generalised Binomial Theorem; the complex and real
  1614 Gamma/log-Gamma/Digamma/ Polygamma functions and their most important
  1615 properties.
  1616 
  1617 * HOL-Probability: The central limit theorem based on Levy's uniqueness
  1618 and continuity theorems, weak convergence, and characterisitc functions.
  1619 
  1620 * HOL-Data_Structures: new and growing session of standard data
  1621 structures.
  1622 
  1623 
  1624 *** ML ***
  1625 
  1626 * The following combinators for low-level profiling of the ML runtime
  1627 system are available:
  1628 
  1629   profile_time          (*CPU time*)
  1630   profile_time_thread   (*CPU time on this thread*)
  1631   profile_allocations   (*overall heap allocations*)
  1632 
  1633 * Antiquotation @{undefined} or \<^undefined> inlines (raise Match).
  1634 
  1635 * Antiquotation @{method NAME} inlines the (checked) name of the given
  1636 Isar proof method.
  1637 
  1638 * Pretty printing of Poly/ML compiler output in Isabelle has been
  1639 improved: proper treatment of break offsets and blocks with consistent
  1640 breaks.
  1641 
  1642 * The auxiliary module Pure/display.ML has been eliminated. Its
  1643 elementary thm print operations are now in Pure/more_thm.ML and thus
  1644 called Thm.pretty_thm, Thm.string_of_thm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1645 
  1646 * Simproc programming interfaces have been simplified:
  1647 Simplifier.make_simproc and Simplifier.define_simproc supersede various
  1648 forms of Simplifier.mk_simproc, Simplifier.simproc_global etc. Note that
  1649 term patterns for the left-hand sides are specified with implicitly
  1650 fixed variables, like top-level theorem statements. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1651 
  1652 * Instantiation rules have been re-organized as follows:
  1653 
  1654   Thm.instantiate  (*low-level instantiation with named arguments*)
  1655   Thm.instantiate' (*version with positional arguments*)
  1656 
  1657   Drule.infer_instantiate  (*instantiation with type inference*)
  1658   Drule.infer_instantiate'  (*version with positional arguments*)
  1659 
  1660 The LHS only requires variable specifications, instead of full terms.
  1661 Old cterm_instantiate is superseded by infer_instantiate.
  1662 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to re-adjust some ML names and types accordingly.
  1663 
  1664 * Old tactic shorthands atac, rtac, etac, dtac, ftac have been
  1665 discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular assume_tac, resolve_tac etc.
  1666 instead (with proper context).
  1667 
  1668 * Thm.instantiate (and derivatives) no longer require the LHS of the
  1669 instantiation to be certified: plain variables are given directly.
  1670 
  1671 * Subgoal.SUBPROOF and Subgoal.FOCUS combinators use anonymous
  1672 quasi-bound variables (like the Simplifier), instead of accidentally
  1673 named local fixes. This has the potential to improve stability of proof
  1674 tools, but can also cause INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that don't observe
  1675 the proof context discipline.
  1676 
  1677 * Isar proof methods are based on a slightly more general type
  1678 context_tactic, which allows to change the proof context dynamically
  1679 (e.g. to update cases) and indicate explicit Seq.Error results. Former
  1680 METHOD_CASES is superseded by CONTEXT_METHOD; further combinators are
  1681 provided in src/Pure/Isar/method.ML for convenience. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1682 
  1683 
  1684 *** System ***
  1685 
  1686 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" enables print mode "ASCII".
  1687 
  1688 * Command-line tool "isabelle update_then" expands old Isar command
  1689 conflations:
  1690 
  1691     hence  ~>  then have
  1692     thus   ~>  then show
  1693 
  1694 This syntax is more orthogonal and improves readability and
  1695 maintainability of proofs.
  1696 
  1697 * Global session timeout is multiplied by timeout_scale factor. This
  1698 allows to adjust large-scale tests (e.g. AFP) to overall hardware
  1699 performance.
  1700 
  1701 * Property values in etc/symbols may contain spaces, if written with the
  1702 replacement character "␣" (Unicode point 0x2324). For example:
  1703 
  1704     \<star>  code: 0x0022c6  group: operator  font: Deja␣Vu␣Sans␣Mono
  1705 
  1706 * Java runtime environment for x86_64-windows allows to use larger heap
  1707 space.
  1708 
  1709 * Java runtime options are determined separately for 32bit vs. 64bit
  1710 platforms as follows.
  1711 
  1712   - Isabelle desktop application: platform-specific files that are
  1713     associated with the main app bundle
  1714 
  1715   - isabelle jedit: settings
  1716     JEDIT_JAVA_SYSTEM_OPTIONS
  1717     JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  1718 
  1719   - isabelle build: settings
  1720     ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  1721 
  1722 * Bash shell function "jvmpath" has been renamed to "platform_path": it
  1723 is relevant both for Poly/ML and JVM processes.
  1724 
  1725 * Poly/ML default platform architecture may be changed from 32bit to
  1726 64bit via system option ML_system_64. A system restart (and rebuild) is
  1727 required after change.
  1728 
  1729 * Poly/ML 5.6 runs natively on x86-windows and x86_64-windows, which
  1730 both allow larger heap space than former x86-cygwin.
  1731 
  1732 * Heap images are 10-15% smaller due to less wasteful persistent theory
  1733 content (using ML type theory_id instead of theory);
  1734 
  1735 
  1736 
  1737 New in Isabelle2015 (May 2015)
  1738 ------------------------------
  1739 
  1740 *** General ***
  1741 
  1742 * Local theory specification commands may have a 'private' or
  1743 'qualified' modifier to restrict name space accesses to the local scope,
  1744 as provided by some "context begin ... end" block. For example:
  1745 
  1746   context
  1747   begin
  1748 
  1749   private definition ...
  1750   private lemma ...
  1751 
  1752   qualified definition ...
  1753   qualified lemma ...
  1754 
  1755   lemma ...
  1756   theorem ...
  1757 
  1758   end
  1759 
  1760 * Command 'experiment' opens an anonymous locale context with private
  1761 naming policy.
  1762 
  1763 * Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof
  1764 structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor
  1765 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.
  1766 
  1767 * Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,
  1768 together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This
  1769 supersedes functor Named_Thms in Isabelle/ML, but with a subtle change
  1770 of semantics due to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.
  1771 
  1772 * 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are
  1773 schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive
  1774 expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.
  1775 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1776 
  1777 * Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local
  1778 theory context.
  1779 
  1780 * Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory
  1781 context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental
  1782 INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.
  1783 
  1784 * Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted (and
  1785 already used differently in Isar). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle
  1786 update_semicolons" to remove obsolete semicolons from old theory
  1787 sources.
  1788 
  1789 * Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar
  1790 corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.
  1791 
  1792 * The Eisbach proof method language allows to define new proof methods
  1793 by combining existing ones with their usual syntax. The "match" proof
  1794 method provides basic fact/term matching in addition to
  1795 premise/conclusion matching through Subgoal.focus, and binds fact names
  1796 from matches as well as term patterns within matches. The Isabelle
  1797 documentation provides an entry "eisbach" for the Eisbach User Manual.
  1798 Sources and various examples are in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/.
  1799 
  1800 
  1801 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1802 
  1803 * Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,
  1804 the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.
  1805 
  1806 * Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System
  1807 option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan
  1808 in the buffer.
  1809 
  1810 * Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token
  1811 marker, SideKick parser.
  1812 
  1813 * Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is
  1814 interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be open in
  1815 the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).
  1816 
  1817 * Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global
  1818 Options / Text Area).
  1819 
  1820 * Improved graphview panel with optional output of PNG or PDF, for
  1821 display of 'thy_deps', 'class_deps' etc.
  1822 
  1823 * The commands 'thy_deps' and 'class_deps' allow optional bounds to
  1824 restrict the visualized hierarchy.
  1825 
  1826 * Improved scheduling for asynchronous print commands (e.g. provers
  1827 managed by the Sledgehammer panel) wrt. ongoing document processing.
  1828 
  1829 
  1830 *** Document preparation ***
  1831 
  1832 * Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',
  1833 'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any
  1834 context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof
  1835 commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been
  1836 discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'
  1837 instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but
  1838 should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle
  1839 update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1840 
  1841 * Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or
  1842 \begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or
  1843 verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.
  1844 as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).
  1845 
  1846 * Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"
  1847 style.
  1848 
  1849 * Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is
  1850 produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.
  1851 
  1852 * Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not
  1853 affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject
  1854 to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.
  1855 Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their
  1856 tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  1857 
  1858 * System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",
  1859 which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".
  1860 Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global
  1861 pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted
  1862 dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document
  1863 antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to
  1864 Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1865 
  1866 * Specification of 'document_files' in the session ROOT file is
  1867 mandatory for document preparation. The legacy mode with implicit
  1868 copying of the document/ directory is no longer supported. Minor
  1869 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1870 
  1871 
  1872 *** Pure ***
  1873 
  1874 * Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"
  1875 etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):
  1876 these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this
  1877 behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".
  1878 Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use
  1879 of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1880 declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local
  1881 variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.
  1882 
  1883 * Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods
  1884 "rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns
  1885 ("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.
  1886 
  1887 * Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are
  1888 incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare
  1889 INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to
  1890 different index.
  1891 
  1892 * Lexical separation of signed and unsigned numerals: categories "num"
  1893 and "float" are unsigned. INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence
  1894 of numeral signs, particularly in expressions involving infix syntax
  1895 like "(- 1) ^ n".
  1896 
  1897 * Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued.  Potential
  1898 INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"
  1899 token category instead.
  1900 
  1901 
  1902 *** HOL ***
  1903 
  1904 * New (co)datatype package:
  1905   - The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old
  1906     command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided
  1907     by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  1908     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  1909     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1910   - Renamed theorems:
  1911       disc_corec ~> corec_disc
  1912       disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff
  1913       disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc
  1914       disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc
  1915       disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff
  1916       sel_corec ~> corec_sel
  1917       sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel
  1918       sel_map ~> map_sel
  1919       sel_set ~> set_sel
  1920       sel_split ~> split_sel
  1921       sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm
  1922       strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong
  1923       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  1924     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1925   - The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and
  1926     "codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".
  1927     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1928   - The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy
  1929     consequences of other set rules "by auto".
  1930     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1931   - The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"
  1932     attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof
  1933     method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an
  1934     assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"
  1935     is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly
  1936     (e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").
  1937     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1938   - Renamed theories:
  1939       BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition
  1940       BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base
  1941       BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint
  1942       BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint
  1943       BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions
  1944       Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions
  1945     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1946   - Lifting and Transfer setup for basic HOL types sum and prod (also
  1947     option) is now performed by the BNF package. Theories Lifting_Sum,
  1948     Lifting_Product and Lifting_Option from Main became obsolete and
  1949     were removed. Changed definitions of the relators rel_prod and
  1950     rel_sum (using inductive).
  1951     INCOMPATIBILITY: use rel_prod.simps and rel_sum.simps instead
  1952     of rel_prod_def and rel_sum_def.
  1953     Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: (rarely used by name) transfer theorem names
  1954     changed (e.g. map_prod_transfer ~> prod.map_transfer).
  1955   - Parametricity theorems for map functions, relators, set functions,
  1956     constructors, case combinators, discriminators, selectors and
  1957     (co)recursors are automatically proved and registered as transfer
  1958     rules.
  1959 
  1960 * Old datatype package:
  1961   - The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and
  1962     'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are
  1963     provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  1964     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  1965     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1966   - Renamed theorems:
  1967       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  1968     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1969   - Renamed theory:
  1970       ~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy
  1971     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1972 
  1973 * Nitpick:
  1974   - Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and non-strict subset
  1975     operations.
  1976 
  1977 * Sledgehammer:
  1978   - CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by
  1979     default.
  1980   - Z3 is now always enabled by default, now that it is fully open
  1981     source. The "z3_non_commercial" option is discontinued.
  1982   - Minimization is now always enabled by default.
  1983     Removed sub-command:
  1984       min
  1985   - Proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been
  1986     dramatically improved.
  1987   - Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.
  1988 
  1989 * Old and new SMT modules:
  1990   - The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to
  1991     'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,
  1992     until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For
  1993     the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must
  1994     be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must
  1995     point to it.
  1996     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1997   - The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.
  1998     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1999   - New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the
  2000     reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.
  2001   - New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'
  2002     method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.
  2003 
  2004 * Lifting: command 'lift_definition' allows to execute lifted constants
  2005 that have as a return type a datatype containing a subtype. This
  2006 overcomes long-time limitations in the area of code generation and
  2007 lifting, and avoids tedious workarounds.
  2008 
  2009 * Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots
  2010 (again), where the previous strategy (NBE after ML) serves as default.
  2011 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2012 
  2013 * Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality.
  2014 
  2015 * field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid
  2016 non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change
  2017 field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try to
  2018 add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2019 
  2020 * Separate class no_zero_divisors has been given up in favour of fully
  2021 algebraic semiring_no_zero_divisors. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2022 
  2023 * Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.
  2024 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2025 
  2026 * Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand
  2027 "inverse 0 = 0". Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,
  2028 field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2029 
  2030 * Classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify explicit
  2031 additive inverse operation. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2032 
  2033 * Complex powers and square roots. The functions "ln" and "powr" are now
  2034 overloaded for types real and complex, and 0 powr y = 0 by definition.
  2035 INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be necessary.
  2036 
  2037 * The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any type of sort
  2038 "{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}" type, so in particular on "real" and
  2039 "complex" uniformly. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be
  2040 needed.
  2041 
  2042 * New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin,
  2043 cos, tan, exp, Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.
  2044 
  2045 * The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort
  2046 that admits numeric types including nat, int, real and complex.
  2047 INCOMPATIBILITY: an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type
  2048 constraint, and the combination "real (fact k)" is likely to be
  2049 unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary, then use
  2050 "of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".
  2051 
  2052 * Removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling", use "nat o floor" and
  2053 "nat o ceiling" instead. A few of the lemmas have been retained and
  2054 adapted: in their names "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by
  2055 "nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".
  2056 
  2057 * Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping the
  2058 type class hierarchy:
  2059   ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  2060   field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero
  2061   field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse
  2062   field_inverse ~> left_inverse
  2063 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2064 
  2065 * Eliminated fact duplicates:
  2066   mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less
  2067   mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less
  2068 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2069 
  2070 * Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by
  2071 double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).
  2072 
  2073 * Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:
  2074   dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff
  2075   dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff
  2076   dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff
  2077 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2078 
  2079 * "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"
  2080 and part of theory Main.
  2081   even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero
  2082 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2083 
  2084 * Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1. Minor
  2085 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2086 
  2087 * Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.
  2088 Fact rename:
  2089     listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr
  2090 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2091 
  2092 * Product over lists via constant "listprod".
  2093 
  2094 * Theory List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to
  2095 Cons_nth_drop_Suc.
  2096 
  2097 * New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing
  2098 generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See
  2099 HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.
  2100 
  2101 * Library/Multiset:
  2102   - Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.
  2103   - Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in
  2104     "Library/Multiset_Order".
  2105   - Renamed multiset ordering:
  2106       <# ~> #<#
  2107       <=# ~> #<=#
  2108       \<subset># ~> #\<subset>#
  2109       \<subseteq># ~> #\<subseteq>#
  2110     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2111   - Introduced abbreviations for ill-named multiset operations:
  2112       <#, \<subset># abbreviate < (strict subset)
  2113       <=#, \<le>#, \<subseteq># abbreviate <= (subset or equal)
  2114     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2115   - Renamed
  2116       in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set
  2117       Multiset.fold ~> fold_mset
  2118       Multiset.filter ~> filter_mset
  2119     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2120   - Removed mcard, is equal to size.
  2121   - Added attributes:
  2122       image_mset.id [simp]
  2123       image_mset_id [simp]
  2124       elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]
  2125       comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]
  2126       comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]
  2127       in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]
  2128       set_of_Union_mset [simp]
  2129       in_Union_mset_iff [iff]
  2130     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2131 
  2132 * Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always
  2133 use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.
  2134 The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional
  2135 argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2136 
  2137 * HOL-Decision_Procs: New counterexample generator quickcheck
  2138 [approximation] for inequalities of transcendental functions. Uses
  2139 hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover potential
  2140 counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the "approximation"
  2141 method. See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for
  2142 examples.
  2143 
  2144 * HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover
  2145   - applies destructor rules repeatedly
  2146   - removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)
  2147   - added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets
  2148     projection
  2149 
  2150 * New proof method "rewrite" (in theory ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for
  2151 single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.
  2152 
  2153 
  2154 *** ML ***
  2155 
  2156 * Subtle change of name space policy: undeclared entries are now
  2157 considered inaccessible, instead of accessible via the fully-qualified
  2158 internal name. This mainly affects Name_Space.intern (and derivatives),
  2159 which may produce an unexpected Long_Name.hidden prefix. Note that
  2160 contemporary applications use the strict Name_Space.check (and
  2161 derivatives) instead, which is not affected by the change. Potential
  2162 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare applications of Name_Space.intern.
  2163 
  2164 * Subtle change of error semantics of Toplevel.proof_of: regular user
  2165 ERROR instead of internal Toplevel.UNDEF.
  2166 
  2167 * Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are available
  2168 as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of quadruples.
  2169 
  2170 * Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.
  2171 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2172 
  2173 * Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical
  2174 sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary
  2175 Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative
  2176 Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle
  2177 INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be
  2178 nested.
  2179 
  2180 * Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala): subtle
  2181 change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2182 
  2183 * The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and
  2184 Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are
  2185 available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.
  2186 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2187 
  2188 * Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.
  2189 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,
  2190 Thm.term_of etc.
  2191 
  2192 * Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,
  2193 resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,
  2194 compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2195 
  2196 * Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to
  2197 PARALLEL_GOALS.
  2198 
  2199 * Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,
  2200 which also allows to specify a fork priority.
  2201 
  2202 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "COMMAND"} is superseded by
  2203 @{command_keyword COMMAND} (usually without quotes and with PIDE
  2204 markup). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2205 
  2206 * Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type
  2207 Input.source (with formal position information).
  2208 
  2209 
  2210 *** System ***
  2211 
  2212 * The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use
  2213 cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.
  2214 
  2215 * The Isabelle tool "build" provides new options -X, -k, -x.
  2216 
  2217 * Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always
  2218 be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a
  2219 corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment
  2220 variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor
  2221 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2222 
  2223 * JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread
  2224 pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.
  2225 
  2226 * JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing
  2227 look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit
  2228 menu Global Options / Appearance.
  2229 
  2230 * Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.
  2231 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use standard PIDE infrastructure instead.
  2232 
  2233 
  2234 
  2235 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
  2236 ---------------------------------
  2237 
  2238 *** General ***
  2239 
  2240 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
  2241 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
  2242 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
  2243 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
  2244 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
  2245 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
  2246 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
  2247 some examples.
  2248 
  2249 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
  2250 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
  2251 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
  2252 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
  2253 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
  2254 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
  2255 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
  2256 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
  2257 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
  2258 
  2259 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
  2260 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
  2261 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
  2262 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
  2263 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
  2264 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
  2265 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
  2266 proof tools.
  2267 
  2268 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
  2269 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
  2270 supports input via ` (backquote).
  2271 
  2272 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
  2273 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
  2274 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
  2275 
  2276 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
  2277 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
  2278 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
  2279 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2280 
  2281 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
  2282 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
  2283 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
  2284 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2285 
  2286 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
  2287 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
  2288 
  2289 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
  2290 not check existence within the file-system.
  2291 
  2292 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
  2293 isar-ref, jedit, system.
  2294 
  2295 
  2296 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2297 
  2298 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
  2299 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
  2300 buffer.
  2301 
  2302 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
  2303 to PIDE hyperlinks.
  2304 
  2305 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
  2306 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
  2307 
  2308 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
  2309 auxiliary ML files.
  2310 
  2311 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
  2312 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
  2313 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
  2314 
  2315 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
  2316 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
  2317 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
  2318 
  2319 * Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an
  2320 item, depending on Isabelle options.
  2321 
  2322 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
  2323 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
  2324 caret".
  2325 
  2326 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
  2327 completion popup and context-menu.
  2328 
  2329 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
  2330 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
  2331 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
  2332 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
  2333 
  2334 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
  2335 to highlight text via regular expression.
  2336 
  2337 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
  2338 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
  2339 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
  2340 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
  2341 
  2342 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
  2343 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
  2344 
  2345 * Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory
  2346 imports) are automatically removed from the document model.
  2347 
  2348 * Improved monitor panel.
  2349 
  2350 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
  2351 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
  2352 
  2353 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
  2354 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
  2355 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
  2356 
  2357 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
  2358 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
  2359 within the context.
  2360 
  2361 
  2362 *** Pure ***
  2363 
  2364 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
  2365 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
  2366 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
  2367 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
  2368 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
  2369 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
  2370 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
  2371 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
  2372 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
  2373 
  2374 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
  2375 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
  2376 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
  2377 renaming needs to be applied:
  2378 
  2379   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
  2380   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
  2381   all            ~>  Pure.all
  2382   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
  2383   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
  2384 
  2385 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
  2386 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
  2387 old constants:
  2388 
  2389 setup {*
  2390   fn thy => thy
  2391     |> Sign.root_path
  2392     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
  2393     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
  2394     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
  2395     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
  2396 *}
  2397 
  2398 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
  2399 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
  2400 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
  2401 
  2402 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
  2403 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
  2404 instantiated theorem.
  2405 
  2406 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
  2407 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
  2408 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
  2409 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
  2410 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
  2411 
  2412   attribute_setup standard =
  2413     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
  2414 
  2415 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
  2416 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
  2417 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
  2418 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
  2419 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
  2420 
  2421 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
  2422 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
  2423 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
  2424 
  2425 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
  2426 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
  2427 
  2428 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
  2429 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
  2430 
  2431 
  2432 *** HOL ***
  2433 
  2434 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
  2435 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2436 
  2437 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
  2438 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2439 
  2440 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
  2441 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2442 
  2443 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
  2444 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2445 
  2446 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
  2447 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2448 
  2449 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
  2450 with the given constants.
  2451 
  2452 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
  2453 operations on records.
  2454 
  2455 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
  2456 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2457 
  2458 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2459 
  2460 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
  2461 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
  2462 
  2463 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2464 
  2465 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
  2466 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
  2467 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
  2468 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
  2469 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2470 
  2471 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
  2472 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2473 
  2474 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
  2475   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
  2476   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
  2477   part of theory "Main".
  2478 
  2479   Theory renamings:
  2480     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
  2481     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
  2482     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
  2483     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
  2484     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
  2485     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
  2486     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
  2487     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
  2488     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
  2489     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
  2490     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
  2491     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
  2492     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
  2493     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
  2494     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
  2495     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
  2496     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
  2497     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
  2498     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
  2499     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
  2500     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
  2501     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
  2502 
  2503   New theories:
  2504     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
  2505     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
  2506     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
  2507     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
  2508     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
  2509 
  2510   Discontinued theories:
  2511     BNF/BNF.thy
  2512     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
  2513 
  2514 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2515 
  2516 * New (co)datatype package:
  2517   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
  2518   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
  2519     "size") as required by 'fun'.
  2520   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
  2521     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
  2522   - Renamed commands:
  2523       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
  2524       primrec_new ~> primrec
  2525       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
  2526     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2527   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
  2528     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
  2529     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2530   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
  2531     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
  2532     using "prim(co)rec".
  2533     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2534   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
  2535     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
  2536     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2537   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
  2538     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
  2539     "discs_sels" option is passed.
  2540     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2541 
  2542 * Old datatype package:
  2543   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
  2544     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
  2545     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2546   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
  2547     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
  2548     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2549 
  2550 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
  2551   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
  2552   BNF-based datatype package.
  2553 
  2554   Renamed constants:
  2555     Option.set ~> set_option
  2556     Option.map ~> map_option
  2557     option_rel ~> rel_option
  2558 
  2559   Renamed theorems:
  2560     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
  2561     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
  2562     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
  2563     option.recs ~> option.rec
  2564     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
  2565     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
  2566     map.simps ~> list.map
  2567     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
  2568     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
  2569     the.simps ~> option.sel
  2570 
  2571 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2572 
  2573 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
  2574     sum_map ~> map_sum
  2575     map_pair ~> map_prod
  2576     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
  2577     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
  2578     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
  2579     set_rel ~> rel_set
  2580     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
  2581     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
  2582     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
  2583     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
  2584 
  2585 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2586 
  2587 * Lifting and Transfer:
  2588   - a type variable as a raw type is supported
  2589   - stronger reflexivity prover
  2590   - rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition
  2591   - setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs
  2592     + holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable
  2593     + relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,
  2594       relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,
  2595       right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved
  2596       automatically
  2597     + definition of a predicator is generated automatically
  2598     + simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved
  2599       automatically for datatypes
  2600   - consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer
  2601     + property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any
  2602       more
  2603       Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2604     + left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules
  2605       (reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)
  2606       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2607     + Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in
  2608       relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)
  2609       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2610   - registration of code equations is more robust
  2611     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2612   - respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable
  2613     form
  2614     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2615   - eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation
  2616     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2617   - unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and
  2618     Code_Numeral.natural
  2619     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2620   - Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp
  2621     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2622 
  2623 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
  2624 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
  2625 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
  2626 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
  2627 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
  2628 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
  2629 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2630 
  2631 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
  2632 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
  2633 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
  2634 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
  2635 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
  2636 
  2637 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
  2638 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
  2639 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
  2640 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
  2641 
  2642 * Sledgehammer:
  2643   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
  2644   - MaSh overhaul:
  2645     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
  2646       Python and increase performance and reliability.
  2647     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
  2648       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
  2649       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
  2650       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
  2651   - New option:
  2652       smt_proofs
  2653   - Renamed options:
  2654       isar_compress ~> compress
  2655       isar_try0 ~> try0
  2656 
  2657 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2658 
  2659 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
  2660 
  2661 * Nitpick:
  2662   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
  2663     take infinite values.
  2664   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
  2665     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
  2666   - Removed "std" option.
  2667   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
  2668     "hide_types".
  2669 
  2670 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
  2671 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2672 
  2673 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
  2674 
  2675 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
  2676   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
  2677   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
  2678     SUP instead uniformly.
  2679   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
  2680     or SUP and Sup.
  2681   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
  2682   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
  2683   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
  2684     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
  2685     INT_cong, SUP_cong
  2686 
  2687 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2688 
  2689 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
  2690 
  2691 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
  2692 
  2693   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  2694   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  2695   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  2696   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  2697 
  2698 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2699 
  2700 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
  2701 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
  2702 
  2703 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
  2704 
  2705     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
  2706     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
  2707     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
  2708     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
  2709     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
  2710     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
  2711     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
  2712     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
  2713     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
  2714     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
  2715     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
  2716     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
  2717     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
  2718     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
  2719     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
  2720     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
  2721     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
  2722     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
  2723     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
  2724     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
  2725     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
  2726     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
  2727     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
  2728     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
  2729     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
  2730     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
  2731     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
  2732     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
  2733     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
  2734     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
  2735     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
  2736     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
  2737     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
  2738     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
  2739     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
  2740     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
  2741     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
  2742     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
  2743     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
  2744     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
  2745     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
  2746     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
  2747     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
  2748     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
  2749     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
  2750     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
  2751     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
  2752     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
  2753     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
  2754     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
  2755     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
  2756     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
  2757     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
  2758     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
  2759     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
  2760     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
  2761     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
  2762     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
  2763     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
  2764 
  2765   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
  2766   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
  2767   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
  2768     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
  2769 
  2770 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2771 
  2772 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
  2773 
  2774   Fact consolidations:
  2775     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
  2776     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
  2777     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
  2778     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
  2779     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
  2780     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
  2781     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
  2782     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
  2783     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
  2784     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
  2785     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
  2786     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
  2787     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
  2788     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
  2789     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
  2790     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
  2791     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
  2792     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
  2793     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
  2794     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
  2795     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
  2796     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
  2797     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
  2798     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
  2799     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
  2800     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
  2801     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
  2802     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
  2803     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
  2804     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
  2805     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
  2806     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
  2807     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
  2808     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
  2809     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
  2810     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
  2811     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
  2812     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
  2813     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
  2814     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
  2815 
  2816 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
  2817 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
  2818 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
  2819 
  2820 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
  2821 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
  2822 
  2823 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
  2824 
  2825 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2826 
  2827 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
  2828 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2829 
  2830 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
  2831 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2832 
  2833 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
  2834     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
  2835 
  2836 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2837 
  2838 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
  2839   consolidation:
  2840     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
  2841     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
  2842 
  2843 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2844 
  2845 * Abolished neg_numeral.
  2846   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
  2847   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
  2848   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
  2849     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
  2850   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
  2851     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
  2852   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
  2853 
  2854 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2855 
  2856 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
  2857 
  2858     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  2859     add_commute ~> add.commute
  2860     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  2861     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  2862     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  2863     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
  2864     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  2865     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
  2866     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  2867     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  2868     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  2869     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
  2870     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
  2871 
  2872 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2873 
  2874 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
  2875 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
  2876 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
  2877 
  2878 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
  2879     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
  2880     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
  2881     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
  2882     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
  2883 
  2884 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2885 
  2886 * Fact name consolidation:
  2887     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  2888     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
  2889     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
  2890     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
  2891     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
  2892 
  2893 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2894 
  2895 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
  2896 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
  2897 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
  2898 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
  2899 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
  2900 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
  2901 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
  2902 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2903 
  2904 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
  2905 
  2906 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
  2907 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
  2908 
  2909 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
  2910 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
  2911 
  2912 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
  2913 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
  2914 or the brute way with
  2915 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
  2916 
  2917 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
  2918 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
  2919 stating boundedness of sets.
  2920 
  2921 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
  2922 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
  2923 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2924 
  2925 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
  2926   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
  2927   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
  2928   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
  2929   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
  2930   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
  2931   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
  2932   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
  2933   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
  2934   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
  2935   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
  2936   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
  2937 
  2938   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
  2939 
  2940   removed auxiliary lemmas:
  2941 
  2942     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
  2943     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
  2944     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
  2945     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
  2946     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
  2947 
  2948 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2949 
  2950 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
  2951   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
  2952 
  2953   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
  2954 
  2955   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
  2956 
  2957   - removed constant isDiff
  2958 
  2959   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
  2960     input syntax.
  2961 
  2962   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
  2963 
  2964   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
  2965 
  2966   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
  2967 
  2968   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
  2969 
  2970   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
  2971     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
  2972     has_vector_derivative.
  2973 
  2974   - Other renamings:
  2975     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
  2976     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
  2977     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
  2978     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
  2979     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
  2980     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
  2981     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
  2982 
  2983 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2984 
  2985 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
  2986 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
  2987 in continuous_intros.
  2988 
  2989 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
  2990 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
  2991 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
  2992 
  2993 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
  2994 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
  2995 especially removes
  2996 
  2997     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
  2998 
  2999 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
  3000     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
  3001 
  3002 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
  3003 
  3004   Renamings:
  3005     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
  3006     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
  3007     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
  3008     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
  3009     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
  3010     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
  3011     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
  3012     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
  3013     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
  3014     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
  3015     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
  3016     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
  3017 
  3018     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
  3019     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
  3020     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
  3021 
  3022   Removed theorems:
  3023     complex_zero_def
  3024     complex_add_def
  3025     complex_minus_def
  3026     complex_diff_def
  3027     complex_one_def
  3028     complex_mult_def
  3029     complex_inverse_def
  3030     complex_scaleR_def
  3031 
  3032 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3033 
  3034 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
  3035 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3036 
  3037 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
  3038 
  3039 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
  3040 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
  3041 
  3042 * HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;
  3043 lifting setup is unregistered.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3044 
  3045 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
  3046 
  3047 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
  3048 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3049 
  3050 * HOL-Word:
  3051   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
  3052     of "word_arith_wis".
  3053   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
  3054     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
  3055     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
  3056 
  3057 * HOL-Number_Theory:
  3058   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
  3059   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
  3060   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
  3061     (except the AFP)
  3062 
  3063 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3064 
  3065 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
  3066   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
  3067   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
  3068     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
  3069   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
  3070     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
  3071     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
  3072     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
  3073     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
  3074     intervals.
  3075   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
  3076     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
  3077     - renamed theorems:
  3078         interval ~> box
  3079         mem_interval ~> mem_box
  3080         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
  3081         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
  3082         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
  3083         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
  3084         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
  3085         subset_interval ~> subset_box
  3086         open_interval ~> open_box
  3087         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
  3088         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
  3089         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
  3090         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
  3091         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
  3092         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
  3093         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
  3094         convex_box ~> convex_prod
  3095         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
  3096         convex_interval ~> convex_box
  3097         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
  3098         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
  3099         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
  3100         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
  3101         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
  3102         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
  3103         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
  3104         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
  3105         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
  3106         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
  3107         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
  3108         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
  3109         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
  3110         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
  3111 
  3112     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
  3113         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
  3114         has_integral + has_integral_real
  3115         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
  3116         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
  3117         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
  3118         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
  3119         integral_const + integral_const_real
  3120         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
  3121         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
  3122         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
  3123         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
  3124         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
  3125         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
  3126         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
  3127         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
  3128         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
  3129         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
  3130 
  3131   - renamed theorems:
  3132     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
  3133     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
  3134     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
  3135 
  3136 * HOL-Probability:
  3137   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
  3138 
  3139     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
  3140       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
  3141 
  3142     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
  3143 
  3144   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
  3145     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
  3146 
  3147     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
  3148     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
  3149     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
  3150     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
  3151     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
  3152     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
  3153     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
  3154     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
  3155     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
  3156     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
  3157     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
  3158     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  nn_integral_liminf
  3159     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
  3160     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
  3161     integral_indicator          ~>
  3162          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
  3163     positive_integral_fst       ~>  nn_integral_fst'
  3164     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst
  3165     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd
  3166 
  3167     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
  3168          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
  3169 
  3170     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
  3171          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
  3172 
  3173     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
  3174          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
  3175 
  3176     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
  3177          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
  3178          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
  3179 
  3180     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
  3181          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  3182 
  3183     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
  3184          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
  3185 
  3186     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
  3187          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
  3188          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  3189 
  3190     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
  3191          nn_integral_real_affine
  3192 
  3193     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
  3194          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
  3195 
  3196     The following theorems where removed:
  3197 
  3198     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
  3199     lebesgue_integral_uminus
  3200     lebesgue_integral_cmult
  3201     lebesgue_integral_multc
  3202     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
  3203     integral_cmul_indicator
  3204     integral_real
  3205 
  3206   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
  3207     distributed random variables.
  3208 
  3209 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
  3210 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
  3211 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3212 
  3213 
  3214 *** Scala ***
  3215 
  3216 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
  3217 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
  3218 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
  3219 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
  3220 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3221 
  3222 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
  3223 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3224 
  3225 
  3226 *** ML ***
  3227 
  3228 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
  3229 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
  3230 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
  3231 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
  3232 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
  3233 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
  3234 
  3235 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
  3236 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  3237 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
  3238 actually belongs to it).
  3239 
  3240 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
  3241 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
  3242 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
  3243 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
  3244 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
  3245 of schematic variables.
  3246 
  3247 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
  3248 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3249 
  3250 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
  3251 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
  3252 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3253 
  3254 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
  3255 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3256 
  3257 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
  3258 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
  3259 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
  3260 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3261 
  3262 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
  3263 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3264 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
  3265 formal context.
  3266 
  3267 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
  3268 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3269 
  3270 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
  3271 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
  3272 
  3273 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  3274 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  3275 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  3276 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  3277 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  3278 
  3279 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  3280 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  3281 purposes.
  3282 
  3283 
  3284 *** System ***
  3285 
  3286 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  3287 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  3288 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  3289 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  3290 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  3291 
  3292 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  3293 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  3294 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  3295 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  3296 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  3297 settings variable.
  3298 
  3299 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  3300 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  3301 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  3302 
  3303 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  3304 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  3305 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  3306 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  3307 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  3308 
  3309 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  3310 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  3311 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  3312 
  3313 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  3314 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  3315 
  3316 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  3317 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  3318 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  3319 
  3320 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  3321 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  3322 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  3323 processing is started.
  3324 
  3325 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  3326 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  3327 
  3328 
  3329 
  3330 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  3331 -------------------------------------
  3332 
  3333 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3334 
  3335 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  3336 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  3337 
  3338 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  3339 after edits surrounding the command location.
  3340 
  3341 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  3342 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  3343 e.g. out-of-memory).
  3344 
  3345 
  3346 *** System ***
  3347 
  3348 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  3349 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  3350 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  3351 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  3352 
  3353 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  3354 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  3355 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  3356 
  3357 
  3358 
  3359 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  3360 -------------------------------------
  3361 
  3362 *** General ***
  3363 
  3364 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  3365 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  3366 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3367 
  3368 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  3369 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3370 
  3371 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  3372 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  3373 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  3374 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  3375 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  3376 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  3377 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  3378 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  3379 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  3380 syntax.
  3381 
  3382 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  3383 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3384 
  3385 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  3386 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  3387 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  3388 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  3389 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  3390 
  3391 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  3392 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3393 
  3394 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  3395 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  3396 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  3397 
  3398 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  3399 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  3400 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  3401 
  3402 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  3403 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  3404 
  3405 
  3406 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3407 
  3408 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  3409 Documentation panel.
  3410 
  3411 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  3412 documentation.
  3413 
  3414 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  3415 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  3416 
  3417 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  3418 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  3419 normal editing and checking process.
  3420 
  3421 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  3422 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  3423 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  3424 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  3425 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  3426 
  3427 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  3428 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  3429 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  3430 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  3431 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  3432 
  3433 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  3434 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  3435 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  3436 
  3437 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  3438 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  3439 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  3440 to resolve conflict.
  3441 
  3442 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  3443 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  3444 
  3445 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  3446 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  3447 such command executions while editing.
  3448 
  3449 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  3450 document content.
  3451 
  3452 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  3453 toplevel theorem statements.
  3454 
  3455 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  3456 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  3457 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  3458 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  3459 
  3460 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  3461 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  3462 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  3463 
  3464 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  3465 / Global Options / Appearance".
  3466 
  3467 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  3468 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  3469 
  3470 
  3471 *** Pure ***
  3472 
  3473 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  3474 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  3475 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  3476 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  3477 details.
  3478 
  3479 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  3480 
  3481 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  3482 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  3483 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  3484 
  3485 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  3486 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3487 
  3488 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  3489 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  3490 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  3491 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3492 
  3493 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  3494 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  3495 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3496 
  3497 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  3498 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  3499 
  3500 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  3501 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  3502 situations.
  3503 
  3504 
  3505 *** HOL ***
  3506 
  3507 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  3508 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  3509 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3510 
  3511 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  3512 
  3513 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  3514 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  3515 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  3516 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  3517 
  3518   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  3519 
  3520 * Code generator:
  3521   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  3522     'code_instance'.
  3523   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  3524     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  3525 
  3526 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  3527 examples.
  3528 
  3529 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  3530 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  3531 to distinguish both when desired.
  3532 
  3533 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  3534 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  3535 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  3536 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3537 
  3538 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  3539 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  3540 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  3541 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  3542 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  3543 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3544 
  3545 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  3546 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  3547 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3548 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  3549 
  3550 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  3551 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  3552 
  3553 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  3554 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  3555 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  3556 
  3557 * Lifting:
  3558   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  3559     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  3560       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  3561       transfer rules
  3562     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  3563       correspondence relation can be generated
  3564     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  3565       parametricity
  3566     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  3567   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  3568   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  3569     copies
  3570   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  3571     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  3572     anonymous context)
  3573   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  3574     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  3575   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  3576     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  3577   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  3578     INCOMPATIBILITY
  3579 
  3580 * Transfer:
  3581   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  3582     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  3583   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  3584   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  3585     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  3586   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  3587 
  3588 * Reification and reflection:
  3589   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  3590     "Reification".
  3591   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  3592   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  3593 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3594 
  3595 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  3596   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  3597     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  3598     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  3599   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  3600     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  3601   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  3602     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  3603     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  3604     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  3605     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  3606     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  3607     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  3608     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  3609   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  3610     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  3611   - Fact renames:
  3612       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  3613       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  3614 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3615 
  3616 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  3617 
  3618 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  3619 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  3620 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  3621 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3622 
  3623 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  3624 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  3625 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  3626 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  3627 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  3628 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  3629 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  3630 lemmas.
  3631 
  3632 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  3633 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  3634 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3635 
  3636 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  3637 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3638 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  3639 
  3640 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  3641 top and bottom elements.
  3642 
  3643 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  3644 
  3645 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  3646 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  3647 
  3648  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  3649    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  3650    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  3651 
  3652  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  3653    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  3654    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  3655 
  3656    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  3657    arbitrary filter.
  3658 
  3659  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  3660    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  3661    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  3662    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  3663    on a compact set.
  3664 
  3665  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  3666    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  3667    linear_continuum_topology).
  3668 
  3669  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  3670    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  3671    on all sequences converging to x.
  3672 
  3673  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  3674    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  3675    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  3676    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  3677    left or right.
  3678 
  3679  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  3680 
  3681      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  3682 
  3683  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  3684    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  3685 
  3686  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  3687    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  3688    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  3689    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  3690    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  3691    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  3692 
  3693  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  3694 
  3695    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  3696 
  3697    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  3698      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  3699 
  3700    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  3701 
  3702    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  3703      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  3704 
  3705    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  3706 
  3707    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  3708 
  3709  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  3710 
  3711 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3712 
  3713 * Nitpick:
  3714   - Added option "spy".
  3715   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  3716 
  3717 * Sledgehammer:
  3718   - Renamed option:
  3719       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  3720     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3721   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  3722   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  3723   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  3724 
  3725 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  3726 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  3727 
  3728 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  3729   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  3730   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  3731     generated code.
  3732   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  3733   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  3734   - Fact renames:
  3735     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  3736     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  3737     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  3738 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  3739 
  3740 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  3741 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  3742 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  3743 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  3744 
  3745 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  3746 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  3747 
  3748 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3749 
  3750 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  3751 
  3752     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  3753     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  3754 
  3755 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3756 
  3757 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  3758 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  3759 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  3760 
  3761 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  3762 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  3763 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  3764 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3765 
  3766 * HOL-BNF:
  3767   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  3768     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  3769     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  3770     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  3771   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  3772     coinduct).
  3773   - Renamed keywords:
  3774     data ~> datatype_new
  3775     codata ~> codatatype
  3776     bnf_def ~> bnf
  3777   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  3778     discs ~> disc
  3779     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  3780     map_id' ~> map_id
  3781     sels ~> sel
  3782     set_map' ~> set_map
  3783     sets ~> set
  3784 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  3785 
  3786 
  3787 *** ML ***
  3788 
  3789 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  3790 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  3791 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  3792 Examples.thy in particular.
  3793 
  3794 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  3795 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  3796 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  3797 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  3798 
  3799 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  3800 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  3801 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  3802 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  3803 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3804 
  3805 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  3806 
  3807     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  3808     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  3809 
  3810 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3811 
  3812 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  3813 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  3814 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  3815 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  3816 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  3817 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  3818 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  3819 
  3820 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  3821 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  3822 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  3823 clasets separately from the context.
  3824 
  3825 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  3826 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  3827 
  3828 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  3829 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  3830 
  3831 
  3832 *** System ***
  3833 
  3834 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  3835 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3836 
  3837 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  3838 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3839 
  3840 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  3841 settings variable.
  3842 
  3843 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  3844 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  3845 always pdf.
  3846 
  3847 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  3848 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  3849 
  3850 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  3851 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  3852 
  3853 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  3854 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  3855 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  3856 
  3857 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  3858 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  3859 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  3860 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  3861 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  3862 for HTML presentation of theories.
  3863 
  3864 
  3865 
  3866 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  3867 -----------------------------------
  3868 
  3869 *** General ***
  3870 
  3871 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  3872 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  3873 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  3874 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  3875 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  3876 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  3877 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  3878 
  3879 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  3880 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  3881 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  3882 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  3883 
  3884 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  3885 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  3886 
  3887 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  3888 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  3889 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  3890 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  3891 dependencies properly.
  3892 
  3893 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  3894 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  3895 
  3896 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  3897 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  3898 
  3899 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  3900 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  3901 and "class ... context ...".
  3902 
  3903 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  3904 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  3905 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  3906 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  3907 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  3908 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  3909 
  3910 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  3911 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  3912 
  3913 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  3914 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  3915 
  3916 
  3917 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3918 
  3919 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  3920 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  3921 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  3922 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  3923 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  3924 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  3925 
  3926 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  3927 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  3928 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  3929 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  3930 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  3931 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  3932 
  3933 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  3934 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  3935 browser on demand.
  3936 
  3937 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  3938 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  3939 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  3940 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  3941 
  3942 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  3943 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  3944 
  3945 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  3946 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  3947 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  3948 potentially infinite message streams.
  3949 
  3950 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  3951 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  3952 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  3953 schemes.
  3954 
  3955 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  3956 symbols.
  3957 
  3958 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  3959 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  3960 
  3961 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  3962 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  3963 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  3964 
  3965 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  3966 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  3967 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  3968 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  3969 
  3970 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  3971 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  3972 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  3973 
  3974 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  3975 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  3976 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  3977 Isabelle distribution.
  3978 
  3979 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  3980 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  3981 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  3982 
  3983 
  3984 *** Pure ***
  3985 
  3986 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  3987 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  3988 
  3989 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  3990 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  3991 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3992 
  3993 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3994 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  3995 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  3996 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  3997 with some care where this is really required.
  3998 
  3999 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  4000 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  4001 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  4002 
  4003   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  4004 
  4005 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  4006 a Hasse diagram.
  4007 
  4008 
  4009 *** HOL ***
  4010 
  4011 * Sledgehammer:
  4012 
  4013   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  4014     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  4015   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  4016   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  4017   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  4018   - Renamed options:
  4019       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  4020       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  4021       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  4022       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  4023 
  4024 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  4025 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  4026 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  4027 
  4028 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  4029 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4030 
  4031 * Lifting:
  4032   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  4033   - quot_del attribute
  4034   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  4035 
  4036 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  4037 expressions.
  4038 
  4039 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  4040 pointfree expressions.
  4041 
  4042 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  4043 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  4044 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  4045 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  4046 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4047 
  4048 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  4049 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  4050 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  4051 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  4052 accordingly.
  4053 
  4054 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  4055 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4056 
  4057 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  4058 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4059 
  4060 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4061 
  4062 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  4063 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  4064 
  4065 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  4066 
  4067 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  4068 
  4069   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  4070   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  4071 
  4072 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4073 
  4074 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  4075 
  4076   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  4077   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  4078 
  4079 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4080 
  4081 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  4082 
  4083   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  4084     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  4085     output f x converges to G.
  4086 
  4087   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  4088     infinity (at_bot).
  4089 
  4090   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  4091     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  4092 
  4093   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  4094     at_top".
  4095 
  4096 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4097 
  4098 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  4099 lattice type classes.
  4100 
  4101 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  4102 
  4103     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  4104     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  4105 
  4106 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4107 
  4108 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  4109 changes as follows.
  4110 
  4111   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  4112 
  4113       prefix ~> prefixeq
  4114       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  4115 
  4116   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  4117     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  4118     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  4119     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  4120 
  4121   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  4122     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  4123     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  4124 
  4125   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  4126     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  4127     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  4128     Library/Prefix_Order.
  4129 
  4130   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  4131     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  4132 
  4133       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  4134       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  4135       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  4136       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  4137       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  4138       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  4139       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  4140       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  4141       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  4142       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  4143       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  4144       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  4145       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  4146       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  4147       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  4148       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  4149 
  4150 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4151 
  4152 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  4153 
  4154 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  4155 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  4156 
  4157 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  4158 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  4159 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  4160 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  4161 
  4162   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  4163   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  4164   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  4165   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  4166   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  4167   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  4168   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  4169   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  4170   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  4171   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  4172 
  4173 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4174 
  4175 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  4176 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  4177 Data").
  4178 
  4179 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  4180 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  4181 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  4182 code.
  4183 
  4184 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  4185 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  4186 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  4187 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4188 
  4189 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  4190 
  4191 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  4192 
  4193 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  4194 
  4195   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  4196   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  4197 
  4198 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  4199 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  4200 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  4201 
  4202   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  4203 
  4204     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  4205     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  4206     cart_base i  removed
  4207     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  4208 
  4209   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  4210 
  4211   Renamed lemmas:
  4212 
  4213     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  4214     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  4215     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  4216     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  4217     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  4218     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  4219     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  4220     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  4221     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  4222     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  4223 
  4224 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4225 
  4226 * HOL/Probability:
  4227 
  4228   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  4229 
  4230   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  4231     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  4232     (borel_measurable_induct).
  4233 
  4234   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  4235     projective family).
  4236 
  4237 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  4238 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  4239 
  4240 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  4241 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  4242 datatypes.
  4243 
  4244 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  4245 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  4246 
  4247 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  4248 trees for the code generator.
  4249 
  4250 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  4251 Lifting/Transfer.
  4252 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4253 
  4254 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  4255 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4256 
  4257 
  4258 *** Document preparation ***
  4259 
  4260 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  4261 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  4262 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  4263 
  4264 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  4265 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  4266 
  4267 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  4268 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  4269 document/root.tex.
  4270 
  4271 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  4272 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4273 
  4274 
  4275 *** ML ***
  4276 
  4277 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  4278 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  4279 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  4280 
  4281 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  4282 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  4283 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  4284 
  4285 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  4286 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  4287 necessarily printing visible text.
  4288 
  4289 
  4290 *** System ***
  4291 
  4292 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  4293 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  4294 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  4295 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  4296 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  4297 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  4298 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  4299 
  4300 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  4301 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  4302 
  4303   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  4304 
  4305 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  4306 
  4307 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  4308 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  4309 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  4310 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  4311 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  4312 
  4313 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  4314 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  4315 
  4316 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  4317 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  4318 
  4319 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  4320 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4321 
  4322 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  4323 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  4324 version of Isabelle.
  4325 
  4326 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  4327 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  4328 
  4329 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  4330 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  4331 for home-made settings.
  4332 
  4333 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  4334 
  4335 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  4336 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  4337 configuration.
  4338 
  4339 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  4340 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  4341 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  4342 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  4343 bundled as Isabelle component.
  4344 
  4345 
  4346 
  4347 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  4348 ------------------------------
  4349 
  4350 *** General ***
  4351 
  4352 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  4353 
  4354   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  4355     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  4356   - markup for bound variables
  4357   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  4358   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  4359   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  4360     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  4361 
  4362 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  4363 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  4364 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  4365 
  4366 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  4367 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  4368 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  4369 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  4370 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  4371 
  4372   context
  4373     fixes x y z :: 'a
  4374     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  4375   begin
  4376 
  4377   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  4378 
  4379   end
  4380 
  4381   thm my_trans
  4382 
  4383 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  4384 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  4385 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  4386 
  4387 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  4388 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  4389 
  4390 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  4391 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  4392 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  4393 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  4394 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  4395 
  4396 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  4397 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  4398 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  4399 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  4400 indices of schematic variables.
  4401 
  4402 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  4403 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  4404 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  4405 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  4406 etc. was exploited.
  4407 
  4408 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  4409 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  4410 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  4411 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  4412 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  4413 of the material of that old tutorial.
  4414 
  4415 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  4416 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  4417 manual.
  4418 
  4419 
  4420 *** Pure ***
  4421 
  4422 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  4423 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  4424 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  4425 
  4426 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  4427 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  4428 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  4429 undocumented feature.)
  4430 
  4431 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  4432 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  4433 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  4434 
  4435   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  4436 
  4437   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  4438     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  4439 
  4440 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  4441 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  4442 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  4443 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  4444 
  4445 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  4446 
  4447     num ~> num_token
  4448     xnum ~> xnum_token
  4449     xstr ~> str_token
  4450 
  4451 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  4452 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  4453 position information via constraints).
  4454 
  4455 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  4456 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  4457 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4458 
  4459 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  4460 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  4461 
  4462 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  4463 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  4464 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4465 
  4466 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  4467 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4468 
  4469 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  4470 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  4471 
  4472   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  4473 
  4474 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4475 
  4476 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  4477 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4478 
  4479 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  4480 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  4481 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  4482 
  4483 
  4484 *** HOL ***
  4485 
  4486 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  4487 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  4488 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  4489 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  4490 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  4491 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  4492 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  4493 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  4494 possible.
  4495 
  4496 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  4497 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  4498 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  4499 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  4500 
  4501 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  4502 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4503 
  4504 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  4505 
  4506 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  4507 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  4508 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  4509 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  4510 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  4511 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  4512 
  4513   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  4514     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  4515 
  4516   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  4517     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  4518     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  4519 
  4520   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  4521     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  4522 
  4523   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  4524     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  4525     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  4526 
  4527   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  4528     Redefine using other integer operations.
  4529 
  4530 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  4531 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  4532 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  4533 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  4534 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  4535 
  4536   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  4537     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  4538     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  4539     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  4540     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  4541 
  4542     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  4543     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  4544 
  4545   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  4546     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  4547     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  4548     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  4549     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  4550     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  4551     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  4552     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  4553 
  4554   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  4555     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  4556     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  4557     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  4558 
  4559   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  4560     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  4561     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  4562     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  4563 
  4564   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  4565     from type nat to type int.
  4566 
  4567 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  4568 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  4569 
  4570   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  4571     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  4572     type.  Example syntax:
  4573 
  4574     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  4575       is List.insert
  4576 
  4577     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  4578     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  4579     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  4580     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  4581     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  4582     by the package.
  4583 
  4584   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  4585     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  4586     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  4587     code generation for each constant.
  4588 
  4589   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  4590     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  4591     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  4592     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  4593     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  4594 
  4595   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  4596     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  4597     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  4598 
  4599 * Quotient package:
  4600 
  4601   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  4602     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  4603 
  4604   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  4605     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  4606 
  4607   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  4608     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  4609     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4610 
  4611   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  4612     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4613 
  4614 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  4615 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  4616 
  4617 * Quickcheck:
  4618 
  4619   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  4620     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  4621     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  4622     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  4623     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  4624 
  4625     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  4626     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  4627     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  4628 
  4629     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  4630     continues searching for genuine ones.
  4631 
  4632     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  4633     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  4634     show genuine counterexamples.
  4635 
  4636   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  4637     value generators for a given type and operations.
  4638 
  4639     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  4640     constructors of that type.
  4641 
  4642   - Support for multisets.
  4643 
  4644   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  4645 
  4646   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  4647     conjectures in a locale context.
  4648 
  4649 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  4650 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  4651 
  4652 * Sledgehammer:
  4653   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  4654     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  4655   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  4656   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  4657     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  4658   - Sped up the minimizer.
  4659   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  4660   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  4661   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  4662 
  4663 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  4664 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  4665 
  4666 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  4667 
  4668 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4669 
  4670 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  4671 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  4672 
  4673   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  4674 
  4675 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  4676 a list and a nat.
  4677 
  4678 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  4679 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  4680 
  4681 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  4682 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  4683 default.
  4684 
  4685 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  4686 
  4687   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  4688 
  4689 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  4690 
  4691 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  4692 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  4693 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  4694 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  4695 one_case.
  4696 
  4697 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  4698 the result of the fact expression.
  4699 
  4700 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  4701 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  4702 of some relation theorems:
  4703 
  4704   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  4705   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  4706   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  4707   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  4708   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  4709   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  4710 
  4711 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  4712 
  4713 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  4714 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  4715 
  4716 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4717 
  4718 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  4719 to match the constant's name:
  4720 
  4721   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  4722   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  4723   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  4724   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  4725   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  4726   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  4727   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  4728   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  4729   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  4730   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  4731   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  4732   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  4733   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  4734   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  4735   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  4736   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  4737   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  4738   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  4739   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  4740   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  4741   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  4742   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  4743   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  4744   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  4745 
  4746 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4747 
  4748 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  4749 and corresponding theorem names:
  4750 
  4751   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  4752 
  4753   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  4754 
  4755   - Renamed theorems:
  4756 
  4757     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  4758     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  4759     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  4760     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  4761     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  4762     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  4763     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  4764     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  4765     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  4766     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  4767     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  4768     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  4769     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  4770     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  4771     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  4772     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  4773     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  4774     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  4775     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  4776     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  4777     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  4778     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  4779     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  4780 
  4781     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  4782 
  4783     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  4784 
  4785 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4786 
  4787 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  4788 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  4789 
  4790   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  4791   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  4792   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  4793   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  4794   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  4795   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  4796   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  4797   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  4798   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  4799   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  4800   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  4801   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  4802   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  4803   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  4804   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  4805   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  4806   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  4807   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  4808   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  4809   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  4810   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  4811 
  4812 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  4813 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4814 
  4815 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4816 
  4817 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  4818 
  4819   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  4820   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  4821   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  4822   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  4823   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  4824   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  4825   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  4826   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  4827   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  4828   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  4829   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  4830   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  4831   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  4832   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  4833   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  4834   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  4835   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  4836   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  4837 
  4838 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4839 
  4840 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  4841 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  4842 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  4843 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  4844 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  4845 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  4846 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  4847 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  4848 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  4849 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  4850 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  4851 
  4852 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  4853 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  4854 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  4855 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  4856 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  4857 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  4858 
  4859 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  4860 through option types.
  4861 
  4862 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  4863 relations.
  4864 
  4865 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4866 
  4867 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  4868 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  4869 
  4870   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  4871   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  4872   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  4873   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  4874   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  4875   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  4876   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  4877   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  4878   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  4879   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  4880   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  4881   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  4882   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  4883   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  4884   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  4885   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  4886   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  4887   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  4888   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  4889   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  4890   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  4891   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  4892   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  4893   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  4894   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  4895   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  4896   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  4897   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  4898   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  4899   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  4900   zless_le ~> less_le
  4901   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  4902   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  4903   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  4904 
  4905 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  4906 
  4907   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  4908 
  4909 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  4910 
  4911 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  4912 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  4913 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  4914 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  4915 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4916 
  4917 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4918 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  4919 
  4920 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  4921 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  4922 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  4923 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  4924 follows:
  4925 
  4926   Operations:
  4927   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  4928   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  4929   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  4930   del -> rbt_del
  4931   delete -> rbt_delete
  4932   ins -> rbt_ins
  4933   insert -> rbt_insert
  4934   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  4935   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  4936   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  4937   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  4938   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  4939   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  4940   tree_less -> rbt_less
  4941   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  4942   union -> rbt_union
  4943   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  4944   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  4945 
  4946   Lemmas:
  4947   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  4948   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  4949   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  4950   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  4951   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  4952   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  4953   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  4954   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  4955   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  4956   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  4957   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  4958   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  4959   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  4960   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  4961   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  4962   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  4963   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  4964   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  4965   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  4966   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  4967   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  4968   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  4969   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  4970   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  4971   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  4972   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  4973   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  4974   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  4975   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  4976   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  4977   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  4978   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  4979   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  4980   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  4981   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  4982   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  4983   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  4984   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  4985   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  4986   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  4987   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  4988   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  4989   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  4990   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  4991   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  4992   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  4993   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  4994   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  4995   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  4996   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  4997   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  4998   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  4999   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  5000   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  5001   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  5002   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  5003   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  5004   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  5005   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  5006   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  5007   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  5008   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  5009   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  5010   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  5011   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  5012   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  5013   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  5014   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  5015   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  5016   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  5017   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  5018   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  5019   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  5020   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  5021   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  5022   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  5023   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  5024   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  5025   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  5026   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  5027   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  5028   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  5029   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  5030 
  5031 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  5032 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  5033 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5034 
  5035   Changed Operations:
  5036   float_abs -> abs
  5037   float_nprt -> nprt
  5038   float_pprt -> pprt
  5039   pow2 -> use powr
  5040   round_down -> float_round_down
  5041   round_up -> float_round_up
  5042   scale -> exponent
  5043 
  5044   Removed Operations:
  5045   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  5046 
  5047   Renamed Lemmas:
  5048   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  5049   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  5050   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  5051   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  5052   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  5053   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  5054   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  5055   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  5056   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  5057   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  5058   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  5059   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  5060   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  5061   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  5062   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  5063   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  5064   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  5065   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  5066   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  5067   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  5068   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  5069   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  5070   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  5071   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  5072   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  5073   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  5074   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  5075   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  5076   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  5077   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  5078   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  5079   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  5080   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  5081   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  5082   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  5083   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  5084 
  5085   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  5086   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  5087   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  5088   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  5089   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  5090   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  5091   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  5092   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  5093   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  5094   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  5095 
  5096 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  5097 association lists with distinct keys.
  5098 
  5099 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  5100 annotated commands.
  5101 
  5102 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  5103 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  5104 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  5105 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5106 
  5107 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  5108 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  5109 instead.
  5110 
  5111   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  5112   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  5113   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  5114   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  5115   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  5116   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  5117   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  5118   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  5119   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  5120   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  5121   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  5122   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  5123   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  5124   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  5125   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  5126   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  5127   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  5128   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  5129   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  5130   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  5131   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  5132   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  5133   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  5134   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  5135   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  5136   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  5137   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  5138   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  5139   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  5140   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  5141   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  5142   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  5143   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  5144   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  5145   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  5146   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  5147   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  5148   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  5149   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  5150   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  5151   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  5152 
  5153 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  5154 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  5155 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  5156 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  5157 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  5158 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  5159 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  5160 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  5161 
  5162 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  5163 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  5164 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  5165 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  5166 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  5167 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  5168 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  5169 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  5170 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  5171 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  5172 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  5173 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5174 
  5175   Renamed constants:
  5176   measure -> emeasure
  5177   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  5178   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  5179   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  5180   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  5181 
  5182   Removed locales:
  5183   completeable_measure_space
  5184   finite_measure_space
  5185   finite_prob_space
  5186   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  5187   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  5188   finite_sigma_algebra
  5189   measure_space
  5190   pair_finite_prob_space
  5191   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  5192   pair_finite_space
  5193   pair_sigma_algebra
  5194   product_sigma_algebra
  5195 
  5196   Removed constants:
  5197   conditional_space
  5198   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  5199   image_space
  5200   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  5201   pair_measure_generator
  5202   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  5203   subvimage
  5204 
  5205   Replacement theorems:
  5206   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  5207   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  5208   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  5209   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  5210   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  5211   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  5212   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  5213   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  5214   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  5215   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  5216   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  5217   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  5218   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  5219   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  5220   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  5221   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  5222   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  5223   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  5224   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  5225   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  5226   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  5227   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  5228   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  5229   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  5230   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  5231   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  5232   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  5233   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  5234   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  5235   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  5236   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  5237   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  5238   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  5239   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  5240   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  5241   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  5242   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  5243   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  5244   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  5245   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  5246   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  5247   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  5248   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  5249   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  5250   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  5251   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  5252   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  5253   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  5254   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  5255   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  5256   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  5257   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  5258   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  5259   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  5260   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  5261   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  5262   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  5263   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  5264   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  5265   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  5266   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  5267   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  5268   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  5269   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  5270   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  5271   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  5272   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  5273   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  5274   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  5275   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  5276   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  5277   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  5278   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  5279   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  5280   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  5281   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  5282   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  5283   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  5284   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  5285   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  5286   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  5287   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  5288   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  5289   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  5290   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  5291   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  5292   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  5293   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  5294   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  5295   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  5296   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  5297   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  5298   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  5299   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  5300   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  5301   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  5302   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  5303   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  5304   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  5305   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  5306   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  5307   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  5308   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  5309   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  5310   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  5311   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  5312   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  5313   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  5314   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  5315   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  5316   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  5317   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  5318   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  5319   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  5320   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  5321   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  5322   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  5323   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  5324   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  5325   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  5326   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  5327   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  5328   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  5329   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  5330   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  5331   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  5332   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  5333   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  5334 
  5335 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  5336 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  5337 
  5338 
  5339 *** FOL ***
  5340 
  5341 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  5342 
  5343 
  5344 *** ZF ***
  5345 
  5346 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  5347 analysis.
  5348 
  5349 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  5350 
  5351 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5352 
  5353 
  5354 *** ML ***
  5355 
  5356 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  5357 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  5358 
  5359 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  5360 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  5361 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  5362 
  5363 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  5364 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  5365 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  5366 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  5367 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  5368 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  5369 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  5370 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  5371 
  5372 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  5373 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  5374 
  5375 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  5376 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  5377 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  5378 
  5379 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  5380 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5381 
  5382 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  5383 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  5384 context as well.
  5385 
  5386 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  5387 
  5388   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  5389   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  5390   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  5391   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  5392   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  5393   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  5394   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  5395   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  5396   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  5397   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  5398   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  5399   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  5400 
  5401 
  5402 *** System ***
  5403 
  5404 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  5405 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  5406 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  5407 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  5408 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  5409 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  5410 the generic user home was intended.
  5411 
  5412 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  5413 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  5414 
  5415 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  5416 (not just JRE).
  5417 
  5418 
  5419 
  5420 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  5421 ------------------------------------
  5422 
  5423 *** General ***
  5424 
  5425 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  5426 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  5427 
  5428   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  5429     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  5430     files for checking).
  5431 
  5432   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  5433     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  5434     positions.
  5435 
  5436   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  5437     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  5438     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  5439 
  5440   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  5441     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  5442     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  5443 
  5444   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  5445     cores.
  5446 
  5447   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  5448     versions (garbage collection).
  5449 
  5450 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  5451 including some remaining limitations.
  5452 
  5453 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  5454 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  5455 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  5456 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  5457 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  5458 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5459 
  5460 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  5461 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  5462 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  5463 
  5464 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  5465 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  5466 usedir option -Q.
  5467 
  5468 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  5469 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  5470 
  5471   long_names   ~> names_long
  5472   short_names  ~> names_short
  5473   unique_names ~> names_unique
  5474 
  5475 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  5476 
  5477   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  5478 
  5479 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  5480 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  5481 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  5482 
  5483 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  5484 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  5485 
  5486 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  5487   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  5488   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  5489   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  5490     "Classical Reasoner".
  5491 
  5492 
  5493 *** HOL ***
  5494 
  5495 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  5496 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5497 
  5498 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  5499 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  5500 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  5501 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  5502 class complete_linorder.
  5503 
  5504 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  5505 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  5506 
  5507 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  5508 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  5509 
  5510   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  5511   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  5512   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  5513   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  5514   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  5515   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  5516   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  5517   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  5518   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  5519   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  5520   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  5521 
  5522 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  5523 
  5524   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  5525   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  5526   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  5527   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  5528   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  5529   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  5530   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  5531   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  5532   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  5533   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  5534   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  5535   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  5536   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  5537   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  5538   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  5539   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  5540 
  5541 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5542 
  5543 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  5544 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5545 
  5546 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  5547 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  5548 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  5549 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5550 
  5551 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  5552 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  5553 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  5554 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5555 
  5556 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  5557 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  5558 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  5559 
  5560 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  5561 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  5562 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5563 
  5564 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  5565 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  5566 
  5567 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  5568 
  5569     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  5570     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  5571 
  5572 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  5573 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5574 
  5575 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  5576 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5577 
  5578 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  5579 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  5580 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  5581 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5582 
  5583   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  5584   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  5585   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  5586   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  5587   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  5588   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  5589   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  5590 
  5591 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  5592 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5593 
  5594   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  5595   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  5596   real_less_def ~> less_le
  5597   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  5598   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  5599   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  5600   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  5601   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  5602   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  5603   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  5604   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  5605   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  5606   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  5607   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  5608   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  5609   real_le_linear ~> linear
  5610   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  5611   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  5612   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  5613   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  5614   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  5615   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  5616   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  5617   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  5618   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  5619   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  5620   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  5621   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  5622   expi_add ~> exp_add
  5623   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  5624   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  5625   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  5626   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  5627   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  5628   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  5629   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  5630   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  5631   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  5632   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  5633   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  5634   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  5635   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  5636   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  5637   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  5638   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  5639   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  5640   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  5641   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  5642   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  5643   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  5644   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  5645   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  5646   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  5647   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  5648   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  5649   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  5650   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  5651   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  5652   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  5653   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  5654   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  5655   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  5656   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  5657   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  5658   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  5659   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  5660   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  5661   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  5662   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  5663   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  5664   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  5665   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  5666   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  5667   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  5668   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  5669   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  5670   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  5671   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  5672   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  5673   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  5674   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  5675   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  5676 
  5677 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  5678 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  5679 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  5680 
  5681 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  5682 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  5683 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  5684 
  5685 * Code generation:
  5686 
  5687   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  5688     characters in the target language.
  5689 
  5690   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  5691     instead.
  5692 
  5693   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  5694 
  5695   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  5696     reactivated by the following theory command:
  5697 
  5698       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  5699 
  5700 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5701 
  5702 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  5703 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  5704 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  5705 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  5706 syntax.
  5707 
  5708 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  5709 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  5710 
  5711 * Nitpick:
  5712   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  5713   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  5714   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  5715     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5716 
  5717 * Sledgehammer:
  5718   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  5719   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  5720     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  5721   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  5722     this can be done within reasonable time.
  5723   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  5724     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5725   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  5726     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  5727   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  5728     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5729 
  5730 * Metis:
  5731   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5732   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  5733     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5734 
  5735 * Command 'try':
  5736   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  5737     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5738   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  5739     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  5740 
  5741 * Quickcheck:
  5742   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  5743     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  5744   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  5745     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  5746   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  5747     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  5748     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  5749     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  5750   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  5751     (formly in HOL/Library).
  5752 
  5753 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5754 use 'partial_function' instead.
  5755 
  5756 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  5757 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  5758 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  5759 
  5760 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  5761 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  5762 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5763 
  5764 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  5765 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5766 
  5767 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  5768 arithmetic.
  5769 
  5770 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  5771 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  5772 and lattice type classes.
  5773 
  5774 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  5775 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  5776 
  5777 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  5778 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  5779 
  5780 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  5781 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  5782 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5783 
  5784   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  5785   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  5786   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  5787   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  5788 
  5789 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  5790 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  5791 constants:
  5792 
  5793   type inat   ~> type enat
  5794   Fin         ~> enat
  5795   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  5796   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  5797   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  5798 
  5799 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  5800 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5801 
  5802 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  5803 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  5804 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  5805 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  5806 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  5807 
  5808 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  5809 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  5810 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  5811 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  5812 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  5813 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  5814 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5815 
  5816   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  5817   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  5818   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  5819   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  5820 
  5821 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  5822 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  5823 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5824 
  5825   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  5826   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  5827   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  5828   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  5829   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  5830   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  5831   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  5832   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  5833   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  5834   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  5835   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  5836   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  5837   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  5838   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  5839   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  5840   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  5841   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  5842   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  5843   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  5844   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  5845   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  5846   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  5847   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  5848   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  5849   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  5850   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  5851   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  5852   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  5853   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  5854   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  5855   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  5856   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  5857   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  5858   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  5859   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  5860   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  5861   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  5862   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  5863   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  5864   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  5865   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  5866   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  5867   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  5868   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  5869   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  5870   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  5871   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  5872   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  5873   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  5874   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  5875   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  5876 
  5877 * Session HOL-Probability:
  5878   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  5879   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  5880   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  5881   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  5882     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5883 
  5884 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5885 
  5886   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  5887   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  5888   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  5889   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  5890   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  5891   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  5892   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  5893   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  5894   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  5895   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  5896   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  5897   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  5898   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  5899   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  5900   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  5901   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  5902   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  5903   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  5904   UU_I ~> bottomI
  5905   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  5906   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  5907   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  5908   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  5909   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  5910   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  5911 
  5912 
  5913 *** Document preparation ***
  5914 
  5915 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  5916 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  5917 same.
  5918 
  5919 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  5920 result.
  5921 
  5922 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  5923 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  5924 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  5925 
  5926 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  5927 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  5928 
  5929 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  5930 like this:
  5931 
  5932   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  5933   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  5934 
  5935 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  5936 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  5937 layouts.
  5938 
  5939 
  5940 *** ML ***
  5941 
  5942 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  5943 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  5944 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  5945 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  5946 under external program control.
  5947 
  5948 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  5949 data, which requires explicit setup.
  5950 
  5951 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  5952 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  5953 (better known as Proof General).
  5954 
  5955 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  5956 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  5957 
  5958 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  5959 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  5960 
  5961 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  5962 (including quotes etc.).
  5963 
  5964 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  5965 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  5966 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  5967 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  5968 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  5969 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  5970 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  5971 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  5972 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  5973 
  5974 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  5975 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  5976 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5977 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  5978 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  5979 
  5980 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  5981 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  5982 
  5983 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  5984 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  5985 
  5986 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  5987 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  5988 
  5989 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  5990 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  5991 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  5992 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  5993 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  5994 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  5995 proper Proof.context.
  5996 
  5997 
  5998 *** System ***
  5999 
  6000 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  6001 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  6002 
  6003 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  6004 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  6005 
  6006 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  6007 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  6008 
  6009   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  6010   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  6011   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  6012   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  6013   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  6014 
  6015 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  6016 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6017 
  6018 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  6019 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  6020 example:
  6021 
  6022   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  6023 
  6024 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  6025 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  6026 
  6027 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  6028 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  6029 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  6030 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  6031 
  6032 
  6033 
  6034 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  6035 ----------------------------------
  6036 
  6037 *** General ***
  6038 
  6039 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  6040 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  6041 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  6042 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  6043 like this:
  6044 
  6045   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  6046 
  6047 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  6048 
  6049 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  6050 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  6051 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  6052 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  6053 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  6054 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  6055 
  6056 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  6057 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  6058 the following package declarations:
  6059 
  6060   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  6061   \usepackage{textcomp}
  6062 
  6063 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  6064 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  6065 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  6066 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  6067 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  6068 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  6069 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  6070 
  6071 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  6072 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  6073 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  6074 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  6075 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  6076 
  6077 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  6078 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  6079 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  6080 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6081 
  6082 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  6083 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  6084 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  6085 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  6086 
  6087   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  6088 
  6089   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  6090   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  6091   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  6092   show_types                    show_types
  6093   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  6094   show_consts                   show_consts
  6095   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  6096 
  6097   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  6098   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  6099   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  6100 
  6101   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  6102   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  6103 
  6104   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  6105 
  6106   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  6107   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  6108   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  6109   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  6110   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  6111 
  6112 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  6113 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  6114 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  6115 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  6116 
  6117 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  6118 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6119 
  6120   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  6121   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  6122 
  6123 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  6124 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  6125 float_token.
  6126 
  6127 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  6128 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  6129 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6130 
  6131 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  6132 DejaVu Sans.
  6133 
  6134 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  6135 
  6136 
  6137 *** Pure ***
  6138 
  6139 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  6140 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  6141 time.
  6142 
  6143 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  6144 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6145 
  6146 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  6147 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6148 
  6149 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  6150 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  6151 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  6152 command already provided this functionality.
  6153 
  6154 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  6155 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  6156 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  6157 without interpretations.
  6158 
  6159 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  6160 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  6161 
  6162 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  6163 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  6164 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  6165 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  6166 
  6167 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6168 'definition' instead.
  6169 
  6170 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  6171 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  6172 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  6173 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  6174 
  6175 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  6176 constructors.
  6177 
  6178 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  6179 the local file system.
  6180 
  6181 
  6182 *** HOL ***
  6183 
  6184 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  6185 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  6186 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  6187 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  6188 
  6189   declare [[coercion f]]
  6190 
  6191 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  6192 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  6193 
  6194   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  6195 
  6196 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  6197 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  6198 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  6199 other theories like this:
  6200 
  6201   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  6202 
  6203 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  6204 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  6205 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  6206 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  6207 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  6208 for examples.
  6209 
  6210 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  6211 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6212 
  6213 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  6214 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  6215 
  6216 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  6217 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  6218 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  6219 
  6220 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  6221 functorial structure of types.
  6222 
  6223 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  6224 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  6225 
  6226 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  6227 languages.
  6228 
  6229 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  6230 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  6231 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6232 
  6233 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  6234 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6235 
  6236 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  6237 combinators any longer.
  6238 
  6239 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  6240 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  6241 
  6242 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  6243 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  6244 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  6245 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  6246 
  6247   record 'a foo = ...
  6248   ...
  6249   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  6250 
  6251 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  6252 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  6253 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6254 
  6255 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  6256 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  6257 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  6258 
  6259 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  6260 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  6261 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  6262 
  6263 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  6264 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6265 
  6266 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  6267 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  6268 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  6269 independently.
  6270 
  6271 * Quickcheck in locales co